Mars in natural color in 2007
||UK English: /mɑːz/
US English: /ˈmɑːrz/ ( listen)
(154800000 mi; 1.666 AU)
(128400000 mi; 1.382 AU)
(141634900 mi; 1.523679 AU)
(1.88082 yr; 7002668599100000000♠668.5991 sols)
Average orbital speed
(86430 km/h; 53700 mph)
- 6998322885911618951♠1.850° to ecliptic;
- 6998986111027376798♠5.65° the Sun's equator;
- 6998291469985083053♠1.67° to invariable plane
Longitude of ascending node
Argument of perihelion
|3389.5 ± 0.2 km
(2106.1 ± 0.1 mi)
|3396.2 ± 0.1 km
(2110.3 ± 0.1 mi; 0.533 Earths)
|3376.2 ± 0.1 km
(2097.9 ± 0.1 mi; 0.531 Earths)
(55907000 sq mi; 0.284 Earths)
(0.1421 lb/cu in)
(12.18 ft/s; 0.376 g)
Moment of inertia factor
(18100 km/h; 11250 mph)
Sidereal rotation period
24 37 22
Equatorial rotation velocity
(868.22 km/h; 539.49 mph)
|6999439648438577372♠25.19° to its orbital plane
North pole right ascension
21 10 44
North pole declination
- 0.170 geometric
- 0.25 Bond
|+1.6 to −3.0
|0.636 (0.4–0.87) kPa
|Composition by volume
- 95.97% carbon dioxide
- 1.93% argon
- 1.89% nitrogen
- 0.146% oxygen
- 0.0557% carbon monoxide
Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury. In English, Mars carries a name of the Roman god of war, and is often referred to as the "Red Planet" because the reddish iron oxide prevalent on its surface gives it a reddish appearance that is distinctive among the astronomical bodies visible to the naked eye. Mars is a terrestrial planet with a thin atmosphere, having surface features reminiscent both of the impact craters of the Moon and the valleys, deserts, and polar ice caps of Earth.
The rotational period and seasonal cycles of Mars are likewise similar to those of Earth, as is the tilt that produces the seasons. Mars is the site of Olympus Mons, the largest volcano and second-highest known mountain in the Solar System, and of Valles Marineris, one of the largest canyons in the Solar System. The smooth Borealis basin in the northern hemisphere covers 40% of the planet and may be a giant impact feature. Mars has two moons, Phobos and Deimos, which are small and irregularly shaped. These may be captured asteroids, similar to 5261 Eureka, a Mars trojan.
There are ongoing investigations assessing the past habitability potential of Mars, as well as the possibility of extant life. Future astrobiology missions are planned, including the Mars 2020 and ExoMars rovers. Liquid water cannot exist on the surface of Mars due to low atmospheric pressure, which is less than 1% of the Earth's, except at the lowest elevations for short periods. The two polar ice caps appear to be made largely of water. The volume of water ice in the south polar ice cap, if melted, would be sufficient to cover the entire planetary surface to a depth of 11 meters (36 ft). In November 2016, NASA reported finding a large amount of underground ice in the Utopia Planitia region of Mars. The volume of water detected has been estimated to be equivalent to the volume of water in Lake Superior.
Mars can easily be seen from Earth with the naked eye, as can its reddish coloring. Its apparent magnitude reaches −2.91, which is surpassed only by Jupiter, Venus, the Moon, and the Sun. Optical ground-based telescopes are typically limited to resolving features about 300 kilometers (190 mi) across when Earth and Mars are closest because of Earth's atmosphere.
Mars: Physical characteristics
Mars is approximately half the diameter of Earth with a surface area only slightly less than the total area of Earth's dry land. Mars is less dense than Earth, having about 15% of Earth's volume and 11% of Earth's mass, resulting in about 38% of Earth's surface gravity. The red-orange appearance of the Martian surface is caused by iron(III) oxide, or rust. It can look like butterscotch; other common surface colors include golden, brown, tan, and greenish, depending on the minerals present.
Comparison: Earth and Mars
Animation (00:40) showing major features of Mars
Video (01:28) showing how three NASA orbiters mapped the gravity field of Mars
Mars: Internal structure
Like Earth, Mars has differentiated into a dense metallic core overlaid by less dense materials. Current models of its interior imply a core with a radius of about 1,794 ± 65 kilometers (1,115 ± 40 mi), consisting primarily of iron and nickel with about 16–17% sulfur. This iron(II) sulfide core is thought to be twice as rich in lighter elements as Earth's. The core is surrounded by a silicate mantle that formed many of the tectonic and volcanic features on the planet, but it appears to be dormant. Besides silicon and oxygen, the most abundant elements in the Martian crust are iron, magnesium, aluminum, calcium, and potassium. The average thickness of the planet's crust is about 50 km (31 mi), with a maximum thickness of 125 km (78 mi). Earth's crust averages 40 km (25 mi).
Mars: Surface geology
Mars is a terrestrial planet that consists of minerals containing silicon and oxygen, metals, and other elements that typically make up rock. The surface of Mars is primarily composed of tholeiitic basalt, although parts are more silica-rich than typical basalt and may be similar to andesitic rocks on Earth or silica glass. Regions of low albedo suggest concentrations of plagioclase feldspar, with northern low albedo regions displaying higher than normal concentrations of sheet silicates and high-silicon glass. Parts of the southern highlands include detectable amounts of high-calcium pyroxenes. Localized concentrations of hematite and olivine have been found. Much of the surface is deeply covered by finely grained iron(III) oxide dust.
of Mars (USGS
Although Mars has no evidence of a structured global magnetic field, observations show that parts of the planet's crust have been magnetized, suggesting that alternating polarity reversals of its dipole field have occurred in the past. This paleomagnetism of magnetically susceptible minerals is similar to the alternating bands found on Earth's ocean floors. One theory, published in 1999 and re-examined in October 2005 (with the help of the Mars Global Surveyor), is that these bands suggest plate tectonic activity on Mars four billion years ago, before the planetary dynamo ceased to function and the planet's magnetic field faded.
It is thought that, during the Solar System's formation, Mars was created as the result of a stochastic process of run-away accretion of material from the protoplanetary disk that orbited the Sun. Mars has many distinctive chemical features caused by its position in the Solar System. Elements with comparatively low boiling points, such as chlorine, phosphorus, and sulphur, are much more common on Mars than Earth; these elements were probably pushed outward by the young Sun's energetic solar wind.
After the formation of the planets, all were subjected to the so-called "Late Heavy Bombardment". About 60% of the surface of Mars shows a record of impacts from that era, whereas much of the remaining surface is probably underlain by immense impact basins caused by those events. There is evidence of an enormous impact basin in the northern hemisphere of Mars, spanning 10,600 by 8,500 km (6,600 by 5,300 mi), or roughly four times the size of the Moon's South Pole – Aitken basin, the largest impact basin yet discovered. This theory suggests that Mars was struck by a Pluto-sized body about four billion years ago. The event, thought to be the cause of the Martian hemispheric dichotomy, created the smooth Borealis basin that covers 40% of the planet.
Artist's impression of how Mars may have looked four billion years ago
The geological history of Mars can be split into many periods, but the following are the three primary periods:
- Noachian period (named after Noachis Terra): Formation of the oldest extant surfaces of Mars, 4.5 to 3.5 billion years ago. Noachian age surfaces are scarred by many large impact craters. The Tharsis bulge, a volcanic upland, is thought to have formed during this period, with extensive flooding by liquid water late in the period.
- Hesperian period (named after Hesperia Planum): 3.5 to between 3.3 and 2.9 billion years ago. The Hesperian period is marked by the formation of extensive lava plains.
- Amazonian period (named after Amazonis Planitia): between 3.3 and 2.9 billion years ago to the present. Amazonian regions have few meteorite impact craters, but are otherwise quite varied. Olympus Mons formed during this period, with lava flows elsewhere on Mars.
Geological activity is still taking place on Mars. The Athabasca Valles is home to sheet-like lava flows created about 200 Mya. Water flows in the grabens called the Cerberus Fossae occurred less than 20 Mya, indicating equally recent volcanic intrusions. On February 19, 2008, images from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter showed evidence of an avalanche from a 700-metre-high (2,300 ft) cliff.
Exposure of silica-rich dust uncovered by the Spirit
The Phoenix lander returned data showing Martian soil to be slightly alkaline and containing elements such as magnesium, sodium, potassium and chlorine. These nutrients are found in soils on Earth, and they are necessary for growth of plants. Experiments performed by the lander showed that the Martian soil has a basic pH of 7.7, and contains 0.6% of the salt perchlorate.
Streaks are common across Mars and new ones appear frequently on steep slopes of craters, troughs, and valleys. The streaks are dark at first and get lighter with age. The streaks can start in a tiny area, then spread out for hundreds of metres. They have been seen to follow the edges of boulders and other obstacles in their path. The commonly accepted theories include that they are dark underlying layers of soil revealed after avalanches of bright dust or dust devils. Several other explanations have been put forward, including those that involve water or even the growth of organisms.
Liquid water cannot exist on the surface of Mars due to low atmospheric pressure, which is less than 1% that of Earth's, except at the lowest elevations for short periods. The two polar ice caps appear to be made largely of water. The volume of water ice in the south polar ice cap, if melted, would be sufficient to cover the entire planetary surface to a depth of 11 meters (36 ft). A permafrost mantle stretches from the pole to latitudes of about 60°. Large quantities of water ice are thought to be trapped within the thick cryosphere of Mars. Radar data from Mars Express and the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter show large quantities of water ice at both poles (July 2005) and at middle latitudes (November 2008). The Phoenix lander directly sampled water ice in shallow Martian soil on July 31, 2008.
Photomicrograph by Opportunity
showing a gray hematite concretion
, nicknamed "blueberries", indicative of the past existence of liquid water
Landforms visible on Mars strongly suggest that liquid water has existed on the planet's surface. Huge linear swathes of scoured ground, known as outflow channels, cut across the surface in about 25 places. These are thought to be a record of erosion caused by the catastrophic release of water from subsurface aquifers, though some of these structures have been hypothesized to result from the action of glaciers or lava. One of the larger examples, Ma'adim Vallis is 700 km (430 mi) long, much greater than the Grand Canyon, with a width of 20 km (12 mi) and a depth of 2 km (1.2 mi) in places. It is thought to have been carved by flowing water early in Mars's history. The youngest of these channels are thought to have formed as recently as only a few million years ago. Elsewhere, particularly on the oldest areas of the Martian surface, finer-scale, dendritic networks of valleys are spread across significant proportions of the landscape. Features of these valleys and their distribution strongly imply that they were carved by runoff resulting from precipitation in early Mars history. Subsurface water flow and groundwater sapping may play important subsidiary roles in some networks, but precipitation was probably the root cause of the incision in almost all cases.
Along crater and canyon walls, there are thousands of features that appear similar to terrestrial gullies. The gullies tend to be in the highlands of the southern hemisphere and to face the Equator; all are poleward of 30° latitude. A number of authors have suggested that their formation process involves liquid water, probably from melting ice, although others have argued for formation mechanisms involving carbon dioxide frost or the movement of dry dust. No partially degraded gullies have formed by weathering and no superimposed impact craters have been observed, indicating that these are young features, possibly still active. Other geological features, such as deltas and alluvial fans preserved in craters, are further evidence for warmer, wetter conditions at an interval or intervals in earlier Mars history. Such conditions necessarily require the widespread presence of crater lakes across a large proportion of the surface, for which there is independent mineralogical, sedimentological and geomorphological evidence.
Composition of "Yellowknife Bay" rocks
. Rock veins
are higher in calcium
than "portage" soil (Curiosity
Further evidence that liquid water once existed on the surface of Mars comes from the detection of specific minerals such as hematite and goethite, both of which sometimes form in the presence of water. In 2004, Opportunity detected the mineral jarosite. This forms only in the presence of acidic water, which demonstrates that water once existed on Mars. More recent evidence for liquid water comes from the finding of the mineral gypsum on the surface by NASA's Mars rover Opportunity in December 2011. It is believed that the amount of water in the upper mantle of Mars, represented by hydroxyl ions contained within the minerals of Mars's geology, is equal to or greater than that of Earth at 50–300 parts per million of water, which is enough to cover the entire planet to a depth of 200–1,000 m (660–3,280 ft).
In 2005, radar data revealed the presence of large quantities of water ice at the poles and at mid-latitudes. The Mars rover Spirit sampled chemical compounds containing water molecules in March 2007. The Phoenix lander directly sampled water ice in shallow Martian soil on July 31, 2008.
On March 18, 2013, NASA reported evidence from instruments on the Curiosity rover of mineral hydration, likely hydrated calcium sulfate, in several rock samples including the broken fragments of "Tintina" rock and "Sutton Inlier" rock as well as in veins and nodules in other rocks like "Knorr" rock and "Wernicke" rock. Analysis using the rover's DAN instrument provided evidence of subsurface water, amounting to as much as 4% water content, down to a depth of 60 cm (24 in), during the rover's traverse from the Bradbury Landing site to the Yellowknife Bay area in the Glenelg terrain. In September 2015, NASA announced that they had found conclusive evidence of hydrated brine flows on recurring slope lineae, based on spectrometer readings of the darkened areas of slopes. These observations provided confirmation of earlier hypotheses based on timing of formation and their rate of growth, that these dark streaks resulted from water flowing in the very shallow subsurface. The streaks contain hydrated salts, perchlorates, which have water molecules in their crystal structure. The streaks flow downhill in Martian summer, when the temperature is above −23 degrees Celsius, and freeze at lower temperatures. On September 28, 2015, NASA announced the presence of briny flowing salt water on the Martian surface.
Researchers believe that much of the low northern plains of the planet were covered with an ocean hundreds of meters deep, though this remains controversial. In March 2015, scientists stated that such an ocean might have been the size of Earth's Arctic Ocean. This finding was derived from the ratio of water to deuterium in the modern Martian atmosphere compared to that ratio on Earth. The amount of Martian deuterium is eight times the amount that exists on Earth, suggesting that ancient Mars had significantly higher levels of water. Results from the Curiosity rover had previously found a high ratio of deuterium in Gale Crater, though not significantly high enough to suggest the former presence of an ocean. Other scientists caution that these results have not been confirmed, and point out that Martian climate models have not yet shown that the planet was warm enough in the past to support bodies of liquid water.
Mars: Polar caps
North polar early summer ice cap (1999)
South polar midsummer ice cap (2000)
Mars has two permanent polar ice caps. During a pole's winter, it lies in continuous darkness, chilling the surface and causing the deposition of 25–30% of the atmosphere into slabs of CO2 ice (dry ice). When the poles are again exposed to sunlight, the frozen CO2 sublimes. These seasonal actions transport large amounts of dust and water vapor, giving rise to Earth-like frost and large cirrus clouds. Clouds of water-ice were photographed by the Opportunity rover in 2004.
The caps at both poles consist primarily (70%) of water ice. Frozen carbon dioxide accumulates as a comparatively thin layer about one metre thick on the north cap in the northern winter only, whereas the south cap has a permanent dry ice cover about eight metres thick. This permanent dry ice cover at the south pole is peppered by flat floored, shallow, roughly circular pits, which repeat imaging shows are expanding by meters per year; this suggests that the permanent CO2 cover over the south pole water ice is degrading over time. The northern polar cap has a diameter of about 1,000 km (620 mi) during the northern Mars summer, and contains about 1.6 million cubic kilometres (380,000 cu mi) of ice, which, if spread evenly on the cap, would be 2 km (1.2 mi) thick. (This compares to a volume of 2.85 million cubic kilometres (680,000 cu mi) for the Greenland ice sheet.) The southern polar cap has a diameter of 350 km (220 mi) and a thickness of 3 km (1.9 mi). The total volume of ice in the south polar cap plus the adjacent layered deposits has been estimated at 1.6 million cubic km. Both polar caps show spiral troughs, which recent analysis of SHARAD ice penetrating radar has shown are a result of katabatic winds that spiral due to the Coriolis Effect.
The seasonal frosting of areas near the southern ice cap results in the formation of transparent 1-metre-thick slabs of dry ice above the ground. With the arrival of spring, sunlight warms the subsurface and pressure from subliming CO2 builds up under a slab, elevating and ultimately rupturing it. This leads to geyser-like eruptions of CO2 gas mixed with dark basaltic sand or dust. This process is rapid, observed happening in the space of a few days, weeks or months, a rate of change rather unusual in geology – especially for Mars. The gas rushing underneath a slab to the site of a geyser carves a spiderweb-like pattern of radial channels under the ice, the process being the inverted equivalent of an erosion network formed by water draining through a single plughole.
Mars: Geography and naming of surface features
-based topographic map showing highlands (red and orange) dominating the southern hemisphere of Mars, lowlands (blue) the northern. Volcanic plateaus delimit regions of the northern plains, whereas the highlands are punctuated by several large impact basins.
These new impact craters on Mars occurred sometime between 2008 and 2014, as detected from orbit
Although better remembered for mapping the Moon, Johann Heinrich Mädler and Wilhelm Beer were the first "areographers". They began by establishing that most of Mars's surface features were permanent and by more precisely determining the planet's rotation period. In 1840, Mädler combined ten years of observations and drew the first map of Mars. Rather than giving names to the various markings, Beer and Mädler simply designated them with letters; Meridian Bay (Sinus Meridiani) was thus feature "a".
Today, features on Mars are named from a variety of sources. Albedo features are named for classical mythology. Craters larger than 60 km are named for deceased scientists and writers and others who have contributed to the study of Mars. Craters smaller than 60 km are named for towns and villages of the world with populations of less than 100,000. Large valleys are named for the word "Mars" or "star" in various languages; small valleys are named for rivers.
Large albedo features retain many of the older names, but are often updated to reflect new knowledge of the nature of the features. For example, Nix Olympica (the snows of Olympus) has become Olympus Mons (Mount Olympus). The surface of Mars as seen from Earth is divided into two kinds of areas, with differing albedo. The paler plains covered with dust and sand rich in reddish iron oxides were once thought of as Martian "continents" and given names like Arabia Terra (land of Arabia) or Amazonis Planitia (Amazonian plain). The dark features were thought to be seas, hence their names Mare Erythraeum, Mare Sirenum and Aurorae Sinus. The largest dark feature seen from Earth is Syrtis Major Planum. The permanent northern polar ice cap is named Planum Boreum, whereas the southern cap is called Planum Australe.
Mars's equator is defined by its rotation, but the location of its Prime Meridian was specified, as was Earth's (at Greenwich), by choice of an arbitrary point; Mädler and Beer selected a line for their first maps of Mars in 1830. After the spacecraft Mariner 9 provided extensive imagery of Mars in 1972, a small crater (later called Airy-0), located in the Sinus Meridiani ("Middle Bay" or "Meridian Bay"), was chosen for the definition of 0.0° longitude to coincide with the original selection.
Because Mars has no oceans and hence no "sea level", a zero-elevation surface had to be selected as a reference level; this is called the areoid of Mars, analogous to the terrestrial geoid. Zero altitude was defined by the height at which there is 610.5 Pa (6.105 mbar) of atmospheric pressure. This pressure corresponds to the triple point of water, and it is about 0.6% of the sea level surface pressure on Earth (0.006 atm). In practice, today this surface is defined directly from satellite gravity measurements.
Mars: Map of quadrangles
For mapping purposes, the United States Geological Survey divides the surface of Mars into thirty "quadrangles", each named for a prominent physiographic feature within that quadrangle. The quadrangles can be seen and explored via the interactive image map below.
The thirty cartographic quadrangles
of Mars, defined by the United States Geological Survey
. The quadrangles are numbered with the prefix "MC" for "Mars Chart." Click on a quadrangle name link and you will be taken to the corresponding article. North is at the top; / 0; -180
is at the far left on the equator
. The map images were taken by the Mars Global Surveyor
[view · talk]
Mars: Impact topography
Bonneville crater and Spirit
The dichotomy of Martian topography is striking: northern plains flattened by lava flows contrast with the southern highlands, pitted and cratered by ancient impacts. Research in 2008 has presented evidence regarding a theory proposed in 1980 postulating that, four billion years ago, the northern hemisphere of Mars was struck by an object one-tenth to two-thirds the size of Earth's Moon. If validated, this would make the northern hemisphere of Mars the site of an impact crater 10,600 by 8,500 km (6,600 by 5,300 mi) in size, or roughly the area of Europe, Asia, and Australia combined, surpassing the South Pole–Aitken basin as the largest impact crater in the Solar System.
impact on Mars at / 3.34; 219.38
. These before and after images of the same site were taken on the Martian afternoons of March 27 and 28, 2012 respectively (MRO
Mars is scarred by a number of impact craters: a total of 43,000 craters with a diameter of 5 km (3.1 mi) or greater have been found. The largest confirmed of these is the Hellas impact basin, a light albedo feature clearly visible from Earth. Due to the smaller mass of Mars, the probability of an object colliding with the planet is about half that of Earth. Mars is located closer to the asteroid belt, so it has an increased chance of being struck by materials from that source. Mars is more likely to be struck by short-period comets, i.e., those that lie within the orbit of Jupiter. In spite of this, there are far fewer craters on Mars compared with the Moon, because the atmosphere of Mars provides protection against small meteors and surface modifying processes have erased some craters.
Martian craters can have a morphology that suggests the ground became wet after the meteor impacted.
image of Olympus Mons
. The volcano and related terrain are approximately 550 km (340 mi) across.
The shield volcano Olympus Mons (Mount Olympus) is an extinct volcano in the vast upland region Tharsis, which contains several other large volcanoes. Olympus Mons is roughly three times the height of Mount Everest, which in comparison stands at just over 8.8 km (5.5 mi). It is either the tallest or second-tallest mountain in the Solar System, depending on how it is measured, with various sources giving figures ranging from about 21 to 27 km (13 to 17 mi) high.
Mars: Tectonic sites
(2001 Mars Odyssey
The large canyon, Valles Marineris (Latin for "Mariner Valleys", also known as Agathadaemon in the old canal maps), has a length of 4,000 km (2,500 mi) and a depth of up to 7 km (4.3 mi). The length of Valles Marineris is equivalent to the length of Europe and extends across one-fifth the circumference of Mars. By comparison, the Grand Canyon on Earth is only 446 km (277 mi) long and nearly 2 km (1.2 mi) deep. Valles Marineris was formed due to the swelling of the Tharsis area, which caused the crust in the area of Valles Marineris to collapse. In 2012, it was proposed that Valles Marineris is not just a graben, but a plate boundary where 150 km (93 mi) of transverse motion has occurred, making Mars a planet with possibly a two-tectonic plate arrangement.
Images from the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) aboard NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter have revealed seven possible cave entrances on the flanks of the volcano Arsia Mons. The caves, named after loved ones of their discoverers, are collectively known as the "seven sisters". Cave entrances measure from 100 to 252 m (328 to 827 ft) wide and they are estimated to be at least 73 to 96 m (240 to 315 ft) deep. Because light does not reach the floor of most of the caves, it is possible that they extend much deeper than these lower estimates and widen below the surface. "Dena" is the only exception; its floor is visible and was measured to be 130 m (430 ft) deep. The interiors of these caverns may be protected from micrometeoroids, UV radiation, solar flares and high energy particles that bombard the planet's surface.
The tenuous atmosphere of Mars
visible on the horizon
Mars lost its magnetosphere 4 billion years ago, possibly because of numerous asteroid strikes, so the solar wind interacts directly with the Martian ionosphere, lowering the atmospheric density by stripping away atoms from the outer layer. Both Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Express have detected ionised atmospheric particles trailing off into space behind Mars, and this atmospheric loss is being studied by the MAVEN orbiter. Compared to Earth, the atmosphere of Mars is quite rarefied. Atmospheric pressure on the surface today ranges from a low of 30 Pa (0.030 kPa) on Olympus Mons to over 1,155 Pa (1.155 kPa) in Hellas Planitia, with a mean pressure at the surface level of 600 Pa (0.60 kPa). The highest atmospheric density on Mars is equal to that found 35 km (22 mi) above Earth's surface. The resulting mean surface pressure is only 0.6% of that of Earth (101.3 kPa). The scale height of the atmosphere is about 10.8 km (6.7 mi), which is higher than Earth's, 6 km (3.7 mi), because the surface gravity of Mars is only about 38% of Earth's, an effect offset by both the lower temperature and 50% higher average molecular weight of the atmosphere of Mars.
The atmosphere of Mars consists of about 96% carbon dioxide, 1.93% argon and 1.89% nitrogen along with traces of oxygen and water. The atmosphere is quite dusty, containing particulates about 1.5 µm in diameter which give the Martian sky a tawny color when seen from the surface. It may take on a pink hue due to iron oxide particles suspended in it.
Potential sources and sinks of methane
) on Mars
Methane has been detected in the Martian atmosphere with a concentration of about 30 ppb; it occurs in extended plumes, and the profiles imply that the methane was released from discrete regions. In northern midsummer, the principal plume contained 19,000 metric tons of methane, with an estimated source strength of 0.6 kilograms per second. The profiles suggest that there may be two local source regions, the first centered near / 30; -260 and the second near / 0; -310. It is estimated that Mars must produce 270 tonnes per year of methane.
Methane can exist in the Martian atmosphere for only a limited period before it is destroyed-estimates of its lifetime range from 0.6–4 years. Its presence despite this short lifetime indicates that an active source of the gas must be present. Volcanic activity, cometary impacts, and the presence of methanogenic microbial life forms are among possible sources. Methane could be produced by a non-biological process called serpentinization involving water, carbon dioxide, and the mineral olivine, which is known to be common on Mars.
on Mars (carbon
, and hydrogen
) by MAVEN
The Curiosity rover, which landed on Mars in August 2012, is able to make measurements that distinguish between different isotopologues of methane, but even if the mission is to determine that microscopic Martian life is the source of the methane, the life forms likely reside far below the surface, outside of the rover's reach. The first measurements with the Tunable Laser Spectrometer (TLS) indicated that there is less than 5 ppb of methane at the landing site at the point of the measurement. On September 19, 2013, NASA scientists, from further measurements by Curiosity, reported no detection of atmospheric methane with a measured value of 6999180000000000000♠0.18±0.67 ppbv corresponding to an upper limit of only 1.3 ppbv (95% confidence limit) and, as a result, conclude that the probability of current methanogenic microbial activity on Mars is reduced.
The Mars Orbiter Mission by India is searching for methane in the atmosphere, while the ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter, launched in 2016, would further study the methane as well as its decomposition products, such as formaldehyde and methanol.
On December 16, 2014, NASA reported the Curiosity rover detected a "tenfold spike", likely localized, in the amount of methane in the Martian atmosphere. Sample measurements taken "a dozen times over 20 months" showed increases in late 2013 and early 2014, averaging "7 parts of methane per billion in the atmosphere." Before and after that, readings averaged around one-tenth that level.
Ammonia was tentatively detected on Mars by the Mars Express satellite, but with its relatively short lifetime, it is not clear what produced it. Ammonia is not stable in the Martian atmosphere and breaks down after a few hours. One possible source is volcanic activity.
In September 2017, NASA reported radiation levels on the surface of the planet Mars were temporarily doubled, and were associated with an aurora 25 times brighter than any observed earlier, due to a massive, and unexpected, solar storm in the middle of the month.
In 1994, the European Space Agency's Mars Express found an ultraviolet glow coming from "magnetic umbrellas" in the southern hemisphere. Mars does not have a global magnetic field which guides charged particles entering the atmosphere. Mars has multiple umbrella-shaped magnetic fields mainly in the southern hemisphere, which are remnants of a global field that decayed billions of years ago.
In late December 2014, NASA's MAVEN spacecraft detected evidence of widespread auroras in Mars's northern hemisphere and descended to approximately 20–30 degrees North latitude of Mars's equator. The particles causing the aurora penetrated into the Martian atmosphere, creating auroras below 100 km above the surface, Earth's auroras range from 100 km to 500 km above the surface. Magnetic fields in the solar wind drape over Mars, into the atmosphere, and the charged particles follow the solar wind magnetic field lines into the atmosphere, causing auroras to occur outside the magnetic umbrellas.
On March 18, 2015, NASA reported the detection of an aurora that is not fully understood and an unexplained dust cloud in the atmosphere of Mars.
Dust storm on Mars
Opportunity and Curiosity rovers are noted.
Of all the planets in the Solar System, the seasons of Mars are the most Earth-like, due to the similar tilts of the two planets' rotational axes. The lengths of the Martian seasons are about twice those of Earth's because Mars's greater distance from the Sun leads to the Martian year being about two Earth years long. Martian surface temperatures vary from lows of about −143 °C (−225 °F) at the winter polar caps to highs of up to 35 °C (95 °F) in equatorial summer. The wide range in temperatures is due to the thin atmosphere which cannot store much solar heat, the low atmospheric pressure, and the low thermal inertia of Martian soil. The planet is 1.52 times as far from the Sun as Earth, resulting in just 43% of the amount of sunlight.
If Mars had an Earth-like orbit, its seasons would be similar to Earth's because its axial tilt is similar to Earth's. The comparatively large eccentricity of the Martian orbit has a significant effect. Mars is near perihelion when it is summer in the southern hemisphere and winter in the north, and near aphelion when it is winter in the southern hemisphere and summer in the north. As a result, the seasons in the southern hemisphere are more extreme and the seasons in the northern are milder than would otherwise be the case. The summer temperatures in the south can be warmer than the equivalent summer temperatures in the north by up to 30 °C (54 °F).
Mars has the largest dust storms in the Solar System, reaching speeds of over 160 km/h (100 mph). These can vary from a storm over a small area, to gigantic storms that cover the entire planet. They tend to occur when Mars is closest to the Sun, and have been shown to increase the global temperature.
Mars: Orbit and rotation
Mars is about 230 million kilometres (143,000,000 mi) from the Sun; its orbital period is 687 (Earth) days, depicted in red. Earth's orbit is in blue.
Mars's average distance from the Sun is roughly 230 million kilometres (143,000,000 mi), and its orbital period is 687 (Earth) days. The solar day (or sol) on Mars is only slightly longer than an Earth day: 24 hours, 39 minutes, and 35.244 seconds. A Martian year is equal to 1.8809 Earth years, or 1 year, 320 days, and 18.2 hours.
The axial tilt of Mars is 25.19 degrees relative to its orbital plane, which is similar to the axial tilt of Earth. As a result, Mars has seasons like Earth, though on Mars, they are nearly twice as long because its orbital period is that much longer. In the present day epoch, the orientation of the north pole of Mars is close to the star Deneb. Mars passed an aphelion in March 2010 and its perihelion in March 2011. The next aphelion came in February 2012 and the next perihelion came in January 2013.
Mars has a relatively pronounced orbital eccentricity of about 0.09; of the seven other planets in the Solar System, only Mercury has a larger orbital eccentricity. It is known that in the past, Mars has had a much more circular orbit. At one point, 1.35 million Earth years ago, Mars had an eccentricity of roughly 0.002, much less than that of Earth today. Mars's cycle of eccentricity is 96,000 Earth years compared to Earth's cycle of 100,000 years. Mars has a much longer cycle of eccentricity, with a period of 2.2 million Earth years, and this overshadows the 96,000-year cycle in the eccentricity graphs. For the last 35,000 years, the orbit of Mars has been getting slightly more eccentric because of the gravitational effects of the other planets. The closest distance between Earth and Mars will continue to mildly decrease for the next 25,000 years.
Mars: Habitability and search for life
Mars: Search for life
Viking 1 lander's sampling arm scooped up soil samples for tests (Chryse Planitia
The current understanding of planetary habitability-the ability of a world to develop environmental conditions favorable to the emergence of life-favors planets that have liquid water on their surface. Most often this requires the orbit of a planet to lie within the habitable zone, which for the Sun extends from just beyond Venus to about the semi-major axis of Mars. During perihelion, Mars dips inside this region, but Mars's thin (low-pressure) atmosphere prevents liquid water from existing over large regions for extended periods. The past flow of liquid water demonstrates the planet's potential for habitability. Recent evidence has suggested that any water on the Martian surface may have been too salty and acidic to support regular terrestrial life.
Detection of impact glass
deposits (green spots) at Alga crater
, a possible site for preserved ancient life
This image from Gale crater in 2018 prompted speculation that some shapes were worm-like fossils, but they were geological formations probably formed under water.
The lack of a magnetosphere and the extremely thin atmosphere of Mars are a challenge: the planet has little heat transfer across its surface, poor insulation against bombardment of the solar wind and insufficient atmospheric pressure to retain water in a liquid form (water instead sublimes to a gaseous state). Mars is nearly, or perhaps totally, geologically dead; the end of volcanic activity has apparently stopped the recycling of chemicals and minerals between the surface and interior of the planet.
In situ investigations have been performed on Mars by the Viking landers, Spirit and Opportunity rovers, Phoenix lander, and Curiosity rover. Evidence suggests that the planet was once significantly more habitable than it is today, but whether living organisms ever existed there remains unknown. The Viking probes of the mid-1970s carried experiments designed to detect microorganisms in Martian soil at their respective landing sites and had positive results, including a temporary increase of CO
2 production on exposure to water and nutrients. This sign of life was later disputed by scientists, resulting in a continuing debate, with NASA scientist Gilbert Levin asserting that Viking may have found life. A re-analysis of the Viking data, in light of modern knowledge of extremophile forms of life, has suggested that the Viking tests were not sophisticated enough to detect these forms of life. The tests could even have killed a (hypothetical) life form. Tests conducted by the Phoenix Mars lander have shown that the soil has a alkaline pH and it contains magnesium, sodium, potassium and chloride. The soil nutrients may be able to support life, but life would still have to be shielded from the intense ultraviolet light. A recent analysis of martian meteorite EETA79001 found 0.6 ppm ClO−
4, 1.4 ppm ClO−
3, and 16 ppm NO−
3, most likely of Martian origin. The ClO−
3 suggests the presence of other highly oxidizing oxychlorines, such as ClO−
2 or ClO, produced both by UV oxidation of Cl and X-ray radiolysis of ClO−
4. Thus, only highly refractory and/or well-protected (sub-surface) organics or life forms are likely to survive.
A 2014 analysis of the Phoenix WCL showed that the Ca(ClO
2 in the Phoenix soil has not interacted with liquid water of any form, perhaps for as long as 600 Myr. If it had, the highly soluble Ca(ClO
2 in contact with liquid water would have formed only CaSO
4. This suggests a severely arid environment, with minimal or no liquid water interaction.
Scientists have proposed that carbonate globules found in meteorite ALH84001, which is thought to have originated from Mars, could be fossilized microbes extant on Mars when the meteorite was blasted from the Martian surface by a meteor strike some 15 million years ago. This proposal has been met with skepticism, and an exclusively inorganic origin for the shapes has been proposed.
Small quantities of methane and formaldehyde detected by Mars orbiters are both claimed to be possible evidence for life, as these chemical compounds would quickly break down in the Martian atmosphere. Alternatively, these compounds may instead be replenished by volcanic or other geological means, such as serpentinization.
Impact glass, formed by the impact of meteors, which on Earth can preserve signs of life, has been found on the surface of the impact craters on Mars. Likewise, the glass in impact craters on Mars could have preserved signs of life if life existed at the site.
In May 2017, evidence of the earliest known life on land on Earth may have been found in 3.48-billion-year-old geyserite and other related mineral deposits (often found around hot springs and geysers) uncovered in the Pilbara Craton of Western Australia. These findings may be helpful in deciding where best to search for early signs of life on the planet Mars.
In early 2018, media reports speculated that certain rock features at a site called Jura looked like a type of fossil, but project scientists say the formations likely resulted from a geological process at the bottom of an ancient drying lakebed, and are related to mineral veins in the area similar to gypsum crystals.
Enhanced-color HiRISE image of Phobos, showing a series of mostly parallel grooves and crater chains, with Stickney crater at right
Enhanced-color HiRISE image of Deimos (not to scale), showing its smooth blanket of regolith
Mars has two relatively small (compared to Earth's) natural moons, Phobos (about 22 km (14 mi) in diameter) and Deimos (about 12 km (7.5 mi) in diameter), which orbit close to the planet. Asteroid capture is a long-favored theory, but their origin remains uncertain. Both satellites were discovered in 1877 by Asaph Hall; they are named after the characters Phobos (panic/fear) and Deimos (terror/dread), who, in Greek mythology, accompanied their father Ares, god of war, into battle. Mars was the Roman counterpart of Ares. In modern Greek, though, the planet retains its ancient name Ares (Aris: Άρης).
From the surface of Mars, the motions of Phobos and Deimos appear different from that of the Moon. Phobos rises in the west, sets in the east, and rises again in just 11 hours. Deimos, being only just outside synchronous orbit – where the orbital period would match the planet's period of rotation – rises as expected in the east but slowly. Despite the 30-hour orbit of Deimos, 2.7 days elapse between its rise and set for an equatorial observer, as it slowly falls behind the rotation of Mars.
Orbits of Phobos and Deimos (to scale)
Because the orbit of Phobos is below synchronous altitude, the tidal forces from the planet Mars are gradually lowering its orbit. In about 50 million years, it could either crash into Mars's surface or break up into a ring structure around the planet.
The origin of the two moons is not well understood. Their low albedo and carbonaceous chondrite composition have been regarded as similar to asteroids, supporting the capture theory. The unstable orbit of Phobos would seem to point towards a relatively recent capture. But both have circular orbits, near the equator, which is unusual for captured objects and the required capture dynamics are complex. Accretion early in the history of Mars is plausible, but would not account for a composition resembling asteroids rather than Mars itself, if that is confirmed.
A third possibility is the involvement of a third body or a type of impact disruption. More-recent lines of evidence for Phobos having a highly porous interior, and suggesting a composition containing mainly phyllosilicates and other minerals known from Mars, point toward an origin of Phobos from material ejected by an impact on Mars that reaccreted in Martian orbit, similar to the prevailing theory for the origin of Earth's moon. Although the VNIR spectra of the moons of Mars resemble those of outer-belt asteroids, the thermal infrared spectra of Phobos are reported to be inconsistent with chondrites of any class.
Mars may have moons smaller than 50 to 100 metres (160 to 330 ft) in diameter, and a dust ring is predicted to exist between Phobos and Deimos.
Panorama of Gusev crater
, where Spirit
rover examined volcanic basalts
Mars Science Laboratory under parachute during its atmospheric entry at Mars
Dozens of crewless spacecraft, including orbiters, landers, and rovers, have been sent to Mars by the Soviet Union, the United States, Europe, and India to study the planet's surface, climate, and geology.
As of 2018, Mars is host to eight functioning spacecraft: six in orbit-2001 Mars Odyssey, Mars Express, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, MAVEN, Mars Orbiter Mission and ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter-and two on the surface-Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity and the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity. Observations by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter have revealed possible flowing water during the warmest months on Mars. In 2013, NASA's Curiosity rover discovered that Mars's soil contains between 1.5% and 3% water by mass (albeit attached to other compounds and thus not freely accessible). The public can request images of Mars via the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's HiWish program.
The Mars Science Laboratory, named Curiosity, launched on November 26, 2011, and reached Mars on August 6, 2012 UTC. It is larger and more advanced than the Mars Exploration Rovers, with a movement rate up to 90 m (300 ft) per hour. Experiments include a laser chemical sampler that can deduce the make-up of rocks at a distance of 7 m (23 ft). On February 10, 2013, the Curiosity rover obtained the first deep rock samples ever taken from another planetary body, using its on-board drill.
On September 24, 2014, Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM), launched by the Indian Space Research Organisation, reached Mars orbit. ISRO launched MOM on November 5, 2013, with the aim of analyzing the Martian atmosphere and topography. The Mars Orbiter Mission used a Hohmann transfer orbit to escape Earth's gravitational influence and catapult into a nine-month-long voyage to Mars. The mission is the first successful Asian interplanetary mission.
The European Space Agency, in collaboration with Roscosmos, launched the ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter and Schiaparelli lander on March 14, 2016. While the Trace Gas Orbiter successfully entered Mars orbit on October 19, 2016, Schiaparelli crashed during its landing attempt.
Concept for a Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Transfer Vehicle in low Earth orbit
Planned for May 2018 is the launch of NASA's InSight lander, along with the twin MarCO CubeSats that will fly by Mars and provide a telemetry relay for the landing. The mission is expected to arrive at Mars in November 2018. NASA plans to launch its Mars 2020 astrobiology rover in July or August 2020.
The European Space Agency will launch the ExoMars rover and surface platform in July 2020.
The United Arab Emirates' Mars Hope orbiter is planned for launch in 2020, reaching Mars orbit in 2021. The probe will make a global study of the Martian atmosphere.
Several plans for a human mission to Mars have been proposed throughout the 20th century and into the 21st century, but no active plan has an arrival date sooner than the 2020s. SpaceX founder Elon Musk presented a plan in September 2016 to, optimistically, launch space tourists to Mars in 2024 at an estimated development cost of US$10 billion. In October 2016, President Barack Obama renewed U.S. policy to pursue the goal of sending humans to Mars in the 2030s, and to continue using the International Space Station as a technology incubator in that pursuit. The NASA Authorization Act of 2017 directed NASA to get humans near or on the surface of Mars by the early 2030s.
Mars: Astronomy on Mars
With the presence of various orbiters, landers, and rovers, it is possible to practice astronomy from Mars. Although Mars's moon Phobos appears about one-third the angular diameter of the full moon on Earth, Deimos appears more or less star-like, looking only slightly brighter than Venus does from Earth.
Various phenomena seen from Earth have also been observed from Mars, such as meteors and auroras. The apparent sizes of the moons Phobos and Deimos are sufficiently smaller than that of the Sun; thus, their partial "eclipses" of the Sun are best considered transits (see transit of Deimos and Phobos from Mars). Transits of Mercury and Venus have been observed from Mars. A transit of Earth will be seen from Mars on November 10, 2084.
On October 19, 2014, Comet Siding Spring passed extremely close to Mars, so close that the coma may have enveloped Mars.
Earth and the Moon (MRO HiRISE, November 2016)
Phobos transits the Sun (Opportunity, March 10, 2004)
Tracking sunspots from Mars
Animation of the apparent retrograde motion of Mars in 2003 as seen from Earth
Because the orbit of Mars is eccentric, its apparent magnitude at opposition from the Sun can range from −3.0 to −1.4. The minimum brightness is magnitude +1.6 when the planet is in conjunction with the Sun. Mars usually appears distinctly yellow, orange, or red; the actual color of Mars is closer to butterscotch, and the redness seen is just dust in the planet's atmosphere. NASA's Spirit rover has taken pictures of a greenish-brown, mud-colored landscape with blue-grey rocks and patches of light red sand. When farthest away from Earth, it is more than seven times farther away than when it is closest. When least favorably positioned, it can be lost in the Sun's glare for months at a time. At its most favorable times-at 15- or 17-year intervals, and always between late July and late September-a lot of surface detail can be seen with a telescope. Especially noticeable, even at low magnification, are the polar ice caps.
As Mars approaches opposition, it begins a period of retrograde motion, which means it will appear to move backwards in a looping motion with respect to the background stars. The duration of this retrograde motion lasts for about 72 days, and Mars reaches its peak luminosity in the middle of this motion.
Mars: Closest approaches
The point at which Mars's geocentric longitude is 180° different from the Sun's is known as opposition, which is near the time of closest approach to Earth. The time of opposition can occur as much as 8.5 days away from the closest approach. The distance at close approach varies between about 54 and about 103 million km due to the planets' elliptical orbits, which causes comparable variation in angular size. The last Mars opposition occurred on May 22, 2016 at a distance of about 76 million km. The next Mars opposition occurs on July 27, 2018 at a distance of about 58 million km. The average time between the successive oppositions of Mars, its synodic period, is 780 days; but the number of days between the dates of successive oppositions can range from 764 to 812.
As Mars approaches opposition it begins a period of retrograde motion, which makes it appear to move backwards in a looping motion relative to the background stars. The duration of this retrograde motion is about 72 days.
Mars: Absolute, around the present time
Mars oppositions from 2003–2018, viewed from above the ecliptic with Earth centered
Mars made its closest approach to Earth and maximum apparent brightness in nearly 60,000 years, 55,758,006 km (0.37271925 AU; 34,646,419 mi), magnitude −2.88, on August 27, 2003 at 9:51:13 UT. This occurred when Mars was one day from opposition and about three days from its perihelion, making it particularly easy to see from Earth. The last time it came so close is estimated to have been on September 12, 57,617 BC, the next time being in 2287. This record approach was only slightly closer than other recent close approaches. For instance, the minimum distance on August 22, 1924 was 7010557775660904950♠0.37285 AU, and the minimum distance on August 24, 2208 will be 7010557685902182530♠0.37279 AU.
Mars: Historical observations
The history of observations of Mars is marked by the oppositions of Mars, when the planet is closest to Earth and hence is most easily visible, which occur every couple of years. Even more notable are the perihelic oppositions of Mars, which occur every 15 or 17 years and are distinguished because Mars is close to perihelion, making it even closer to Earth.
Mars: Ancient and medieval observations
The ancient Sumerians believed that Mars was Nergal, the god of war and plague. During Sumerian times, Nergal was a minor deity of little significance, but, during later times, his main cult center was the city of Nineveh. In Mesopotamian texts, Mars is referred to as the "star of judgement of the fate of the dead". The existence of Mars as a wandering object in the night sky was recorded by the ancient Egyptian astronomers and, by 1534 BCE, they were familiar with the retrograde motion of the planet. By the period of the Neo-Babylonian Empire, the Babylonian astronomers were making regular records of the positions of the planets and systematic observations of their behavior. For Mars, they knew that the planet made 37 synodic periods, or 42 circuits of the zodiac, every 79 years. They invented arithmetic methods for making minor corrections to the predicted positions of the planets.
In the fourth century BCE, Aristotle noted that Mars disappeared behind the Moon during an occultation, indicating that the planet was farther away. Ptolemy, a Greek living in Alexandria, attempted to address the problem of the orbital motion of Mars. Ptolemy's model and his collective work on astronomy was presented in the multi-volume collection Almagest, which became the authoritative treatise on Western astronomy for the next fourteen centuries. Literature from ancient China confirms that Mars was known by Chinese astronomers by no later than the fourth century BCE. In the fifth century CE, the Indian astronomical text Surya Siddhanta estimated the diameter of Mars. In the East Asian cultures, Mars is traditionally referred to as the "fire star" (火星), based on the Five elements.
During the seventeenth century, Tycho Brahe measured the diurnal parallax of Mars that Johannes Kepler used to make a preliminary calculation of the relative distance to the planet. When the telescope became available, the diurnal parallax of Mars was again measured in an effort to determine the Sun-Earth distance. This was first performed by Giovanni Domenico Cassini in 1672. The early parallax measurements were hampered by the quality of the instruments. The only occultation of Mars by Venus observed was that of October 13, 1590, seen by Michael Maestlin at Heidelberg. In 1610, Mars was viewed by Galileo Galilei, who was first to see it via telescope. The first person to draw a map of Mars that displayed any terrain features was the Dutch astronomer Christiaan Huygens.
Mars: Martian "canals"
Map of Mars by Giovanni Schiaparelli
Mars sketched as observed by Lowell before 1914 (south on top)
Map of Mars from the Hubble Space Telescope as seen near the 1999 opposition (north on top)
By the 19th century, the resolution of telescopes reached a level sufficient for surface features to be identified. A perihelic opposition of Mars occurred on September 5, 1877. In that year, the Italian astronomer Giovanni Schiaparelli used a 22 cm (8.7 in) telescope in Milan to help produce the first detailed map of Mars. These maps notably contained features he called canali, which were later shown to be an optical illusion. These canali were supposedly long, straight lines on the surface of Mars, to which he gave names of famous rivers on Earth. His term, which means "channels" or "grooves", was popularly mistranslated in English as "canals".
Influenced by the observations, the orientalist Percival Lowell founded an observatory which had 30 and 45 cm (12 and 18 in) telescopes. The observatory was used for the exploration of Mars during the last good opportunity in 1894 and the following less favorable oppositions. He published several books on Mars and life on the planet, which had a great influence on the public. The canali were independently found by other astronomers, like Henri Joseph Perrotin and Louis Thollon in Nice, using one of the largest telescopes of that time.
The seasonal changes (consisting of the diminishing of the polar caps and the dark areas formed during Martian summer) in combination with the canals led to speculation about life on Mars, and it was a long-held belief that Mars contained vast seas and vegetation. The telescope never reached the resolution required to give proof to any speculations. As bigger telescopes were used, fewer long, straight canali were observed. During an observation in 1909 by Flammarion with an 84 cm (33 in) telescope, irregular patterns were observed, but no canali were seen.
Even in the 1960s articles were published on Martian biology, putting aside explanations other than life for the seasonal changes on Mars. Detailed scenarios for the metabolism and chemical cycles for a functional ecosystem have been published.
Mars: Spacecraft visitation
Once spacecraft visited the planet during NASA's Mariner missions in the 1960s and 70s, these concepts were radically broken. The results of the Viking life-detection experiments aided an intermission in which the hypothesis of a hostile, dead planet was generally accepted.
Mariner 9 and Viking allowed better maps of Mars to be made using the data from these missions, and another major leap forward was the Mars Global Surveyor mission, launched in 1996 and operated until late 2006, that allowed complete, extremely detailed maps of the Martian topography, magnetic field and surface minerals to be obtained. These maps are available online; for example, at Google Mars. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and Mars Express continued exploring with new instruments, and supporting lander missions. NASA provides two online tools: Mars Trek, which provides visualizations of the planet using data from 50 years of exploration, and Experience Curiosity, which simulates traveling on Mars in 3-D with Curiosity.
Mars: In culture
Mars is named after the Roman god of war. In different cultures, Mars represents masculinity and youth. Its symbol, a circle with an arrow pointing out to the upper right, is used as a symbol for the male gender.
The many failures in Mars exploration probes resulted in a satirical counter-culture blaming the failures on an Earth-Mars "Bermuda Triangle", a "Mars Curse", or a "Great Galactic Ghoul" that feeds on Martian spacecraft.
Mars: Intelligent "Martians"
The fashionable idea that Mars was populated by intelligent Martians exploded in the late 19th century. Schiaparelli's "canali" observations combined with Percival Lowell's books on the subject put forward the standard notion of a planet that was a drying, cooling, dying world with ancient civilizations constructing irrigation works.
An 1893 soap ad playing on the popular idea that Mars was populated
Many other observations and proclamations by notable personalities added to what has been termed "Mars Fever". In 1899, while investigating atmospheric radio noise using his receivers in his Colorado Springs lab, inventor Nikola Tesla observed repetitive signals that he later surmised might have been radio communications coming from another planet, possibly Mars. In a 1901 interview Tesla said:
It was some time afterward when the thought flashed upon my mind that the disturbances I had observed might be due to an intelligent control. Although I could not decipher their meaning, it was impossible for me to think of them as having been entirely accidental. The feeling is constantly growing on me that I had been the first to hear the greeting of one planet to another.
Tesla's theories gained support from Lord Kelvin who, while visiting the United States in 1902, was reported to have said that he thought Tesla had picked up Martian signals being sent to the United States. Kelvin "emphatically" denied this report shortly before leaving: "What I really said was that the inhabitants of Mars, if there are any, were doubtless able to see New York, particularly the glare of the electricity."
In a New York Times article in 1901, Edward Charles Pickering, director of the Harvard College Observatory, said that they had received a telegram from Lowell Observatory in Arizona that seemed to confirm that Mars was trying to communicate with Earth.
Early in December 1900, we received from Lowell Observatory in Arizona a telegram that a shaft of light had been seen to project from Mars (the Lowell observatory makes a specialty of Mars) lasting seventy minutes. I wired these facts to Europe and sent out neostyle copies through this country. The observer there is a careful, reliable man and there is no reason to doubt that the light existed. It was given as from a well-known geographical point on Mars. That was all. Now the story has gone the world over. In Europe it is stated that I have been in communication with Mars, and all sorts of exaggerations have spring up. Whatever the light was, we have no means of knowing. Whether it had intelligence or not, no one can say. It is absolutely inexplicable.
Pickering later proposed creating a set of mirrors in Texas, intended to signal Martians.
In recent decades, the high-resolution mapping of the surface of Mars, culminating in Mars Global Surveyor, revealed no artifacts of habitation by "intelligent" life, but pseudoscientific speculation about intelligent life on Mars continues from commentators such as Richard C. Hoagland. Reminiscent of the canali controversy, these speculations are based on small scale features perceived in the spacecraft images, such as "pyramids" and the "Face on Mars". Planetary astronomer Carl Sagan wrote:
Mars has become a kind of mythic arena onto which we have projected our Earthly hopes and fears.
Martian tripod illustration from the 1906 French edition of The War of the Worlds
by H. G. Wells
The depiction of Mars in fiction has been stimulated by its dramatic red color and by nineteenth century scientific speculations that its surface conditions might support not just life but intelligent life. Thus originated a large number of science fiction scenarios, among which is H. G. Wells' The War of the Worlds, published in 1898, in which Martians seek to escape their dying planet by invading Earth.
Influential works included Ray Bradbury's The Martian Chronicles, in which human explorers accidentally destroy a Martian civilization, Edgar Rice Burroughs' Barsoom series, C. S. Lewis' novel Out of the Silent Planet (1938), and a number of Robert A. Heinlein stories before the mid-sixties.
Jonathan Swift made reference to the moons of Mars, about 150 years before their actual discovery by Asaph Hall, detailing reasonably accurate descriptions of their orbits, in the 19th chapter of his novel Gulliver's Travels.
A comic figure of an intelligent Martian, Marvin the Martian, appeared in Haredevil Hare (1948) as a character in the Looney Tunes animated cartoons of Warner Brothers, and has continued as part of popular culture to the present.
After the Mariner and Viking spacecraft had returned pictures of Mars as it really is, an apparently lifeless and canal-less world, these ideas about Mars had to be abandoned, and a vogue for accurate, realist depictions of human colonies on Mars developed, the best known of which may be Kim Stanley Robinson's Mars trilogy. Pseudo-scientific speculations about the Face on Mars and other enigmatic landmarks spotted by space probes have meant that ancient civilizations continue to be a popular theme in science fiction, especially in film.
Mars: See also
- Outline of Mars
- List of missions to Mars
- This image was taken by the Rosetta spacecraft's Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System (OSIRIS), at a distance of ≈240,000 kilometres (150,000 mi) during its February 2007 encounter. The view is centered on the Aeolis quadrangle, with Gale crater, the landing site of the Curiosity rover, prominently visible just left of center. The darker, more heavily cratered terrain in the south, Terra Cimmeria, is composed of older terrain than the much smoother and brighter Elysium Planitia to the north. Geologically recent processes, such as the possible existence of a global ocean in Mars's past, could have helped lower-elevated areas, such as Elysium Planitia, retain a more youthful look.
- Best-fit ellipsoid
- There are many serpentinization reactions. Olivine is a solid solution between forsterite and fayalite whose general formula is (Fe,Mg)
4. The reaction producing methane from olivine can be written as: Forsterite + Fayalite + Water + Carbonic acid → Serpentine + Magnetite + Methane, or (in balanced form): 18Mg
4 + 6Fe
4 + 26H
2O + CO
2 → 12Mg
4 + 4Fe
4 + CH
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- "Tiny Crystal Shapes Get Close Look From Mars Rover". NASA/JPL. February 8, 2018.
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- "Press release: New Analysis of Viking Mission Results Indicates Presence of Life on Mars". Washington State University. January 5, 2006.
- "Phoenix Returns Treasure Trove for Science". NASA/JPL. June 6, 2008. Retrieved June 27, 2008.
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- Krasnopolsky, Vladimir A.; Maillard, Jean-Pierre; Owen, Tobias C. (2004). "Detection of methane in the Martian atmosphere: evidence for life?". Icarus. 172 (2): 537–547. Bibcode:2004Icar..172..537K. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2004.07.004.
- Peplow, Mark (February 25, 2005). "Formaldehyde claim inflames Martian debate". Nature. doi:10.1038/news050221-15.
- Nickel, Mark (April 18, 2014). "Impact glass stores biodata for millions of years". Brown University. Retrieved June 9, 2015.
- Schultz, P. H.; Harris, R. Scott; Clemett, S. J.; Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Zárate, M. (June 2014). "Preserved flora and organics in impact melt breccias". Geology. 42 (6): 515–518. Bibcode:2014Geo....42..515S. doi:10.1130/G35343.1.
- Brown, Dwayne; Webster, Guy; Stacey, Kevin (June 8, 2015). "NASA Spacecraft Detects Impact Glass on Surface of Mars" (Press release). NASA. Retrieved June 9, 2015.
- Stacey, Kevin (June 8, 2015). "Martian glass: Window into possible past life?". Brown University. Retrieved June 9, 2015.
- Temming, Maria (June 12, 2015). "Exotic Glass Could Help Unravel Mysteries of Mars". Scientific American. Retrieved June 15, 2015.
- Smith, Deborah (May 10, 2017). "Press release: Oldest evidence of life on land found in 3.48 billion-year-old Australian rocks". University of New South Wales Sydney.
- Djokic, Tara; Van Kranendonk, Martin J.; Campbell, Kathleen A.; Walter, Malcolm R.; Ward, Colin R. (May 9, 2017). "Earliest signs of life on land preserved in ca. 3.5 Ga hot spring deposits". Nature Communications. 8: 15263. Bibcode:2017NatCo...815263D. doi:10.1038/ncomms15263.
- "Close Inspection for Phobos". ESA website. Retrieved June 13, 2006.
- "Ares Attendants: Deimos & Phobos". Greek Mythology. Retrieved June 13, 2006.
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- "Greek Names of the Planets". Archived from the original on May 9, 2010. Retrieved July 14, 2012.
Aris is the Greek name of the planet Mars, the fourth planet from the sun, also known as the Red planet. Aris or Ares was the Greek god of War. See also the Greek article about the planet.
- Arnett, Bill (November 20, 2004). "Phobos". nineplanets. Retrieved June 13, 2006.
- Ellis, Scott. "Geological History: Moons of Mars". CalSpace. Archived from the original on May 17, 2007. Retrieved August 2, 2007.
- Andert, T. P.; Rosenblatt, P.; Pätzold, M.; Häusler, B.; Dehant, V.; Tyler, G. L.; Marty, J. C. (May 7, 2010). "Precise mass determination and the nature of Phobos". Geophysical Research Letters. 37 (L09202): L09202. Bibcode:2010GeoRL..3709202A. doi:10.1029/2009GL041829.
- Giuranna, M.; Roush, T. L.; Duxbury, T.; Hogan, R. C.; Geminale, A.; Formisano, V. (2010). Compositional Interpretation of PFS/MEx and TES/MGS Thermal Infrared Spectra of Phobos (PDF). European Planetary Science Congress Abstracts, Vol. 5. Retrieved October 1, 2010.
- "Mars Moon Phobos Likely Forged by Catastrophic Blast". Space.com. September 27, 2010. Retrieved October 1, 2010.
- "NASA – NASA Spacecraft Data Suggest Water Flowing on Mars". Nasa.gov. August 4, 2011. Retrieved September 19, 2011.
- Jha, Alok. "Nasa's Curiosity rover finds water in Martian soil". The Guardian. Retrieved November 6, 2013.
- "Mars Science Laboratory - Homepage". NASA. Archived from the original on July 30, 2009.
- "Chemistry and Cam (ChemCam)". NASA.
- "Curiosity Mars rover takes historic drill sample". BBC. February 10, 2013. Retrieved February 10, 2013.
- "ISRO: Mars Orbiter Mission". isro.gov.in. Archived from the original on November 9, 2013.
- Amos, Jonathan (March 14, 2016). "Mars TGO probe despatched on methane investigation". BBC News. Retrieved October 11, 2016.
- Clery, Daniel (October 21, 2016). "Update: R.I.P. Schiaparelli: Crash site spotted for European Mars lander". Science.
- Clark, Stephen (March 9, 2016). "InSight Mars lander escapes cancellation, aims for 2018 launch". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved March 9, 2016.
- "Mars 2020 Mission Overview". NASA. Retrieved October 11, 2016.
- "Second ExoMars mission moves to next launch opportunity in 2020" (Press release). European Space Agency. May 2, 2016. Retrieved May 2, 2016.
- Schreck, Adam (May 6, 2015). "UAE to explore Mars' atmosphere with probe named 'Hope'". Excite News. Associated Press. Retrieved May 31, 2015.
- Chang, Kenneth (September 27, 2016). "Elon Musk's Plan: Get Humans to Mars, and Beyond". The New York Times. Retrieved October 11, 2016.
- Obama, Barack (October 11, 2016). "Barack Obama: America will take the giant leap to Mars". CNN. Retrieved October 11, 2016.
- Victor, Daniel (October 11, 2016). "Obama Gives New Details About Sending People to Mars". The New York Times. Retrieved October 11, 2016.
- Galeon, Dom; Creighton, Jolene (March 9, 2017). "US Government Issues NASA Demand, 'Get Humans to Mars By 2033'". Futurism. Retrieved February 16, 2018.
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- Meeus, J.; Goffin, E. (1983). "Transits of Earth as seen from Mars". Journal of the British Astronomical Association. 93 (3): 120–123. Bibcode:1983JBAA...93..120M.
- Webster, Guy; Brown, Dwayne; Jones, Nancy; Steigerwald, Bill (October 19, 2014). "All Three NASA Mars Orbiters Healthy After Comet Flyby". NASA. Retrieved October 20, 2014.
- "A Comet's Brush With Mars". The New York Times. Agence France-Presse. October 19, 2014. Retrieved October 20, 2014.
- Denis, Michel (October 20, 2014). "Spacecraft in great shape – our mission continues". European Space Agency. Retrieved October 21, 2014.
- Staff (October 21, 2014). "I'm safe and sound, tweets MOM after comet sighting". The Hindu. Retrieved October 21, 2014.
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- Grossman, Lisa (December 6, 2013). "Fiercest meteor shower on record to hit Mars via comet". New Scientist. Retrieved December 7, 2013.
- St. Fleur, Nicholas (January 9, 2017). "Looking at Your Home Planet from Mars". The New York Times. Retrieved January 9, 2017.
- Buy book ISBN 978-0-571-24139-2.
- Peck, Akkana. "Mars Observing FAQ". Shallow Sky. Retrieved June 15, 2006.
- Zeilik, Michael (2002). Astronomy: the Evolving Universe (9th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 14. Buy book ISBN 0-521-80090-0.
- Jacques Laskar (August 14, 2003). "Primer on Mars oppositions". IMCCE, Paris Observatory. Retrieved October 1, 2010. (Solex results) Archived August 9, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
- "Close Encounter: Mars at Opposition". NASA. November 3, 2005. Retrieved March 19, 2010.
- Sheehan, William (February 2, 1997). "Appendix 1: Oppositions of Mars, 1901–2035". The Planet Mars: A History of Observation and Discovery. University of Arizona Press. Archived from the original on June 25, 2010. Retrieved January 30, 2010.
- The opposition of February 12, 1995 was followed by one on March 17, 1997. The opposition of July 13, 2065 will be followed by one on October 2, 2067. Astropro 3000-year Sun-Mars Opposition Tables
- Rao, Joe (August 22, 2003). "NightSky Friday-Mars and Earth: The Top 10 Close Passes Since 3000 B.C." Space.com. Archived from the original on May 20, 2009. Retrieved June 13, 2006.
- Rabkin, Eric S. (2005). Mars: A Tour of the Human Imagination. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger. pp. 9–11. Buy book ISBN 0-275-98719-1.
- Thompson, Henry O. (1970). Mekal: The God of Beth-Shan. Leiden, Germany: E. J. Brill. p. 125.
- Novakovic, B. (2008). "Senenmut: An Ancient Egyptian Astronomer". Publications of the Astronomical Observatory of Belgrade. 85: 19–23. arXiv:0801.1331 . Bibcode:2008POBeo..85...19N.
- North, John David (2008). Cosmos: an illustrated history of astronomy and cosmology. University of Chicago Press. pp. 48–52. Buy book ISBN 0-226-59441-6.
- Swerdlow, Noel M. (1998). "Periodicity and Variability of Synodic Phenomenon". The Babylonian theory of the planets. Princeton University Press. pp. 34–72. Buy book ISBN 0-691-01196-6.
- Poor, Charles Lane (1908). The solar system: a study of recent observations. Science series. 17. G. P. Putnam's sons. p. 193.
- Harland, David Michael (2007). "Cassini at Saturn: Huygens results". p. 1. Buy book ISBN 0-387-26129-X
- Hummel, Charles E. (1986). The Galileo connection: resolving conflicts between science & the Bible. InterVarsity Press. pp. 35–38. Buy book ISBN 0-87784-500-X.
- Needham, Joseph; Ronan, Colin A. (1985). The Shorter Science and Civilisation in China: An Abridgement of Joseph Needham's Original Text. The shorter science and civilisation in China. 2 (3rd ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 187. Buy book ISBN 0-521-31536-0.
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- de Groot, Jan Jakob Maria (1912). "Fung Shui". Religion in China – Universism: A Key to the Study of Taoism and Confucianism. American Lectures on the History of Religions, volume 10. G. P. Putnam's Sons. p. 300. OCLC 491180.
- Crump, Thomas (1992). The Japanese Numbers Game: The Use and Understanding of Numbers in Modern Japan. Nissan Institute/Routledge Japanese Studies Series. Routledge. pp. 39–40. Buy book ISBN 0-415-05609-8.
- Hulbert, Homer Bezaleel (1909) . The Passing of Korea. Doubleday, Page & Company. p. 426. OCLC 26986808.
- Taton, Reni (2003). Reni Taton, Curtis Wilson and Michael Hoskin, eds. Planetary Astronomy from the Renaissance to the Rise of Astrophysics, Part A, Tycho Brahe to Newton. Cambridge University Press. p. 109. Buy book ISBN 0-521-54205-7.
- Hirshfeld, Alan (2001). Parallax: the race to measure the cosmos. Macmillan. pp. 60–61. Buy book ISBN 0-7167-3711-6.
- Breyer, Stephen (1979). "Mutual Occultation of Planets". Sky and Telescope. 57 (3): 220. Bibcode:1979S&T....57..220A.
- Peters, W. T. (1984). "The Appearance of Venus and Mars in 1610". Journal of the History of Astronomy. 15 (3): 211–214. Bibcode:1984JHA....15..211P.
- Sheehan, William (1996). "2: Pioneers". The Planet Mars: A History of Observation and Discovery. uapress.arizona.edu. Tucson: University of Arizona. Retrieved January 16, 2010.
- Snyder, Dave (May 2001). "An Observational History of Mars". Retrieved February 26, 2007.
- Sagan, Carl (1980). Cosmos. New York City: Random House. p. 107. Buy book ISBN 0-394-50294-9.
- Basalla, George (2006). "Percival Lowell: Champion of Canals". Civilized Life in the Universe: Scientists on Intelligent Extraterrestrials. Oxford University Press US. pp. 67–88. Buy book ISBN 0-19-517181-0.
- Dunlap, David W. (October 1, 2015). "Life on Mars? You Read It Here First". The New York Times. Retrieved October 1, 2015.
- Maria, K.; Lane, D. (2005). "Geographers of Mars". Isis. 96 (4): 477–506. doi:10.1086/498590. PMID 16536152.
- Perrotin, M. (1886). "Observations des canaux de Mars". Bulletin Astronomique, Serie I (in French). 3: 324–329. Bibcode:1886BuAsI...3..324P.
- Zahnle, K. (2001). "Decline and fall of the Martian empire". Nature. 412 (6843): 209–213. doi:10.1038/35084148. PMID 11449281.
- Salisbury, F. B. (1962). "Martian Biology". Science. 136 (3510): 17–26. Bibcode:1962Sci...136...17S. doi:10.1126/science.136.3510.17. JSTOR 1708777. PMID 17779780.
- Ward, Peter Douglas; Brownlee, Donald (2000). Rare earth: why complex life is uncommon in the universe. Copernicus Series (2nd ed.). Springer. p. 253. Buy book ISBN 0-387-95289-6.
- Bond, Peter (2007). Distant worlds: milestones in planetary exploration. Copernicus Series. Springer. p. 119. Buy book ISBN 0-387-40212-8.
- "New Online Tools Bring NASA's Journey to Mars to a New Generation". Retrieved August 5, 2015.
- Dinerman, Taylor (September 27, 2004). "Is the Great Galactic Ghoul losing his appetite?". The space review. Retrieved March 27, 2007.
- "Percivel Lowell's Canals". Archived from the original on February 19, 2007. Retrieved March 1, 2007.
- Fergus, Charles (2004). "Mars Fever". Research/Penn State. 24 (2). Archived from the original on August 31, 2003. Retrieved August 2, 2007.
- Tesla, Nikola (February 9, 1901). "Talking with the Planets". Collier's. Vol. 26 no. 19. pp. 4–5.
- Cheney, Margaret (1981). Tesla: Man Out of Time. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. p. 162. Buy book ISBN 978-0-13-906859-1. OCLC 7672251.
- "Departure of Lord Kelvin". The New York Times. May 11, 1902. p. 29.
- Pickering, Edward Charles (January 16, 1901). "The Light Flash From Mars" (PDF). The New York Times. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 5, 2007. Retrieved May 20, 2007.
- Fradin, Dennis Brindell (1999). Is There Life on Mars?. McElderry Books. p. 62. Buy book ISBN 0-689-82048-8.
- Lightman, Bernard V. (1997). Victorian Science in Context. University of Chicago Press. pp. 268–273. Buy book ISBN 0-226-48111-5.
- Schwartz, Sanford (2009). C. S. Lewis on the Final Frontier: Science and the Supernatural in the Space Trilogy. Oxford University Press US. pp. 19–20. Buy book ISBN 0-19-537472-X.
- Buker, Derek M. (2002). The science fiction and fantasy readers' advisory: the librarian's guide to cyborgs, aliens, and sorcerers. ALA readers' advisory series. ALA Editions. p. 26. Buy book ISBN 0-8389-0831-4.
- Darling, David. "Swift, Jonathan and the moons of Mars". Retrieved March 1, 2007.
- Rabkin, Eric S. (2005). Mars: a tour of the human imagination. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 141–142. Buy book ISBN 0-275-98719-1.
- Miles, Kathy; Peters II, Charles F. "Unmasking the Face". StarrySkies.com. Archived from the original on September 26, 2007. Retrieved March 1, 2007.
Mars: External links
- Mars at Curlie (based on DMOZ)
- Mars Exploration Program at NASA.gov
- Google Mars and Google Mars 3D, interactive maps of the planet
- Geody Mars, mapping site that supports NASA World Wind, Celestia, and other applications
- Mars images by NASA's Planetary Photojournal
- Mars images by NASA's Mars Exploration Program
- Mars images by Malin Space Science Systems
- HiRISE image catalog by the University of Arizona
- Rotating color globe of Mars by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
- Rotating geological globe of Mars by the United States Geological Survey
- NASA's Curiosity Finds Ancient Streambed – First Evidence of Water on Mars on YouTube by The Science Channel (2012, 4:31)
- Flight Into Mariner Valley by Arizona State University
- High resolution video simulation of rotating Mars by Seán Doran, showing Arabia Terra, Valles Marineris and Tharsis (see album for more)
- Mars nomenclature and quadrangle maps with feature names by the United States Geological Survey
- Geological map of Mars by the United States Geological Survey
- Viking orbiter photomap by Eötvös Loránd University
- Mars Global Surveyor topographical map by Eötvös Loránd University
Mars in other languages
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It goes without saying that the products related to the term "Mars" in Hawaii can be received in Honolulu, East Honolulu, Pearl City, Hilo, Kailua, Waipahu, Kaneohe, Mililani Town, Kahului, Ewa Gentry, Mililani Mauka, Kihei, Makakilo, Wahiawa, Schofield Barracks, Wailuku, Kapolei, Ewa Beach, Royal Kunia, Halawa, Waimalu, Waianae, Nanakuli, Kailua, Lahaina, Waipio, Hawaiian Paradise Park, Kapaa, etc.
Undoubtedly, any things related with "Mars" in Idaho can be shipped to such cities as Boise, Meridian, Nampa, Idaho Falls, Pocatello, Caldwell, Coeur d'Alene, Twin Falls, Lewiston, Post Falls, Rexburg, Moscow, Eagle, Kuna, Ammon, Chubbuck, Hayden, Mountain Home, Blackfoot, Garden City, Jerome, Burley and smaller towns.
As you know, the goods related with "Mars" in Illinois can be delivered to the following cities: Chicago, Aurora, Rockford, Joliet, Naperville, Springfield, Peoria, Elgin, Waukegan, Champaign, Bloomington, Decatur, Evanston, Des Plaines, Berwyn, Wheaton, Belleville, Elmhurst, DeKalb, Moline, Urbana, Crystal Lake, Quincy, Rock Island, Park Ridge, Calumet City, Pekin, Danville, St. Charles, North Chicago, Galesburg, Chicago Heights, Granite City, Highland Park, Burbank, O'Fallon, Oak Forest, Alton, Kankakee, West Chicago, East St. Louis, McHenry, Batavia, Carbondale, Freeport, Belvidere, Collinsville, Harvey, Lockport, Woodstock, etc.
Today the goods by request "Mars" in Indiana can be shipped to Indianapolis, Fort Wayne, Evansville, South Bend, Carmel, Fishers, Bloomington, Hammond, Gary, Lafayette, Muncie, Terre Haute, Kokomo, Noblesville, Anderson, Greenwood, Elkhart, Mishawaka, Lawrence, Jeffersonville, Columbus, Portage, New Albany, Richmond, Westfield, Valparaiso, Goshen, Michigan City, West Lafayette, Marion, East Chicago, Hobart, Crown Point, Franklin, La Porte, Greenfield, and other cities.
As usual, the found goods by query "Mars" in Iowa can be shipped to such cities as Des Moines, Cedar Rapids, Davenport, Sioux City, Iowa City, Waterloo, Council Bluffs, Ames, West Des Moines, Dubuque, Ankeny, Urbandale, Cedar Falls, Marion, Bettendorf, Marshalltown, Mason City, Clinton, Burlington, Ottumwa, Fort Dodge, Muscatine, Coralville, Johnston, North Liberty, Altoona, Newton, Indianola, and so on.
Of course, any things related with "Mars" in Kansas can be delivered to Wichita, Overland Park, Kansas City, Olathe, Topeka, Lawrence, Shawnee, Manhattan, Lenexa, Salina, Hutchinson, Leavenworth, Leawood, Dodge City, Garden City, Junction City, Emporia, Derby, Prairie Village, Hays, Liberal, Gardner, Pittsburg, Newton, Great Bend, McPherson, El Dorado, Ottawa, Winfield, Arkansas City, Andover, Lansing, Merriam, Haysville, Atchison, Parsons.
Naturally, the products by request "Mars" in Kentucky can be sent to Louisville, Lexington, Bowling Green, Owensboro, Covington, Hopkinsville, Richmond, Florence, Georgetown, Henderson, Elizabethtown, Nicholasville, Jeffersontown, Frankfort, Paducah, Independence, Radcliff, Ashland, Madisonville, Winchester, Erlanger, Murray, St. Matthews, Fort Thomas, Danville, Newport, Shively, Shelbyville, Glasgow, Berea, Bardstown, Shepherdsville, Somerset, Lyndon, Lawrenceburg, Middlesboro, Mayfield and smaller towns.
As usual, the goods related with "Mars" in Louisiana can be delivered to the following cities: New Orleans, Baton Rouge, Shreveport, Metairie, Lafayette, Lake Charles, Kenner, Bossier City, Monroe, Alexandria, Houma, Marrero, New Iberia, Laplace, Slidell, Prairieville, Central, Terrytown, Ruston, Sulphur, Harvey, Hammond, Bayou Cane, Shenandoah, Natchitoches, Gretna, Chalmette, Opelousas, Estelle, Zachary and smaller towns.
Naturally, the goods named "Mars" in Maine can be received in such cities as Portland, Lewiston, Bangor, South Portland, Auburn, Biddeford, Sanford, Saco, Augusta, Westbrook, Waterville, Presque Isle, Brewer, Bath, Caribou, Ellsworth, Old Town, Rockland, Belfast, Gardiner, Calais, Hallowell, Eastport and smaller towns.
Usually, the goods named "Mars" in Maryland can be delivered to the following cities: Baltimore, Frederick, Rockville, Gaithersburg, Bowie, Hagerstown, Annapolis, College Park, Salisbury, Laurel, Greenbelt, Cumberland, Westminster, Hyattsville, Takoma Park, Easton, Elkton, Aberdeen, Havre de Grace, Cambridge, New Carrollton, Bel Air, and other cities and towns.
Normally, the goods related with "Mars" in Massachusetts can be shipped to Boston, Worcester, Springfield, Lowell, Cambridge, New Bedford, Brockton, Quincy, Lynn, Fall River, Newton, Lawrence, Somerville, Framingham, Haverhill, Waltham, Malden, Brookline, Plymouth, Medford, Taunton, Chicopee, Weymouth, Revere, Peabody, Methuen, Barnstable, Pittsfield, Attleboro, Arlington, Everett, Salem, Westfield, Leominster, Fitchburg, Billerica, Holyoke, Beverly, Marlborough, Woburn, Amherst, Braintree, Shrewsbury, Chelsea, Dartmouth, Chelmsford, Andover, Natick, Randolph, Watertown, and so on.
Of course, the goods by request "Mars" in Michigan can be delivered to the following cities: Detroit, Grand Rapids, Warren, Sterling Heights, Lansing, Ann Arbor, Flint, Dearborn, Livonia, Clinton, Canton, Westland, Troy, Farmington Hills, Macomb Township, Kalamazoo, Shelby, Wyoming, Southfield, Waterford, Rochester Hills, West Bloomfield, Taylor, Saint Clair Shores, Pontiac, Dearborn Heights, Royal Oak, Novi, Ypsilanti, Battle Creek, Saginaw, Kentwood, East Lansing, Redford, Roseville, Georgetown, Portage, Chesterfield Township, Midland, Bloomfield Charter Township, Oakland County, Saginaw, Commerce, Meridian, Muskegon, Lincoln Park, Grand Blanc, Holland, Orion, Bay City, Independence Charter Township and smaller towns.
Today the goods by your query "Mars" in Minnesota can be bought in Minneapolis, Saint Paul, Rochester, Bloomington, Duluth, Brooklyn Park, Plymouth, Maple Grove, Woodbury, St. Cloud, Eagan, Eden Prairie, Coon Rapids, Blaine, Burnsville, Lakeville, Minnetonka, Apple Valley, Edina, St. Louis Park, Moorhead, Mankato, Maplewood, Shakopee, Richfield, Cottage Grove, Roseville, Inver Grove Heights, Andover, Brooklyn Center, Savage, Oakdale, Fridley, Winona, Shoreview, Ramsey, Owatonna, Chanhassen, Prior Lake, White Bear Lake, Chaska, Austin, Elk River, Champlin, Faribault, Rosemount, Crystal, Farmington, Hastings, New Brighton...
Undoubtedly, the goods by request "Mars" in Mississippi can be delivered to the following cities: Jackson, Gulfport, Southaven, Hattiesburg, Biloxi, Meridian, Tupelo, Greenville, Olive Branch, Horn Lake, Clinton, Pearl, Ridgeland, Starkville, Columbus, Vicksburg, Pascagoula, Clarksdale, Oxford, Laurel, Gautier, Ocean Springs, Madison, Brandon, Greenwood, Cleveland, Natchez, Long Beach, Corinth, Hernando, Moss Point, McComb, Canton, Carriere, Grenada, Brookhaven, Indianola, Yazoo City, West Point, Picayune, Petal.
Usually, any products related with "Mars" in Missouri can be delivered to Kansas City, St. Louis, Springfield, Independence, Columbia, Lee’s Summit, O’Fallon, St. Joseph, St. Charles, Blue Springs, St. Peters, Florissant, Joplin, Chesterfield, Jefferson City, Cape Girardeau, Oakville, Wildwood, University City, Ballwin, Raytown, Liberty, Wentzville, Mehlville, Kirkwood, Maryland Heights, Hazelwood, Gladstone, Grandview, Belton, Webster Groves, Sedalia, Ferguson, Arnold, Affton...
As always, any things related with "Mars" in Montana can be shipped to such cities as Billings, Missoula, Great Falls, Bozeman, Butte, Helena, Kalispell, Havre, Anaconda, Miles City, Belgrade, Livingston, Laurel, Whitefish, Lewistown, Sidney, etc.
Today the products by request "Mars" in Nebraska can be bought in Omaha, Lincoln, Bellevue, Grand Island, Kearney, Fremont, Hastings, Norfolk, North Platte, Papillion, Columbus, La Vista, Scottsbluff, South Sioux City, Beatrice, Lexington, and so on.
And of course, any things related with "Mars" in Nevada can be received in such cities as Las Vegas, Henderson, Reno, North Las Vegas, Sparks, Carson City, Fernley, Elko, Mesquite, Boulder City, Fallon, Winnemucca, West Wendover, Ely, Yerington, Carlin, Lovelock, Wells, Caliente, and other cities and towns.
As you know, the goods by your query "Mars" in New Hampshire can be purchased if you live in Manchester, Nashua, Concord, Derry, Dover, Rochester, Salem, Merrimack, Hudson, Londonderry, Keene, Bedford, Portsmouth, Goffstown, Laconia, Hampton, Milford, Durham, Exeter, Windham, Hooksett, Claremont, Lebanon, Pelham, Somersworth, Hanover, Amherst, Raymond, Conway, Berlin...
Of course, the products by request "Mars" in New Jersey can be shipped to Newark, Jersey City, Paterson, Elizabeth, Edison, Woodbridge, Lakewood, Toms River, Hamilton, Trenton, Clifton, Camden, Brick, Cherry Hill, Passaic, Middletown, Union City, Old Bridge, Gloucester Township, East Orange, Bayonne, Franklin, North Bergen, Vineland, Union, Piscataway, New Brunswick, Jackson, Wayne, Irvington, Parsippany-Troy Hills, Howell, Perth Amboy, Hoboken, Plainfield, West New York, Washington Township, East Brunswick, Bloomfield, West Orange, Evesham, Bridgewater, South Brunswick, Egg Harbor, Manchester, Hackensack, Sayreville, Mount Laurel, Berkeley, North Brunswick, and other cities.
As you know, the goods related with "Mars" in New Mexico can be delivered to Albuquerque, Las Cruces, Rio Rancho, Santa Fe, Roswell, Farmington, South Valley, Clovis, Hobbs, Alamogordo, Carlsbad, Gallup, Deming, Los Lunas, Chaparral, Sunland Park, Las Vegas, Portales, Los Alamos, North Valley, Artesia, Lovington, Silver City, Española, and other cities and towns.
And of course, the goods named "Mars" in New York can be shipped to such cities as New York, Buffalo, Rochester, Yonkers, Syracuse, Albany, New Rochelle, Mount Vernon, Schenectady, Utica, White Plains, Troy, Niagara Falls, Binghamton, Rome, Long Beach, Poughkeepsie, North Tonawanda, Jamestown, Ithaca, Elmira, Newburgh, Middletown, Auburn, Watertown, Glen Cove, Saratoga Springs, Kingston, Peekskill, Lockport, Plattsburgh, Cortland, Amsterdam, Oswego, Lackawanna, Cohoes, Rye, Gloversville, Beacon, Batavia, Tonawanda, Glens Falls, Olean, Oneonta, Geneva, Dunkirk, Fulton, Oneida, Corning, Ogdensburg, Canandaigua, Watervliet and smaller towns.
No need to say, the goods by your query "Mars" in North Carolina can be bought in Charlotte, Raleigh, Greensboro, Durham, Winston-Salem, Fayetteville, Cary, Wilmington, High Point, Greenville, Asheville, Concord, Gastonia, Jacksonville, Chapel Hill, Rocky Mount, Huntersville, Burlington, Wilson, Kannapolis, Apex, Hickory, Wake Forest, Indian Trail, Mooresville, Goldsboro, Monroe, Salisbury, Holly Springs, Matthews, New Bern, Sanford, Cornelius, Garner, Thomasville, Statesville, Asheboro, Mint Hill, Fuquay-Varina, Morrisville, Kernersville, Lumberton, Kinston, Carrboro, Havelock, Shelby, Clemmons, Lexington, Clayton, Boone...
Naturally, the goods by request "Mars" in North Dakota can be delivered to the following cities: Fargo, Bismarck, Grand Forks, Minot, West Fargo, Williston, Dickinson, Mandan, Jamestown, Wahpeton, Devils Lake, Watford City, Valley City, Grafton, Lincoln, Beulah, Rugby, Stanley, Horace, Casselton, New Town, Hazen, Bottineau, Lisbon, Carrington and smaller towns.
No doubt, the goods by your query "Mars" in Ohio can be bought in Columbus, Cleveland, Cincinnati, Toledo, Akron, Dayton, Parma, Canton, Youngstown, Lorain, Hamilton, Springfield, Kettering, Elyria, Lakewood, Cuyahoga Falls, Euclid, Middletown, Mansfield, Newark, Mentor, Cleveland Heights, Beavercreek, Strongsville, Fairfield, Dublin, Warren, Findlay, Lancaster, Lima, Huber Heights, Marion, Westerville, Reynoldsburg, Grove City, Stow, Delaware, Brunswick, Upper Arlington, Gahanna, Westlake, North Olmsted, Fairborn, Massillon, Mason, North Royalton, Bowling Green, North Ridgeville, Kent, Garfield Heights and smaller towns.
And today any things related with "Mars" in Oklahoma can be shipped to such cities as Oklahoma City, Tulsa, Norman, Broken Arrow, Lawton, Edmond, Moore, Midwest City, Enid, Stillwater, Muskogee, Bartlesville, Owasso, Shawnee, Yukon, Ardmore, Ponca City, Bixby, Duncan, Del City, Jenks, Sapulpa, Mustang, Sand Springs, Bethany, Altus, Claremore, El Reno, McAlester, Ada, Durant, Tahlequah, Chickasha, Miami, Glenpool, Elk City, Woodward, Okmulgee, Choctaw, Weatherford, Guymon, Guthrie, Warr Acres, and other cities.
As usual, the found goods by query "Mars" in Oregon can be purchased if you live in Portland, Salem, Eugene, Gresham, Hillsboro, Beaverton, Bend, Medford, Springfield, Corvallis, Albany, Tigard, Lake Oswego, Keizer, Grants Pass, Oregon City, McMinnville, Redmond, Tualatin, West Linn, Woodburn, Forest Grove, Newberg, Wilsonville, Roseburg, Klamath Falls, Ashland, Milwaukie, Sherwood, Happy Valley, Central Point, Canby, Hermiston, Pendleton, Troutdale, Lebanon, Coos Bay, The Dalles, Dallas, St. Helens, La Grande, Cornelius, Gladstone, Ontario, Sandy, Newport, Monmouth, and other cities.
And the goods by request "Mars" in Pennsylvania can be delivered to the following cities: Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Allentown, Erie, Reading, Scranton, Bethlehem, Lancaster, Harrisburg, Altoona, York, Wilkes-Barre, Chester, Williamsport, Easton, Lebanon, Hazleton, New Castle, Johnstown, McKeesport, Hermitage, Greensburg, Pottsville, Sharon, Butler, Washington, Meadville, New Kensington, Coatesville, St. Marys, Lower Burrell, Oil City, Nanticoke, Uniontown and smaller towns.
Usually, the products by request "Mars" in Rhode Island can be received in Providence, Warwick, Cranston, Pawtucket, East Providence, Woonsocket, Coventry, Cumberland, North Providence, South Kingstown, West Warwick, Johnston, North Kingstown, Newport, Bristol, Westerly, Smithfield, Lincoln, Central Falls, Portsmouth, Barrington, Middletown, Burrillville, Narragansett, Tiverton, East Greenwich, North Smithfield, Warren, Scituate, and so on.
Undoubtedly, the products related to the term "Mars" in South Carolina can be bought in Columbia, Charleston, North Charleston, Mount Pleasant, Rock Hill, Greenville, Summerville, Sumter, Hilton Head Island, Spartanburg, Florence, Goose Creek, Aiken, Myrtle Beach, Anderson, Greer, Mauldin, Greenwood, North Augusta, Easley, Simpsonville, Hanahan, Lexington, Conway, West Columbia, North Myrtle Beach, Clemson, Orangeburg, Cayce, Bluffton, Beaufort, Gaffney, Irmo, Fort Mill, Port Royal, Forest Acres, Newberry, etc.
As usual, the goods by your query "Mars" in South Dakota can be sent to Sioux Falls, Rapid City, Aberdeen, Brookings, Watertown, Mitchell, Yankton, Pierre, Huron, Spearfish, Vermillion, and so on.
Usually, the goods by request "Mars" in Tennessee can be purchased if you live in Memphis, Nashville, Knoxville, Chattanooga, Clarksville, Murfreesboro, Franklin, Jackson, Johnson City, Bartlett, Hendersonville, Kingsport, Collierville, Smyrna, Cleveland, Brentwood, Germantown, Columbia, Spring Hill, La Vergne, Gallatin, Cookeville, Mount Juliet, Lebanon, Morristown, Oak Ridge, Maryville, Bristol, Farragut, Shelbyville, East Ridge, Tullahoma...
Usually, any products related with "Mars" in Texas can be received in such cities as Houston, San Antonio, Dallas, Austin, Fort Worth, El Paso, Arlington, Corpus Christi, Plano, Laredo, Lubbock, Garland, Irving, Amarillo, Grand Prairie, Brownsville, McKinney, Frisco, Pasadena, Mesquite, Killeen, McAllen, Carrollton, Midland, Waco, Denton, Abilene, Odessa, Beaumont, Round Rock, The Woodlands, Richardson, Pearland, College Station, Wichita Falls, Lewisville, Tyler, San Angelo, League City, Allen, Sugar Land, Edinburg, Mission, Longview, Bryan, Pharr, Baytown, Missouri City, Temple, Flower Mound, New Braunfels, North Richland Hills, Conroe, Victoria, Cedar Park, Harlingen, Atascocita, Mansfield, Georgetown, San Marcos, Rowlett, Pflugerville, Port Arthur, Spring, Euless, DeSoto, Grapevine, Galveston, and so on.
And the goods named "Mars" in Utah can be shipped to Salt Lake City, West Valley City, Provo, West Jordan, Orem, Sandy, Ogden, St. George, Layton, Taylorsville, South Jordan, Logan, Lehi, Murray, Bountiful, Draper, Riverton, Roy, Spanish Fork, Pleasant Grove, Cottonwood Heights, Tooele, Springville, Cedar City, Midvale. It is also available for the people living in Kaysville, Holladay, American Fork, Clearfield, Syracuse, South Salt Lake, Herriman, Eagle Mountain, Clinton, Washington, Payson, Farmington, Brigham City, Saratoga Springs, North Ogden, South Ogden, North Salt Lake, Highland, Centerville, Hurricane, Heber City, West Haven, Lindon and smaller towns.
As usual, the products by request "Mars" in Vermont can be purchased if you live in Burlington, South Burlington, Rutland, Barre, Montpelier, Winooski, St. Albans, Newport, Vergennes, and other cities.
And today the goods named "Mars" in Virginia can be shipped to Virginia Beach, Norfolk, Chesapeake, Richmond, Newport News, Alexandria, Hampton, Roanoke, Portsmouth, Suffolk, Lynchburg, Harrisonburg, Charlottesville, Danville, Manassas, Petersburg, Fredericksburg, Winchester, Salem, Staunton, Fairfax, Hopewell, Waynesboro, Colonial Heights, Radford, Bristol, Manassas Park, Williamsburg, Falls Church, Martinsville, Poquoson, and other cities and towns.
Today the goods by request "Mars" in Washington can be purchased if you live in Seattle, Spokane, Tacoma, Vancouver, Bellevue, Kent, Everett, Renton, Federal Way, Yakima, Spokane Valley, Kirkland, Bellingham, Kennewick, Auburn, Pasco, Marysville, Lakewood, Redmond, Shoreline, Richland, Sammamish, Burien, Olympia, Lacey. And, of course, Edmonds, Puyallup, Bremerton, Lynnwood, Bothell, Longview, Issaquah, Wenatchee, Mount Vernon, University Place, Walla Walla, Pullman, Des Moines, Lake Stevens, SeaTac, Maple Valley, Mercer Island, Bainbridge Island, Oak Harbor, Kenmore, Moses Lake, Camas, Mukilteo, Mountlake Terrace, Tukwila...
And of course, the goods by your query "Mars" in West Virginia can be delivered to Charleston, Huntington, Morgantown, Parkersburg, Wheeling, Weirton, Fairmont, Martinsburg, Beckley, Clarksburg, South Charleston, St. Albans, Vienna, Bluefield, and other cities and towns.
Usually, the goods named "Mars" in Wisconsin can be shipped to Milwaukee, Madison, Green Bay, Kenosha, Racine, Appleton, Waukesha, Oshkosh, Eau Claire, Janesville, West Allis, La Crosse, Sheboygan, Wauwatosa, Fond du Lac, New Berlin, Wausau. The shipping is also available in Brookfield, Beloit, Greenfield, Franklin, Oak Creek, Manitowoc, West Bend, Sun Prairie, Superior, Stevens Point, Neenah, Fitchburg, Muskego, Watertown, De Pere, Mequon, South Milwaukee, Marshfield, etc.
Normally, the goods named "Mars" in Wyoming can be bought in Cheyenne, Casper, Laramie, Gillette, Rock Springs, Sheridan, Green River, Evanston, Riverton, Jackson, Cody, Rawlins, Lander, Torrington, Powell, Douglas, Worland.
Canada Delivery, Shipping to Canada
As you know, the goods named "Mars" in Canada can be purchased if you live in Toronto, Montreal, Calgary, Ottawa, Edmonton, Mississauga, Winnipeg, Vancouver, Brampton, Hamilton, Quebec City, Surrey, Laval, Halifax, London, Markham, Vaughan, Gatineau, Longueuil, Burnaby, Saskatoon, Kitchener, Windsor, Regina, Richmond, Richmond Hill.
And other cities and towns, such as Oakville, Burlington, Greater Sudbury, Sherbrooke, Oshawa, Saguenay, Lévis, Barrie, Abbotsford, St. Catharines, Trois-Rivières, Cambridge, Coquitlam, Kingston, Whitby, Guelph, Kelowna, Saanich, Ajax, Thunder Bay, Terrebonne, St. John's, Langley, Chatham-Kent, Delta.
It's also available for those who live in Waterloo, Cape Breton, Brantford, Strathcona County, Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Red Deer, Pickering, Kamloops, Clarington, North Vancouver, Milton, Nanaimo, Lethbridge, Niagara Falls, Repentigny, Victoria, Newmarket, Brossard, Peterborough, Chilliwack, Maple Ridge, Sault Ste. Marie, Kawartha Lakes, Sarnia, Prince George.
And other cities and towns, such as Drummondville, Saint John, Moncton, Saint-Jérôme, New Westminster, Wood Buffalo, Granby, Norfolk County, St. Albert, Medicine Hat, Caledon, Halton Hills, Port Coquitlam, Fredericton, Grande Prairie, North Bay, Blainville, Saint-Hyacinthe, Aurora, Welland, Shawinigan, Dollard-des-Ormeaux, Belleville, North Vancouver and smaller towns.
In other words, the goods related with "Mars" can be shipped to any place in Canada, including Ontario, Quebec, British Columbia, Alberta, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, and Prince Edward Island.
UK Delivery, Shipping to the United Kingdom
And of course, the found goods by query "Mars" in the United Kingdom can be purchased if you live in London, Birmingham, Leeds, Glasgow, Sheffield, Bradford, Edinburgh, Liverpool, Manchester, Bristol, Wakefield, Cardiff, Coventry, Nottingham, Leicester, Sunderland, Belfast, Newcastle upon Tyne, Brighton, Hull, Plymouth, Stoke-on-Trent.
It is also available for the people living in Wolverhampton, Derby, Swansea, Southampton, Salford, Aberdeen, Westminster, Portsmouth, York, Peterborough, Dundee, Lancaster, Oxford, Newport, Preston, St Albans, Norwich, Chester, Cambridge, Salisbury, Exeter, Gloucester. It's also available for those who live in Lisburn, Chichester, Winchester, Londonderry, Carlisle, Worcester, Bath, Durham, Lincoln, Hereford, Armagh, Inverness, Stirling, Canterbury, Lichfield, Newry, Ripon, Bangor, Truro, Ely, Wells, St. Davids, and other cities.
In fact, the found goods by query "Mars" can be shipped to any place in the UK, including England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland.
Ireland Delivery, Shipping to Ireland
As you know, the goods by request "Mars" in Ireland can be delivered to the following cities: Dublin, Cork, Limerick, Galway, Waterford, Drogheda, Dundalk, Swords, Bray, Navan, Ennis, Kilkenny, Tralee, Carlow, Newbridge, Naas, Athlone, Portlaoise, Mullingar, Wexford, Balbriggan, Letterkenny, Celbridge, Sligo. The shipping is also available in Clonmel, Greystones, Malahide, Leixlip, Carrigaline, Tullamore, Killarney, Arklow, Maynooth, Cobh, Castlebar, Midleton, Mallow, Ashbourne, Ballina, Laytown-Bettystown-Mornington, Enniscorthy, Wicklow, Tramore, Cavan, and so on.
Basically, any things related with "Mars" can be shipped to any place in Ireland, including Leinster, Ulster, Munster, and Connacht.
Australia Delivery, Shipping to Australia
As usual, the found goods by query "Mars" in Australia can be sent to Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth, Adelaide, Gold Coast, Tweed Heads, Newcastle, Maitland, Canberra, Queanbeyan, Sunshine Coast, Wollongong, Hobart, Geelong, Townsville, Cairns, Darwin, Toowoomba, Ballarat, Bendigo, Albury, Wodonga, Launceston, Mackay.
As well as in Rockhampton, Bunbury, Bundaberg, Coffs Harbour, Wagga Wagga, Hervey Bay, Mildura, Wentworth, Shepparton, Mooroopna, Gladstone, Tannum Sands, Port Macquarie, Tamworth, Traralgon, Morwell, Orange, Geraldton, Bowral, Mittagong, Dubbo, Busselton, Bathurst, Nowra, Bomaderry, Warrnambool, Albany, Warragul, Drouin, Kalgoorlie, Boulder, Devonport, and so on.
Basically, the found goods by query "Mars" can be shipped to any place in Australia, including New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, Western Australia, South Australia, Tasmania, Australian Capital Territory, and Northern Territory.
New Zealand Delivery, Shipping to New Zealand
And today the goods by your query "Mars" in New Zealand can be delivered to the following cities: Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch, Hamilton, Tauranga, Napier-Hastings, Dunedin, Lower Hutt, Palmerston North, Nelson, Rotorua, New Plymouth, Whangarei, Invercargill, Whanganui, Gisborne, Porirua, Invercargill, Nelson, Upper Hutt, Gisborne, Blenheim, Pukekohe, Timaru, Taupo, and other cities and towns.
In fact, the goods by your query "Mars" can be shipped to any place in New Zealand, including North Island, South Island, Waiheke Island, and smaller islands.
Of course,the found goods by querycan be purchased if you live inIt's also available for those who live in, and other cities.
In other words,
Abkhazia: Gagra, Gudauta, Lake Ritsa, New Athos, Ochamchire, Pitsunda, Sukhumi, Tsandryphsh, etc.
Afghanistan: Herat, Jalalabad, Kabul, Kandahar, Kunduz, Mazar-i-Sharif, Taloqan, etc.
Albania: Berat, Butrint, Dhërmi, Durrës, Gjirokastër, Himarë, Korçë, Pogradec, Qeparo, Sarandë, Shkodër, Tirana, Velipojë, Vlorë, etc.
Algeria: Algiers, Oran, etc.
American Virgin Islands: Charlotte Amalie, etc.
Andorra: Andorra la Vella, Arinsal, El Pas de la Casa, Encamp, Grandvalira, Ordino, Pal, Soldeu, Vallnord, etc.
Angola: Benguela, Luanda, etc.
Anguilla: The Valley, West End, etc.
Antigua and Barbuda: Jolly Harbour, Saint John’s, etc.
Argentina: Buenos Aires, Capilla del Monte, Colón, Córdoba, El Calafate, La Plata, Los Glaciares, Mar del Plata, Mendoza, Mina Clavero, Pinamar, Puerto Iguazú, Puerto Madryn, Rosario, Río Cuarto, Río Grande, Salta, San Carlos de Bariloche, San Martín de los Andes, San Miguel de Tucumán, San Rafael, Santa Rosa de Calamuchita, Tandil, Tierra del Fuego, Ushuaia, Villa Carlos Paz, Villa General Belgrano, Villa Gesell, Villa La Angostura, Villa de Merlo, etc.
Armenia: Dilijan, Etchmiadzin, Goris, Gyumri, Jermuk, Sevan, Stepanavan, Tsaghkadzor, Vagharshapat, Vanadzor, Yeghegnadzor, Yerevan, etc.
Aruba: Eagle Beach, Noord, Oranjestad, Palm Beach, Santa Cruz, Savaneta, etc.
Australia: Adelaide, Airlie Beach, Alice Springs, Bondi Beach, Brisbane, Byron Bay, Cairns, Canberra, Coffs Harbour, Darwin, Daylesford, Fremantle, Geelong, Gold Coast, Great Barrier Reef, Hervey Bay, Hobart, Hyams Beach, Jervis Bay, Launceston, Logan City, Mackay, Mandurah, Maroochydore, Melbourne, Mooloolaba, Mount Gambier, New South Wales, Newcastle, Noosa Heads, Northern Territory, Perth, Port Douglas, Queensland, Redland City, Rockhampton, South Australia, Surfers Paradise, Sydney, Tasmania, Toowoomba, Townsville, Ulladulla, Victor Harbor, Victoria, Western Australia, Wollongong, etc.
Austria: Abtenau, Alpbach, Austrian Alps, Bad Gastein, Bad Hofgastein, Bad Kleinkirchheim, Dürnstein, Flachau, Fugen, Graz, Hallstatt, Innsbruck, Ischgl, Kaprun, Kitzbühel, Klagenfurt, Klosterneuburg, Kufstein, Lech, Leogang, Lienz, Linz, Maria Alm, Mayrhofen, Neustift im Stubaital, Obergurgl, Saalbach-Hinterglemm, Saalfelden, Salzburg, Schladming, Seefeld, Serfaus, St. Anton, St. Johann im Pongau, Sölden, Tux, Tyrol, Vienna, Villach, Wachau, Wagrain, Zell am See, etc.
Azerbaijan: Baku, Ganja, Lankaran, Quba, Qusar, Shahdag, Sheki, Stepanakert, etc.
Bahamas: Andros, Eleuthera, Exuma, Freeport, Grand Bahama, Nassau, New Providence, Paradise Island, etc.
Bahrain: Manama, etc.
Bangladesh: Barisal, Chittagong, Cox's Bazar, Dhaka, Khulna, Mymensingh, Narayanganj, Rajshahi, Sylhet, etc.
Barbados: Bridgetown, etc.
Belarus: Babruysk, Baranavichy, Białowieża Forest, Brest Belarus, Gomel, Grodno, Lahoysk, Maladzyechna, Minsk, Mogilev, Nesvizh, Pinsk, Silichi, Slonim, Vitebsk, etc.
Belgium: Antwerp, Ardennes, Blankenberge, Bouillon, Bruges, Brussels, Charleroi, De Haan, De Panne, Durbuy, Flanders, Ghent, Hasselt, Kortrijk, Leuven, Liège, Namur, Nieuwpoort, Ostend, Spa, Ypres, Zeebrugge, etc.
Belize: Ambergris Caye, Belize City, Caye Caulker, Placencia, San Pedro, etc.
Benin: Cotonou, etc.
Bermuda: Hamilton, etc.
Bhutan: Paro, Thimphu, etc.
Bolivia: Cochabamba, El Alto, La Paz, Oruro, Quillacollo, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Sucre, Uyuni, etc.
Bosnia and Herzegovina: Banja Luka, Bihać, Jahorina, Medjugorje, Mostar, Neum, Sarajevo, Travnik, Trebinje, etc.
Botswana: Gaborone, Maun, etc.
Brazil: Amazon River, Amazonia, Angra dos Reis, Arraial do Cabo, Atlantic Forest, Balneário Camboriú, Belo Horizonte, Belém, Bombinhas, Brasília, Búzios, Cabo Frio, Camaçari, Campinas, Campos do Jordão, Caraguatatuba, Copacabana, Costa do Sauípe, Curitiba, Duque de Caxias, Fernando de Noronha, Florianópolis, Fortaleza, Foz do Iguaçu, Goiânia, Gramado, Guarujá, Guarulhos, Iguazu Falls, Ilha Grande, Ilhabela, Ilhéus, Ipanema, Itacaré, Maceió, Manaus, Morro de São Paulo, Natal, Niterói, Osasco, Ouro Preto, Paraty, Petrópolis, Porto Alegre, Porto Seguro, Praia do Forte, Recife, Ribeirão Preto, Rio de Janeiro, Salvador, Santos, São Gonçalo, São José dos Campos, São Luís, São Paulo, São Sebastião, Trancoso, Ubatuba, Vila do Abraão, etc.
British Virgin Islands: Tortola, etc.
Brunei: Bandar Seri Begawan, etc.
Bulgaria: Albena, Apriltsi, Arbanasi, Balchik, Bansko, Blagoevgrad, Borovets, Burgas, Byala, Chepelare, Chernomorets, Dobrinishte, Gabrovo, Golden Sands, Haskovo, Hisarya, Kavarna, Kazanlak, Kiten, Koprivshtitsa, Kranevo, Lovech, Lozenets, Nesebar, Obzor, Pamporovo, Pazardzhik, Pirin, Pleven, Plovdiv, Pomorie, Primorsko, Ravda, Razlog, Rila, Ruse, Saints Constantine and Helena, Samokov, Sandanski, Sapareva Banya, Shumen, Sliven, Smolyan, Sofia, Sozopol, Stara Zagora, Sunny Beach, Sveti Vlas, Targovishte, Tryavna, Tsarevo, Varna, Veliko Tarnovo, Velingrad, Vratsa, Yambol, etc.
Burkina Faso: Bobo-Dioulasso, Ouagadougou, etc.
Burundi: Bujumbura, etc.
Cambodia: Angkor, Battambang, Kampot, Kep, Phnom Penh, Siem Reap, Sihanoukville, etc.
Cameroon: Bafoussam, Bamenda, Douala, Garoua, Kribi, Limbe, Maroua, Yaoundé, etc.
Canada: Alberta, Banff, Brampton, British Columbia, Burnaby, Calgary, Charlottetown, Edmonton, Fort McMurray, Gatineau, Halifax, Hamilton, Jasper, Kamloops, Kelowna, Kingston, Kitchener, Laval, London, Longueuil, Manitoba, Markham, Mississauga, Moncton, Mont-Tremblant, Montreal, Nanaimo, New Brunswick, Niagara Falls, Niagara on the Lake, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Ottawa, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Regina, Richmond, Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Surrey, Toronto, Vancouver, Vaughan, Victoria, Whistler, Whitehorse, Windsor, Winnipeg, Yukon, etc.
Cape Verde: Boa Vista Cape Verde, Sal, etc.
Caribbean Netherlands:, etc.
Cayman Islands: George Town, Grand Cayman, West Bay, etc.
Central African Republic: Bangui, etc.
Chad: N'Djamena, etc.
Chile: Antofagasta, Arica, Atacama, Coquimbo, Easter Island, Hanga Roa, Iquique, La Serena, Patagonia, Pucón, Puerto Montt, Puerto Natales, Puerto Varas, Punta Arenas, San Pedro de Atacama, Santiago, Torres del Paine, Valdivia, Valparaíso, Villarrica, Viña del Mar, etc.
China: Anshun, Baishan, Baoding, Baoshan, Baotou, Beihai, Beijing, Binzhou, Changchun, Changsha, Changzhi, Chengdu, Chongqing, Dali, Dalian, Datong, Dengfeng, Diqing, Dongguan, Emeishan, Foshan, Great Wall of China, Guangdong, Guangzhou, Guilin, Guiyang, Hainan, Hangzhou, Harbin, Honghe, Huashan, Huizhou, Jiangmen, Jiangxi, Jiaxing, Jilin, Jinan, Jincheng, Jingdezhen, Jinzhong, Jiujiang, Jiuzhaigou, Kashgar, Kunming, Langfang, Lanzhou, Laoshan, Leshan, Lhasa, Lianyungang, Lijiang, Linfen, Linyi, Liuzhou, Luoyang, Lushan, Lüliang, Mianyang, Nanchang, Nanchong, Nanjing, Nanning, Nantong, Ngawa, Ningbo, Qiandongnan, Qingdao, Qingyuan, Qinhuangdao, Qufu, Qujing, Rizhao, Sanya, Shandong, Shanghai, Shangri-La, Shantou, Shanxi, Shaoguan, Shaolin, Shaoxing, Shenyang, Shenzhen, Shigatse, Shijiazhuang, Sichuan, Suzhou, Tai'an, Taiyuan, Taizhou Jiangsu, Tangshan, Tianjin, Tibet, Weifang, Weihai, Wuhan, Wulingyuan, Wutai, Wuxi, Xi'an, Xiamen, Xinzhou, Xishuangbanna, Ya'an, Yanbian, Yangtze, Yangzhou, Yantai, Yellow River, Yibin, Yinchuan, Yiwu, Yuncheng, Yunnan, Zhangjiajie, Zhanjiang, Zhejiang, Zhengzhou, Zhongshan, Zhongwei, Zhoushan, Zhuhai, Zunyi, Ürümqi, etc.
Colombia: Barranquilla, Bogotá, Bucaramanga, Cali, Cartagena, Medellín, Pereira, San Andrés, Santa Marta, Villa de Leyva, Villavicencio, etc.
Comoros: Moroni, etc.
Costa Rica: Alajuela, Jacó, La Fortuna, Manuel Antonio, Monteverde, Puerto Viejo de Talamanca, Puntarenas, Quepos, San José, Santa Teresa, Tamarindo, Tortuguero, etc.
Croatia: Baška Voda, Baška, Bibinje, Biograd na Moru, Bol, Brač, Brela, Cavtat, Cres, Dalmatia, Dubrovnik, Fažana, Hvar, Istria, Ičići, Karlovac, Kolocep, Korčula, Kožino, Krk, Kukljica, Lopud, Lovran, Lošinj, Makarska, Mali Lošinj, Malinska, Medulin, Mlini, Nin, Novi Vinodolski, Novigrad, Omiš, Opatija, Orebić, Pag, Pakoštane, Petrčane, Podstrana, Poreč, Povljana, Privlaka, Pula, Rab, Rabac, Rijeka, Rovinj, Slavonski Brod, Split, Stari Grad, Starigrad, Sukošan, Supetar, Sveti Filip i Jakov, Trogir, Tučepi, Umag, Vir, Vrsar, Zadar, Zagreb, Čiovo, Šibenik, Šipan, etc.
Cuba: Baracoa, Camagüey, Cayo Coco, Cayo Largo, Cayo Santa María, Cienfuegos, Guantánamo, Havana, Holguín, Pinar del Río, Remedios Cuba, Sancti Spíritus, Santa Clara Cuba, Santiago de Cuba, Trinidad, Varadero, Viñales, etc.
Curaçao: Sint Michiel, Westpunt, Willemstad, etc.
Cyprus: Ayia Napa, Coral Bay Cyprus, Famagusta, Kouklia, Kyrenia, Larnaca, Limassol, Nicosia, Paphos, Paralimni, Peyia, Pissouri, Polis, Protaras, etc.
Czech Republic: Bohemia, Brno, Děčín, Františkovy Lázně, Frymburk, Frýdek-Místek, Harrachov, Hradec Králové, Jihlava, Karlovy Vary, Kladno, Krkonoše, Kutná Hora, Liberec, Lipno nad Vltavou, Marienbad, Mikulov, Mladá Boleslav, Mělník, Olomouc, Ostrava, Pardubice, Plzeň, Poděbrady, Prague, Teplice, Třeboň, Zlín, Znojmo, Ústí nad Labem, České Budějovice, Český Krumlov, Špindlerův Mlýn, Železná Ruda, etc.
Democratic Republic of the Congo: Kinshasa, etc.
Denmark: Aalborg, Aarhus, Billund, Copenhagen, Ebeltoft, Esbjerg, Frederikshavn, Greenland, Helsingør, Herning, Hirtshals, Hjørring, Holstebro, Ilulissat, Jutland, Kerteminde, Nuuk, Odense, Ringkøbing, Silkeborg, Skagen, Skive, Sønderborg, Vejle, Viborg, etc.
Djibouti: Djibouti City, etc.
Dominican Republic: Boca Chica, Bávaro, Cabarete, La Romana, Las Terrenas, Puerto Plata, Punta Cana, Santiago de los Caballeros, Santo Domingo, Sosúa, etc.
East Timor: Dili, etc.
Ecuador: Baños, Cuenca, Galápagos Islands, Guayaquil, Manta, Otavalo, Puerto Ayora, Puerto López, Quito, Salinas, etc.
Egypt: Abu Simbel, Al Qusair, Alexandria, Aswan, Cairo, Dahab, El Alamein, El Gouna, El Hadaba, Faiyum, Giza, Hurghada, Luxor, Marsa Alam, Mersa Matruh, Naama Bay, Nabq Bay, Nile, Nuweiba, Port Said, Red Sea, Safaga, Sahl Hasheesh, Scharm asch-Schaich, Sharks Bay, Sinai, Suez, Taba, Valley of the Kings, etc.
El Salvador: La Libertad, San Salvador, etc.
Equatorial Guinea: Malabo, etc.
Eritrea: Asmara, etc.
Estonia: Haapsalu, Kuressaare, Narva, Pärnu, Saaremaa, Tallinn, Tartu, etc.
Ethiopia: Addis Ababa, Bahir Dar, Gondar, etc.
Falkland Islands: Stanley, etc.
Faroe Islands: Sørvágur, Tórshavn, etc.
Fiji: Nadi, Suva, Viti Levu Island, etc.
Finland: Espoo, Helsinki, Imatra, Joensuu, Jyväskylä, Jämsä, Kotka, Kuopio, Kuusamo, Lahti, Lapland, Lappeenranta, Levi, Mariehamn, Mikkeli, Moomin World, Naantali, Nilsiä, Oulu, Pori, Porvoo, Pyhätunturi, Rovaniemi, Rukatunturi, Saariselkä, Saimaa, Tampere, Turku, Vaasa, Vantaa, Vuokatti, Åland Islands, etc.
France: Aix-en-Provence, Ajaccio, Alsace, Angers, Annecy, Antibes, Aquitaine, Arles, Auch, Auvergne, Avignon, Avoriaz, Bayonne, Beaune, Besançon, Biarritz, Bonifacio, Bordeaux, Boulogne-sur-Mer, Briançon, Brittany, Burgundy, Cabourg, Cagnes-sur-Mer, Calais, Calvi, Canet-en-Roussillon, Cannes, Carcassonne, Cassis, Cavalaire-sur-Mer, Chambéry, Chamonix, Clermont-Ferrand, Colmar, Corsica, Courchevel, Deauville, Dijon, Dunkirk, French Alps, French Riviera, Fréjus, Grenoble, Grimaud, Honfleur, Hyères, La Ciotat, La Plagne, La Roche-sur-Yon, La Rochelle, La Tranche-sur-Mer, Le Grau-du-Roi, Le Havre, Le Lavandou, Le Mans, Le Puy-en-Velay, Les Arcs, Les Gets, Les Issambres, Les Menuires, Les Sables-d'Olonne, Lille, Limoges, Lourdes, Lyon, Mandelieu-la-Napoule, Marseille, Megève, Menton, Mont-Dore, Montpellier, Morzine, Méribel, Nantes, Narbonne, Nice, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, Normandy, Nîmes, Paradiski, Paris, Pas-de-Calais, Perpignan, Portes du Soleil, Porto-Vecchio, Provence, Périgueux, Reims, Rhône-Alpes, Rouen, Royan, Saint-Gervais-les-Bains, Saint-Jean-de-Monts, Saint-Malo, Saint-Martin-de-Belleville, Saint-Raphaël, Saint-Rémy-de-Provence, Saint-Tropez, Sainte-Maxime, Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer, Saumur, Strasbourg, The Three Valleys, Tignes, Toulon, Toulouse, Tours, Trouville-sur-Mer, Val Thorens, Val-d'Isère, Vendée, Versailles, Vichy, Étretat, Île-de-France, etc.
French Guiana: Cayenne, Kourou, etc.
French Polynesia: Bora Bora, Mo'orea, Papeete, Tahiti, etc.
Gabon: Franceville, Libreville, Moanda, Port-Gentil, etc.
Gambia: Banjul, Serekunda, etc.
Georgia: Bakuriani, Batumi, Borjomi, Gori, Gudauri, Kobuleti, Kutaisi, Mestia, Mtskheta, Poti, Sighnaghi, Stepantsminda, Tbilisi, Telavi, Zugdidi, etc.
Germany: Aachen, Augsburg, Bad Birnbach, Bad Driburg, Bad Elster, Bad Ems, Bad Füssing, Bad Godesberg, Bad Harzburg, Bad Homburg, Bad Kissingen, Bad Kreuznach, Bad Mergentheim, Bad Neuenahr-Ahrweiler, Bad Reichenhall, Bad Salzuflen, Bad Schandau, Baden-Baden, Baden-Württemberg, Bamberg, Bavaria, Bayerisch Eisenstein, Berchtesgaden, Bergen auf Rügen, Berlin, Bernkastel-Kues, Bielefeld, Binz, Bochum, Bodenmais, Bonn, Bottrop, Brandenburg, Braunlage, Braunschweig, Bremen, Bremerhaven, Brilon, Chemnitz, Cochem, Cologne, Cuxhaven, Dortmund, Dresden, Duisburg, Düsseldorf, Eisenach, Erfurt, Erlangen, Essen, Europa-Park, Flensburg, Frankfurt, Freiburg, Freudenstadt, Friedrichshafen, Fürth, Füssen, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Gelsenkirchen, Glowe, Goslar, Görlitz, Göttingen, Hamburg, Hanover, Heide Park, Heidelberg, Heiligendamm, Heligoland, Hesse, Hinterzarten, Idar-Oberstein, Ingolstadt, Inzell, Karlsruhe, Kiel, Koblenz, Konstanz, Krefeld, Lake Constance, Lam, Leipzig, Lindau, Lower Saxony, Ludwigsburg, Lörrach, Lübeck, Magdeburg, Mainz, Mannheim, Marburg, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Medebach, Monschau, Munich, Mönchengladbach, Mülheim an der Ruhr, Münster, Neuschwanstein Castle, Neuss, Norddeich, Norden, Norderney, North Rhine-Westphalia, Nuremberg, Oberhausen, Oberstdorf, Oldenburg, Olsberg, Osnabrück, Paderborn, Pforzheim, Potsdam, Putbus, Quedlinburg, Rathen, Regensburg, Rhineland-Palatinate, Rostock, Rothenburg ob der Tauber, Ruhpolding, Rust, Rügen, Saarbrücken, Saarland, Sassnitz, Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, Schleswig-Holstein, Schluchsee, Schmallenberg, Schwerin, Schönau am Königsee, Sindelfingen, Singen, Solingen, Soltau, Spandau, Speyer, Stralsund, Stuttgart, Sylt, Thuringia, Titisee-Neustadt, Travemünde, Trier, Ulm, Warnemünde, Weimar, Wernigerode, Westerland, Wiesbaden, Winterberg, Wolfsburg, Wuppertal, Würzburg, Xanten, Zingst, Zwiesel, Überlingen, etc.
Ghana: Accra, Ashaiman, Cape Coast, Koforidua, Kumasi, Sekondi-Takoradi, etc.
Greece: Acharavi, Aegina, Afantou, Afytos, Agios Gordios, Andros, Arkadia, Athens, Cephalonia, Chania, Chaniotis, Chios, Corfu, Corinth, Crete, Cyclades, Dassia, Delphi, Dodecanese, Faliraki, Halkidiki, Heraklion, Hersonissos, Hydra, Ialysos, Ionian Islands, Kalamata, Kalavryta, Kalymnos, Kardamaina, Karpathos, Kassandra, Kastoria, Katerini, Kavos, Kefalos, Kokkari, Kos, Kriopigi, Laganas, Lefkada, Lemnos, Lesbos, Lindos, Loutraki, Marathokampos, Meteora, Mithymna, Monemvasia, Mount Athos, Mykonos, Mytilene, Nafplio, Naxos, Neos Marmaras, Paleokastritsa, Parga, Patmos, Patras, Pefkochori, Pefkos, Peloponnese, Polychrono, Poros, Pythagoreio, Rethymno, Rhodes, Samos, Samothrace, Santorini, Sidari, Sithonia, Sparta, Spetses, Sporades, Syros, Thasos, Thessaloniki, Tingaki, Zakynthos, etc.
Guadeloupe: Saint-François, etc.
Guam: Tamuning, Tumon, etc.
Guatemala: Antigua Guatemala, etc.
Guinea: Conakry, etc.
Guinea-Bissau: Bissau, etc.
Guyana: Georgetown, etc.
Haiti: Cap-Haitien, Port-au-Prince, etc.
Honduras: Roatán, Tegucigalpa, etc.
Hong Kong: Causeway Bay, Hong Kong Island, Kowloon, Mong Kok, New Territories, Repulse Bay, Tsim Sha Tsui, Wan Chai, etc.
Hungary: Balatonfüred, Budapest, Eger, Gyula, Hajdúszoboszló, Hévíz, Keszthely, Lake Balaton, Pécs, Siófok, Szeged, Székesfehérvár, Zalakaros, etc.
Iceland: Akureyri, Blue Lagoon, Borgarnes, Egilsstaðir, Garðabær, Hafnarfjörður, Hveragerði, Höfn, Keflavík, Kópavogur, Reykjavik, Selfoss, Vík í Mýrdal, Ísafjörður, etc.
India: Agartala, Agra, Ahmedabad, Ajmer, Alappuzha, Allahabad, Amritsar, Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Aurangabad, Ayodhya, Bangalore, Belgaum, Bhopal, Bhubaneswar, Bikaner, Chandigarh, Chennai, Chhattisgarh, Coimbatore, Cuttack, Darjeeling, Dehradun, Delhi, Dharamshala, Fatehpur Sikri, Gangtok, Goa, Gujarat, Gurgaon, Guwahati, Gwalior, Hajipur, Hampi, Haridwar, Himachal Pradesh, Howrah, Hyderabad, Indore, Jabalpur, Jaipur, Jaisalmer, Jalandhar, Jammu and Kashmir, Jammu, Jodhpur, Kanpur, Karnataka, Katra, Kerala, Khajuraho, Kochi, Kolhapur, Kolkata, Kollam, Kozhikode, Ladakh, Leh, Lucknow, Ludhiana, Madhya Pradesh, Madikeri, Madurai, Maharashtra, Malvan, Manali, Mangalore, Manipur, Mathura, Mount Abu, Mumbai, Munnar, Mussoorie, Mysore, Nagpur, Nainital, Nashik, Navi Mumbai, New Delhi, Noida, Odisha, Ooty, Pachmarhi, Pahalgam, Palakkad, Patna, Pollachi, Pune, Punjab, Puri, Pushkar, Raipur, Rajasthan, Ramnagar, Ratnagiri, Rishikesh, Sawai Madhopur, Shimla, Sikkim, Siliguri, Srinagar, Tamil Nadu, Thane, Thiruvananthapuram, Thrissur, Tirupati, Udaipur, Ujjain, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Varanasi, Varkala, Vijayawada, Visakhapatnam, West Bengal, etc.
Indonesia: Bali, Balikpapan, Bandung, Batu, Bintan, Bogor, Borobudur, Denpasar, Jakarta, Java, Jimbaran, Kalimantan, Kuta, Lombok, Makassar, Malang, Mataram, Medan, Nusa Dua, Padang, Palembang, Pekanbaru, Sanur, Semarang, Seminyak, Sumatra, Surabaya, Surakarta, Ubud, Yogyakarta, etc.
Iran: Isfahan, Mashhad, Shiraz, Tehran, etc.
Iraq: Baghdad, Basra, Duhok, Erbil, Karbala, Sulaymaniyah, etc.
Ireland: Achill Island, Bray, Bundoran, Carlow, Clifden, Connemara, Cork, Dingle, Donegal, Doolin, Drogheda, Dublin, Dundalk, Ennis, Galway, Glendalough, Kenmare, Kilkenny, Killarney, Letterkenny, Limerick, Navan, Shannon, Swords, Tralee, Waterford, Westport, etc.
Isle of Man: Douglas, Port Erin, etc.
Israel: Acre, Amirim, Arad, Ashdod, Ashkelon, Bat Yam, Beersheba, Caesarea, Dead Sea, Eilat, Ein Bokek, Galilee, Golan Heights, Gush Dan, Had Nes, Haifa, Hermon, Herzliya, Jaffa, Jerusalem, Katzrin, Metula, Mitzpe Ramon, Nahariya, Nazareth, Netanya, Petah Tikva, Ramat Gan, Ramot, Rishon LeZion, Rosh Pinna, Safed, Sea of Galilee, Tel Aviv, Tiberias, Zikhron Ya'akov, etc.
Italy: Abano Terme, Abruzzo, Agrigento, Alassio, Alberobello, Alghero, Amalfi Coast, Ancona, Aosta Valley, Apulia, Arezzo, Arona, Arzachena, Asciano, Ascoli Piceno, Assisi, Asti, Bardolino, Bari, Basilicata, Baveno, Bellagio, Bellaria-Igea Marina, Benevento, Bergamo, Bologna, Bolzano, Bordighera, Bormio, Bracciano, Brescia, Breuil-Cervinia, Brindisi, Cagliari, Calabria, Campania, Canazei, Caorle, Capri, Carrara, Castelnuovo Berardenga, Castiglion Fiorentino, Castiglione d'Orcia, Castiglione del Lago, Castiglione della Pescaia, Catania, Cattolica, Cefalù, Cervia, Cesena, Cesenatico, Chianciano Terme, Chieti, Chioggia, Cinque Terre, Città della Pieve, Civitavecchia, Cortina d'Ampezzo, Cortona, Costa Smeralda, Courmayeur, Desenzano del Garda, Dolomites, Elba, Emilia-Romagna, Ercolano, Fabriano, Fano, Fasano, Fassa Valley, Ferrara, Finale Ligure, Fiumicino, Florence, Forte dei Marmi, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Gabicce Mare, Gaeta, Gallipoli, Genoa, Golfo Aranci, Greve in Chianti, Grosseto, Gubbio, Herculaneum, Imperia, Ischia, Italian Alps, Jesolo, L'Aquila, La Spezia, Lake Como, Lake Garda, Lake Maggiore, Lampedusa, Lazio, Lazise, Lecco, Lerici, Lido di Jesolo, Lignano Sabbiadoro, Liguria, Livigno, Livorno, Lombardy, Lucca, Madonna di Campiglio, Malcesine, Manarola, Mantua, Maratea, Massa, Matera, Menaggio, Merano, Messina, Mestre, Milan, Milazzo, Misano Adriatico, Monopoli, Montalcino, Montecatini Terme, Montepulciano, Monterosso al Mare, Monza, Naples, Nardò, Novara, Olbia, Ortisei, Ostuni, Otranto, Padua, Palermo, Parma, Perugia, Pesaro, Pescara, Peschici, Peschiera del Garda, Piacenza, Piedmont, Pienza, Pisa, Pistoia, Pitigliano, Polignano a Mare, Pompeii, Pordenone, Porto Cervo, Porto Cesareo, Portoferraio, Portofino, Positano, Prato, Ragusa, Rapallo, Rapolano Terme, Ravenna, Riccione, Rimini, Riomaggiore, Riva del Garda, Rome, Salerno, San Casciano dei Bagni, San Gimignano, Sanremo, Sardinia, Savona, Sestriere, Sicily, Siena, Sinalunga, Siracusa, Sirmione, Sorrento, Sottomarina, Sperlonga, Stresa, Sëlva, Taormina, Taranto, Terracina, Tivoli, Torrita di Siena, Trani, Trapani, Trentino-Alto Adige, Trento, Treviso, Trieste, Tropea, Turin, Tuscany, Umbria, Urbino, Val Gardena, Veneto, Venice, Ventimiglia, Verbania, Vernazza, Verona, Vesuvius, Viareggio, Vicenza, Vieste, Viterbo, etc.
Ivory Coast: Abidjan, Assinie-Mafia, Bouaké, San-Pédro, Yamoussoukro, etc.
Jamaica: Kingston, Montego Bay, Negril, Ocho Rios, Port Antonio, Runaway Bay, etc.
Japan: Atami, Chiba, Fujisawa, Fukuoka, Furano, Hakodate, Hakone, Hakuba, Hamamatsu, Hiroshima, Hokkaido, Ishigaki, Itō, Kagoshima, Kanagawa, Kanazawa, Karuizawa, Kashiwa, Kawasaki, Kitakyushu, Kobe, Kusatsu, Kutchan, Kyoto, Lake Suwa, Matsumoto, Miyakojima, Nagasaki, Nagoya, Naha, Nanjō, Nikkō, Okinawa, Onna, Osaka, Sapporo, Sendai, Shizuoka, Takayama, Tokyo, Tsuyama, Yamanouchi, Yokohama, etc.
Jordan: Amman, Aqaba, Irbid, Jerash, Madaba, Petra, Sweimeh, Wadi Musa, Wadi Rum, Zarqa, etc.
Kazakhstan: Aktau, Aktobe, Almaty, Astana, Atyrau, Burabay, Karagandy, Kokshetau, Kostanay, Lake Balkhash, Oskemen, Pavlodar, Semey, Shymbulak, Shymkent, Taraz, etc.
Kenya: Kisumu, Lake Victoria, Masai Mara, Mombasa, Nairobi, Ukunda, etc.
Kiribati: South Tarawa, etc.
Kongo: Brazzaville, Pointe-Noire, etc.
Kosovo: Pristina, Prizren, etc.
Kuwait: Hawally, Kuwait City, Salmiya, etc.
Kyrgyzstan: Bishkek, Bosteri, Cholpon-Ata, Issyk Kul, Karakol, Osh, etc.
Laos: Luang Prabang, Vang Vieng, Vientiane, etc.
Latvia: Cēsis, Daugavpils, Jelgava, Jūrmala, Liepāja, Riga, Rēzekne, Sigulda, Ventspils, etc.
Lebanon: Baalbeck, Beirut, Byblos, Faraya, Jounieh, Mzaar Kfardebian, Tripoli, etc.
Lesotho: Maseru, etc.
Liberia: Monrovia, etc.
Libya: Benghazi, Tripoli, etc.
Liechtenstein: Schaan, Vaduz, etc.
Lithuania: Druskininkai, Kaunas, Klaipėda, Nida, Palanga, Panevėžys, Trakai, Vilnius, Šiauliai, Šventoji, etc.
Luxembourg: Differdange, Dudelange, Echternach, Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg City, Vianden, etc.
Macedonia: Bitola, Mavrovo, Ohrid, Skopje, etc.
Madagascar: Antananarivo, etc.
Malawi: Blantyre, Lilongwe, etc.
Malaysia: Borneo, George Town, Ipoh, Johor Bahru, Johor, Kedah, Kota Bharu, Kota Kinabalu, Kuah, Kuala Lumpur, Kuala Terengganu, Kuantan, Kuching, Langkawi, Malacca, Penang, Putrajaya, Sabah, Sarawak, Selangor, Shah Alam, etc.
Maldives: Kaafu Atoll, Malé, etc.
Mali: Bamako, etc.
Malta: Birżebbuġa, Buġibba, Gozo, Gżira, Mellieħa, Paceville, Pembroke, Qawra, Sliema, St. Julian's, St. Paul's Bay, Valletta, etc.
Martinique: Fort-de-France, La Trinité, Le Diamant, Les Trois-Îlets, Sainte-Luce, etc.
Mauritania: Nouakchott, etc.
Mauritius: Port Louis, etc.
Mexico: Acapulco, Akumal, Cabo San Lucas, Cancún, Chetumal, Chichen Itza, Chihuahua, Ciudad Juárez, Cozumel, Cuernavaca, Guadalajara, Guanajuato, Guaymas, Isla Mujeres, Ixtapa, Los Cabos, Manzanillo, Mazatlán, Monterrey, Mérida, Oaxaca, Playa del Carmen, Puebla, Puerto Aventuras, Puerto Escondido, Puerto Morelos, Puerto Peñasco, Puerto Vallarta, Querétaro, Riviera Maya, San Carlos, San Cristóbal de las Casas, San Francisco de Campeche, San Miguel de Allende, San Miguel de Cozumel, Teotihuacan, Tijuana, Toluca, Tulum, Zihuatanejo, etc.
Moldova: Bălți, Chișinău, Tiraspol, etc.
Monaco: Monte Carlo, etc.
Mongolia: Darkhan, Erdenet, Ulaanbaatar, etc.
Montenegro: Bar, Bečići, Bijela, Budva, Cetinje, Dobra Voda, Dobrota, Herceg Novi, Igalo, Kolašin, Kotor, Miločer, Nikšić, Perast, Petrovac, Podgorica, Prčanj, Sutomore, Sveti Stefan, Tivat, Ulcinj, Žabljak, etc.
Montserrat: Plymouth, etc.
Morocco: Agadir, Asilah, Casablanca, Chefchaouen, El Jadida, Essaouira, Fez, Marrakesh, Meknes, Merzouga, Mohammedia, Nador, Ouarzazate, Rabat, Tangier, Taroudant, Tinghir, Tétouan, etc.
Mozambique: Maputo, etc.
Myanmar: Mandalay, Naypyidaw, Nyaung Shwe, Yangon, etc.
Namibia: Rundu, Swakopmund, Walvis Bay, Windhoek, etc.
Nepal: Chitwan, Himalayas, Kathmandu, Lukla, Lumbini, Mount Everest, Nagarkot, Namche Bazaar, Patan, Pokhara, Tengboche, etc.
Netherlands: 's-Hertogenbosch, Alkmaar, Amersfoort, Amsterdam, Arnhem, Breda, Delft, Domburg, Dordrecht, Eindhoven, Groningen, Haarlem, Leiden, Maastricht, Nijmegen, Noordwijk, Rotterdam, Texel, The Hague, Utrecht, Valkenburg aan de Geul, Wijk aan Zee, Zandvoort, etc.
New Caledonia: Nouméa, etc.
New Zealand: Auckland, Christchurch, Dunedin, Gisborne, Hamilton, Hastings, Invercargill, Kaikoura, Lower Hutt, Napier, Nelson, New Plymouth, North Island, Palmerston North, Porirua, Queenstown, Rotorua, South Island, Taupo, Tauranga, Waiheke Island, Wanaka, Wellington, Whangarei, etc.
Nicaragua: Granada, Managua, etc.
Nigeria: Abuja, Benin City, Calabar, Enugu, Ibadan, Ilorin, Jos, Kaduna, Lagos, Owerri, Port Harcourt, Uyo, etc.
Niue: Alofi, etc.
North Korea: Pyongyang, etc.
Northern Mariana Islands: Saipan, etc.
Norway: Arendal, Aurland, Beitostølen, Bergen, Bodø, Bærum, Fredrikstad, Gardermoen, Geilo, Geirangerfjord, Hardangerfjord, Hemsedal, Kirkenes, Kristiansand, Kristiansund, Larvik, Lillehammer, Lillestrøm, Lofoten, Narvik, Nordkapp, Nordland, Nærøyfjord, Oppdal, Oslo, Rana, Rauma, Røros, Sandnes, Sandvika, Sarpsborg, Sognefjord, Stavanger, Stryn, Svalbard, Svolvær, Tromsø, Trondheim, Vardø, Vestvågøy, Voss, Ålesund, etc.
Oman: Muscat, Nizwa, Salalah, Seeb, etc.
Pakistan: Bhurban, Faisalabad, Islamabad, Karachi, Lahore, Peshawar, Rawalpindi, etc.
Palau: Koror, Peleliu, etc.
Palestine: Beit Sahour, Bethlehem, Hebron, Jenin, Jericho, Nablus, Ramallah, etc.
Panama: Bocas del Toro, etc.
Papua New Guinea: Port Moresby, etc.
Paraguay: Asunción, Ciudad Del Este, Encarnación, Panama City, etc.
Peru: Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Chiclayo, Cusco, Huancayo, Huanchaco, Huaraz, Ica, Iquitos, Lima, Machu Picchu, Máncora, Nazca, Ollantaytambo, Paracas, Pisco, Piura, Puerto Maldonado, Puno, Tacna, Tarapoto, Trujillo, Urubamba, etc.
Philippines: Angeles City, Antipolo, Bacolod, Bacoor, Baguio, Batangas, Bohol, Boracay, Cagayan de Oro, Calamba, Caloocan, Cebu, Coron, Dasmariñas, Davao, Dumaguete, El Nido, General Santos, Iloilo City, Kalibo, Lapu-Lapu City, Las Piñas, Luzon, Mactan, Makati, Mandaue, Manila, Marikina, Mindanao, Muntinlupa, Olongapo, Palawan, Panglao, Parañaque, Pasay, Pasig, Puerto Galera, Puerto Princesa, Quezon City, Tagaytay, Tagbilaran, Taguig, Valenzuela, Visayas, Zamboanga, etc.
Poland: Augustów, Białka Tatrzańska, Białowieża Forest, Białystok, Bielsko-Biała, Bukowina Tatrzańska, Bydgoszcz, Ciechocinek, Częstochowa, Darłowo, Elbląg, Gdańsk, Gdynia, Giżycko, Gorzów Wielkopolski, Jastarnia, Jastrzębia Góra, Kalisz, Katowice, Kielce, Koszalin, Kołobrzeg, Kraków, Krynica Morska, Krynica-Zdrój, Lublin, Malbork, Mikołajki, Międzyzdroje, Mrągowo, Olsztyn, Opole, Oświęcim, Poznań, Puck, Płock, Radom, Rzeszów, Sopot, Stargard, Szczawnica, Szczecin, Szczyrk, Słubice, Tarnów, Toruń, Tricity, Ustka, Ustroń, Warsaw, Wisła, Wrocław, Władysławowo, Zakopane, Zielona Góra, Łeba, Łódź, Świnoujście, etc.
Portugal: Albufeira, Algarve, Aljezur, Almancil, Armação de Pêra, Azores, Braga, Cabanas de Tavira, Carvoeiro, Cascais, Castro Marim, Coimbra, Estoril, Faro, Figueira da Foz, Funchal, Fátima, Guimarães, Lagoa, Lagos, Lisbon, Loulé, Madeira, Monte Gordo, Nazaré, Olhão, Ponta Delgada, Portimão, Porto, Praia da Luz, Quarteira, Sesimbra, Silves, Sintra, Tavira, Vila Real de Santo António, Vila do Bispo, Vilamoura, Évora, etc.
Puerto Rico: Bayamón, Caguas, Carolina, Mayagüez, Ponce, San Juan, Vieques, etc.
Qatar: Doha, etc.
Romania: Bran, Brașov, Bucharest, Cluj-Napoca, Constanța, Poiana Brașov, Sibiu, Sighișoara, Timișoara, Transylvania, etc.
Russia: Abakan, Abrau-Dyurso, Abzakovo, Adler, Altai Republic, Alupka, Alushta, Anadyr, Anapa, Angarsk, Apatity, Arkhangelsk, Arkhipo Osipovka, Arkhyz, Armavir, Astrakhan, Bakhchysarai, Balaklava, Balakovo, Balashikha, Baltic Sea, Barnaul, Belgorod, Belokurikha, Biysk, Black Sea, Blagoveshchensk, Bolshoy Utrish, Bratsk, Bryansk, Caucasian Mineral Waters, Cheboksary, Chelyabinsk, Cherepovets, Cherkessk, Chita, Chornomorske, Crimea, Curonian Spit, Dagomys, Divnomorskoye, Dombay, Domodedovo, Dzerzhinsk, Dzhankhot, Dzhemete, Dzhubga, Elektrostal, Elista, Engels, Estosadok, Feodosia, Foros, Gaspra, Gatchina, Gelendzhik, Golden Ring, Golubitskaya, Gorky Gorod, Gornaya Karusel, Gorno-Altaysk, Goryachy Klyuch, Grozny, Gurzuf, Irkutsk, Ivanovo, Izhevsk, Kabardinka, Kaliningrad, Kaluga, Kamchatka, Kamensk-Uralsky, Karelia, Kazan, Kemerovo, Kerch, Khabarovsk, Khanty-Mansiysk, Khibiny, Khimki, Khosta, Kirov, Kirovsk, Kislovodsk, Kizhi, Koktebel, Kolomna, Kolpino, Komsomolsk on Amur, Konakovo, Koreiz, Korobitsyno, Korolev, Kostroma, Krasnaya Polyana, Krasnodar Krai, Krasnodar, Krasnogorsk, Krasnoyarsk, Kudepsta, Kurgan, Kursk, Kyzyl, Lake Baikal, Lake Seliger, Lazarevskoye, Lipetsk, Listvyanka, Loo, Lyubertsy, Magadan, Magnitogorsk, Makhachkala, Massandra, Matsesta, Maykop, Miass, Mineralnye Vody, Moscow, Mount Elbrus, Murmansk, Murom, Mytishchi, Naberezhnye Chelny, Nakhodka, Nalchik, Naryan-Mar, Nebug, Nizhnekamsk, Nizhnevartovsk, Nizhny Novgorod, Nizhny Tagil, Norilsk, Novokuznetsk, Novorossiysk, Novosibirsk, Novyi Svit, Novyy Urengoy, Obninsk, Odintsovo, Olginka, Omsk, Orenburg, Orsk, Oryol, Partenit, Penza, Pereslavl Zalessky, Perm, Pervouralsk, Petergof, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, Petrozavodsk, Plyos, Podolsk, Popovka, Prielbrusye, Primorsko-Akhtarsk, Pskov, Pulkovo, Pushkin, Pushkino, Pyatigorsk, Repino, Rosa Khutor, Rostov-on-Don, Ryazan, Rybachye, Rybinsk, Saint Petersburg, Sakhalin, Saky, Salekhard, Samara, Saransk, Saratov, Sea of Azov, Sergiyev Posad, Serpukhov, Sestroretsk, Sevastopol, Shakhty, Sheregesh, Sheremetyevo, Siberia, Simeiz, Simferopol, Smolensk, Sochi, Solovetsky Islands, Sortavala, Stary Oskol, Stavropol, Sterlitamak, Sudak, Sukko, Surgut, Suzdal, Svetlogorsk, Syktyvkar, Syzran, Taganrog, Taman, Tambov, Tarusa, Temryuk, Terskol, Tobolsk, Tolyatti, Tomsk, Torzhok, Tuapse, Tula, Tver, Tyumen, Ufa, Uglich, Ukhta, Ulan-Ude, Ulyanovsk, Usinsk, Ussuriysk, Utes, Valaam, Valday, Vardane, Velikiye Luki, Veliky Novgorod, Veliky Ustyug, Vityazevo, Vladikavkaz, Vladimir, Vladivostok, Vnukovo International Airport, Volga, Volgodonsk, Volgograd, Vologda, Volzhskiy, Vorkuta, Voronezh, Vyborg, Yakhroma, Yakornaya Shchel, Yakutsk, Yalta, Yaroslavl, Yekaterinburg, Yelets, Yenisei, Yessentuki, Yevpatoria, Yeysk, Yoshkar-Ola, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, Zavidovo, Zelenogradsk, Zheleznovodsk, Zhukovsky, Zvenigorod, etc.
Rwanda: Butare, Gisenyi, Kibuye, Kigali, etc.
Réunion: Saint-Denis, etc.
Saint Barthélemy: Gustavia, etc.
Saint Kitts and Nevis: Basseterre, etc.
Saint Lucia: Anse La Raye, Castries, Gros Islet, Soufrière, etc.
Saint Martin:, etc.
Saint Pierre and Miquelon: Saint Pierre, etc.
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines: Kingstown, etc.
Samoa: Apia, etc.
San Marino: City of San Marino, etc.
Saudi Arabia: Abha, Al Khobar, Buraydah, Dammam, Jeddah, Jizan, Jubail, Mecca, Medina, Riyadh, Ta'if, Tabuk, Yanbu, etc.
Senegal: Dakar, etc.
Serbia: Belgrade, Kopaonik, Niš, Novi Sad, Palić, Stara Planina, Subotica, Zlatibor, etc.
Seychelles: La Digue, Mahé, Praslin, etc.
Sierra Leone: Freetown, etc.
Singapore: Changi, Sentosa, etc.
Sint Maarten:, etc.
Slovakia: Bratislava, Jasná, Košice, Liptov, Tatranská Lomnica, Vysoké Tatry, Štrbské Pleso, etc.
Slovenia: Bled, Bohinj, Bovec, Kranjska Gora, Ljubljana, Maribor, Piran, Portorož, Rogaška Slatina, etc.
Solomon Islands: Honiara, etc.
Somalia: Mogadishu, etc.
Somaliland: Hargeisa, etc.
South Africa: Ballito, Benoni, Bloemfontein, Boksburg, Cape Town, Drakensberg, Durban, East London, George, Johannesburg, Kempton Park, Kimberley, Knysna, Kruger National Park, Marloth Park, Mossel Bay, Nelspruit, Pietermaritzburg, Plettenberg Bay, Polokwane, Port Elizabeth, Potchefstroom, Pretoria, Rustenburg, Sandton, Stellenbosch, Umhlanga, etc.
South Korea: Busan, Cheongju, Daegu, Daejeon, Gangneung, Gapyeong, Gwangju, Gwangyang, Gyeongju, Incheon, Jejudo, Jeonju, Pyeongchang, Seogwipo, Seoul, Sokcho, Suwon, Ulsan, Yangyang, Yeosu, etc.
Spain: A Coruña, Alcúdia, Algeciras, Alicante, Almería, Altea, Andalusia, Antequera, Aragon, Asturias, Ayamonte, Baiona, Balearic Islands, Barbate, Barcelona, Basque Country, Benalmádena, Benidorm, Benissa, Besalú, Bilbao, Blanes, Buñol, Cadaqués, Cala d'Or, Calella, Calonge, Calp, Calvià, Cambados, Cambrils, Canary Islands, Cangas de Onís, Cantabria, Cartagena, Castilla-La Mancha, Catalonia, Chiclana de la Frontera, Costa Blanca, Costa Brava, Costa Dorada, Costa del Maresme, Costa del Sol, Cádiz, Córdoba, Dénia, El Puerto de Santa María, Empuriabrava, Estepona, Figueres, Formentera, Fuerteventura, Galicia, Gijón, Girona, Gran Canaria, Granada, Ibiza, Jerez de la Frontera, L'Escala, L'Estartit, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, La Pineda, Lanzarote, Las Palmas, Llançà, Lleida, Lloret de Mar, Madrid, Magaluf, Malgrat de Mar, Mallorca, Marbella, Maspalomas, Menorca, Mijas, Mojácar, Moraira, Murcia, Málaga, Navarre, Nerja, O Grove, Ourense, Oviedo, Palma Nova, Palma de Mallorca, Pals, Poio, Pollença, Pontevedra, PortAventura, Portonovo, Ronda, Roquetas de Mar, Roses, Salamanca, Salou, San Sebastian, Sant Antoni de Portmany, Santander, Santiago de Compostela, Santillana del Mar, Sanxenxo, Seville, Sidges, Sierra Nevada, Tarifa, Tarragona, Tenerife, Toledo, Torremolinos, Torrevieja, Torroella de Montgrí, Tossa de Mar, Valencia, Vigo, Vélez-Málaga, Xàbia, Zaragoza, etc.
Sri Lanka: Anuradhapura, Bentota, Beruwala, Colombo, Dambulla, Galle, Hikkaduwa, Jaffna, Kandy, Mirissa, Negombo, Nuwara Eliya, Sigiriya, Tangalle, Trincomalee, Unawatuna, Weligama, etc.
Sudan: Khartoum, Port Sudan, etc.
Suriname: Lelydorp, Nieuw Nickerie, Paramaribo, etc.
Swaziland: Lobamba, Mbabane, etc.
Sweden: Bohuslän, Borgholm, Borlänge, Borås, Dalarna, Eskilstuna, Falkenberg, Falun, Gothenburg, Gotland, Gävle, Halmstad, Helsingborg, Jönköping, Kalmar, Karlshamn, Karlskrona, Karlstad, Kiruna, Kristianstad, Lidingö, Linköping, Luleå, Lund, Malmö, Norrköping, Oskarshamn, Simrishamn, Solna, Stenungsund, Stockholm, Sundsvall, Södertälje, Trollhättan, Täby, Uddevalla, Umeå, Uppsala, Vimmerby, Visby, Västervik, Västerås, Växjö, Ystad, Ängelholm, Åre, Öland, Örebro, Östersund, etc.
Switzerland: Adelboden, Andermatt, Anzère, Arosa, Ascona, Basel, Bellinzona, Bern, Bettmeralp, Celerina, Château-d'Œx, Crans-Montana, Davos, Engadin, Engelberg, Falera, Flims, Fribourg, Geneva, Grindelwald, Gryon, Grächen, Gstaad, Haute-Nendaz, Interlaken, Jungfrau, Klosters, Laax, Lake Maggiore, Lausanne, Lauterbrunnen, Lenzerheide, Les Diablerets, Leukerbad, Leysin, Locarno, Lucerne, Lugano, Matterhorn, Meiringen, Montreux, Nendaz, Neuchâtel, Pontresina, Portes du Soleil, Riederalp, Saanen, Saas-Fee, Samnaun, Scuol, Sierre, Silvaplana, Sion, St. Gallen, St. Moritz, Swiss Alps, Ticino, Valais, Valbella, Verbier, Vevey, Veysonnaz, Villars-sur-Ollon, Vitznau, Wengen, Zermatt, Zug, Zürich, etc.
Syria: Aleppo, Damascus, Deir ez-Zor, Latakia, Palmyra, Tartus, etc.
Taiwan: Hsinchu, Kaohsiung, Taichung, Tainan, Taipei, etc.
Tajikistan: Dushanbe, Isfara, Khujand, etc.
Tanzania: Dar es Salaam, Mount Kilimanjaro, Serengeti, Zanzibar, etc.
Thailand: Ayutthaya, Bangkok, Cha-Am, Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai, Chonburi, Hua Hin, Kanchanaburi, Karon, Khao Sok, Ko Chang, Ko Lanta, Ko Phangan, Ko Samui, Krabi, Pai, Patong, Pattaya, Phi Phi Islands, Phuket, Prachuap Khiri Khan, Ranong, River Kwai, Udon Thani, etc.
Togo: Lomé, etc.
Tonga: Nukuʻalofa, Tunis, etc.
Trinidad and Tobago: Port of Spain, etc.
Tunisia: Djerba, Hammamet, Midoun, Monastir, Port El Kantaoui, Sousse, etc.
Turkey: Adana, Afyonkarahisar, Akyaka, Alacati, Alanya, Ankara, Antakya, Antalya, Assos, Avanos, Ayvalık, Beldibi, Belek, Bodrum, Bozcaada, Bursa, Büyükada, Cappadocia, Dalyan, Datça, Denizli, Didim, Edirne, Ephesus, Erzincan, Erzurum, Eskişehir, Fethiye, Gaziantep, Gebze, Göcek, Göreme, Göynük, Hierapolis, Istanbul, Kalkan, Kayseri, Kaş, Kemer, Konakli, Konya, Kuşadası, Kütahya, Lara, Mahmutlar, Manavgat, Manisa, Marmaris, Mersin, Muğla, Nevşehir, Olympos, Palandöken, Pamukkale, Prince Islands, Samsun, Sapanca, Sarigerme, Sarıkamış, Selimiye, Selçuk, Side, Tarsus, Tekirova, Trabzon, Troy, Turgutlu, Turgutreis, Turkish Riviera, Uludağ, Uçhisar, Uçhisar, Van, Yalova, Yalıkavak, Çamyuva, Çanakkale, Çeşme, Çıralı, Ölüdeniz, Ürgüp, İskenderun, İzmir, İzmit, İçmeler, Şanlıurfa, etc.
Turkmenistan: Ashgabat, Avaza, etc.
Turks and Caicos Islands: Cockburn Town, North Caicos, Pine Cay, Providenciales, etc.
Tuvalu: Funafuti, etc.
Uganda: Kampala, etc.
Ukraine: Berdiansk, Berehove, Bila Tserkva, Boryspil, Bukovel, Cherkasy, Chernihiv, Chernivtsi, Dnipropetrovsk, Donetsk, Ivano-Frankivsk, Kamianets-Podilskyi, Kharkiv, Kherson, Khmelnytskyi, Kiev, Koblevo, Kremenchuk, Kropyvnytskyi, Kryvyi Rih, Luhansk, Lutsk, Lviv, Mariupol, Melitopol, Mukachevo, Mykolaiv, Odessa, Poltava, Polyana, Rivne, Skhidnytsia, Slavske, Sumy, Ternopil, Truskavets, Uzhgorod, Vinnytsia, Yaremche, Yasinya, Zaporizhia, Zatoka, Zhytomyr, etc.
United Arab Emirates: Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Al Ain, Dibba, Dubai, Fujairah, Palm Jumeirah, Persian Gulf, Ras Al Khaimah, Sharjah, Sir Bani Yas Island, Umm al-Quwain, etc.
United Kingdom: Aberdeen, Bath, Belfast, Blackpool, Bournemouth, Bradford, Brighton, Bristol, Cambridge, Canterbury, Cardiff, Channel Tunnel, Cheltenham, Chester, Cornwall, Coventry, Cumbria, Derry, Devon, Dorset, Dover, Eastbourne, Edinburgh, England, English Channel, Exeter, Folkestone, Fort William, Gatwick, Glasgow, Hampshire, Harrogate, Heathrow, Inverness, Isle of Wight, Kent, Lancashire, Leeds, Leicester, Liverpool, Llandudno, London, Manchester, Mansfield, Milton Keynes, Newcastle, Newquay, Northern Ireland, Norwich, Nottingham, Oban, Oxford, Paignton, Plymouth, Portmeirion, Portsmouth, Reading, Sandown, Scarborough, Scotland, Shanklin, Sheffield, Somerset, Southampton, St Albans, Stoke-on-Trent, Stonehenge, Sussex, Swansea, Torquay, Wales, Whitby, Windsor, Woking, York, etc.
United States: Akron, Alabama, Alaska, Albany, Albuquerque, Amarillo, Anaheim, Anchorage, Ann Arbor, Arizona, Arkansas, Arlington, Aspen, Atlanta, Aurora, Austin, Bakersfield, Baltimore, Baton Rouge, Beaver Creek, Berkeley, Big Bear Lake, Billings, Biloxi, Birmingham, Boca Raton, Boise, Boston, Breckenridge, Brooklyn, Buffalo, California, Carlsbad, Carmel-by-the-Sea, Chandler, Charlotte, Chesapeake, Cheyenne, Chicago, Chula Vista, Cincinnati, Clearwater, Cleveland, Colorado Springs, Colorado, Columbus Georgia, Columbus, Connecticut, Corpus Christi, Costa Mesa, Cupertino, Dallas, Dana Point, Daytona Beach, Death Valley, Delaware, Delray Beach, Denver, Des Moines, Destin, Detroit, Durham, El Paso, Estes Park, Fargo, Fayetteville, Florida, Fontana, Fort Lauderdale, Fort Myers, Fort Walton Beach, Fort Wayne, Fort Worth, Fremont, Fresno, Galveston, Garland, Georgia, Gilbert, Glendale, Grand Canyon, Grand Rapids, Grand Teton, Great Smoky Mountains, Greensboro, Gulfport, Hawaii, Henderson, Hialeah, Hollywood, Honolulu, Hot Springs, Houston, Huntington Beach, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Indianapolis, Iowa, Irving, Jackson Mississippi, Jackson Wyoming, Jacksonville, Jersey City, Juneau, Kansas City, Kansas, Kentucky, Key Largo, Key West, La Jolla, Laguna Beach, Lahaina, Lake Tahoe, Laredo, Las Vegas, Lexington, Lincoln, Little Rock, Long Beach, Los Angeles, Louisiana, Louisville, Lubbock, Madison, Maine, Malibu, Mammoth Lakes, Manhattan, Marathon, Maryland, Massachusetts, Memphis, Menlo Park, Mesa, Mexico City, Miami Beach, Miami, Michigan, Milwaukee, Minneapolis, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Moab, Modesto, Montana, Monterey, Montgomery, Moreno Valley, Mountain View, Myrtle Beach, Napa, Naples, Nashville, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New Orleans, New York City, New York, Newark, Newport Beach, Newport, Norfolk, North Carolina, North Dakota, North Las Vegas, Oakland, Ocean City, Oceanside, Ohio, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, Omaha, Oregon, Orlando, Oxnard, Palm Coast, Palm Desert, Palm Springs, Palo Alto, Panama City Beach, Park City, Pasadena, Pennsylvania, Pensacola, Philadelphia, Phoenix, Pittsburgh, Plano, Pompano Beach, Portland, Portland, Providence, Raleigh, Redwood City, Reno, Rhode Island, Richmond, Riverside, Rochester, Rocky Mountains, Sacramento, Saint Paul, Salt Lake City, San Antonio, San Bernardino, San Diego, San Francisco, San Jose, San Mateo, Sanibel, Santa Ana, Santa Barbara, Santa Cruz, Santa Fe, Santa Monica, Santa Rosa, Sarasota, Savannah, Scottsdale, Seattle, Shreveport, Silicon Valley, South Carolina, South Dakota, South Lake Tahoe, Spokane, Springfield, Squaw Valley, St. Augustine, St. Louis, St. Petersburg, Steamboat Springs, Stockton, Sunny Isles Beach, Sunnyvale, Syracuse, Tacoma, Tallahassee, Tampa, Telluride, Tennessee, Texas, Thousand Oaks, Toledo, Tucson, Tulsa, Utah, Vail, Vermont, Virginia Beach, Virginia, Waikiki, Walnut Creek, Washington D.C., Washington, West Palm Beach, West Virginia, Wichita, Winston-Salem, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Yellowstone, Yonkers, Yosemite, Zion, etc.
Uruguay: Colonia del Sacramento, La Barra, La Paloma, Maldonado, Montevideo, Piriápolis, Punta del Este, Salto, etc.
Uzbekistan: Bukhara, Fergana, Khiva, Kokand, Navoiy, Samarkand, Tashkent, Urgench, etc.
Vanuatu: Port Vila, etc.
Venezuela: Caracas, Isla Margarita, Maracaibo, Porlamar, etc.
Vietnam: Cát Bà Island, Cần Thơ, Da Lat, Da Nang, Haiphong, Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, Huế, Hạ Long, Hội An, Long Hải, Mỹ Tho, Nha Trang, Ninh Bình, Phan Thiết, Phú Quốc, Qui Nhơn, Rạch Giá, Sa Pa, Tuần Châu, Vũng Tàu, Đồng Hới, etc.
Yemen: Aden, Sana'a, etc.
Zambia: Livingstone, Lusaka, etc.
Zimbabwe: Bulawayo, Harare, Mutare, Victoria Falls, etc.