Plants
Temporal range: Mesoproterozoic–present
Had'n
Archean
Proterozoic
Pha.
Diversity of plants image version 5.png
Scientific classification
Domain: Eukaryota
(unranked): Archaeplastida
Kingdom: Plantae
sensu Copeland, 1956
Divisions
  • Nematophytes (?)
  • Chlorophyta
    • Palmophyllales
    • Prasinophyceae
    • Nephroselmidophyceae
    • Pseudoscourfieldiales
    • Pyramimonadophyceae
    • Mamiellophyceae
    • Scourfieldiales
    • Pedinophyceae
    • Chlorodendrophyceae
    • Trebouxiophyceae
    • Ulvophyceae
    • Chlorophyceae
  • Streptophyta s.l.
    • Chlorokybophyta
    • Mesostigmatophyta
    • Klebsormidiophyta
    • Charophyta (stoneworts)
    • Chaetosphaeridiales
    • Coleochaetophyta
    • Zygnematophyta
    • Embryophyta (land plants)
Synonyms
  • Viridiplantae Cavalier-Smith 1981
  • Chlorobionta Jeffrey 1982, emend. Bremer 1985, emend. Lewis and McCourt 2004
  • Chlorobiota Kenrick and Crane 1997
  • Chloroplastida Adl et al., 2005
  • Phyta Barkley 1939 emed. Holt & Uidica 2007
  • Cormophyta Endlicher, 1836
  • Cormobionta Rothmaler, 1948
  • Euplanta Barkley, 1949
  • Telomobionta Takhtajan, 1964
  • Embryobionta Cronquist et al., 1966
  • Metaphyta Whittaker, 1969

Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.

The term is today generally limited to the green plants, which form an unranked clade Viridiplantae (Latin for "green plants"). This includes the flowering plants, conifers and other gymnosperms, ferns, clubmosses, hornworts, liverworts, mosses and the green algae, and excludes the red and brown algae. Historically, plants formed one of two kingdoms covering all living things that were not animals, and both algae and fungi were treated as plants; however all current definitions of "plant" exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria).

Green plants have cell walls containing cellulose and obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts, derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria. Their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color. Some plants are parasitic and have lost the ability to produce normal amounts of chlorophyll or to photosynthesize. Plants are characterized by sexual reproduction and alternation of generations, although asexual reproduction is also common.

There are about 300–315 thousand species of plants, of which the great majority, some 260–290 thousand, are seed plants (see the ). Green plants provide most of the world's molecular oxygen and are the basis of most of Earth's ecologies, especially on land. Plants that produce grains, fruits and vegetables form humankind's basic foodstuffs, and have been domesticated for millennia. Plants play many roles in culture. They are used as ornaments and, until recently and in great variety, they have served as the source of most medicines and drugs. The scientific study of plants is known as botany, a branch of biology.

Plant: Definition

Plants are one of the two groups into which all living things were traditionally divided; the other is animals. The division goes back at least as far as Aristotle (384 BC – 322 BC), who distinguished between plants, which generally do not move, and animals, which often are mobile to catch their food. Much later, when Linnaeus (1707–1778) created the basis of the modern system of scientific classification, these two groups became the kingdoms Vegetabilia (later Metaphyta or Plantae) and Animalia (also called Metazoa). Since then, it has become clear that the plant kingdom as originally defined included several unrelated groups, and the fungi and several groups of algae were removed to new kingdoms. However, these organisms are still often considered plants, particularly in popular contexts.

Outside of formal scientific contexts, the term "plant" implies an association with certain traits, such as being multicellular, possessing cellulose, and having the ability to carry out photosynthesis.

Plant: Current definitions of Plantae

When the name Plantae or plant is applied to a specific group of organisms or taxon, it usually refers to one of four concepts. From least to most inclusive, these four groupings are:

Name(s) Scope Description
Land plants, also known as Embryophyta Plantae sensu strictissimo Plants in the strictest sense include the liverworts, hornworts, mosses, and vascular plants, as well as fossil plants similar to these surviving groups (e.g., Metaphyta Whittaker, 1969, Plantae Margulis, 1971).
Green plants, also known as Viridiplantae, Viridiphyta or Chlorobionta Plantae sensu stricto Plants in a strict sense include the green algae, and land plants that emerged within them, including stoneworts. The names given to these groups vary considerably as of July 2011. Viridiplantae encompass a group of organisms that have cellulose in their cell walls, possess chlorophylls a and b and have plastids that are bound by only two membranes that are capable of storing starch. It is this clade that is mainly the subject of this article (e.g., Plantae Copeland, 1956).
Archaeplastida, also known as Plastida or Primoplantae Plantae sensu lato Plants in a broad sense comprise the green plants listed above plus Rhodophyta (red algae) and Glaucophyta (glaucophyte algae). This clade includes the organisms that eons ago acquired their chloroplasts directly by engulfing cyanobacteria (e.g., Plantae Cavalier-Smith, 1981).
Old definitions of plant (obsolete) Plantae sensu amplo Plants in an ample sense refers to older, obsolete classifications that placed diverse algae, fungi or bacteria in Plantae (e.g., Plantae or Vegetabilia Linnaeus, Plantae Haeckel 1866, Metaphyta Haeckel, 1894, Plantae Whittaker, 1969).

Another way of looking at the relationships between the different groups that have been called "plants" is through a cladogram, which shows their evolutionary relationships. The evolutionary history of plants is not yet completely settled, but one accepted relationship between the three groups described above is shown below. Those which have been called "plants" are in bold.

Archaeplastida

Glaucophyta (glaucophyte algae)




Rhodophyta (red algae)



Green plants

Chlorophyta (part of green algae)


Streptophyta

streptophyte algae (part of green algae)




Charales (stoneworts, often included
in green algae)



land plants or embryophytes








groups traditionally
included in the "algae"

The way in which the groups of green algae are combined and named varies considerably between authors.

Plant: Algae

Plant
Green algae from Ernst Haeckel's Kunstformen der Natur, 1904.

Algae comprise several different groups of organisms which produce energy through photosynthesis and for that reason have been included in the plant kingdom in the past. Most conspicuous among the algae are the seaweeds, multicellular algae that may roughly resemble land plants, but are classified among the brown, red and green algae. Each of these algal groups also includes various microscopic and single-celled organisms. There is good evidence that some of these algal groups arose independently from separate non-photosynthetic ancestors, with the result that the brown algae, for example, are no longer classified within the plant kingdom as it is defined here.

The Viridiplantae, the green plants – green algae and land plants – form a clade, a group consisting of all the descendants of a common ancestor. With a few exceptions among green algae, the green plants have the following features in common; cell walls containing cellulose, chloroplasts containing chlorophylls a and b, and food stores in the form of starch contained within the plastids. They undergo closed mitosis without centrioles, and typically have mitochondria with flat cristae. The chloroplasts of green plants are surrounded by two membranes, suggesting they originated directly from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria.

Two additional groups, the Rhodophyta (red algae) and Glaucophyta (glaucophyte algae), also have chloroplasts that appear to be derived directly from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria, although they differ in the pigments which are used in photosynthesis from those of the Viridiplantae and so are different in colour. In these groups, the storage polysaccharide is floridean starch and is stored in the cytoplasm rather than in the plastids. These groups appear to have had a common origin with Viridiplantae and the three groups form the clade Archaeplastida, whose name implies that their chloroplasts were derived from a single ancient endosymbiotic event. This is the broadest modern definition of the term 'plant'.

In contrast, most other algae (e.g. brown algae/diatoms, haptophytes, dinoflagellates, and euglenids) not only have different pigments but also have chloroplasts with three or four surrounding membranes. They are not close relatives of the Archaeplastida, presumably having acquired chloroplasts separately from ingested or symbiotic green and red algae. They are thus not included in even the broadest modern definition of the plant kingdom, although they were in the past.

The green plants or Viridiplantae were traditionally divided into the green algae (including the stoneworts) and the land plants. However, it is now known that the land plants evolved from within a group of green algae, so that the green algae by themselves are a paraphyletic group, i.e. a group that excludes some of the descendants of a common ancestor. Paraphyletic groups are generally avoided in modern classifications, so that in recent treatments the Viridiplantae have been divided into two clades, the Chlorophyta and the Streptophyta (including the land plants and Charophyta).

The Chlorophyta (a name that has also been used for all green algae) are the sister group to the group from which the land plants evolved. There are about 4,300 species of mainly marine organisms, both unicellular and multicellular. The latter include the sea lettuce, Ulva.

The other group within the Viridiplantae are the mainly freshwater or terrestrial Streptophyta, which consists of the land plants together with the Charophyta, itself consisting of several groups of green algae such as the desmids and stoneworts. Streptophyte algae are either unicellular or form multicellular filaments, branched or unbranched. The genus Spirogyra is a filamentous streptophyte alga familiar to many, as it is often used in teaching and is one of the organisms responsible for the algal "scum" that pond-owners so dislike. The freshwater stoneworts strongly resemble land plants and are believed to be their closest relatives. Growing in fresh water, they consist of a central stalk with whorls of branchlets, giving them a superficial resemblance to horsetails, species of the genus Equisetum, which are true land plants.

Plant: Fungi

The classification of fungi has been controversial until quite recently in the history of biology. Linnaeus' original classification placed the fungi within the Plantae, since they were unquestionably not animals or minerals and these were the only other alternatives. With later developments in microbiology, in the 19th century Ernst Haeckel felt that another kingdom was required to classify newly discovered micro-organisms. The introduction of the new kingdom Protista in addition to Plantae and Animalia, led to uncertainty as to whether fungi truly were best placed in the Plantae or whether they ought to be reclassified as protists. Haeckel himself found it difficult to decide and it was not until 1969 that a solution was found whereby Robert Whittaker proposed the creation of the kingdom Fungi. Molecular evidence has since shown that the most recent common ancestor (concestor), of the Fungi was probably more similar to that of the Animalia than to that of Plantae or any other kingdom.

Whittaker's original reclassification was based on the fundamental difference in nutrition between the Fungi and the Plantae. Unlike plants, which generally gain carbon through photosynthesis, and so are called autotrophs, fungi generally obtain carbon by breaking down and absorbing surrounding materials, and so are called heterotrophic saprotrophs. In addition, the substructure of multicellular fungi is different from that of plants, taking the form of many chitinous microscopic strands called hyphae, which may be further subdivided into cells or may form a syncytium containing many eukaryotic nuclei. Fruiting bodies, of which mushrooms are the most familiar example, are the reproductive structures of fungi, and are unlike any structures produced by plants.

Plant: Diversity

The table below shows some species count estimates of different green plant (Viridiplantae) divisions. It suggests there are about 300,000 species of living Viridiplantae, of which 85–90% are flowering plants. (Note: as these are from different sources and different dates, they are not necessarily comparable, and like all species counts, are subject to a degree of uncertainty in some cases.)

Diversity of living green plant (Viridiplantae) divisions
Informal group Division name Common name No. of living species Approximate No. in informal group
Green algae Chlorophyta green algae (chlorophytes) 3,800–4,300 8,500

(6,600–10,300)

Charophyta green algae (e.g. desmids & stoneworts) 2,800–6,000
Bryophytes Marchantiophyta liverworts 6,000–8,000 19,000

(18,100–20,200)

Anthocerotophyta hornworts 100–200
Bryophyta mosses 12,000
Pteridophytes Lycopodiophyta club mosses 1,200 12,000

(12,200)

Pteridophyta ferns, whisk ferns & horsetails 11,000
Seed plants Cycadophyta cycads 160 260,000

(259,511)

Ginkgophyta ginkgo 1
Pinophyta conifers 630
Gnetophyta gnetophytes 70
Magnoliophyta flowering plants 258,650

The naming of plants is governed by the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants and International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (see cultivated plant taxonomy).

Plant: Evolution

Life timeline
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water
Single-celled
life
photosynthesis
Eukaryotes
Multicellular
life
Land life
Dinosaurs
Mammals
Flowers
Earliest Earth (−4540)
Earliest water
Earliest life
LHB meteorites
Earliest oxygen
Atmospheric oxygen
Oxygen crisis
Earliest sexual reproduction
Ediacara biota
Cambrian explosion
Earliest humans
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Pongola
Huronian
Cryogenian
Andean
Karoo
Quaternary
Axis scale: millions of years.
Orange labels: known ice ages.
Also see: Human timeline and Nature timeline

The evolution of plants has resulted in increasing levels of complexity, from the earliest algal mats, through bryophytes, lycopods, ferns to the complex gymnosperms and angiosperms of today. Plants in all of these groups continue to thrive, especially in the environments in which they evolved.

An algal scum formed on the land 1,200 million years ago, but it was not until the Ordovician Period, around 450 million years ago, that land plants appeared. However, new evidence from the study of carbon isotope ratios in Precambrian rocks has suggested that complex photosynthetic plants developed on the earth over 1000 m.y.a. For more than a century it has been assumed that the ancestors of land plants evolved in aquatic environments and then adapted to a life on land, an idea usually credited to botanist Frederick Orpen Bower in his 1908 book "The Origin of a Land Flora". A more recent alternative view, supported by genetic evidence, is that they evolved from single-celled algae that were already terrestrial. Primitive land plants began to diversify in the late Silurian Period, around 420 million years ago, and the fruits of their diversification are displayed in remarkable detail in an early Devonian fossil assemblage from the Rhynie chert. This chert preserved early plants in cellular detail, petrified in volcanic springs. By the middle of the Devonian Period most of the features recognised in plants today are present, including roots, leaves and secondary wood, and by late Devonian times seeds had evolved. Late Devonian plants had thereby reached a degree of sophistication that allowed them to form forests of tall trees. Evolutionary innovation continued after the Devonian period. Most plant groups were relatively unscathed by the Permo-Triassic extinction event, although the structures of communities changed. This may have set the scene for the evolution of flowering plants in the Triassic (~200 million years ago), which exploded in the Cretaceous and Tertiary. The latest major group of plants to evolve were the grasses, which became important in the mid Tertiary, from around 40 million years ago. The grasses, as well as many other groups, evolved new mechanisms of metabolism to survive the low CO2 and warm, dry conditions of the tropics over the last 10 million years.

A 1997 proposed phylogenetic tree of Plantae, after Kenrick and Crane, is as follows, with modification to the Pteridophyta from Smith et al. The Prasinophyceae are a paraphyletic assemblage of early diverging green algal lineages, but are treated as a group outside the Chlorophyta: later authors have not followed this suggestion.



Prasinophyceae (micromonads)



Streptobionta

Embryophytes

Stomatophytes

Polysporangiates

Tracheophytes
Eutracheophytes
Euphyllophytina
Lignophyta

Spermatophytes (seed plants)



Progymnospermophyta



Pteridophyta


Pteridopsida (true ferns)



Marattiopsida



Equisetopsida (horsetails)



Psilotopsida (whisk ferns & adders'-tongues)



Cladoxylopsida





Lycophytina

Lycopodiophyta



Zosterophyllophyta





Rhyniophyta





Aglaophyton



Horneophytopsida





Bryophyta (mosses)



Anthocerotophyta (hornworts)





Marchantiophyta (liverworts)





Charophyta





Chlorophyta


Trebouxiophyceae (Pleurastrophyceae)



Chlorophyceae




Ulvophyceae





A newer proposed classification follows Leliaert et al. 2011 and modified with Silar 2016 for the green algae clades and Novíkov & Barabaš-Krasni 2015 for the land plants clade. Notice that the Prasinophyceae are here placed inside the Chlorophyta.


Chlorophyta

?Palmophyllales Zechman et al. 2010



Prasinophyceae Christensen 1962 s.s.




Nephroselmidophyceae Cavalier-Smith 1993




Pseudoscourfieldiales Melkonian 1990 [Pycnococcales]





Mamiellophyceae Marin & Melkonian 2010



Pyramimonadophyceae





Picocystis Lewin 2001


Tetraphytina

?Scourfieldiales Moestrup 1991



Pedinophyceae Moestrup 1991


Chlorophytina

Chlorodendrophyceae Massjuk 2006




Trebouxiophyceae Friedl 1995




Ulvophyceae Mattox & Stewart 1984



Chlorophyceae Christensen 1994











Streptophyta s.l.

?Chlorokybophyta



Mesostigmatophyta




Klebsormidiophyta


Phragmoplastophyta

Charophyta Rabenhorst 1863 emend. Lewis & McCourt 2004 (Stoneworts)




Chaetosphaeridiales Marin & Melkonian 1999



Coleochaetophyta




Zygnematophyta


Embryophyta

Marchantiophyta (Liverworts)


Stomatophyta

Bryophyta (True mosses)




Anthocerotophyta (Non-flowering hornworts)


Polysporangiophyta

Horneophyta




Lyonophyta



Tracheophyta (Vascular Plants)













Green algae

Plant: Embryophytes

Plant
Dicksonia antarctica, a species of tree fern

The plants that are likely most familiar to us are the multicellular land plants, called embryophytes. Embryophytes include the vascular plants, such as ferns, conifers and flowering plants. They also include the bryophytes, of which mosses and liverworts are the most common.

All of these plants have eukaryotic cells with cell walls composed of cellulose, and most obtain their energy through photosynthesis, using light, water and carbon dioxide to synthesize food. About three hundred plant species do not photosynthesize but are parasites on other species of photosynthetic plants. Embryophytes are distinguished from green algae, which represent a mode of photosynthetic life similar to the kind modern plants are believed to have evolved from, by having specialized reproductive organs protected by non-reproductive tissues.

Bryophytes first appeared during the early Paleozoic. They can only survive where moisture is available for significant periods, although some species are desiccation-tolerant. Most species of bryophytes remain small throughout their life-cycle. This involves an alternation between two generations: a haploid stage, called the gametophyte, and a diploid stage, called the sporophyte. In bryophytes, the sporophyte is always unbranched and remains nutritionally dependent on its parent gametophyte. The bryophytes have the ability to secrete a cuticle on their outer surface, a waxy layer that confers resistant to desiccation. In the mosses and hornworts a cuticle is usually only produced on the sporophyte. Stomata are absent from liverworts, but occur on the sporangia of mosses and hornworts, allowing gas exchange while controlling water loss.

Vascular plants first appeared during the Silurian period, and by the Devonian had diversified and spread into many different terrestrial environments. They developed a number of adaptations that allowed them to spread into increasingly more arid places, notably the vascular tissues xylem and phloem, that transport water and food throughout the organism. Root systems capable of obtaining soil water and nutrients also evolved during the Devonian. In modern vascular plants, the sporophyte is typically large, branched, nutritionally independent and long-lived, but there is increasing evidence that Paleozoic gametophytes were just as complex as the sporophytes. The gametophytes of all vascular plant groups evolved to become reduced in size and prominence in the life cycle.

The first seed plants, Pteridosperms (seed ferns), now extinct, appeared in the Devonian and diversified through the Carboniferous. In these the microgametophyte is reduced to pollen and the megagametophyte remains inside the megasporangium, attached to the parent plant. A megasporangium invested in protective layer called an integument is known as an ovule. After fertilisation by means of sperm deposited by pollen grains, an embryo develops inside the ovule. The integument becomes a seed coat, and the ovule develops into a seed. Seed plants can survive and reproduce in extremely arid conditions, because they are not dependent on free water for the movement of sperm, or the development of free living gametophytes.

Early seed plants are gymnosperms, as the ovules and subsequent seeds are not enclosed in a protective structure (carpels or fruit), but are found naked, typically on cone scales. Pollen typically lands directly on the ovule. Four surviving groups remain widespread now, particularly the conifers, which are dominant trees in several biomes.

Plant: Fossils

Plant
A petrified log in Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona

Plant fossils include roots, wood, leaves, seeds, fruit, pollen, spores, phytoliths, and amber (the fossilized resin produced by some plants). Fossil land plants are recorded in terrestrial, lacustrine, fluvial and nearshore marine sediments. Pollen, spores and algae (dinoflagellates and acritarchs) are used for dating sedimentary rock sequences. The remains of fossil plants are not as common as fossil animals, although plant fossils are locally abundant in many regions worldwide.

The earliest fossils clearly assignable to Kingdom Plantae are fossil green algae from the Cambrian. These fossils resemble calcified multicellular members of the Dasycladales. Earlier Precambrian fossils are known that resemble single-cell green algae, but definitive identity with that group of algae is uncertain.

The oldest known fossils of embryophytes date from the Ordovician, though such fossils are fragmentary. By the Silurian, fossils of whole plants are preserved, including the lycophyte Baragwanathia longifolia. From the Devonian, detailed fossils of rhyniophytes have been found. Early fossils of these ancient plants show the individual cells within the plant tissue. The Devonian period also saw the evolution of what many believe to be the first modern tree, Archaeopteris. This fern-like tree combined a woody trunk with the fronds of a fern, but produced no seeds.

The Coal measures are a major source of Paleozoic plant fossils, with many groups of plants in existence at this time. The spoil heaps of coal mines are the best places to collect; coal itself is the remains of fossilised plants, though structural detail of the plant fossils is rarely visible in coal. In the Fossil Grove at Victoria Park in Glasgow, Scotland, the stumps of Lepidodendron trees are found in their original growth positions.

The fossilized remains of conifer and angiosperm roots, stems and branches may be locally abundant in lake and inshore sedimentary rocks from the Mesozoic and Cenozoic eras. Sequoia and its allies, magnolia, oak, and palms are often found.

Petrified wood is common in some parts of the world, and is most frequently found in arid or desert areas where it is more readily exposed by erosion. Petrified wood is often heavily silicified (the organic material replaced by silicon dioxide), and the impregnated tissue is often preserved in fine detail. Such specimens may be cut and polished using lapidary equipment. Fossil forests of petrified wood have been found in all continents.

Fossils of seed ferns such as Glossopteris are widely distributed throughout several continents of the Southern Hemisphere, a fact that gave support to Alfred Wegener's early ideas regarding Continental drift theory.

The earliest fossils attributed to green algae date from the Precambrian (ca. 1200 mya). The resistant outer walls of prasinophyte cysts (known as phycomata) are well preserved in fossil deposits of the Paleozoic (ca. 250-540 mya). A filamentous fossil (Proterocladus) from middle Neoproterozoic deposits (ca. 750 mya) has been attributed to the Cladophorales, while the oldest reliable records of the Bryopsidales, Dasycladales) and stoneworts are from the Paleozoic.

Plant: Structure, growth and development

Plant
The leaf is usually the primary site of photosynthesis in plants.

Most of the solid material in a plant is taken from the atmosphere. Through a process known as photosynthesis, most plants use the energy in sunlight to convert carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, plus water, into simple sugars. (Parasitic plants, on the other hand, use the resources of its host to grow.) These sugars are then used as building blocks and form the main structural component of the plant. Chlorophyll, a green-colored, magnesium-containing pigment is essential to this process; it is generally present in plant leaves, and often in other plant parts as well.

Plants usually rely on soil primarily for support and water (in quantitative terms), but also obtain compounds of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium and other elemental nutrients. Epiphytic and lithophytic plants depend on air and nearby debris for nutrients, and carnivorous plants supplement their nutrient requirements with insect prey that they capture. For the majority of plants to grow successfully they also require oxygen in the atmosphere and around their roots (soil gas) for respiration. Plants use oxygen and glucose (which may be produced from stored starch) to provide energy. Some plants grow as submerged aquatics, using oxygen dissolved in the surrounding water, and a few specialized vascular plants, such as mangroves, can grow with their roots in anoxic conditions.

Plant: Factors affecting growth

The genotype of a plant affects its growth. For example, selected varieties of wheat grow rapidly, maturing within 110 days, whereas others, in the same environmental conditions, grow more slowly and mature within 155 days.

Growth is also determined by environmental factors, such as temperature, available water, available light, carbon dioxide and available nutrients in the soil. Any change in the availability of these external conditions will be reflected in the plant's growth.

Biotic factors are also capable of affecting plant growth. Plants compete with other plants for space, water, light and nutrients. Plants can be so crowded that no single individual produces normal growth, causing etiolation and chlorosis. Optimal plant growth can be hampered by grazing animals, suboptimal soil composition, lack of mycorrhizal fungi, and attacks by insects or plant diseases, including those caused by bacteria, fungi, viruses, and nematodes.

Plant
There is no photosynthesis in deciduous leaves in autumn.

Simple plants like algae may have short life spans as individuals, but their populations are commonly seasonal. Other plants may be organized according to their seasonal growth pattern: annual plants live and reproduce within one growing season, biennial plants live for two growing seasons and usually reproduce in second year, and perennial plants live for many growing seasons and continue to reproduce once they are mature. These designations often depend on climate and other environmental factors; plants that are annual in alpine or temperate regions can be biennial or perennial in warmer climates. Among the vascular plants, perennials include both evergreens that keep their leaves the entire year, and deciduous plants that lose their leaves for some part of it. In temperate and boreal climates, they generally lose their leaves during the winter; many tropical plants lose their leaves during the dry season.

The growth rate of plants is extremely variable. Some mosses grow less than 0.001 millimeters per hour (mm/h), while most trees grow 0.025-0.250 mm/h. Some climbing species, such as kudzu, which do not need to produce thick supportive tissue, may grow up to 12.5 mm/h.

Plants protect themselves from frost and dehydration stress with antifreeze proteins, heat-shock proteins and sugars (sucrose is common). LEA (Late Embryogenesis Abundant) protein expression is induced by stresses and protects other proteins from aggregation as a result of desiccation and freezing.

Plant: Effects of freezing

When water freezes in plants, the consequences for the plant depend very much on whether the freezing occurs within cells (intracellularly) or outside cells in intercellular spaces (Glerum 1985). Intracellular freezing, which usually kills the cell (Lyons et al. 1979) regardless of the hardiness of the plant and its tissues, seldom occurs in nature because rates of cooling are rarely high enough to support it. Rates of cooling of several degrees Celsius per minute are typically needed to cause intracellular formation of ice (Mazur 1977).

At rates of cooling of a few degrees Celsius per hour, segregation of ice occurs in intercellular spaces, the “extraorgan ice” of Sakai and Larcher (1987) and their coworkers. This may or may not be lethal, depending on the hardiness of the tissue.

The process of intercellular ice formation was described by Glerum (1985). At freezing temperatures, water in the intercellular spaces of plant tissue freezes first, though the water may remain unfrozen until temperatures drop below −7 °C (19 °F). After the initial formation of ice intercellularly, the cells shrink as water is lost to the segregated ice, and the cells undergo freeze-drying. This dehydration is now considered the fundamental cause of freezing injury.

Plant: DNA damage and repair

Plants are continuously exposed to a range of biotic and abiotic stresses. These stresses often cause DNA damage directly, or indirectly via the generation of reactive oxygen species. Plants are capable of a DNA damage response that is a critical mechanism for maintaining genome stability. The DNA damage response is particularly important during seed germination, since seed quality tends to deteriorate with age in association with DNA damage accumulation. During germination repair processes are activated to deal with this accumulated DNA damage. In particular, single- and double-strand breaks in DNA can be repaired. The DNA checkpoint kinase ATM has a key role in integrating progression through germination with repair responses to the DNA damages accumulated by the aged seed.

Plant: Plant cells

Plant
Plant cell structure

Plant cells are typically distinguished by their large water-filled central vacuole, chloroplasts, and rigid cell walls that are made up of cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin. Cell division is also characterized by the development of a phragmoplast for the construction of a cell plate in the late stages of cytokinesis. Just as in animals, plant cells differentiate and develop into multiple cell types. Totipotent meristematic cells can differentiate into vascular, storage, protective (e.g. epidermal layer), or reproductive tissues, with more primitive plants lacking some tissue types.

Plant: Physiology

Plant: Photosynthesis

Plants are photosynthetic, which means that they manufacture their own food molecules using energy obtained from light. The primary mechanism plants have for capturing light energy is the pigment chlorophyll. All green plants contain two forms of chlorophyll, chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b. The latter of these pigments is not found in red or brown algae. The simple equation of photosynthesis is as follows:-

6CO2 + 6H2O → (in the presence of light and chlorophyll) C6H12O6 + 6O2

Plant: Immune system

By means of cells that behave like nerves, plants receive and distribute within their systems information about incident light intensity and quality. Incident light that stimulates a chemical reaction in one leaf, will cause a chain reaction of signals to the entire plant via a type of cell termed a bundle sheath cell. Researchers, from the Warsaw University of Life Sciences in Poland, found that plants have a specific memory for varying light conditions, which prepares their immune systems against seasonal pathogens. Plants use pattern-recognition receptors to recognize conserved microbial signatures. This recognition triggers an immune response. The first plant receptors of conserved microbial signatures were identified in rice (XA21, 1995) and in Arabidopsis thaliana (FLS2, 2000). Plants also carry immune receptors that recognize highly variable pathogen effectors. These include the NBS-LRR class of proteins.

Plant: Internal distribution

Vascular plants differ from other plants in that nutrients are transported between their different parts through specialized structures, called xylem and phloem. They also have roots for taking up water and minerals. The xylem moves water and minerals from the root to the rest of the plant, and the phloem provides the roots with sugars and other nutrient produced by the leaves.

Plant: Ecology

The photosynthesis conducted by land plants and algae is the ultimate source of energy and organic material in nearly all ecosystems. Photosynthesis radically changed the composition of the early Earth's atmosphere, which as a result is now 21% oxygen. Animals and most other organisms are aerobic, relying on oxygen; those that do not are confined to relatively rare anaerobic environments. Plants are the primary producers in most terrestrial ecosystems and form the basis of the food web in those ecosystems. Many animals rely on plants for shelter as well as oxygen and food.

Land plants are key components of the water cycle and several other biogeochemical cycles. Some plants have coevolved with nitrogen fixing bacteria, making plants an important part of the nitrogen cycle. Plant roots play an essential role in soil development and prevention of soil erosion.

Plant: Distribution

Plants are distributed worldwide in varying numbers. While they inhabit a multitude of biomes and ecoregions, few can be found beyond the tundras at the northernmost regions of continental shelves. At the southern extremes, plants have adapted tenaciously to the prevailing conditions. (See Antarctic flora.)

Plants are often the dominant physical and structural component of habitats where they occur. Many of the Earth's biomes are named for the type of vegetation because plants are the dominant organisms in those biomes, such as grasslands and forests.

Plant: Ecological relationships

Plant
The Venus flytrap, a species of carnivorous plant.

Numerous animals have coevolved with plants. Many animals pollinate flowers in exchange for food in the form of pollen or nectar. Many animals disperse seeds, often by eating fruit and passing the seeds in their feces. Myrmecophytes are plants that have coevolved with ants. The plant provides a home, and sometimes food, for the ants. In exchange, the ants defend the plant from herbivores and sometimes competing plants. Ant wastes provide organic fertilizer.

The majority of plant species have various kinds of fungi associated with their root systems in a kind of mutualistic symbiosis known as mycorrhiza. The fungi help the plants gain water and mineral nutrients from the soil, while the plant gives the fungi carbohydrates manufactured in photosynthesis. Some plants serve as homes for endophytic fungi that protect the plant from herbivores by producing toxins. The fungal endophyte, Neotyphodium coenophialum, in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) does tremendous economic damage to the cattle industry in the U.S.

Various forms of parasitism are also fairly common among plants, from the semi-parasitic mistletoe that merely takes some nutrients from its host, but still has photosynthetic leaves, to the fully parasitic broomrape and toothwort that acquire all their nutrients through connections to the roots of other plants, and so have no chlorophyll. Some plants, known as myco-heterotrophs, parasitize mycorrhizal fungi, and hence act as epiparasites on other plants.

Many plants are epiphytes, meaning they grow on other plants, usually trees, without parasitizing them. Epiphytes may indirectly harm their host plant by intercepting mineral nutrients and light that the host would otherwise receive. The weight of large numbers of epiphytes may break tree limbs. Hemiepiphytes like the strangler fig begin as epiphytes but eventually set their own roots and overpower and kill their host. Many orchids, bromeliads, ferns and mosses often grow as epiphytes. Bromeliad epiphytes accumulate water in leaf axils to form phytotelmata that may contain complex aquatic food webs.

Approximately 630 plants are carnivorous, such as the Venus Flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) and sundew (Drosera species). They trap small animals and digest them to obtain mineral nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus.

Plant: Importance

The study of plant uses by people is termed economic botany or ethnobotany; some consider economic botany to focus on modern cultivated plants, while ethnobotany focuses on indigenous plants cultivated and used by native peoples. Human cultivation of plants is part of agriculture, which is the basis of human civilization. Plant agriculture is subdivided into agronomy, horticulture and forestry.

Plant: Foods and beverages

Plant
Mechanical harvest of oats.

Much of human nutrition depends on plants, either directly through foods and beverages consumed by people, or indirectly as feed for animals or the flavoring of foods. The science of agriculture deals with the planting, raising, nutrition, and harvest of food crops, and has played a key role in the history of world civilizations.

Human nutrition depends to a large extent on cereals, especially maize (or corn), wheat, rice, oats, and millet. Large areas of many countries are given over to the cultivation of cereals for local consumption or export to other countries. Livestock animals including cows, pigs, sheep, goats and camels are all herbivores; and most feed primarily or entirely on cereal plants. Cereals are staple crops, meaning that they provide calories (in the form of complex carbohydrates such as starch) that are needed to fuel daily activities, and thus form the foundation of a daily diet. Other staple crops include potatoes, cassava, yams, and legumes.

Human food also includes vegetables, which consist principally of leaves and stems eaten as food. Vegetables are important for the vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber they supply. Fruits provide a higher quantity of sugars and have a sweeter taste than vegetables. However, whether a particular food is considered a "vegetable" or a "fruit" will depend on context, since the word fruit has a more precise definition in botany than it does in general use. Nuts and seeds, including foods such as peanuts, walnuts, almonds, and pistachios, contain unsaturated fats that are also necessary for a healthy diet. As with fruits, the terms nut and seed have stricter definitions in plant science.

Many plants are used to flavor foods. Such plants include herbs (e.g. rosemary and mint), which come from the green leafy parts of plants, and spices (e.g. cumin and cinnamon), which come from other plant parts. Some plants produce edible flowers, which may be added to salads or used to decorate foods. Sweeteners such as sugar and stevia are derived from plants. Sugar is obtained mainly from sugar cane and sugar beet, and honey is created when bees regurgitate the nectar from flowers. Cooking oils and margarine come from maize, soybean, rapeseed, safflower, sunflower, olive and others. Food additives include gum arabic, guar gum, locust bean gum, starch and pectin.

Plants are also the source of beverages produced either by infusion, such as coffee and tea; by fermentation, such as beer and wine; or by distillation, such as whisky, vodka, rum, and other alcoholic spirits.

Plant: Nonfood products

Plant
Timber in storage for later processing at a sawmill.

Plants are the source of many natural products such as essential oils, natural dyes, pigments, waxes, resins, tannins, alkaloids, amber and cork. Products derived from plants include soaps, shampoos, perfumes, cosmetics, paint, varnish, turpentine, rubber, latex, lubricants, linoleum, plastics, inks, and gums. Renewable fuels from plants include firewood, peat and many other biofuels. Coal and petroleum are fossil fuels derived from the remains of plants. Olive oil has been used in lamps for centuries to provide illumination.

Structural resources and fibers from plants are used in both the construction of dwellings and the manufacture of clothing. Wood is used not only for buildings, boats, and furniture, but also for smaller items such as musical instruments and sports equipment. Wood also may be pulped for the manufacture of paper and cardboard. Cloth is often made from cotton, flax, ramie or synthetic fibers derived from cellulose, such as rayon and acetate. The thread that is used to sew cloth likewise comes from plant fibers. Hemp and jute are grown for their fibers, which may be woven into rope or rough sacking.

Plants are also a primary source of basic chemicals, both for their medicinal and physiological effects, as well as for the industrial synthesis of a vast array of organic chemicals. Medicines derived from plants include aspirin, taxol, morphine, quinine, reserpine, colchicine, digitalis and vincristine. There are hundreds of herbal supplements such as ginkgo, Echinacea, feverfew, and Saint John's wort. Pesticides derived from plants include nicotine, rotenone, strychnine and pyrethrins. Certain plants contain psychotropic chemicals that are extracted and ingested, including tobacco, cannabis (marijuana), opium, and cocaine. Poisons from plants include ricin, hemlock and curare.

Plant: Aesthetic uses

Plant
A rose espalier at Niedernhall in Germany.
Plant
Capitals of ancient Egyptian columns decorated to resemble papyrus plants. (at Luxor, Egypt)

Thousands of plant species are cultivated for aesthetic purposes as well as to provide shade, modify temperatures, reduce wind, abate noise, provide privacy, and prevent soil erosion. Plants are the basis of a multibillion-dollar per year tourism industry, which includes travel to historic gardens, national parks, rainforests, forests with colorful autumn leaves, and the National Cherry Blossom Festival.

While some gardens are planted with food crops, many are planted for aesthetic, ornamental, or conservation purposes. Arboretums and botanical gardens are public collections of living plants. In private outdoor gardens, lawn grasses, shade trees, ornamental trees, shrubs, vines, herbaceous perennials and bedding plants are used. Gardens may cultivate the plants in a naturalistic state, or may sculpture their growth, as with topiary or espalier. Gardening is the most popular leisure activity in the U.S., and working with plants or horticulture therapy is beneficial for rehabilitating people with disabilities.

Plants may also be grown or kept indoors as houseplants, or in specialized buildings such as greenhouses that are designed for the care and cultivation of living plants. Venus Flytrap, sensitive plant and resurrection plant are examples of plants sold as novelties. There are also art forms specializing in the arrangement of cut or living plant, such as bonsai, ikebana, and the arrangement of cut or dried flowers. Ornamental plants have sometimes changed the course of history, as in tulipomania.

Architectural designs resembling plants appear in the capitals of ancient Egyptian columns, which were carved to resemble either the Egyptian white lotus or the papyrus. Images of plants are often used in painting and photography, as well as on textiles, money, stamps, flags and coats of arms.

Plant: Scientific and cultural uses

Plant
Barbara McClintock (1902–1992) was a pioneering cytogeneticist who used maize (or corn) to study the mechanism of inheritance of traits.

Basic biological research has often been done with plants. In genetics, the breeding of pea plants allowed Gregor Mendel to derive the basic laws governing inheritance, and examination of chromosomes in maize allowed Barbara McClintock to demonstrate their connection to inherited traits. The plant Arabidopsis thaliana is used in laboratories as a model organism to understand how genes control the growth and development of plant structures. Space stations or space colonies may one day rely on plants for life support.

Ancient trees are revered and many are famous. Tree rings themselves are an important method of dating in archeology, and serve as a record of past climates.

Plants figure prominently in mythology, religion and literature. They are used as national and state emblems, including state trees and state flowers. Plants are often used as memorials, gifts and to mark special occasions such as births, deaths, weddings and holidays. The arrangement of flowers may be used to send hidden messages.

The field of ethnobotany studies plant use by indigenous cultures, which helps to conserve endangered species as well as discover new medicinal plants.

Plant: Negative effects

Weeds are uncultivated and usually unwanted plants growing in managed environments such as farms, urban areas, gardens, lawns, and parks. People have spread plants beyond their native ranges and some of these introduced plants become invasive, damaging existing ecosystems by displacing native species. Invasive plants cause costly damage in crop losses annually by displacing crop plants, they further increase the cost of production and the use of chemicals to control them, which in turn affects the environment.

Plants may cause harm to animals, including people. Plants that produce windblown pollen invoke allergic reactions in people who suffer from hay fever. A wide variety of plants are poisonous. Toxalbumins are plant poisons fatal to most mammals and act as a serious deterrent to consumption. Several plants cause skin irritations when touched, such as poison ivy. Certain plants contain psychotropic chemicals, which are extracted and ingested or smoked, including tobacco, cannabis (marijuana), cocaine and opium. Smoking causes damage to health or even death, while some drugs may also be harmful or fatal to people. Both illegal and legal drugs derived from plants may have negative effects on the economy, affecting worker productivity and law enforcement costs. Some plants cause allergic reactions when ingested, while other plants cause food intolerances that negatively affect health.

Plant: See also

  • Biosphere
  • DPVweb
  • Evolutionary history of plants
  • Leaf sensor
  • Plant cognition
  • Plant defense against herbivory
  • Plant identification
  • Plants in space
  • The Plant List

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Plant: Further reading

  • Evans, L. T. (1998). Feeding the Ten Billion – Plants and Population Growth. Cambridge University Press. Paperback, 247 pages. Buy book ISBN 0-521-64685-5.
  • Kenrick, Paul & Crane, Peter R. (1997). The Origin and Early Diversification of Land Plants: A Cladistic Study. Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Institution Press. Buy book ISBN 1-56098-730-8.
  • Raven, Peter H., Evert, Ray F., & Eichhorn, Susan E. (2005). Biology of Plants (7th ed.). New York: W. H. Freeman and Company. Buy book ISBN 0-7167-1007-2.
  • Taylor, Thomas N. & Taylor, Edith L. (1993). The Biology and Evolution of Fossil Plants. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Buy book ISBN 0-13-651589-4.
  • Trewavas A (2003). "Aspects of Plant Intelligence". Annals of Botany. 92 (1): 1–20. PMC 4243628 Freely accessible. PMID 12740212. doi:10.1093/aob/mcg101.
  • International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) Species Survival Commission (2004). IUCN Red List [2].
  • Prance G. T. (2001). "Discovering the Plant World". Taxon. International Association for Plant Taxonomy. 50 (2, Golden Jubilee Part 4): 345–359. ISSN 0040-0262. JSTOR 1223885. doi:10.2307/1223885.
  • Jones, T. M., Reid, C. S., Urbatsch, L. E. "Visual study of divisional Plantae". (requires Microsoft Silverlight)
  • Plant at the Encyclopedia of Life Edit this at Wikidata
  • Chaw, S.-M.; et al. (1997). "Molecular Phylogeny of Extant Gymnosperms and Seed Plant Evolution: Analysis of Nuclear 18s rRNA Sequences" (PDF). Molec. Biol. Evol. 14 (1): 56–68. PMID 9000754. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a025702.
  • Index Nominum Algarum
  • Interactive Cronquist classification
  • Plant Resources of Tropical Africa
  • Tree of Life
  • African Plants Initiative database
  • Australia
  • Chilean plants at Chilebosque
  • e-Floras (Flora of China, Flora of North America and others)
  • Flora Europaea
  • Flora of Central Europe (in German)
  • Flora of North America
  • List of Japanese Wild Plants Online
  • Meet the Plants-National Tropical Botanical Garden
  • Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center – Native Plant Information Network at University of Texas, Austin
  • The Plant List
  • United States Department of Agriculture not limited to continental US species

Plant

Acèh Peunula ▪ Адыгэбзэ КъэкӀыгъэхэр ▪ Afrikaans Plant ▪ Alemannisch Pflanzen ▪ አማርኛ አትክልት ▪ Ænglisc Plante ▪ Аҧсшәа Аҵиаақәа ▪ العربية نبات ▪ Aragonés Plantae ▪ Armãneashti Plantâ ▪ Arpetan Planta ▪ অসমীয়া উদ্ভিদ ▪ Asturianu Plantae ▪ Avañe'ẽ Ka'avo ▪ Aymar aru Ali ▪ Azərbaycanca Bitkilər ▪ تۆرکجه بیتکی ▪ বাংলা উদ্ভিদ ▪ Bahasa Banjar Tumbuhan ▪ Bân-lâm-gú Si̍t-bu̍t ▪ Basa Banyumasan Tanduran ▪ Башҡортса Үҫемлектәр ▪ Беларуская Расліны ▪ Беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎ Расьліны ▪ भोजपुरी पौधा ▪ Български Растения ▪ Boarisch Pflanzna ▪ Bosanski Biljke ▪ Brezhoneg Plant ▪ Буряад Ургамал ▪ Català Planta ▪ Чӑвашла Ӳсентăран ▪ Cebuano Tanom ▪ Čeština Rostliny ▪ Chi-Chewa Zomera ▪ ChiShona Madzinde ▪ ChiTumbuka Vyakumela ▪ Cymraeg Planhigyn ▪ Dansk Planter ▪ ދިވެހިބަސް ގަސް ▪ Dolnoserbski Rostliny ▪ Eesti Taimed ▪ Ελληνικά Φυτό ▪ Эрзянь Касыкст ▪ Español Plantae ▪ Esperanto Plantoj ▪ Estremeñu Plantae ▪ Euskara Landare ▪ فارسی گیاه ▪ Føroyskt Plantur ▪ Français Plante ▪ Frysk Planten ▪ Furlan Plantis ▪ Gaeilge Planda ▪ Gaelg Lus ▪ Gàidhlig Lus ▪ Galego Planta ▪ 贛語 植物 ▪ Gĩkũyũ Mĩmera ▪ 客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî Chhṳ̍t-vu̍t ▪ 한국어 식물 ▪ Hausa Shuka ▪ Հայերեն Բույսեր ▪ हिन्दी पादप ▪ Hornjoserbsce Rostliny ▪ Hrvatski Biljke ▪ Ido Planto ▪ Igbo Osisi ▪ Ilokano Mula ▪ Bahasa Indonesia Tumbuhan ▪ Interlingua Planta ▪ ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut ᐱᕈᖅᑐᖅ ▪ Ирон Зайæгойтæ ▪ Íslenska Jurt ▪ Italiano Plantae ▪ עברית צומח ▪ Basa Jawa Tetanduran ▪ Kalaallisut Naasut ▪ ಕನ್ನಡ ಸಸ್ಯ ▪ Kapampangan Tanaman ▪ ქართული მცენარეები ▪ Kaszëbsczi Roscënë ▪ Қазақша Өсімдіктер ▪ Kernowek Plans ▪ Kinyarwanda Ikimera ▪ Kiswahili Mmea ▪ Kreyòl ayisyen Plant ▪ Kurdî Riwek ▪ Кыргызча Өсүмдүктөр ▪ Кырык мары Кушкыш ▪ Лакку Ххяххия ▪ Лезги Набатат ▪ Latgaļu Auguoji ▪ Latina Plantae ▪ Latviešu Augi ▪ Lëtzebuergesch Planzeräich ▪ Lietuvių Augalai ▪ Ligure Plantae ▪ Limburgs Plante ▪ Lingála Etɔɛlɛ ▪ La .lojban. spati ▪ Luganda Ebimera ▪ Lumbaart Plantae ▪ Magyar Növények ▪ मैथिली वनस्पति ▪ Македонски Растенија ▪ Malagasy Zavamaniry ▪ മലയാളം സസ്യം ▪ मराठी वनस्पती ▪ მარგალური ჩანარეფი ▪ مصرى نبات ▪ Bahasa Melayu Tumbuhan ▪ Baso Minangkabau Tumbuahan ▪ Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄ Sĭk-ŭk ▪ Mirandés Planta ▪ Монгол Ургамал ▪ မြန်မာဘာသာ အပင် ▪ Nāhuatl Tlanelhuayotl ▪ Nederlands Planten ▪ Nedersaksies Plaanten ▪ Nēhiyawēwin / ᓀᐦᐃᔭᐍᐏᐣ ᐅᐲᑭᒋᑳᓇ ▪ नेपाली वनस्पति ▪ नेपाल भाषा मा (बोट्यानी) ▪ 日本語 植物 ▪ Napulitano Plantæ ▪ Nordfriisk Plaanten ▪ Norfuk / Pitkern Plaant ▪ Norsk bokmål Planter ▪ Norsk nynorsk Plantar ▪ Nouormand Pliante ▪ Occitan Plantae ▪ Олык марий Кушкыл ▪ ଓଡ଼ିଆ ଉଦ୍ଭିଦ ▪ Oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча Oʻsimliklar ▪ ਪੰਜਾਬੀ ਬੂਟਾ ▪ پنجابی بوٹے ▪ پښتو بوټی ▪ Patois Plaant (Chrii) ▪ Перем Коми Быдмас ▪ Picard Plante ▪ Tok Pisin Sayor ▪ Plattdüütsch Planten ▪ Polski Rośliny ▪ Português Plantae ▪ Qaraqalpaqsha O'simlikler ▪ Română Plantă ▪ Runa Simi Yura ▪ Русиньскый Рослины ▪ Русский Растения ▪ Саха тыла Үүнээйилэр ▪ संस्कृतम् ओषधयः ▪ Scots Plant ▪ Seeltersk Plonten ▪ Sesotho Dimela ▪ Shqip Bimët ▪ Sicilianu Plantae ▪ සිංහල ශාක ▪ Simple English Plant ▪ Slovenčina Rastliny ▪ Slovenščina Rastline ▪ Ślůnski Źeliny ▪ Soomaaliga Dhir ▪ کوردیی ناوەندی ڕوەک ▪ Српски / srpski Биљке ▪ Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски Biljka ▪ Basa Sunda Tutuwuhan ▪ Suomi Kasvit ▪ Svenska Växt ▪ Tagalog Halaman ▪ தமிழ் தாவரம் ▪ Tarandíne Regnum Plantae ▪ Татарча/tatarça Үсемлекләр ▪ తెలుగు మొక్క ▪ ไทย พืช ▪ Тоҷикӣ Растанӣ ▪ Lea faka-Tonga ʻakau ▪ Tshivenda Tshimela ▪ Türkçe Bitki ▪ Türkmençe Ösümlikler ▪ Удмурт Будос ▪ Українська Рослини ▪ اردو نباتات ▪ ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche ئۆسۈملۈك ▪ Vahcuengh Doenghgo ▪ Vèneto Piante ▪ Vepsän kel’ Kazmused ▪ Tiếng Việt Thực vật ▪ Võro Kasv ▪ Walon Plante ▪ 文言 植物 ▪ West-Vlams Plantn ▪ Winaray Tanaman ▪ Wolof Gàncax ▪ 吴语 植物 ▪ ייִדיש פלאנץ ▪ Yorùbá Ọ̀gbìn ▪ 粵語 植物 ▪ Zazaki Nebat ▪ Zeêuws Plant'n ▪ Žemaitėška Augalā ▪ 中文 植物 ▪ डोटेली वनस्पति

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Plant: Goods

Using this page, you can quickly and easily search for the "Plant" related products in the best online stores. For your convenience the search term is already added to the search box. You can either make a search right now or modify the query somehow (for example, "Plant 2017").

You can also change the category of required goods. The "Books" category is selected right now, so the search will be done in the web stores offering today's sale of books, movies, music and multimedia products related products and services. Thus, in just one click, you can check the current prices, offers, discounts, available goods, etc. Also make sure to check the today's sales in the selected online stores listed below.

US Delivery, Shipping to the United States

The delivery of goods is carried out internationally and across the United States. The goods are shipped to all US cities and towns.

And today the goods named "Plant" in Alabama can be sent to Birmingham, Montgomery, Mobile, Huntsville, Tuscaloosa, Hoover, Dothan, Decatur, Auburn, Madison, Florence, Gadsden, Vestavia Hills, Prattville, Phenix City, Alabaster, Bessemer, Enterprise, Opelika, Homewood, Northport, Anniston, Prichard, Athens. As well as in Daphne, Pelham, Oxford, Albertville, Selma, Mountain Brook, Trussville, Troy, Center Point, Helena, Hueytown, Talladega, Fairhope, Ozark, Alexander City, Cullman, Scottsboro, Millbrook, Foley, Hartselle, Fort Payne, Gardendale, Jasper, Saraland, Muscle Shoals, Eufaula, and other cities and towns.

Usually, the goods by request "Plant" in Alaska can be delivered to the following cities: Anchorage, Fairbanks, Juneau, Sitka, Ketchikan, Wasilla, Kenai, Kodiak, Bethel, Palmer, Homer, Unalaska, Barrow, Soldotna, Valdez, Nome, Kotzebue, Seward, Wrangell, Dillingham, Cordova, North Pole, Houston, Craig, Hooper Bay, Akutan, and other cities and towns.

Usually, the goods by request "Plant" in Arizona can be delivered to Phoenix, Tucson, Mesa, Chandler, Glendale, Scottsdale, Gilbert, Tempe, Peoria, Surprise, Yuma, Avondale, Flagstaff, Goodyear, Lake Havasu City, Buckeye, Casa Grande, Sierra Vista, Maricopa, Oro Valley, Prescott, Bullhead City, Prescott Valley. The delivery is also available in Apache Junction, Marana, El Mirage, Kingman, Queen Creek, Florence, San Luis, Sahuarita, Fountain Hills, Nogales, Douglas, Eloy, Payson, Somerton, Paradise Valley, Coolidge, Cottonwood, Camp Verde, Chino Valley, Show Low, Sedona and smaller towns.

As always, the goods named "Plant" in Arkansas can be received in Little Rock, Fort Smith, Fayetteville, Springdale, Jonesboro, North Little Rock, Conway, Rogers, Pine Bluff, Bentonville, Hot Springs, Benton, Texarkana, Sherwood, Jacksonville, Russellville, Bella Vista, West Memphis, Paragould, Cabot. It is also available for the people living in Searcy, Van Buren, El Dorado, Maumelle, Blytheville, Forrest City, Siloam Springs, Bryant, Harrison, Hot Springs Village, Mountain Home, Marion, Helena-West Helena, Camden, Magnolia, Arkadelphia, Malvern, Batesville, Hope, and so on.

It goes without saying that the goods named "Plant" in California can be received in such cities as Los Angeles, San Diego, San Jose, San Francisco, Fresno, Sacramento, Long Beach, Oakland, Bakersfield, Anaheim, Santa Ana, Riverside, Stockton, Chula Vista, Fremont, Irvine, San Bernardino, Modesto, Oxnard, Fontana, Moreno Valley, Glendale, Huntington Beach, Santa Clarita, Garden Grove. And other cities and towns, such as Santa Rosa, Oceanside, Rancho Cucamonga, Ontario, Lancaster, Elk Grove, Palmdale, Corona, Salinas, Pomona, Torrance, Hayward, Escondido, Sunnyvale, Pasadena, Fullerton, Orange, Thousand Oaks, Visalia, Simi Valley, Concord, Roseville, Santa Clara, Vallejo, Victorville. And also in El Monte, Berkeley, Downey, Costa Mesa, Inglewood, Ventura, West Covina, Norwalk, Carlsbad, Fairfield, Richmond, Murrieta, Burbank, Antioch, Daly City, Temecula, Santa Maria, El Cajon, Rialto, San Mateo, Compton, Clovis, Jurupa Valley, South Gate, Vista, Mission Viejo. The shipping is also available in Vacaville, Carson, Hesperia, Redding, Santa Monica, Westminster, Santa Barbara, Chico, Whittier, Newport Beach, San Leandro, Hawthorne, San Marcos, Citrus Heights, Alhambra, Tracy, Livermore, Buena Park, Lakewood, Merced, Hemet, Chino, Menifee, Lake Forest, Napa. Delivery is also carried out in Redwood City, Bellflower, Indio, Tustin, Baldwin Park, Chino Hills, Mountain View, Alameda, Upland, Folsom, San Ramon, Pleasanton, Lynwood, Union City, Apple Valley, Redlands, Turlock, Perris, Manteca, Milpitas, Redondo Beach, Davis, Camarillo, Yuba City. You can also buy these goods in Rancho Cordova, Palo Alto, Yorba Linda, Walnut Creek, South San Francisco, San Clemente, Pittsburg, Laguna Niguel, Pico Rivera, Montebello, Lodi, Madera, Monterey Park, La Habra, Santa Cruz, Encinitas, Tulare, Gardena, National City, Cupertino. You can also buy these goods in Huntington Park, Petaluma, San Rafael, La Mesa, Rocklin, Arcadia, Diamond Bar, Woodland, Fountain Valley, Porterville, Paramount, Hanford, Rosemead, Eastvale, Santee, Highland, Delano, Colton, Novato, Lake Elsinore, Brentwood, Yucaipa, Cathedral City, Watsonville, Placentia and smaller towns.

Of course, the found goods by query "Plant" in Colorado can be shipped to Denver, Colorado Springs, Aurora, Fort Collins, Lakewood, Thornton, Arvada, Westminster, Pueblo, Centennial, Boulder, Greeley, Longmont, Loveland, Broomfield, Grand Junction, Castle Rock, Commerce City, Parker, Littleton, Northglenn, Brighton, Englewood. And also in Wheat Ridge, Fountain, Lafayette, Windsor, Erie, Evans, Golden, Louisville, Montrose, Durango, Cañon City, Greenwood Village, Sterling, Lone Tree, Johnstown, Superior, Fruita, Steamboat Springs, Federal Heights, Firestone, Fort Morgan, Frederick, Castle Pines, and other cities and towns.

Usually, the goods by request "Plant" in Connecticut can be purchased if you live in Bridgeport, New Haven, Hartford, Stamford, Waterbury, Norwalk, Danbury, New Britain, Bristol, Meriden, Milford, West Haven, Middletown, Norwich, Shelton, Torrington, New London, Ansonia, Derby, Groton...

And the goods by request "Plant" in Delaware can be received in Wilmington, Dover, Newark, Middletown, Smyrna, Milford, Seaford, Georgetown, Elsmere, New Castle, Millsboro, Laurel, Harrington, Camden, Clayton, Lewes, Milton, Selbyville, Bridgeville, Townsend, etc.

No doubt, the products by request "Plant" in Florida can be sent to Jacksonville, Miami, Tampa, Orlando, St. Petersburg, Hialeah, Tallahassee, Fort Lauderdale, Port St. Lucie, Cape Coral, Pembroke Pines, Hollywood, Miramar, Gainesville, Coral Springs, Miami Gardens, Clearwater, Palm Bay, Pompano Beach, West Palm Beach, Lakeland, Davie, Miami Beach, Boca Raton. And also in Deltona, Plantation, Sunrise, Palm Coast, Largo, Deerfield Beach, Melbourne, Boynton Beach, Lauderhill, Fort Myers, Weston, Kissimmee, Homestead, Delray Beach, Tamarac, Daytona Beach, Wellington, North Miami, Jupiter, North Port, Coconut Creek, Port Orange, Sanford, Margate, Ocala, Sarasota, Pensacola and smaller towns.

No need to say, the products related to the term "Plant" in Georgia can be sent to Atlanta, Columbus, Augusta, Macon, Savannah, Athens, Sandy Springs, Roswell, Johns Creek, Albany, Warner Robins, Alpharetta, Marietta, Valdosta, Smyrna, Dunwoody, Rome, East Point, Milton, Gainesville, Hinesville, Peachtree City, Newnan, Dalton, Douglasville, Kennesaw, LaGrange, Statesboro, Lawrenceville, Duluth, Stockbridge, Woodstock, Carrollton, Canton, Griffin, McDonough, Acworth, Pooler, Union City, and so on.

As usual, the found goods by query "Plant" in Hawaii can be sent to Honolulu, East Honolulu, Pearl City, Hilo, Kailua, Waipahu, Kaneohe, Mililani Town, Kahului, Ewa Gentry, Mililani Mauka, Kihei, Makakilo, Wahiawa, Schofield Barracks, Wailuku, Kapolei, Ewa Beach, Royal Kunia, Halawa, Waimalu, Waianae, Nanakuli, Kailua, Lahaina, Waipio, Hawaiian Paradise Park, Kapaa.

Normally, the products related to the term "Plant" in Idaho can be delivered to the following cities: Boise, Meridian, Nampa, Idaho Falls, Pocatello, Caldwell, Coeur d'Alene, Twin Falls, Lewiston, Post Falls, Rexburg, Moscow, Eagle, Kuna, Ammon, Chubbuck, Hayden, Mountain Home, Blackfoot, Garden City, Jerome, Burley, and other cities.

And of course, the found goods by query "Plant" in Illinois can be bought in Chicago, Aurora, Rockford, Joliet, Naperville, Springfield, Peoria, Elgin, Waukegan, Champaign, Bloomington, Decatur, Evanston, Des Plaines, Berwyn, Wheaton, Belleville, Elmhurst, DeKalb, Moline, Urbana, Crystal Lake, Quincy, Rock Island, Park Ridge, Calumet City, Pekin, Danville, St. Charles, North Chicago, Galesburg, Chicago Heights, Granite City, Highland Park, Burbank, O'Fallon, Oak Forest, Alton, Kankakee, West Chicago, East St. Louis, McHenry, Batavia, Carbondale, Freeport, Belvidere, Collinsville, Harvey, Lockport, Woodstock, etc.

It goes without saying that the goods related with "Plant" in Indiana can be shipped to such cities as Indianapolis, Fort Wayne, Evansville, South Bend, Carmel, Fishers, Bloomington, Hammond, Gary, Lafayette, Muncie, Terre Haute, Kokomo, Noblesville, Anderson, Greenwood, Elkhart, Mishawaka, Lawrence, Jeffersonville, Columbus, Portage, New Albany, Richmond, Westfield, Valparaiso, Goshen, Michigan City, West Lafayette, Marion, East Chicago, Hobart, Crown Point, Franklin, La Porte, Greenfield, and other cities and towns.

Undoubtedly, the goods by request "Plant" in Iowa can be shipped to Des Moines, Cedar Rapids, Davenport, Sioux City, Iowa City, Waterloo, Council Bluffs, Ames, West Des Moines, Dubuque, Ankeny, Urbandale, Cedar Falls, Marion, Bettendorf, Marshalltown, Mason City, Clinton, Burlington, Ottumwa, Fort Dodge, Muscatine, Coralville, Johnston, North Liberty, Altoona, Newton, Indianola, and so on.

Today the goods named "Plant" in Kansas can be delivered to Wichita, Overland Park, Kansas City, Olathe, Topeka, Lawrence, Shawnee, Manhattan, Lenexa, Salina, Hutchinson, Leavenworth, Leawood, Dodge City, Garden City, Junction City, Emporia, Derby, Prairie Village, Hays, Liberal, Gardner, Pittsburg, Newton, Great Bend, McPherson, El Dorado, Ottawa, Winfield, Arkansas City, Andover, Lansing, Merriam, Haysville, Atchison, Parsons.

No need to say, the goods related with "Plant" in Kentucky can be shipped to such cities as Louisville, Lexington, Bowling Green, Owensboro, Covington, Hopkinsville, Richmond, Florence, Georgetown, Henderson, Elizabethtown, Nicholasville, Jeffersontown, Frankfort, Paducah, Independence, Radcliff, Ashland, Madisonville, Winchester, Erlanger, Murray, St. Matthews, Fort Thomas, Danville, Newport, Shively, Shelbyville, Glasgow, Berea, Bardstown, Shepherdsville, Somerset, Lyndon, Lawrenceburg, Middlesboro, Mayfield.

No doubt, the goods named "Plant" in Louisiana can be delivered to the following cities: New Orleans, Baton Rouge, Shreveport, Metairie, Lafayette, Lake Charles, Kenner, Bossier City, Monroe, Alexandria, Houma, Marrero, New Iberia, Laplace, Slidell, Prairieville, Central, Terrytown, Ruston, Sulphur, Harvey, Hammond, Bayou Cane, Shenandoah, Natchitoches, Gretna, Chalmette, Opelousas, Estelle, Zachary and smaller towns.

No need to say, the goods by your query "Plant" in Maine can be received in such cities as Portland, Lewiston, Bangor, South Portland, Auburn, Biddeford, Sanford, Saco, Augusta, Westbrook, Waterville, Presque Isle, Brewer, Bath, Caribou, Ellsworth, Old Town, Rockland, Belfast, Gardiner, Calais, Hallowell, Eastport, and so on.

Undoubtedly, the goods by your query "Plant" in Maryland can be sent to Baltimore, Frederick, Rockville, Gaithersburg, Bowie, Hagerstown, Annapolis, College Park, Salisbury, Laurel, Greenbelt, Cumberland, Westminster, Hyattsville, Takoma Park, Easton, Elkton, Aberdeen, Havre de Grace, Cambridge, New Carrollton, Bel Air, and other cities.

No need to say, any products related with "Plant" in Massachusetts can be purchased if you live in Boston, Worcester, Springfield, Lowell, Cambridge, New Bedford, Brockton, Quincy, Lynn, Fall River, Newton, Lawrence, Somerville, Framingham, Haverhill, Waltham, Malden, Brookline, Plymouth, Medford, Taunton, Chicopee, Weymouth, Revere, Peabody, Methuen, Barnstable, Pittsfield, Attleboro, Arlington, Everett, Salem, Westfield, Leominster, Fitchburg, Billerica, Holyoke, Beverly, Marlborough, Woburn, Amherst, Braintree, Shrewsbury, Chelsea, Dartmouth, Chelmsford, Andover, Natick, Randolph, Watertown, and so on.

No doubt, the goods named "Plant" in Michigan can be shipped to Detroit, Grand Rapids, Warren, Sterling Heights, Lansing, Ann Arbor, Flint, Dearborn, Livonia, Clinton, Canton, Westland, Troy, Farmington Hills, Macomb Township, Kalamazoo, Shelby, Wyoming, Southfield, Waterford, Rochester Hills, West Bloomfield, Taylor, Saint Clair Shores, Pontiac, Dearborn Heights, Royal Oak, Novi, Ypsilanti, Battle Creek, Saginaw, Kentwood, East Lansing, Redford, Roseville, Georgetown, Portage, Chesterfield Township, Midland, Bloomfield Charter Township, Oakland County, Saginaw, Commerce, Meridian, Muskegon, Lincoln Park, Grand Blanc, Holland, Orion, Bay City, Independence Charter Township, and other cities and towns.

As you know, the goods related with "Plant" in Minnesota can be received in Minneapolis, Saint Paul, Rochester, Bloomington, Duluth, Brooklyn Park, Plymouth, Maple Grove, Woodbury, St. Cloud, Eagan, Eden Prairie, Coon Rapids, Blaine, Burnsville, Lakeville, Minnetonka, Apple Valley, Edina, St. Louis Park, Moorhead, Mankato, Maplewood, Shakopee, Richfield, Cottage Grove, Roseville, Inver Grove Heights, Andover, Brooklyn Center, Savage, Oakdale, Fridley, Winona, Shoreview, Ramsey, Owatonna, Chanhassen, Prior Lake, White Bear Lake, Chaska, Austin, Elk River, Champlin, Faribault, Rosemount, Crystal, Farmington, Hastings, New Brighton, and so on.

No need to say, any things related with "Plant" in Mississippi can be received in Jackson, Gulfport, Southaven, Hattiesburg, Biloxi, Meridian, Tupelo, Greenville, Olive Branch, Horn Lake, Clinton, Pearl, Ridgeland, Starkville, Columbus, Vicksburg, Pascagoula, Clarksdale, Oxford, Laurel, Gautier, Ocean Springs, Madison, Brandon, Greenwood, Cleveland, Natchez, Long Beach, Corinth, Hernando, Moss Point, McComb, Canton, Carriere, Grenada, Brookhaven, Indianola, Yazoo City, West Point, Picayune, Petal, and so on.

It goes without saying that the goods related with "Plant" in Missouri can be shipped to Kansas City, St. Louis, Springfield, Independence, Columbia, Lee’s Summit, O’Fallon, St. Joseph, St. Charles, Blue Springs, St. Peters, Florissant, Joplin, Chesterfield, Jefferson City, Cape Girardeau, Oakville, Wildwood, University City, Ballwin, Raytown, Liberty, Wentzville, Mehlville, Kirkwood, Maryland Heights, Hazelwood, Gladstone, Grandview, Belton, Webster Groves, Sedalia, Ferguson, Arnold, Affton.

And today the goods named "Plant" in Montana can be shipped to such cities as Billings, Missoula, Great Falls, Bozeman, Butte, Helena, Kalispell, Havre, Anaconda, Miles City, Belgrade, Livingston, Laurel, Whitefish, Lewistown, Sidney, and so on.

And today the found goods by query "Plant" in Nebraska can be received in Omaha, Lincoln, Bellevue, Grand Island, Kearney, Fremont, Hastings, Norfolk, North Platte, Papillion, Columbus, La Vista, Scottsbluff, South Sioux City, Beatrice, Lexington.

And the products by request "Plant" in Nevada can be bought in Las Vegas, Henderson, Reno, North Las Vegas, Sparks, Carson City, Fernley, Elko, Mesquite, Boulder City, Fallon, Winnemucca, West Wendover, Ely, Yerington, Carlin, Lovelock, Wells, Caliente and smaller towns.

As usual, the goods related with "Plant" in New Hampshire can be purchased if you live in Manchester, Nashua, Concord, Derry, Dover, Rochester, Salem, Merrimack, Hudson, Londonderry, Keene, Bedford, Portsmouth, Goffstown, Laconia, Hampton, Milford, Durham, Exeter, Windham, Hooksett, Claremont, Lebanon, Pelham, Somersworth, Hanover, Amherst, Raymond, Conway, Berlin, and other cities and towns.

Naturally, the products by request "Plant" in New Jersey can be received in Newark, Jersey City, Paterson, Elizabeth, Edison, Woodbridge, Lakewood, Toms River, Hamilton, Trenton, Clifton, Camden, Brick, Cherry Hill, Passaic, Middletown, Union City, Old Bridge, Gloucester Township, East Orange, Bayonne, Franklin, North Bergen, Vineland, Union, Piscataway, New Brunswick, Jackson, Wayne, Irvington, Parsippany-Troy Hills, Howell, Perth Amboy, Hoboken, Plainfield, West New York, Washington Township, East Brunswick, Bloomfield, West Orange, Evesham, Bridgewater, South Brunswick, Egg Harbor, Manchester, Hackensack, Sayreville, Mount Laurel, Berkeley, North Brunswick, and other cities and towns.

And the goods related with "Plant" in New Mexico can be bought in Albuquerque, Las Cruces, Rio Rancho, Santa Fe, Roswell, Farmington, South Valley, Clovis, Hobbs, Alamogordo, Carlsbad, Gallup, Deming, Los Lunas, Chaparral, Sunland Park, Las Vegas, Portales, Los Alamos, North Valley, Artesia, Lovington, Silver City, Española, and so on.

And today the found goods by query "Plant" in New York can be bought in New York, Buffalo, Rochester, Yonkers, Syracuse, Albany, New Rochelle, Mount Vernon, Schenectady, Utica, White Plains, Troy, Niagara Falls, Binghamton, Rome, Long Beach, Poughkeepsie, North Tonawanda, Jamestown, Ithaca, Elmira, Newburgh, Middletown, Auburn, Watertown, Glen Cove, Saratoga Springs, Kingston, Peekskill, Lockport, Plattsburgh, Cortland, Amsterdam, Oswego, Lackawanna, Cohoes, Rye, Gloversville, Beacon, Batavia, Tonawanda, Glens Falls, Olean, Oneonta, Geneva, Dunkirk, Fulton, Oneida, Corning, Ogdensburg, Canandaigua, Watervliet, etc.

Undoubtedly, the found goods by query "Plant" in North Carolina can be sent to Charlotte, Raleigh, Greensboro, Durham, Winston-Salem, Fayetteville, Cary, Wilmington, High Point, Greenville, Asheville, Concord, Gastonia, Jacksonville, Chapel Hill, Rocky Mount, Huntersville, Burlington, Wilson, Kannapolis, Apex, Hickory, Wake Forest, Indian Trail, Mooresville, Goldsboro, Monroe, Salisbury, Holly Springs, Matthews, New Bern, Sanford, Cornelius, Garner, Thomasville, Statesville, Asheboro, Mint Hill, Fuquay-Varina, Morrisville, Kernersville, Lumberton, Kinston, Carrboro, Havelock, Shelby, Clemmons, Lexington, Clayton, Boone and smaller towns.

It goes without saying that the products by request "Plant" in North Dakota can be delivered to the following cities: Fargo, Bismarck, Grand Forks, Minot, West Fargo, Williston, Dickinson, Mandan, Jamestown, Wahpeton, Devils Lake, Watford City, Valley City, Grafton, Lincoln, Beulah, Rugby, Stanley, Horace, Casselton, New Town, Hazen, Bottineau, Lisbon, Carrington, etc.

And the goods by request "Plant" in Ohio can be received in such cities as Columbus, Cleveland, Cincinnati, Toledo, Akron, Dayton, Parma, Canton, Youngstown, Lorain, Hamilton, Springfield, Kettering, Elyria, Lakewood, Cuyahoga Falls, Euclid, Middletown, Mansfield, Newark, Mentor, Cleveland Heights, Beavercreek, Strongsville, Fairfield, Dublin, Warren, Findlay, Lancaster, Lima, Huber Heights, Marion, Westerville, Reynoldsburg, Grove City, Stow, Delaware, Brunswick, Upper Arlington, Gahanna, Westlake, North Olmsted, Fairborn, Massillon, Mason, North Royalton, Bowling Green, North Ridgeville, Kent, Garfield Heights, etc.

As usual, the goods by request "Plant" in Oklahoma can be delivered to Oklahoma City, Tulsa, Norman, Broken Arrow, Lawton, Edmond, Moore, Midwest City, Enid, Stillwater, Muskogee, Bartlesville, Owasso, Shawnee, Yukon, Ardmore, Ponca City, Bixby, Duncan, Del City, Jenks, Sapulpa, Mustang, Sand Springs, Bethany, Altus, Claremore, El Reno, McAlester, Ada, Durant, Tahlequah, Chickasha, Miami, Glenpool, Elk City, Woodward, Okmulgee, Choctaw, Weatherford, Guymon, Guthrie, Warr Acres, and so on.

And of course, any products related with "Plant" in Oregon can be purchased if you live in Portland, Salem, Eugene, Gresham, Hillsboro, Beaverton, Bend, Medford, Springfield, Corvallis, Albany, Tigard, Lake Oswego, Keizer, Grants Pass, Oregon City, McMinnville, Redmond, Tualatin, West Linn, Woodburn, Forest Grove, Newberg, Wilsonville, Roseburg, Klamath Falls, Ashland, Milwaukie, Sherwood, Happy Valley, Central Point, Canby, Hermiston, Pendleton, Troutdale, Lebanon, Coos Bay, The Dalles, Dallas, St. Helens, La Grande, Cornelius, Gladstone, Ontario, Sandy, Newport, Monmouth...

Naturally, the goods named "Plant" in Pennsylvania can be delivered to the following cities: Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Allentown, Erie, Reading, Scranton, Bethlehem, Lancaster, Harrisburg, Altoona, York, Wilkes-Barre, Chester, Williamsport, Easton, Lebanon, Hazleton, New Castle, Johnstown, McKeesport, Hermitage, Greensburg, Pottsville, Sharon, Butler, Washington, Meadville, New Kensington, Coatesville, St. Marys, Lower Burrell, Oil City, Nanticoke, Uniontown, and other cities and towns.

And of course, the found goods by query "Plant" in Rhode Island can be bought in Providence, Warwick, Cranston, Pawtucket, East Providence, Woonsocket, Coventry, Cumberland, North Providence, South Kingstown, West Warwick, Johnston, North Kingstown, Newport, Bristol, Westerly, Smithfield, Lincoln, Central Falls, Portsmouth, Barrington, Middletown, Burrillville, Narragansett, Tiverton, East Greenwich, North Smithfield, Warren, Scituate, and so on.

It goes without saying that the goods by request "Plant" in South Carolina can be shipped to such cities as Columbia, Charleston, North Charleston, Mount Pleasant, Rock Hill, Greenville, Summerville, Sumter, Hilton Head Island, Spartanburg, Florence, Goose Creek, Aiken, Myrtle Beach, Anderson, Greer, Mauldin, Greenwood, North Augusta, Easley, Simpsonville, Hanahan, Lexington, Conway, West Columbia, North Myrtle Beach, Clemson, Orangeburg, Cayce, Bluffton, Beaufort, Gaffney, Irmo, Fort Mill, Port Royal, Forest Acres, Newberry, and other cities and towns.

Normally, the goods named "Plant" in South Dakota can be delivered to the following cities: Sioux Falls, Rapid City, Aberdeen, Brookings, Watertown, Mitchell, Yankton, Pierre, Huron, Spearfish, Vermillion, and other cities and towns.

Usually, the found goods by query "Plant" in Tennessee can be received in such cities as Memphis, Nashville, Knoxville, Chattanooga, Clarksville, Murfreesboro, Franklin, Jackson, Johnson City, Bartlett, Hendersonville, Kingsport, Collierville, Smyrna, Cleveland, Brentwood, Germantown, Columbia, Spring Hill, La Vergne, Gallatin, Cookeville, Mount Juliet, Lebanon, Morristown, Oak Ridge, Maryville, Bristol, Farragut, Shelbyville, East Ridge, Tullahoma, etc.

As you know, the products related to the term "Plant" in Texas can be received in such cities as Houston, San Antonio, Dallas, Austin, Fort Worth, El Paso, Arlington, Corpus Christi, Plano, Laredo, Lubbock, Garland, Irving, Amarillo, Grand Prairie, Brownsville, McKinney, Frisco, Pasadena, Mesquite, Killeen, McAllen, Carrollton, Midland, Waco, Denton, Abilene, Odessa, Beaumont, Round Rock, The Woodlands, Richardson, Pearland, College Station, Wichita Falls, Lewisville, Tyler, San Angelo, League City, Allen, Sugar Land, Edinburg, Mission, Longview, Bryan, Pharr, Baytown, Missouri City, Temple, Flower Mound, New Braunfels, North Richland Hills, Conroe, Victoria, Cedar Park, Harlingen, Atascocita, Mansfield, Georgetown, San Marcos, Rowlett, Pflugerville, Port Arthur, Spring, Euless, DeSoto, Grapevine, Galveston, and other cities and towns.

And of course, any things related with "Plant" in Utah can be delivered to Salt Lake City, West Valley City, Provo, West Jordan, Orem, Sandy, Ogden, St. George, Layton, Taylorsville, South Jordan, Logan, Lehi, Murray, Bountiful, Draper, Riverton, Roy, Spanish Fork, Pleasant Grove, Cottonwood Heights, Tooele, Springville, Cedar City, Midvale. And other cities and towns, such as Kaysville, Holladay, American Fork, Clearfield, Syracuse, South Salt Lake, Herriman, Eagle Mountain, Clinton, Washington, Payson, Farmington, Brigham City, Saratoga Springs, North Ogden, South Ogden, North Salt Lake, Highland, Centerville, Hurricane, Heber City, West Haven, Lindon...

Normally, the goods named "Plant" in Vermont can be delivered to Burlington, South Burlington, Rutland, Barre, Montpelier, Winooski, St. Albans, Newport, Vergennes...

Usually, any products related with "Plant" in Virginia can be delivered to the following cities: Virginia Beach, Norfolk, Chesapeake, Richmond, Newport News, Alexandria, Hampton, Roanoke, Portsmouth, Suffolk, Lynchburg, Harrisonburg, Charlottesville, Danville, Manassas, Petersburg, Fredericksburg, Winchester, Salem, Staunton, Fairfax, Hopewell, Waynesboro, Colonial Heights, Radford, Bristol, Manassas Park, Williamsburg, Falls Church, Martinsville, Poquoson, and other cities and towns.

Usually, any products related with "Plant" in Washington can be shipped to Seattle, Spokane, Tacoma, Vancouver, Bellevue, Kent, Everett, Renton, Federal Way, Yakima, Spokane Valley, Kirkland, Bellingham, Kennewick, Auburn, Pasco, Marysville, Lakewood, Redmond, Shoreline, Richland, Sammamish, Burien, Olympia, Lacey. As well as in Edmonds, Puyallup, Bremerton, Lynnwood, Bothell, Longview, Issaquah, Wenatchee, Mount Vernon, University Place, Walla Walla, Pullman, Des Moines, Lake Stevens, SeaTac, Maple Valley, Mercer Island, Bainbridge Island, Oak Harbor, Kenmore, Moses Lake, Camas, Mukilteo, Mountlake Terrace, Tukwila...

Normally, the goods related with "Plant" in West Virginia can be shipped to such cities as Charleston, Huntington, Morgantown, Parkersburg, Wheeling, Weirton, Fairmont, Martinsburg, Beckley, Clarksburg, South Charleston, St. Albans, Vienna, Bluefield, etc.

And today the found goods by query "Plant" in Wisconsin can be shipped to such cities as Milwaukee, Madison, Green Bay, Kenosha, Racine, Appleton, Waukesha, Oshkosh, Eau Claire, Janesville, West Allis, La Crosse, Sheboygan, Wauwatosa, Fond du Lac, New Berlin, Wausau. And other cities and towns, such as Brookfield, Beloit, Greenfield, Franklin, Oak Creek, Manitowoc, West Bend, Sun Prairie, Superior, Stevens Point, Neenah, Fitchburg, Muskego, Watertown, De Pere, Mequon, South Milwaukee, Marshfield, and so on.

And the goods by request "Plant" in Wyoming can be shipped to Cheyenne, Casper, Laramie, Gillette, Rock Springs, Sheridan, Green River, Evanston, Riverton, Jackson, Cody, Rawlins, Lander, Torrington, Powell, Douglas, Worland, etc.

Canada Delivery, Shipping to Canada

And today the goods by your query "Plant" in Canada can be shipped to Toronto, Montreal, Calgary, Ottawa, Edmonton, Mississauga, Winnipeg, Vancouver, Brampton, Hamilton, Quebec City, Surrey, Laval, Halifax, London, Markham, Vaughan, Gatineau, Longueuil, Burnaby, Saskatoon, Kitchener, Windsor, Regina, Richmond, Richmond Hill.

And, of course, Oakville, Burlington, Greater Sudbury, Sherbrooke, Oshawa, Saguenay, Lévis, Barrie, Abbotsford, St. Catharines, Trois-Rivières, Cambridge, Coquitlam, Kingston, Whitby, Guelph, Kelowna, Saanich, Ajax, Thunder Bay, Terrebonne, St. John's, Langley, Chatham-Kent, Delta.

The shipping is also available in Waterloo, Cape Breton, Brantford, Strathcona County, Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Red Deer, Pickering, Kamloops, Clarington, North Vancouver, Milton, Nanaimo, Lethbridge, Niagara Falls, Repentigny, Victoria, Newmarket, Brossard, Peterborough, Chilliwack, Maple Ridge, Sault Ste. Marie, Kawartha Lakes, Sarnia, Prince George.

The delivery is also available in Drummondville, Saint John, Moncton, Saint-Jérôme, New Westminster, Wood Buffalo, Granby, Norfolk County, St. Albert, Medicine Hat, Caledon, Halton Hills, Port Coquitlam, Fredericton, Grande Prairie, North Bay, Blainville, Saint-Hyacinthe, Aurora, Welland, Shawinigan, Dollard-des-Ormeaux, Belleville, North Vancouver...

Generally, any things related with "Plant" can be shipped to any place in Canada, including Ontario, Quebec, British Columbia, Alberta, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, and Prince Edward Island.

UK Delivery, Shipping to the United Kingdom

As you know, the goods by request "Plant" in the United Kingdom can be sent to London, Birmingham, Leeds, Glasgow, Sheffield, Bradford, Edinburgh, Liverpool, Manchester, Bristol, Wakefield, Cardiff, Coventry, Nottingham, Leicester, Sunderland, Belfast, Newcastle upon Tyne, Brighton, Hull, Plymouth, Stoke-on-Trent.

The shipping is also available in Wolverhampton, Derby, Swansea, Southampton, Salford, Aberdeen, Westminster, Portsmouth, York, Peterborough, Dundee, Lancaster, Oxford, Newport, Preston, St Albans, Norwich, Chester, Cambridge, Salisbury, Exeter, Gloucester. As well as in Lisburn, Chichester, Winchester, Londonderry, Carlisle, Worcester, Bath, Durham, Lincoln, Hereford, Armagh, Inverness, Stirling, Canterbury, Lichfield, Newry, Ripon, Bangor, Truro, Ely, Wells, St. Davids.

Generally, the goods by request "Plant" can be shipped to any place in the UK, including England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland.

Ireland Delivery, Shipping to Ireland

Naturally, the goods by your query "Plant" in Ireland can be shipped to such cities as Dublin, Cork, Limerick, Galway, Waterford, Drogheda, Dundalk, Swords, Bray, Navan, Ennis, Kilkenny, Tralee, Carlow, Newbridge, Naas, Athlone, Portlaoise, Mullingar, Wexford, Balbriggan, Letterkenny, Celbridge, Sligo. The shipping is also available in Clonmel, Greystones, Malahide, Leixlip, Carrigaline, Tullamore, Killarney, Arklow, Maynooth, Cobh, Castlebar, Midleton, Mallow, Ashbourne, Ballina, Laytown-Bettystown-Mornington, Enniscorthy, Wicklow, Tramore, Cavan...

Actually, the goods related with "Plant" can be shipped to any place in Ireland, including Leinster, Ulster, Munster, and Connacht.

Australia Delivery, Shipping to Australia

No doubt, the goods by request "Plant" in Australia can be bought in Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth, Adelaide, Gold Coast, Tweed Heads, Newcastle, Maitland, Canberra, Queanbeyan, Sunshine Coast, Wollongong, Hobart, Geelong, Townsville, Cairns, Darwin, Toowoomba, Ballarat, Bendigo, Albury, Wodonga, Launceston, Mackay.

You can also buy these goods in Rockhampton, Bunbury, Bundaberg, Coffs Harbour, Wagga Wagga, Hervey Bay, Mildura, Wentworth, Shepparton, Mooroopna, Gladstone, Tannum Sands, Port Macquarie, Tamworth, Traralgon, Morwell, Orange, Geraldton, Bowral, Mittagong, Dubbo, Busselton, Bathurst, Nowra, Bomaderry, Warrnambool, Albany, Warragul, Drouin, Kalgoorlie, Boulder, Devonport, and so on.

In other words, any products related with "Plant" can be shipped to any place in Australia, including New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, Western Australia, South Australia, Tasmania, Australian Capital Territory, and Northern Territory.

New Zealand Delivery, Shipping to New Zealand

Undoubtedly, any products related with "Plant" in New Zealand can be received in Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch, Hamilton, Tauranga, Napier-Hastings, Dunedin, Lower Hutt, Palmerston North, Nelson, Rotorua, New Plymouth, Whangarei, Invercargill, Whanganui, Gisborne, Porirua, Invercargill, Nelson, Upper Hutt, Gisborne, Blenheim, Pukekohe, Timaru, Taupo.

In fact, the goods related with "Plant" can be shipped to any place in New Zealand, including North Island, South Island, Waiheke Island, and smaller islands. It goes without saying thatthe found goods by querycan be bought inAnd other cities and towns, such as, etc.

In other words,

Delivery

Abkhazia: Gagra, Gudauta, Lake Ritsa, New Athos, Ochamchire, Pitsunda, Sukhumi, Tsandryphsh, etc.

Afghanistan: Herat, Jalalabad, Kabul, Kandahar, Kunduz, Mazar-i-Sharif, Taloqan, etc.

Albania: Berat, Butrint, Dhërmi, Durrës, Gjirokastër, Himarë, Korçë, Pogradec, Qeparo, Sarandë, Shkodër, Tirana, Velipojë, Vlorë, etc.

Algeria: Algiers, Oran, etc.

American Virgin Islands: Charlotte Amalie, etc.

Andorra: Andorra la Vella, Arinsal, El Pas de la Casa, Encamp, Grandvalira, Ordino, Pal, Soldeu, Vallnord, etc.

Angola: Benguela, Luanda, etc.

Anguilla: The Valley, West End, etc.

Antigua and Barbuda: Saint John’s, etc.

Argentina: Buenos Aires, Colón, Córdoba, El Calafate, La Plata, Los Glaciares, Mar del Plata, Mendoza, Pinamar, Puerto Iguazú, Puerto Madryn, Rosario, Salta, San Carlos de Bariloche, San Martín de los Andes, San Miguel de Tucumán, San Rafael, Tandil, Tierra del Fuego, Ushuaia, Villa Carlos Paz, Villa Gesell, Villa La Angostura, Villa de Merlo, etc.

Armenia: Dilijan, Etchmiadzin, Goris, Gyumri, Jermuk, Sevan, Stepanavan, Tsaghkadzor, Vagharshapat, Vanadzor, Yeghegnadzor, Yerevan, etc.

Aruba: Oranjestad, etc.

Australia: Adelaide, Brisbane, Byron Bay, Cairns, Canberra, Darwin, Gold Coast, Great Barrier Reef, Hobart, Melbourne, Perth, Sydney, Tasmania, etc.

Austria: Abtenau, Alpbach, Austrian Alps, Bad Gastein, Bad Hofgastein, Bad Kleinkirchheim, Dürnstein, Flachau, Fugen, Graz, Innsbruck, Ischgl, Kaprun, Kitzbühel, Klagenfurt, Kufstein, Lech, Leogang, Lienz, Linz, Maria Alm, Mayrhofen, Neustift im Stubaital, Obergurgl, Saalbach-Hinterglemm, Saalfelden, Salzburg, Schladming, Seefeld, Serfaus, St. Anton, St. Johann im Pongau, Sölden, Tux, Tyrol, Vienna, Villach, Wachau, Wagrain, Zell am See, etc.

Azerbaijan: Baku, Ganja, Lankaran, Quba, Qusar, Shahdag, Sheki, Stepanakert, etc.

Bahamas: Andros, Eleuthera, Exuma, Freeport, Grand Bahama, Nassau, New Providence, Paradise Island, etc.

Bahrain: Manama, etc.

Bangladesh: Chittagong, Cox's Bazar, Dhaka, Khulna, Narayanganj, Rajshahi, Sylhet, etc.

Barbados: Bridgetown, etc.

Belarus: Babruysk, Białowieża Forest, Brest Belarus, Gomel, Grodno, Lahoysk, Maladzyechna, Minsk, Mogilev, Nesvizh, Pinsk, Silichi, Vitebsk, etc.

Belgium: Antwerp, Ardennes, Blankenberge, Bouillon, Bruges, Brussels, Charleroi, De Haan, De Panne, Durbuy, Flanders, Ghent, Hasselt, Kortrijk, Leuven, Liège, Namur, Nieuwpoort, Ostend, Spa, Ypres, Zeebrugge, etc.

Belize: Ambergris Caye, Belize City, Caye Caulker, Placencia, San Pedro, etc.

Benin: Cotonou, etc.

Bermuda: Hamilton, etc.

Bhutan: Paro, Thimphu, etc.

Bolivia: Cochabamba, El Alto, La Paz, Oruro, Quillacollo, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Sucre, Uyuni, etc.

Bosnia and Herzegovina: Banja Luka, Bihać, Jahorina, Medjugorje, Mostar, Neum, Sarajevo, Travnik, Trebinje, etc.

Botswana: Gaborone, Maun, etc.

Brazil: Amazon River, Amazonia, Angra dos Reis, Arraial do Cabo, Atlantic Forest, Balneário Camboriú, Belo Horizonte, Belém, Bombinhas, Brasília, Búzios, Cabo Frio, Camaçari, Campinas, Campos do Jordão, Caraguatatuba, Copacabana, Costa do Sauípe, Curitiba, Duque de Caxias, Fernando de Noronha, Florianópolis, Fortaleza, Foz do Iguaçu, Goiânia, Gramado, Guarujá, Guarulhos, Iguazu Falls, Ilha Grande, Ilhabela, Ilhéus, Ipanema, Itacaré, Maceió, Manaus, Morro de São Paulo, Natal, Niterói, Osasco, Ouro Preto, Paraty, Petrópolis, Porto Alegre, Porto Seguro, Praia do Forte, Recife, Ribeirão Preto, Rio de Janeiro, Salvador, Santos, São Gonçalo, São José dos Campos, São Luís, São Paulo, São Sebastião, Trancoso, Ubatuba, Vila do Abraão, etc.

British Virgin Islands: Tortola, etc.

Brunei: Bandar Seri Begawan, etc.

Bulgaria: Albena, Balchik, Bansko, Blagoevgrad, Borovets, Burgas, Chernomorets, Dobrinishte, Golden Sands, Kiten, Koprivshtitsa, Lozenets, Nesebar, Obzor, Pamporovo, Pirin, Pleven, Plovdiv, Pomorie, Primorsko, Ravda, Razlog, Rila, Ruse, Samokov, Sandanski, Shumen, Sofia, Sozopol, Stara Zagora, Sunny Beach, Sveti Vlas, Tsarevo, Varna, Veliko Tarnovo, etc.

Burkina Faso: Bobo-Dioulasso, Ouagadougou, etc.

Burundi: Bujumbura, etc.

Cambodia: Angkor, Battambang, Kampot, Kep, Phnom Penh, Siem Reap, Sihanoukville, etc.

Cameroon: Bafoussam, Bamenda, Douala, Garoua, Kribi, Limbe, Maroua, Yaoundé, etc.

Canada: Alberta, Banff, Brampton, British Columbia, Burnaby, Calgary, Charlottetown, Edmonton, Fort McMurray, Gatineau, Halifax, Hamilton, Jasper, Kamloops, Kelowna, Kingston, Kitchener, Laval, London, Longueuil, Manitoba, Markham, Mississauga, Moncton, Mont-Tremblant, Montreal, Nanaimo, New Brunswick, Niagara Falls, Niagara on the Lake, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Ottawa, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Regina, Richmond, Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Surrey, Toronto, Vancouver, Vaughan, Victoria, Whistler, Whitehorse, Windsor, Winnipeg, Yukon, etc.

Cape Verde: Boa Vista Cape Verde, Sal, etc.

Caribbean Netherlands:, etc.

Cayman Islands: George Town, Grand Cayman, West Bay, etc.

Chad: N'Djamena, etc.

Chile: Antofagasta, Arica, Atacama, Coquimbo, Easter Island, Hanga Roa, Iquique, La Serena, Patagonia, Pucón, Puerto Montt, Puerto Natales, Puerto Varas, Punta Arenas, San Pedro de Atacama, Santiago, Torres del Paine, Valdivia, Valparaíso, Villarrica, Viña del Mar, etc.

China: Anshun, Baishan, Baoding, Baoshan, Baotou, Beijing, Binzhou, Changchun, Changsha, Changzhi, Chengdu, Chongqing, Dali, Dalian, Datong, Dengfeng, Diqing, Dongguan, Emeishan, Foshan, Great Wall of China, Guangdong, Guangzhou, Guilin, Guiyang, Hainan, Hangzhou, Harbin, Honghe, Huashan, Huizhou, Jiangmen, Jiangxi, Jiaxing, Jilin, Jinan, Jincheng, Jingdezhen, Jinzhong, Jiujiang, Jiuzhaigou, Kunming, Langfang, Lanzhou, Laoshan, Leshan, Lhasa, Lianyungang, Lijiang, Linfen, Linyi, Luoyang, Lushan, Lüliang, Mianyang, Nanchang, Nanchong, Nanjing, Nantong, Ngawa, Ningbo, Qiandongnan, Qingdao, Qingyuan, Qinhuangdao, Qufu, Qujing, Rizhao, Sanya, Shanghai, Shangri-La, Shantou, Shanxi, Shaoguan, Shaolin, Shaoxing, Shenyang, Shenzhen, Shigatse, Shijiazhuang, Sichuan, Suzhou, Tai'an, Taiyuan, Taizhou Jiangsu, Tangshan, Tianjin, Tibet, Weifang, Weihai, Wuhan, Wulingyuan, Wutai, Wuxi, Xi'an, Xiamen, Xinzhou, Xishuangbanna, Ya'an, Yanbian, Yangtze, Yangzhou, Yantai, Yellow River, Yibin, Yinchuan, Yiwu, Yuncheng, Yunnan, Zhangjiajie, Zhanjiang, Zhejiang, Zhengzhou, Zhongshan, Zhongwei, Zhoushan, Zhuhai, Zunyi, etc.

Colombia: Barranquilla, Bogotá, Bucaramanga, Cali, Cartagena, Medellín, Pereira, San Andrés, Santa Marta, Villa de Leyva, Villavicencio, etc.

Comoros: Moroni, etc.

Costa Rica: Alajuela, Jacó, La Fortuna, Manuel Antonio, Monteverde, Puerto Viejo de Talamanca, Puntarenas, Quepos, San José, Santa Teresa, Tamarindo, Tortuguero, etc.

Croatia: Baška Voda, Baška, Bibinje, Biograd na Moru, Bol, Brač, Brela, Cavtat, Cres, Dalmatia, Fažana, Hvar, Istria, Ičići, Korčula, Krk, Lopud, Lovran, Lošinj, Makarska, Mali Lošinj, Malinska, Medulin, Mlini, Nin, Novi Vinodolski, Novigrad, Omiš, Opatija, Orebić, Pag, Podstrana, Poreč, Pula, Rab, Rabac, Rijeka, Rovinj, Split, Stari Grad, Sukošan, Supetar, Trogir, Tučepi, Umag, Vrsar, Zadar, Zagreb, Čiovo, Šibenik, etc.

Cuba: Baracoa, Camagüey, Cayo Coco, Cayo Largo, Cayo Santa María, Cienfuegos, Guantánamo, Havana, Holguín, Pinar del Río, Remedios Cuba, Sancti Spíritus, Santa Clara Cuba, Santiago de Cuba, Trinidad, Varadero, Viñales, etc.

Curaçao: Sint Michiel, Westpunt, Willemstad, etc.

Cyprus: Ayia Napa, Coral Bay Cyprus, Famagusta, Kouklia, Kyrenia, Larnaca, Limassol, Nicosia, Paphos, Paralimni, Peyia, Pissouri, Polis, Protaras, etc.

Czech Republic: Bohemia, Brno, Děčín, Frymburk, Frýdek-Místek, Harrachov, Hradec Králové, Jihlava, Karlovy Vary, Kladno, Krkonoše, Kutná Hora, Liberec, Marienbad, Mikulov, Mladá Boleslav, Mělník, Olomouc, Ostrava, Pardubice, Plzeň, Poděbrady, Prague, Teplice, Třeboň, Zlín, Znojmo, Ústí nad Labem, České Budějovice, Český Krumlov, Špindlerův Mlýn, etc.

Democratic Republic of the Congo: Kinshasa, etc.

Denmark: Aalborg, Aarhus, Billund, Copenhagen, Ebeltoft, Esbjerg, Frederikshavn, Greenland, Helsingør, Herning, Hirtshals, Hjørring, Holstebro, Jutland, Odense, Silkeborg, Skagen, Skive, Sønderborg, Vejle, Viborg, etc.

Djibouti: Djibouti City, etc.

Dominican Republic: Boca Chica, Bávaro, Cabarete, La Romana, Las Terrenas, Puerto Plata, Punta Cana, Santiago de los Caballeros, Santo Domingo, Sosúa, etc.

East Timor: Dili, etc.

Ecuador: Baños, Cuenca, Galápagos Islands, Guayaquil, Manta, Otavalo, Puerto Ayora, Puerto López, Quito, Salinas, etc.

Egypt: Abu Simbel, Al Qusair, Alexandria, Aswan, Cairo, Dahab, El Alamein, El Gouna, El Hadaba, Faiyum, Giza, Hurghada, Luxor, Marsa Alam, Mersa Matruh, Naama Bay, Nabq Bay, Nile, Nuweiba, Port Said, Red Sea, Safaga, Sahl Hasheesh, Scharm asch-Schaich, Sharks Bay, Sinai, Suez, Taba, Valley of the Kings, etc.

El Salvador: La Libertad, San Salvador, etc.

Equatorial Guinea: Malabo, etc.

Eritrea: Asmara, etc.

Estonia: Haapsalu, Kuressaare, Narva, Pärnu, Saaremaa, Tallinn, Tartu, etc.

Ethiopia: Addis Ababa, Bahir Dar, Gondar, etc.

Falkland Islands: Stanley, etc.

Faroe Islands: Sørvágur, Tórshavn, etc.

Fiji: Nadi, Suva, Viti Levu Island, etc.

Finland: Espoo, Helsinki, Imatra, Joensuu, Jyväskylä, Jämsä, Kotka, Kuopio, Kuusamo, Lahti, Lapland, Lappeenranta, Levi, Mariehamn, Mikkeli, Moomin World, Naantali, Nilsiä, Oulu, Pori, Porvoo, Pyhätunturi, Rovaniemi, Rukatunturi, Saariselkä, Saimaa, Tampere, Turku, Vaasa, Vantaa, Vuokatti, Åland Islands, etc.

France: Aix-en-Provence, Ajaccio, Alsace, Annecy, Antibes, Aquitaine, Arles, Avignon, Avoriaz, Bayonne, Beaune, Besançon, Biarritz, Bonifacio, Bordeaux, Briançon, Brittany, Burgundy, Cabourg, Cagnes-sur-Mer, Calais, Calvi, Canet-en-Roussillon, Cannes, Carcassonne, Cassis, Chambéry, Chamonix, Colmar, Corsica, Courchevel, Deauville, Dijon, Dunkirk, French Alps, French Riviera, Fréjus, Grenoble, Honfleur, La Ciotat, La Plagne, La Rochelle, Le Grau-du-Roi, Le Havre, Les Arcs, Les Gets, Les Menuires, Lille, Limoges, Lourdes, Lyon, Mandelieu-la-Napoule, Marseille, Megève, Menton, Montpellier, Morzine, Méribel, Nantes, Narbonne, Nice, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, Normandy, Nîmes, Paradiski, Paris, Pas-de-Calais, Perpignan, Portes du Soleil, Porto-Vecchio, Provence, Périgueux, Reims, Rhône-Alpes, Rouen, Saint-Gervais-les-Bains, Saint-Malo, Saint-Martin-de-Belleville, Saint-Rémy-de-Provence, Saint-Tropez, Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer, Strasbourg, The Three Valleys, Tignes, Toulouse, Trouville-sur-Mer, Val Thorens, Val-d'Isère, Versailles, Étretat, Île-de-France, etc.

French Guiana: Cayenne, Kourou, etc.

French Polynesia: Bora Bora, Mo'orea, Papeete, Tahiti, etc.

Gabon: Libreville, etc.

Gambia: Banjul, Serekunda, etc.

Georgia: Bakuriani, Batumi, Borjomi, Gori, Gudauri, Kobuleti, Kutaisi, Mestia, Mtskheta, Poti, Sighnaghi, Stepantsminda, Tbilisi, Telavi, Zugdidi, etc.

Germany: Aachen, Augsburg, Bad Birnbach, Bad Driburg, Bad Ems, Bad Füssing, Bad Godesberg, Bad Harzburg, Bad Homburg, Bad Kissingen, Bad Kreuznach, Bad Mergentheim, Bad Neuenahr-Ahrweiler, Bad Reichenhall, Bad Salzuflen, Bad Schandau, Baden-Baden, Baden-Württemberg, Bamberg, Bavaria, Berchtesgaden, Bergen auf Rügen, Berlin, Bernkastel-Kues, Bielefeld, Binz, Bochum, Bonn, Bottrop, Brandenburg, Braunlage, Braunschweig, Bremen, Bremerhaven, Brilon, Chemnitz, Cochem, Cologne, Cuxhaven, Dortmund, Dresden, Duisburg, Düsseldorf, Eisenach, Erfurt, Erlangen, Essen, Europa-Park, Flensburg, Frankfurt, Freiburg, Friedrichshafen, Fürth, Füssen, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Gelsenkirchen, Glowe, Goslar, Görlitz, Göttingen, Hamburg, Hanover, Heidelberg, Heiligendamm, Heligoland, Hesse, Ingolstadt, Inzell, Karlsruhe, Kiel, Koblenz, Krefeld, Lake Constance, Leipzig, Lindau, Lower Saxony, Lübeck, Magdeburg, Mainz, Mannheim, Marburg, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Medebach, Monschau, Munich, Mönchengladbach, Mülheim an der Ruhr, Münster, Neuschwanstein Castle, Neuss, Norddeich, Norden, Norderney, North Rhine-Westphalia, Nuremberg, Oberhausen, Oberstdorf, Oldenburg, Olsberg, Osnabrück, Paderborn, Potsdam, Putbus, Quedlinburg, Rathen, Regensburg, Rhineland-Palatinate, Rostock, Rothenburg ob der Tauber, Ruhpolding, Rust, Rügen, Saarbrücken, Saarland, Sassnitz, Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, Schleswig-Holstein, Schmallenberg, Schwerin, Schönau am Königsee, Sindelfingen, Solingen, Speyer, Stralsund, Stuttgart, Sylt, Thuringia, Travemünde, Trier, Ulm, Warnemünde, Weimar, Wernigerode, Westerland, Wiesbaden, Winterberg, Wolfsburg, Wuppertal, Würzburg, Xanten, Zingst, etc.

Ghana: Accra, Kumasi, etc.

Gibraltar:, etc.

Greece: Acharavi, Aegina, Afantou, Afytos, Agios Gordios, Andros, Arkadia, Athens, Cephalonia, Chania, Chaniotis, Chios, Corfu, Corinth, Crete, Cyclades, Dassia, Delphi, Dodecanese, Faliraki, Halkidiki, Heraklion, Hersonissos, Hydra, Ialysos, Ionian Islands, Kalamata, Kalavryta, Kalymnos, Kardamaina, Karpathos, Kassandra, Kastoria, Katerini, Kavos, Kefalos, Kokkari, Kos, Kriopigi, Laganas, Lefkada, Lemnos, Lesbos, Lindos, Loutraki, Marathokampos, Meteora, Mithymna, Monemvasia, Mount Athos, Mykonos, Mytilene, Nafplio, Naxos, Neos Marmaras, Paleokastritsa, Parga, Patmos, Patras, Pefkochori, Pefkos, Peloponnese, Polychrono, Poros, Pythagoreio, Rethymno, Rhodes, Samos, Samothrace, Santorini, Sidari, Sithonia, Sparta, Spetses, Sporades, Syros, Thasos, Thessaloniki, Tingaki, Zakynthos, etc.

Guadeloupe: Saint-François, etc.

Guam: Tamuning, Tumon, etc.

Guatemala: Antigua Guatemala, etc.

Guinea: Conakry, etc.

Guinea-Bissau: Bissau, etc.

Guyana: Georgetown, etc.

Haiti: Cap-Haitien, Port-au-Prince, etc.

Honduras: Roatán, Tegucigalpa, etc.

Hong Kong: Causeway Bay, Hong Kong Island, Kowloon, Mong Kok, New Territories, Repulse Bay, Tsim Sha Tsui, Wan Chai, etc.

Hungary: Budapest, Eger, Gyula, Hajdúszoboszló, Hévíz, Lake Balaton, Pécs, Siófok, Szeged, Zalakaros, etc.

Iceland: Akureyri, Blue Lagoon, Borgarnes, Egilsstaðir, Garðabær, Hafnarfjörður, Hveragerði, Höfn, Keflavík, Kópavogur, Reykjavik, Selfoss, Vík í Mýrdal, Ísafjörður, etc.

India: Agra, Ahmedabad, Ajmer, Allahabad, Amritsar, Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Aurangabad, Bangalore, Bhopal, Bikaner, Chandigarh, Chennai, Chhattisgarh, Darjeeling, Dehradun, Delhi, Dharamshala, Fatehpur Sikri, Gangtok, Goa, Gujarat, Gurgaon, Guwahati, Gwalior, Haridwar, Himachal Pradesh, Hyderabad, Indore, Jabalpur, Jaipur, Jaisalmer, Jalandhar, Jodhpur, Kanpur, Karnataka, Kerala, Khajuraho, Kochi, Kolhapur, Kolkata, Ladakh, Leh, Lucknow, Ludhiana, Madhya Pradesh, Madikeri, Madurai, Maharashtra, Manali, Mangalore, Mathura, Mount Abu, Mumbai, Munnar, Mussoorie, Mysore, Nagpur, Nainital, Nashik, Navi Mumbai, New Delhi, Noida, Ooty, Pachmarhi, Palakkad, Pune, Punjab, Pushkar, Raipur, Rajasthan, Ramnagar, Rishikesh, Sawai Madhopur, Shimla, Sikkim, Srinagar, Tamil Nadu, Thane, Thiruvananthapuram, Tirupati, Udaipur, Ujjain, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Varanasi, Varkala, Vijayawada, Visakhapatnam, etc.

Indonesia: Bali, Balikpapan, Bandung, Batu, Bintan, Bogor, Borobudur, Denpasar, Jakarta, Java, Jimbaran, Kalimantan, Kuta, Lombok, Makassar, Malang, Mataram, Medan, Nusa Dua, Padang, Palembang, Pekanbaru, Sanur, Semarang, Seminyak, Sumatra, Surabaya, Surakarta, Ubud, Yogyakarta, etc.

Iran: Isfahan, Mashhad, Shiraz, Tehran, etc.

Iraq: Baghdad, Basra, Duhok, Erbil, Karbala, Sulaymaniyah, etc.

Ireland: Achill Island, Bray, Bundoran, Carlow, Clifden, Connemara, Cork, Dingle, Donegal, Doolin, Drogheda, Dublin, Dundalk, Ennis, Galway, Glendalough, Kenmare, Kilkenny, Killarney, Letterkenny, Limerick, Navan, Shannon, Swords, Tralee, Waterford, Westport, etc.

Isle of Man: Douglas, etc.

Israel: Acre, Amirim, Arad, Ashdod, Ashkelon, Bat Yam, Beersheba, Caesarea, Dead Sea, Eilat, Ein Bokek, Galilee, Golan Heights, Gush Dan, Haifa, Hermon, Herzliya, Jaffa, Jerusalem, Katzrin, Metula, Mitzpe Ramon, Nahariya, Nazareth, Netanya, Petah Tikva, Ramat Gan, Ramot, Rishon LeZion, Rosh Pinna, Safed, Sea of Galilee, Tel Aviv, Tiberias, Zikhron Ya'akov, etc.

Italy: Abano Terme, Abruzzo, Agrigento, Alassio, Alberobello, Alghero, Amalfi Coast, Aosta Valley, Apulia, Arezzo, Arona, Arzachena, Asciano, Ascoli Piceno, Assisi, Asti, Bardolino, Bari, Basilicata, Baveno, Bellagio, Bellaria-Igea Marina, Benevento, Bergamo, Bologna, Bolzano, Bordighera, Bormio, Bracciano, Brescia, Breuil-Cervinia, Brindisi, Cagliari, Calabria, Campania, Canazei, Caorle, Capri, Carrara, Castelnuovo Berardenga, Castiglion Fiorentino, Castiglione d'Orcia, Castiglione del Lago, Castiglione della Pescaia, Catania, Cefalù, Cervia, Cesenatico, Chianciano Terme, Chieti, Chioggia, Cinque Terre, Città della Pieve, Civitavecchia, Cortina d'Ampezzo, Cortona, Costa Smeralda, Courmayeur, Desenzano del Garda, Dolomites, Elba, Emilia-Romagna, Ercolano, Fasano, Fassa Valley, Ferrara, Finale Ligure, Fiumicino, Florence, Forte dei Marmi, Gaeta, Gallipoli, Genoa, Golfo Aranci, Greve in Chianti, Grosseto, Gubbio, Herculaneum, Imperia, Ischia, Italian Alps, Jesolo, L'Aquila, La Spezia, Lake Como, Lake Garda, Lake Maggiore, Lampedusa, Lazio, Lazise, Lecco, Lerici, Lido di Jesolo, Lignano Sabbiadoro, Liguria, Livigno, Livorno, Lombardy, Lucca, Madonna di Campiglio, Malcesine, Manarola, Mantua, Maratea, Massa, Matera, Menaggio, Merano, Messina, Mestre, Milan, Milazzo, Monopoli, Montalcino, Montecatini Terme, Montepulciano, Monterosso al Mare, Monza, Naples, Nardò, Novara, Olbia, Ortisei, Ostuni, Otranto, Padua, Palermo, Parma, Perugia, Pescara, Peschici, Peschiera del Garda, Piacenza, Piedmont, Pienza, Pisa, Pistoia, Pitigliano, Polignano a Mare, Pompeii, Porto Cervo, Porto Cesareo, Portoferraio, Portofino, Positano, Prato, Ragusa, Rapallo, Rapolano Terme, Ravenna, Riccione, Rimini, Riomaggiore, Riva del Garda, Rome, Salerno, San Casciano dei Bagni, San Gimignano, Sanremo, Sardinia, Savona, Sestriere, Sicily, Siena, Sinalunga, Siracusa, Sirmione, Sorrento, Sottomarina, Sperlonga, Stresa, Sëlva, Taormina, Taranto, Terracina, Tivoli, Torrita di Siena, Trani, Trapani, Trentino-Alto Adige, Trento, Treviso, Trieste, Tropea, Turin, Tuscany, Umbria, Urbino, Val Gardena, Veneto, Venice, Ventimiglia, Verbania, Vernazza, Verona, Vesuvius, Viareggio, Vicenza, Vieste, Viterbo, etc.

Ivory Coast: Abidjan, Assinie-Mafia, Bouaké, San-Pédro, Yamoussoukro, etc.

Jamaica: Kingston, Montego Bay, Negril, Ocho Rios, Port Antonio, Runaway Bay, etc.

Japan: Atami, Fujisawa, Fukuoka, Furano, Hakodate, Hakone, Hakuba, Hamamatsu, Hiroshima, Hokkaido, Ishigaki, Itō, Kagoshima, Kanagawa, Kanazawa, Karuizawa, Kawasaki, Kobe, Kutchan, Kyoto, Lake Suwa, Matsumoto, Miyakojima, Nagasaki, Nagoya, Naha, Nanjō, Nikkō, Okinawa, Onna, Osaka, Sapporo, Sendai, Shizuoka, Takayama, Tokyo, Yokohama, etc.

Jordan: Amman, Aqaba, Irbid, Jerash, Madaba, Petra, Sweimeh, Wadi Musa, Wadi Rum, Zarqa, etc.

Kazakhstan: Aktau, Aktobe, Almaty, Astana, Atyrau, Burabay, Karagandy, Kokshetau, Kostanay, Lake Balkhash, Oskemen, Pavlodar, Semey, Shymbulak, Shymkent, Taraz, etc.

Kenya: Kisumu, Lake Victoria, Masai Mara, Mombasa, Nairobi, Ukunda, etc.

Kiribati: South Tarawa, etc.

Kongo: Brazzaville, Pointe-Noire, etc.

Kosovo: Pristina, Prizren, etc.

Kuwait: Hawally, Kuwait City, Salmiya, etc.

Kyrgyzstan: Bishkek, Bosteri, Cholpon-Ata, Issyk Kul, Karakol, Osh, etc.

Laos: Luang Prabang, Vang Vieng, Vientiane, etc.

Latvia: Cēsis, Daugavpils, Jelgava, Jūrmala, Liepāja, Riga, Rēzekne, Sigulda, Ventspils, etc.

Lebanon: Baalbeck, Beirut, Byblos, Faraya, Jounieh, Mzaar Kfardebian, Tripoli, etc.

Lesotho: Maseru, etc.

Liberia: Monrovia, etc.

Libya: Benghazi, Tripoli, etc.

Liechtenstein: Schaan, Vaduz, etc.

Lithuania: Druskininkai, Kaunas, Klaipėda, Nida, Palanga, Panevėžys, Trakai, Vilnius, Šiauliai, Šventoji, etc.

Luxembourg: Differdange, Dudelange, Echternach, Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg City, Vianden, etc.

Macau:, etc.

Macedonia: Bitola, Mavrovo, Ohrid, Skopje, etc.

Madagascar: Antananarivo, etc.

Malawi: Blantyre, Lilongwe, etc.

Malaysia: Borneo, George Town, Ipoh, Johor Bahru, Johor, Kedah, Kota Bharu, Kota Kinabalu, Kuah, Kuala Lumpur, Kuala Terengganu, Kuantan, Kuching, Langkawi, Malacca, Penang, Putrajaya, Sabah, Sarawak, Selangor, Shah Alam, etc.

Maldives: Kaafu Atoll, Malé, etc.

Mali: Bamako, etc.

Malta: Birżebbuġa, Buġibba, Gozo, Gżira, Mellieħa, Paceville, Pembroke, Qawra, Sliema, St. Julian's, St. Paul's Bay, Valletta, etc.

Martinique: Fort-de-France, Les Trois-Îlets, Sainte-Luce, etc.

Mauritania: Mérida, Nouakchott, Puerto Escondido, Puerto Peñasco, etc.

Mauritius: Port Louis, etc.

Mexico: Acapulco, Akumal, Cabo San Lucas, Cancún, Chetumal, Chichen Itza, Chihuahua, Ciudad Juárez, Cozumel, Cuernavaca, Guadalajara, Guanajuato, Isla Mujeres, Los Cabos, Manzanillo, Mazatlán, Monterrey, Oaxaca, Playa del Carmen, Puebla, Puerto Aventuras, Puerto Morelos, Puerto Vallarta, Querétaro, Riviera Maya, San Cristóbal de las Casas, San Miguel de Allende, San Miguel de Cozumel, Tijuana, Tulum, etc.

Micronesia:, etc.

Moldova: Bălți, Chișinău, Tiraspol, etc.

Monaco: Monte Carlo, etc.

Mongolia: Darkhan, Erdenet, Ulaanbaatar, etc.

Montenegro: Bar, Bečići, Bijela, Budva, Cetinje, Dobra Voda, Dobrota, Herceg Novi, Igalo, Kolašin, Kotor, Miločer, Nikšić, Perast, Petrovac, Podgorica, Prčanj, Sutomore, Sveti Stefan, Tivat, Ulcinj, Žabljak, etc.

Montserrat: Plymouth, etc.

Morocco: Agadir, Asilah, Casablanca, Chefchaouen, El Jadida, Essaouira, Fez, Marrakesh, Meknes, Merzouga, Mohammedia, Nador, Ouarzazate, Rabat, Tangier, Taroudant, Tinghir, Tétouan, etc.

Mozambique: Maputo, etc.

Myanmar: Mandalay, Naypyidaw, Nyaung Shwe, Yangon, etc.

Namibia: Rundu, Swakopmund, Walvis Bay, Windhoek, etc.

Nepal: Chitwan, Himalayas, Kathmandu, Lukla, Lumbini, Mount Everest, Nagarkot, Namche Bazaar, Patan, Pokhara, Tengboche, etc.

Netherlands: 's-Hertogenbosch, Alkmaar, Amersfoort, Amsterdam, Arnhem, Breda, Delft, Domburg, Dordrecht, Eindhoven, Groningen, Haarlem, Leiden, Maastricht, Nijmegen, Noordwijk, Rotterdam, Texel, The Hague, Utrecht, Valkenburg aan de Geul, Wijk aan Zee, Zandvoort, etc.

New Zealand: Auckland, Christchurch, Dunedin, Gisborne, Hamilton, Hastings, Invercargill, Kaikoura, Lower Hutt, Napier, Nelson, New Plymouth, North Island, Palmerston North, Porirua, Queenstown, Rotorua, South Island, Taupo, Tauranga, Waiheke Island, Wanaka, Wellington, Whangarei, etc.

Nicaragua: Granada, Managua, etc.

Nigeria: Abuja, Benin City, Calabar, Enugu, Ibadan, Ilorin, Jos, Kaduna, Lagos, Owerri, Port Harcourt, Uyo, etc.

North Korea: Pyongyang, etc.

Northern Mariana Islands: Saipan, etc.

Norway: Beitostølen, Bergen, Bodø, Gardermoen, Geilo, Geirangerfjord, Hardangerfjord, Hemsedal, Kirkenes, Kristiansand, Larvik, Lillehammer, Lofoten, Narvik, Nordland, Oslo, Sognefjord, Stavanger, Stryn, Svalbard, Tromsø, Trondheim, Ålesund, etc.

Oman: Muscat, Nizwa, Salalah, Seeb, etc.

Pakistan: Bhurban, Faisalabad, Islamabad, Karachi, Lahore, Peshawar, Rawalpindi, etc.

Palau: Koror, Peleliu, etc.

Palestine: Beit Sahour, Bethlehem, Hebron, Jenin, Jericho, Nablus, Ramallah, etc.

Panama: Bocas del Toro, etc.

Papua New Guinea: Port Moresby, etc.

Paraguay: Asunción, Ciudad Del Este, Encarnación, Panama City, etc.

Peru: Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Chiclayo, Cusco, Huancayo, Huanchaco, Huaraz, Ica, Iquitos, Lima, Machu Picchu, Máncora, Nazca, Ollantaytambo, Paracas, Pisco, Piura, Puerto Maldonado, Puno, Tacna, Tarapoto, Trujillo, Urubamba, etc.

Philippines: Angeles City, Antipolo, Bacolod, Bacoor, Baguio, Batangas, Bohol, Boracay, Cagayan de Oro, Calamba, Caloocan, Cebu, Coron, Dasmariñas, Davao, Dumaguete, El Nido, General Santos, Iloilo City, Kalibo, Lapu-Lapu City, Las Piñas, Luzon, Mactan, Makati, Mandaue, Manila, Marikina, Mindanao, Muntinlupa, Olongapo, Palawan, Panglao, Parañaque, Pasay, Pasig, Puerto Galera, Puerto Princesa, Quezon City, Tagaytay, Tagbilaran, Taguig, Valenzuela, Visayas, Zamboanga, etc.

Poland: Białka Tatrzańska, Białowieża Forest, Białystok, Bielsko-Biała, Bukowina Tatrzańska, Bydgoszcz, Elbląg, Gdańsk, Gdynia, Giżycko, Gorzów Wielkopolski, Katowice, Kielce, Kołobrzeg, Kraków, Krynica Morska, Krynica-Zdrój, Lublin, Malbork, Mikołajki, Mrągowo, Olsztyn, Opole, Oświęcim, Poznań, Rzeszów, Sopot, Szczecin, Słubice, Tarnów, Toruń, Tricity, Warsaw, Wrocław, Zakopane, Zielona Góra, Łódź, Świnoujście, etc.

Portugal: Albufeira, Algarve, Aljezur, Almancil, Armação de Pêra, Azores, Braga, Cabanas de Tavira, Carvoeiro, Cascais, Castro Marim, Coimbra, Estoril, Faro, Funchal, Fátima, Guimarães, Lagoa, Lagos, Lisbon, Loulé, Madeira, Monte Gordo, Nazaré, Olhão, Ponta Delgada, Portimão, Porto, Praia da Luz, Quarteira, Sesimbra, Silves, Sintra, Tavira, Vila Real de Santo António, Vila do Bispo, Vilamoura, Évora, etc.

Puerto Rico: Bayamón, Caguas, Carolina, Ponce, San Juan, Vieques, etc.

Qatar: Doha, etc.

Romania: Bran, Brașov, Bucharest, Cluj-Napoca, Constanța, Poiana Brașov, Sibiu, Sighișoara, Timișoara, Transylvania, etc.

Russia: Abakan, Abrau-Dyurso, Abzakovo, Adler, Altai Republic, Alupka, Alushta, Anadyr, Anapa, Angarsk, Arkhangelsk, Arkhipo Osipovka, Arkhyz, Armavir, Astrakhan, Bakhchysarai, Balaklava, Balakovo, Balashikha, Baltic Sea, Barnaul, Belgorod, Belokurikha, Biysk, Black Sea, Blagoveshchensk, Bolshoy Utrish, Bratsk, Bryansk, Caucasian Mineral Waters, Cheboksary, Chelyabinsk, Cherepovets, Cherkessk, Chita, Chornomorske, Crimea, Curonian Spit, Dagomys, Divnomorskoye, Dombay, Domodedovo, Dzerzhinsk, Dzhankhot, Dzhemete, Dzhubga, Elektrostal, Elista, Engels, Estosadok, Feodosia, Foros, Gaspra, Gatchina, Gelendzhik, Golden Ring, Golubitskaya, Gorky Gorod, Gornaya Karusel, Gorno-Altaysk, Goryachy Klyuch, Grozny, Gurzuf, Irkutsk, Ivanovo, Izhevsk, Kabardinka, Kaliningrad, Kaluga, Kamchatka, Kamensk-Uralsky, Karelia, Kazan, Kemerovo, Kerch, Khabarovsk, Khanty-Mansiysk, Khibiny, Khimki, Khosta, Kirov, Kirovsk, Kislovodsk, Kizhi, Koktebel, Kolomna, Komsomolsk on Amur, Konakovo, Koreiz, Korolev, Kostroma, Krasnaya Polyana, Krasnodar Krai, Krasnodar, Krasnogorsk, Krasnoyarsk, Kudepsta, Kurgan, Kursk, Kyzyl, Lake Baikal, Lake Seliger, Lazarevskoye, Lipetsk, Listvyanka, Loo, Lyubertsy, Magadan, Magnitogorsk, Makhachkala, Massandra, Matsesta, Maykop, Miass, Mineralnye Vody, Moscow, Mount Elbrus, Murmansk, Murom, Mytishchi, Naberezhnye Chelny, Nakhodka, Nalchik, Naryan-Mar, Nebug, Nizhnekamsk, Nizhnevartovsk, Nizhny Novgorod, Nizhny Tagil, Norilsk, Novokuznetsk, Novorossiysk, Novosibirsk, Novyi Svit, Novyy Urengoy, Obninsk, Odintsovo, Olginka, Omsk, Orenburg, Orsk, Oryol, Partenit, Penza, Pereslavl Zalessky, Perm, Pervouralsk, Petergof, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, Petrozavodsk, Plyos, Podolsk, Popovka, Primorsko-Akhtarsk, Pskov, Pulkovo, Pushkin, Pushkino, Pyatigorsk, Repino, Rosa Khutor, Rostov-on-Don, Ryazan, Rybachye, Rybinsk, Saint Petersburg, Sakhalin, Saky, Salekhard, Samara, Saransk, Saratov, Sea of Azov, Sergiyev Posad, Serpukhov, Sestroretsk, Sevastopol, Shakhty, Sheregesh, Sheremetyevo, Siberia, Simeiz, Simferopol, Smolensk, Sochi, Solovetsky Islands, Sortavala, Stary Oskol, Stavropol, Sterlitamak, Sudak, Sukko, Surgut, Suzdal, Svetlogorsk, Syktyvkar, Syzran, Taganrog, Taman, Tambov, Tarusa, Temryuk, Terskol, Tobolsk, Tolyatti, Tomsk, Torzhok, Tuapse, Tula, Tver, Tyumen, Ufa, Uglich, Ukhta, Ulan-Ude, Ulyanovsk, Usinsk, Ussuriysk, Utes, Valaam, Valday, Vardane, Velikiye Luki, Veliky Novgorod, Veliky Ustyug, Vityazevo, Vladikavkaz, Vladimir, Vladivostok, Vnukovo International Airport, Volga, Volgograd, Vologda, Volzhskiy, Vorkuta, Voronezh, Vyborg, Yakhroma, Yakornaya Shchel, Yakutsk, Yalta, Yaroslavl, Yekaterinburg, Yelets, Yenisei, Yessentuki, Yevpatoria, Yeysk, Yoshkar-Ola, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, Zavidovo, Zelenogradsk, Zheleznovodsk, Zhukovsky, Zvenigorod, etc.

Rwanda: Butare, Gisenyi, Kibuye, Kigali, etc.

Réunion: Saint-Denis, etc.

Saint Barthélemy: Gustavia, etc.

Saint Kitts and Nevis: Basseterre, etc.

Saint Lucia: Anse La Raye, Castries, Gros Islet, Soufrière, etc.

Saint Martin:, etc.

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines: Kingstown, etc.

Samoa: Apia, etc.

San Marino: City of San Marino, etc.

Saudi Arabia: Abha, Al Khobar, Buraydah, Dammam, Jeddah, Jizan, Jubail, Mecca, Medina, Riyadh, Ta'if, Tabuk, Yanbu, etc.

Senegal: Dakar, etc.

Serbia: Belgrade, Kopaonik, Niš, Novi Sad, Palić, Stara Planina, Subotica, Zlatibor, etc.

Seychelles: La Digue, Mahé, Praslin, etc.

Sierra Leone: Freetown, etc.

Singapore: Changi, Sentosa, etc.

Sint Maarten:, etc.

Slovakia: Bratislava, Jasná, Liptov, Tatranská Lomnica, Vysoké Tatry, Štrbské Pleso, etc.

Slovenia: Bled, Bohinj, Bovec, Kranjska Gora, Ljubljana, Maribor, Piran, Portorož, Rogaška Slatina, etc.

Solomon Islands: Honiara, etc.

Somalia: Mogadishu, etc.

Somaliland: Hargeisa, etc.

South Africa: Ballito, Benoni, Bloemfontein, Boksburg, Cape Town, Drakensberg, Durban, East London, George, Johannesburg, Kempton Park, Kimberley, Knysna, Kruger National Park, Marloth Park, Mossel Bay, Nelspruit, Pietermaritzburg, Plettenberg Bay, Polokwane, Port Elizabeth, Potchefstroom, Pretoria, Rustenburg, Sandton, Stellenbosch, Umhlanga, etc.

South Korea: Busan, Daegu, Daejeon, Gangneung, Gapyeong, Gwangju, Gwangyang, Gyeongju, Incheon, Jejudo, Jeonju, Pyeongchang, Seogwipo, Seoul, Sokcho, Suwon, Ulsan, Yangyang, Yeosu, etc.

Spain: A Coruña, Alcúdia, Algeciras, Alicante, Almería, Altea, Andalusia, Antequera, Aragon, Asturias, Ayamonte, Baiona, Balearic Islands, Barbate, Barcelona, Basque Country, Benalmádena, Benidorm, Benissa, Besalú, Bilbao, Blanes, Buñol, Cadaqués, Cala d'Or, Calella, Calonge, Calp, Calvià, Cambados, Cambrils, Canary Islands, Cangas de Onís, Cantabria, Cartagena, Castilla-La Mancha, Catalonia, Chiclana de la Frontera, Costa Blanca, Costa Brava, Costa Dorada, Costa del Maresme, Costa del Sol, Cádiz, Córdoba, Dénia, El Puerto de Santa María, Empuriabrava, Estepona, Figueres, Formentera, Fuerteventura, Galicia, Gijón, Girona, Gran Canaria, Granada, Ibiza, Jerez de la Frontera, L'Escala, L'Estartit, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, La Pineda, Lanzarote, Llançà, Lleida, Lloret de Mar, Madrid, Magaluf, Malgrat de Mar, Mallorca, Marbella, Maspalomas, Menorca, Mijas, Mojácar, Moraira, Murcia, Málaga, Navarre, Nerja, O Grove, Ourense, Oviedo, Palma Nova, Palma, Pals, Poio, Pollença, Pontevedra, PortAventura, Portonovo, Ronda, Roquetas de Mar, Roses, Salamanca, Salou, San Sebastian, Sant Antoni de Portmany, Santander, Santiago de Compostela, Santillana del Mar, Sanxenxo, Seville, Sidges, Sierra Nevada, Tarifa, Tarragona, Tenerife, Toledo, Torremolinos, Torrevieja, Torroella de Montgrí, Tossa de Mar, Valencia, Vigo, Vélez-Málaga, Xàbia, Zaragoza, etc.

Sri Lanka: Anuradhapura, Bentota, Beruwala, Colombo, Dambulla, Galle, Hikkaduwa, Jaffna, Kandy, Mirissa, Negombo, Nuwara Eliya, Sigiriya, Tangalle, Trincomalee, Unawatuna, Weligama, etc.

Sudan: Khartoum, Port Sudan, etc.

Suriname: Lelydorp, Nieuw Nickerie, Paramaribo, etc.

Swaziland: Lobamba, Mbabane, etc.

Sweden: Bohuslän, Borgholm, Borlänge, Dalarna, Falkenberg, Falun, Gothenburg, Gotland, Halmstad, Helsingborg, Jönköping, Kalmar, Karlshamn, Karlskrona, Karlstad, Kiruna, Kristianstad, Linköping, Lund, Malmö, Norrköping, Solna, Stockholm, Umeå, Uppsala, Vimmerby, Visby, Västerås, Växjö, Ystad, Ängelholm, Åre, Öland, Örebro, Östersund, etc.

Switzerland: Adelboden, Andermatt, Anzère, Arosa, Ascona, Basel, Bellinzona, Bern, Crans-Montana, Davos, Engelberg, Fribourg, Geneva, Grindelwald, Grächen, Gstaad, Haute-Nendaz, Interlaken, Jungfrau, Klosters, Lake Maggiore, Lausanne, Lauterbrunnen, Leukerbad, Locarno, Lucerne, Lugano, Matterhorn, Montreux, Nendaz, Neuchâtel, Pontresina, Portes du Soleil, Saanen, Saas-Fee, Sierre, Silvaplana, Sion, St. Gallen, St. Moritz, Swiss Alps, Ticino, Valais, Verbier, Vevey, Veysonnaz, Wengen, Zermatt, Zug, Zürich, etc.

Syria: Aleppo, Damascus, Deir ez-Zor, Latakia, Palmyra, Tartus, etc.

Taiwan: Hsinchu, Kaohsiung, Taichung, Tainan, Taipei, etc.

Tajikistan: Dushanbe, Isfara, Khujand, etc.

Tanzania: Dar es Salaam, Mount Kilimanjaro, Serengeti, Zanzibar, etc.

Thailand: Ayutthaya, Bangkok, Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai, Chonburi, Hua Hin, Kanchanaburi, Karon, Khao Sok, Ko Chang, Ko Lanta, Ko Phangan, Ko Samui, Krabi, Pai, Patong, Pattaya, Phi Phi Islands, Phuket, Prachuap Khiri Khan, Ranong, River Kwai, Udon Thani, etc.

Togo: Lomé, etc.

Tonga: Nukuʻalofa, Tunis, etc.

Trinidad and Tobago: Port of Spain, etc.

Tunisia: Djerba, Hammamet, Midoun, Monastir, Port El Kantaoui, Sousse, etc.

Turkey: Adana, Alacati, Alanya, Ankara, Antakya, Antalya, Ayvalık, Beldibi, Belek, Bodrum, Bozcaada, Bursa, Büyükada, Cappadocia, Dalyan, Datça, Denizli, Didim, Edirne, Ephesus, Erzincan, Erzurum, Eskişehir, Fethiye, Gaziantep, Göreme, Göynük, Istanbul, Kalkan, Kayseri, Kaş, Kemer, Konakli, Konya, Kuşadası, Lara, Mahmutlar, Manavgat, Marmaris, Mersin, Olympos, Palandöken, Pamukkale, Prince Islands, Samsun, Sapanca, Sarıkamış, Selçuk, Side, Tarsus, Tekirova, Trabzon, Troy, Turkish Riviera, Uludağ, Van, Çamyuva, Çanakkale, Çeşme, Çıralı, Ölüdeniz, Ürgüp, İskenderun, İzmir, İçmeler, Şanlıurfa, etc.

Turkmenistan: Ashgabat, Avaza, etc.

Turks and Caicos Islands: Cockburn Town, North Caicos, Pine Cay, Providenciales, etc.

Uganda: Kampala, etc.

Ukraine: Berdiansk, Bila Tserkva, Boryspil, Bukovel, Cherkasy, Chernihiv, Chernivtsi, Dnipropetrovsk, Donetsk, Ivano-Frankivsk, Kamianets-Podilskyi, Kharkiv, Kherson, Kiev, Koblevo, Kremenchuk, Kryvyi Rih, Luhansk, Lviv, Mariupol, Melitopol, Mykolaiv, Odessa, Poltava, Slavske, Sumy, Truskavets, Uzhgorod, Vinnytsia, Yaremche, Yasinya, Zaporizhia, Zatoka, Zhytomyr, etc.

United Arab Emirates: Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Persian Gulf, Ras Al Khaimah, Sharjah, etc.

United Kingdom: Aberdeen, Bath, Belfast, Blackpool, Bournemouth, Bradford, Brighton, Bristol, Cambridge, Canterbury, Cardiff, Channel Tunnel, Cheltenham, Chester, Cornwall, Coventry, Cumbria, Derry, Devon, Dorset, Dover, Eastbourne, Edinburgh, England, English Channel, Exeter, Folkestone, Fort William, Glasgow, Hampshire, Harrogate, Inverness, Isle of Wight, Kent, Lancashire, Leeds, Leicester, Liverpool, Llandudno, London, Manchester, Mansfield, Milton Keynes, Newcastle, Newquay, Northern Ireland, Norwich, Nottingham, Oban, Oxford, Paignton, Plymouth, Portmeirion, Portsmouth, Reading, Sandown, Scarborough, Scotland, Shanklin, Sheffield, Somerset, Southampton, St Albans, Stonehenge, Sussex, Swansea, Torquay, Wales, Whitby, Windsor, York, etc.

United States: Akron, Alabama, Alaska, Albuquerque, Amarillo, Anaheim, Anchorage, Ann Arbor, Arizona, Arkansas, Arlington, Aspen, Atlanta, Aurora, Austin, Bakersfield, Baltimore, Baton Rouge, Beaver Creek, Big Bear Lake, Billings, Biloxi, Birmingham, Boca Raton, Boise, Boston, Breckenridge, Brooklyn, Buffalo, California, Carlsbad, Carmel-by-the-Sea, Chandler, Charlotte, Chesapeake, Cheyenne, Chicago, Chula Vista, Cincinnati, Clearwater, Cleveland, Colorado Springs, Colorado, Columbus Georgia, Columbus, Connecticut, Corpus Christi, Costa Mesa, Cupertino, Dallas, Dana Point, Daytona Beach, Death Valley, Delaware, Delray Beach, Denver, Des Moines, Destin, Detroit, Durham, El Paso, Estes Park, Fargo, Fayetteville, Florida, Fontana, Fort Lauderdale, Fort Myers, Fort Walton Beach, Fort Wayne, Fort Worth, Fremont, Fresno, Galveston, Garland, Georgia, Gilbert, Glendale, Grand Canyon, Grand Rapids, Grand Teton, Great Smoky Mountains, Greensboro, Gulfport, Hawaii, Henderson, Hialeah, Hollywood, Honolulu, Hot Springs, Houston, Huntington Beach, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Indianapolis, Iowa, Irving, Jackson Mississippi, Jackson Wyoming, Jacksonville, Jersey City, Juneau, Kansas City, Kansas, Kentucky, Key Largo, Key West, La Jolla, Laguna Beach, Lahaina, Lake Tahoe, Laredo, Las Vegas, Lexington, Lincoln, Little Rock, Long Beach, Los Angeles, Louisiana, Louisville, Lubbock, Madison, Maine, Malibu, Mammoth Lakes, Manhattan, Marathon, Maryland, Massachusetts, Memphis, Mesa, Mexico City, Miami Beach, Miami, Michigan, Milwaukee, Minneapolis, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Moab, Modesto, Montana, Monterey, Montgomery, Moreno Valley, Mountain View, Myrtle Beach, Napa, Naples, Nashville, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New Orleans, New York City, New York, Newark, Newport Beach, Newport, Norfolk, North Carolina, North Dakota, North Las Vegas, Oakland, Ocean City, Oceanside, Ohio, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, Omaha, Oregon, Orlando, Oxnard, Palm Coast, Palm Desert, Palm Springs, Palo Alto, Panama City Beach, Park City, Pasadena, Pennsylvania, Pensacola, Philadelphia, Phoenix, Pittsburgh, Plano, Pompano Beach, Portland, Portland, Providence, Raleigh, Reno, Rhode Island, Richmond, Riverside, Rochester, Rocky Mountains, Sacramento, Saint Paul, Salt Lake City, San Antonio, San Bernardino, San Diego, San Francisco, San Jose, Sanibel, Santa Ana, Santa Barbara, Santa Cruz, Santa Fe, Santa Monica, Sarasota, Savannah, Scottsdale, Seattle, Shreveport, Silicon Valley, South Carolina, South Dakota, South Lake Tahoe, Spokane, Springfield, Squaw Valley, St. Augustine, St. Louis, St. Petersburg, Steamboat Springs, Stockton, Sunny Isles Beach, Sunnyvale, Tacoma, Tallahassee, Tampa, Telluride, Tennessee, Texas, Thousand Oaks, Toledo, Tucson, Tulsa, Utah, Vail, Vermont, Virginia Beach, Virginia, Waikiki, Washington D.C., Washington, West Palm Beach, West Virginia, Wichita, Winston-Salem, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Yellowstone, Yonkers, Yosemite, Zion, etc.

Uruguay: Montevideo, Punta del Este, etc.

Uzbekistan: Bukhara, Fergana, Khiva, Kokand, Navoiy, Samarkand, Tashkent, Urgench, etc.

Vanuatu: Port Vila, etc.

Vatican:, etc.

Venezuela: Caracas, Isla Margarita, Maracaibo, Porlamar, etc.

Vietnam: Cần Thơ, Da Lat, Da Nang, Haiphong, Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, Huế, Hạ Long, Hội An, Long Hải, Mỹ Tho, Nha Trang, Ninh Bình, Phan Thiết, Phú Quốc, Qui Nhơn, Rạch Giá, Sa Pa, Vũng Tàu, Đồng Hới, etc.

Yemen: Aden, Sana'a, etc.

Zambia: Livingstone, Lusaka, etc.

Zimbabwe: Bulawayo, Harare, Mutare, Victoria Falls, etc.

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