See caption
Copper fittings for soldered joints
See caption
Pipe fittings: 1) Copper (solder); 2) Iron or brass (threaded); 3) Brass (compression); 4) Brass (compression to solder); 5) Brass adapters
dark-colored PVC fittings
PVC fittings

A fitting is used in pipe systems to connect straight pipe or tubing sections, adapt to different sizes or shapes and for other purposes, such as regulating (or measuring) fluid flow. "Plumbing" is generally used to describe the conveyance of water, gas, or liquid waste in domestic or commercial environments; "piping" is often used to describe the high-performance (high-pressure, high-flow, high-temperature or hazardous-material) conveyance of fluids in specialized applications. "Tubing" is sometimes used for lighter-weight piping, especially that flexible enough to be supplied in coiled form.

Fittings (especially uncommon types) require money, time, materials and tools to install, and are an important part of piping and plumbing systems. Valves are technically fittings, but are usually discussed separately.

Piping and plumbing fitting: Standards

Standard codes are followed when designing (or manufacturing) a piping system. Organizations which promulgate piping standards include:

  • ASME: American Society of Mechanical Engineers
    • A112.19.1 Enameled cast-iron and steel plumbing fixtures standards
    • A112.19.2 Ceramic plumbing fixtures standard
  • ASTM International: American Society for Testing and Materials
  • API: American Petroleum Institute
  • AWS: American Welding Society
  • AWWA: American Water Works Association
  • MSS: Manufacturers Standardization Society
  • ANSI: American National Standards Institute
  • NFPA: National Fire Protection Association
  • EJMA: Expansion Joint Manufacturers Association
  • CGA: Compressed Gas Association

Pipes must conform to the dimensional requirements of:

  • ASME B36.10M: Welded and seamless wrought-steel pipe
  • ASME B36.19M: Stainless-steel pipe
  • ASME B31.3 2008: Process piping
  • ASME B31.4 XXXX: Power piping

The B31.3 and B31.4 codes have requirements for piping found in petroleum refineries; chemical, pharmaceutical, textile, paper, semiconductor, and cryogenic plants, and related processing plants and terminals. These codes specify requirements for materials and components, design, fabrication, assembly, erection, examination, inspection and testing of piping. The codes are applicable to piping for all fluids, including raw, intermediate and finished chemicals; petroleum products; gas, steam, air and water; fluidized solids; refrigerants, and cryogenic fluids.

Piping and plumbing fitting: Materials

Plumbing fittings on a board
Display of threaded cast-iron fittings

The material with which a pipe is manufactured is often the basis for choosing a pipe. Materials used for manufacturing pipes include:

  • Carbon (CS) and galvanized steel
  • Impact-tested carbon steel (ITCS)
  • Low-temperature carbon steel (LTCS)
  • Stainless steel (SS)
  • Malleable iron
  • Non-ferrous metals (includes copper, inconel, incoloy and cupronickel)
  • Non-metallic (includes acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), fibre-reinforced plastic (FRP), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and toughened glass)
  • Chrome-molybdenum (alloy) steel - Generally used for high-temperature service

The bodies of fittings for pipe and tubing are most often the same base material as the pipe or tubing connected: copper, steel, PVC, chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) or ABS. Any material permitted by the plumbing, health, or building code (as applicable) may be used, but it must be compatible with the other materials in the system, the fluids being transported and the temperature and pressure inside (and outside) the system. Brass or bronze fittings are common in copper piping and plumbing systems. Fire hazards, earthquake resistance and other factors also influence the choice of fitting materials.

Piping and plumbing fitting: Gaskets

Gaskets are mechanical seals, usually ring-shaped, which seal flange joints. Gaskets vary by construction, materials and features. Commonly used gaskets are non-metallic (ASME B 16.21), spiral-wound (ASME B 16.20) and ring-joint (ASME B 16.20). Non-metallic gaskets are used with flat- or raised-face flanges. Spiral-wound gaskets are used with raised-face flanges, and ring-joint gaskets are used with ring-type joint (RTJ) flanges. Stress develops between an RTJ gasket and the flange groove when the gasket is bolted to a flange, leading to plastic deformation of the gasket.

Piping and plumbing fitting:

See also: Gender of connectors and fasteners

Piping or tubing is usually inserted into fittings to make connections. Connectors are assigned a gender, abbreviated M or F. An example of this is a "3/4-inch female adapter NPT", which would have a corresponding male connection of the same size and thread standard (in this case, NPT).

Piping and plumbing fitting: Common piping and plumbing fittings

This section discusses fittings primarily used in pressurized piping systems, though there is some overlap with fittings for low-pressure or non-pressurized systems. Specialized fittings for the latter setups are discussed in the next major subsection.

Piping and plumbing fitting: Elbow

See also: Street elbow
Short, 45-degree copper elbow
Short-radius (or regular) 45° elbow (copper sweat)
Large copper elbow
Long-radius (or sweep) 90° elbow (copper sweat)

An elbow is installed between two lengths of pipe (or tubing) to allow a change of direction, usually a 90° or 45° angle; 22.5° elbows are also available. The ends may be machined for butt welding, threaded (usually female), or socketed. When the ends differ in size, it is known as a reducing (or reducer) elbow.

A 90º elbow, also known as a "90 bend", "90 ell" or "quarter bend", attaches readily to plastic, copper, cast iron, steel, and lead, and is attached to rubber with stainless-steel clamps. Other available materials include silicone, rubber compounds, galvanized steel, and nylon. It is primarily used to connect hoses to valves, water pumps and deck drains. A 45º elbow, also known as a "45 bend" or "45 ell", is commonly used in water-supply facilities, food, chemical and electronic industrial pipeline networks, air-conditioning pipelines, agriculture and garden production, and solar-energy facility piping.

Elbows are also categorized by length. The radius of curvature of a long-radius (LR) elbow is 1.5 times the pipe diameter, but a short-radius (SR) elbow has a radius equal to the pipe diameter. Short elbows, widely available, are typically used in pressurized systems, and in physically tight locations.

Long elbows are used in low-pressure gravity-fed systems and other applications where low turbulence and minimum deposition of entrained solids are of concern. They are available in acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS plastic), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC), and copper, and are used in DWV systems, sewage, and central vacuum systems.

Piping and plumbing fitting: Coupling

Short copper tube
Pipe coupling (copper sweat)

A coupling connects two pipes. If their sizes differ, the fitting is known as a reducing coupling, reducer, or an adapter. There are two types of couplings: "regular" and "slip". A regular coupling has a small ridge or stop internally, to prevent over-insertion of a pipe, and thus under-insertion of the other pipe segment (which would result in an unreliable connection). A slip coupling (sometimes also called a repair coupling) is deliberately made without this internal stop, to allow it to be slipped into place in tight locations, such as the repair of a pipe that has a small leak due to corrosion or freeze bursting, or which had to be cut temporarily for some reason.. Since the alignment stop is missing, it is up to the installer to carefully measure the final location of the slip coupling to ensure that it is located correctly.

Piping and plumbing fitting: Union

Two identical couplings, one assembled and one disassembled
Combination union and reducer (brass threaded)

A union, similar to a coupling, allows the convenient future disconnection of pipes for maintenance or fixture replacement. In contrast to a coupling requiring solvent welding, soldering, or rotation (for threaded couplings), a union allows easy connection and disconnection, multiple times if needed. It consists of three parts: a nut, a female end and a male end. When the female and male ends are joined, the nut seals the joint by pressing the two ends tightly together. Unions are a type of very compact flange connector.

Dielectric unions, with dielectric insulation, separate dissimilar metals (such as copper and galvanized steel) to prevent galvanic corrosion. When two dissimilar metals are in contact with an electrically conductive solution (ordinary tap water is conductive), they form an electrochemical couple which generates a voltage by electrolysis. When the metals are in direct contact with each other, the electric current from one to the other also moves metallic ions from one to the other; this dissolves one metal, depositing it on the other. A dielectric union breaks the electrical path with a plastic liner between its halves, limiting galvanic corrosion.

Rotary unions allow mechanical rotation of one of the joined parts, while resisting leakage.

Piping and plumbing fitting: Nipple

Main article: Nipple (plumbing)
See caption
Nipple

A nipple is a short stub of pipe, usually male-threaded steel, brass, chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC), or copper (occasionally unthreaded copper), which connects two other fittings. A nipple with continuous uninterrupted threading is known as a close nipple. Nipples are commonly used with plumbing and hoses.

Piping and plumbing fitting: Reducer

See caption
Bronze threaded (at left) and copper sweat (at right) reducers
Main article: Reducer

A reducer allows for a change in pipe size to meet hydraulic flow requirements of the system or adapt to existing piping of a different size. Although reducers are usually concentric, eccentric reducers are used as needed to maintain the top- or bottom-of-pipe level.

Piping and plumbing fitting: Double-tapped bushing

A double-tapped bushing is a fitting which serves as a reducer. It is a sleeve similar to a close nipple, but is threaded on both its inner and outer circumferences. Like a reducer, a double-tapped bushing has two threads of different sizes.

A double-tapped bushing is more compact than a reducer, but not as flexible. While a double-tapped bushing has a smaller female thread concentric to a larger male thread (and thus couples a smaller male end to a larger female), a reducer may have large and small ends of either gender. If both ends are the same gender, it is a gender-changing reducer.

There are similar fittings for both sweat and solvent joinery. Since they are not "tapped" (threaded), they are simply called reducing bushings.

Piping and plumbing fitting: Tee

T-shaped connector
Copper sweat tee

A tee, the most common pipe fitting, is used to combine (or divide) fluid flow. It is available with female thread sockets, solvent-weld sockets or opposed solvent-weld sockets and a female-threaded side outlet. Tees can connect pipes of different diameters or change the direction of a pipe run, or both. Available in a variety of materials, sizes and finishes, they may also be used to transport two-fluid mixtures. Tees may be equal or unequal in size of their three connections, with equal tees the most common.

Piping and plumbing fitting: Diverter tee

This specialized type of tee fitting is used primarily in pressurized hydronic heating systems, to divert a portion of the flow from the main line into a side branch connected to a radiator or heat exchanger. The diverter tee is designed to allow flow to continue in the main line, even when the side branch is shut down and not calling for heat. Diverter tees have directional markings which must be heeded; a tee installed backwards will function very poorly.

Piping and plumbing fitting: Cross

Crosses, also known as four-way fittings or cross branch lines, have one inlet and three outlets (or vice versa), and often have solvent-welded socket or female-threaded ends. Cross fittings may stress pipes as temperatures change, because they are at the center of four connection points. A tee is steadier than a cross; it behaves like a three-legged stool, and a cross behaves like a four-legged stool. Geometrically, any three non-collinear points can self-consistently define a plane; three legs are inherently stable, whereas four points overdetermine a plane, and can be inconsistent, resulting in physical stress on a fitting.

Crosses are common in fire sprinkler systems (where stress caused by thermal expansion is not generally an issue), but are not common in plumbing. One cross fitting is more expensive than two tees.

Piping and plumbing fitting: Cap

See caption
Copper sweat cap

Caps, usually liquid- or gas-tight, cover the otherwise open end of a pipe. A cap attaches to the exterior of a pipe, and may have a solvent-weld socket end or a female-threaded interior. The exterior of an industrial cap may be round, square, rectangular, U- or I-shaped, or may have a handgrip. If a solvent-weld cap is used to provide for a future connection point, several inches of pipe must be left before the cap; when the cap is cut off for the future connection, enough pipe must remain to allow a new fitting to be glued onto it.

Piping and plumbing fitting: Plug

A plug fits inside the pipe segment or fitting to which it is mated. In a threaded plumbing system, plugs have male threads. There are a number of plug types: mechanical, pneumatic-disk, single-size pneumatic rubber, multi-size pneumatic and flow-through, and high-pressure. Special temporary plugs, usually made of flexible rubber, may be installed into a plumbing system to allow pressure testing for leakage.

Piping and plumbing fitting: Barb

Ten different hose barbs
Brass hose barbs

A barb (or hose barb), which connects flexible hose or tubing to pipes, typically has a male-threaded end which mates with female threads. The other end of the fitting has a single- or multi-barbed tube-a long tapered cone with ridges, which is inserted into a flexible hose. An adjustable worm drive screw clamp (or other type of clamp) is often added, to keep the hose from slipping off the barbed tube. Barb fittings can be made of brass for hot-water applications, and plastic may be used for cold water; brass is considered more durable for heavy-duty use. The barb fitting may be elbow-shaped or straight.

Piping and plumbing fitting: Valve

Main article: Valve
Piping and plumbing fitting
Compression connections on water shutoff valves under a kitchen sink show evidence of slow seepage (greenish deposits).

Valves stop (or regulate) the flow of liquids or gases. They are categorized by application, such as isolation, throttling, and non-return.

Isolation valves are used to temporarily disconnect part of a piping system, to allow maintenance or repair, for example. Isolation valves are typically left in either a fully open or fully closed position. A given isolation valve may be in place for many years without being operated, but must be designed to be readily operable whenever needed, including emergency use.

Throttling valves are used to control the amount or pressure of a fluid allowed to pass through, and are designed to withstand the stress and wear caused by this type of operation. Because they may wear out in this usage, they are often installed alongside isolation valves which can temporarily disconnect a failing throttling valve from the rest of the system, so it can be refurbished or replaced.

Non-return or check valves allow free flow of a fluid in one direction, but prevent its flow in a reverse direction. They are often seen in drainage or sewage systems, but may also be used in pressurized systems.

Valves are available in a number of types, based on design and purpose:

  • Gate, plug, or ball valves – Isolation
  • Globe valve – Throttling
  • Needle valve – Throttling, usually with high precision but low flow
  • Butterfly or diaphragm valves – Isolation and throttling
  • Check valve – Preventing reverse flow (non-return)
Pipes under a floor
Flexible rubber sleeves are used to connect this cast-iron and copper DWV installation.

Because they operate at low pressure and rely on gravity to move fluids (and entrained solids), drain-waste-vent systems use fittings whose interior surfaces are as smooth as possible. The fittings may be "belled" (expanded slightly in diameter) or otherwise shaped to accommodate the insertion of pipe or tubing without forming a sharp interior ridge that might catch debris or accumulate material, and cause a clog or blockage. Freshly cut ends of pipe segments are carefully deburred to remove projecting slivers of material which may snag debris (such as hair or fibers) which can build up to cause blockages. This internal smoothness also makes it easier to "snake out" or "rod out" a clogged pipe with a plumber's snake.

Underground piping systems for landscaping drainage or the disposal of stormwater or groundwater also use low-pressure gravity flow, so fittings for these systems resemble larger-scale DWV fittings. With high peak-flow volumes, the design and construction of these systems may resemble those of storm sewers.

Fittings for central vacuum systems are similar to DWV fittings, but are usually of thinner and lighter construction because the weight of the materials conveyed is less. Vacuum-system designs share with DWV designs the need to eliminate internal ridges, burrs, sharp turns, or other obstructions which might create clogs.

Piping and plumbing fitting: Slip-joint fitting

Slip-joint fittings are frequently used in kitchen, bathroom and tub drainage systems. They include a detached (movable) slip nut and slip-joint washer; the washer is made of rubber or nylon. An advantage of this of fitting is that the pipe it is connecting to does not need to be cut to a precise length; the slip joint can attach within a range of the end of the inserting pipe. Many slip fittings may be tightened or loosened by hand, for easier access to residential drainpipe systems (for example, to clean out a trap or access a drain line past a trap).

Piping and plumbing fitting: Sweep elbow

DWV elbows are usually long-radius ("sweep") types. To reduce flow resistance and solid deposits when the direction of flow is changed, they use a shallow curve with a large radius of curvature. In addition, a well-designed system will often use two 45° elbows instead of one 90° elbow (even a sweep 90° elbow) to reduce flow disruption as much as possible.

Central vacuum system inlet fittings are intentionally designed with a tighter radius of curvature than those of other bends in the system. If vacuumed debris becomes stuck it will jam at the inlet, where it is easy to find and remove.

Piping and plumbing fitting: Closet flange

A closet flange (the drainpipe flange to which a flush toilet is attached) is a specialized flange designed to be flush with the floor, allowing a toilet to be installed above it. The flange must be mechanically strong to accommodate slight misalignments or movements, and resist corrosion.

Piping and plumbing fitting: Clean-out

Clean-outs are fittings with removable elements, allowing access to drains without the removal of plumbing fixtures. They are used to allow an auger (or plumber's snake) to clean out a plugged drain. Since clean-out augers are limited in length, clean-outs should be placed in accessible locations at regular intervals throughout a drainage system (including outside the building). Minimum requirements are typically at the end of each branch in piping, just ahead of each water closet, at the base of each vertical stack and inside and outside the building in the main drain or sewer. Clean-outs usually have screw-on caps or screw-in plugs. They are also known as "rodding eyes", because of the eye-shaped cover plates often used on external versions.

Piping and plumbing fitting: Trap primer

A trap primer automatically injects water into a trap, maintaining a water seal to keep sewer gas out of buildings. It must be installed in an easily accessible place for adjustment, replacement, and repair. A trap primer, a specialized valve, is usually connected to a clean-water supply in addition to a DWV system. Because of the dual connection, it must be designed to resist the accidental backflow of contaminated water.

Piping and plumbing fitting: Combo tee

A combination tee (combo tee, combo wye, tee wye, long-sweep wye, or combi) is a tee with a gradually curving central connecting joint: a wye plus an additional 1/8 bend (45°), combined in one 90° unit. It is used in drains for a smooth, gradually curving path to reduce the likelihood of clogs, to ease the pushing of a plumber's snake through a drain system and to encourage water flow in the direction of the drain.

Piping and plumbing fitting: Sanitary tee

A sanitary tee has a curved center section. In drainage systems, it is primarily used to connect horizontal drains (including fixture trap arms) to vertical drains. The center connection is generally to the pipe leading to a trap (the trap arm). It must not connect a vertical drain to a horizontal drain, because of the likelihood that solids will accumulate at the bottom of the junction and cause a blockage.

Piping and plumbing fitting: Baffle tee

Also called a tee with diverter baffle, a waste tee or an end-outlet tee, it typically connects waste lines before they enter the trap and has a baffle to keep water from one waste pipe from entering the other at the connection.

Piping and plumbing fitting: Double sanitary tee (sanitary cross)

This fitting differs from a standard cross in that two of the ports have curved inlets. Although it has been used in the past for connecting the drains of back-to-back fixtures (such as back-to-back sinks), some current codes-including the 2006 Uniform Plumbing Code in the United States-prohibit the use of this fitting for that purpose and require a double-fixture fitting (double combination wye) to minimize wastewater from one side flowing into the other.

Piping and plumbing fitting: Wye (Y) fitting

A fitting with three openings, a wye joins (or creates) branch lines. It is a waste-fitting tee in which the side inlet pipe enters at a 45-degree angle, or an angle other than 90 degrees. A standard wye is a Y-shaped fitting which allows one pipe to be joined to another at a 45 degree angle.

Wyes are similar to tees, except for the angling of the branch line to reduce friction and turbulence. They are commonly used to attach a vertical drainpipe to a horizontal one. The connection is typically at a 45-degree, rather than 90 degrees; if a branch turns out further at the end to 90 degrees (perpendicular), the fitting becomes a . Wyes and combo wyes follow a long-sweep pattern relative to sanitary tees and other short-sweep bends, which have a smaller radius and require less space. A wye may also be used to split a branch line equally in two directions, such as the splitting of a main line into two smaller branches.

Wyes also have industrial applications. Although low-priced wyes are often spot-welded, industrial-strength wyes are flash-welded at each seam. In long-distance pipeline applications, a wye is used for pigging to maintain flow.

Piping and plumbing fitting: Side inlet TY (tee-wye)

This fitting (also known as a "bungalow fitting" or a "cottage fitting") is a sanitary T that allows two trap arms to be connected at the same level. A toilet is the main connection, with the option of a right or left-hand outlet to the 3" inlet with a choice of 1-1/2" or 2" in size. It is for keeping stack-vented fixtures high to the joist space and thus conserving head room in a basement. As the water closet must be the lowest fixture, the smaller side outlet (usually used to connect the bathtub trap arm) enters slightly above the larger connection.

Piping and plumbing fitting: Hydraulic fittings

Main article: Hydraulic machinery

Hydraulic systems use high fluid pressure, such as the hydraulic actuators for bulldozers and backhoes. Their hydraulic fittings are designed and rated for much greater pressure than that experienced in general piping systems, and they are generally not compatible with those used in plumbing. Hydraulic fittings are designed and constructed to resist high-pressure leakage and sudden failure.

Piping and plumbing fitting: Connection methods

Much of the work of installing a piping or plumbing system involves making leakproof, reliable connections, and most piping requires mechanical support against gravity and other forces (such as wind loads and earthquakes) which might disrupt an installation. Depending on the connection technology and application, basic skills may be sufficient, or specialized skills and professional licensure may be legally required.

Piping and plumbing fitting: Fasteners

Fasteners join, or affix, two or more objects. Although they are usually used to attach pipe and fittings to mechanical supports in buildings, they do not connect the pipes to each other. Fasteners commonly used with piping are a stud bolt with nuts (usually fully threaded, with two heavy, hexagonal nuts); a machine bolt and nut; or a powder-actuated tool (PAT) fastener (usually a nail or threaded stud, driven into concrete or masonry).

Piping and plumbing fitting: Threaded pipe

See also: National pipe thread and British Standard Pipe
Threaded pipe and elbow
Male threaded pipe and female threaded elbow

A threaded pipe has a screw thread at one or both ends for assembly. Steel pipe is often joined with threaded connections; tapered threads are cut into the end of the pipe, sealant is applied in the form of thread-sealing compound or thread seal tape (also known as PTFE or Teflon tape) and the pipe is threaded into a threaded fitting with a pipe wrench.

Threaded steel pipe is widely used in buildings to convey natural gas or propane fuel, and is a popular choice in fire sprinkler systems due to its resistance to mechanical damage and high heat. Threaded steel pipe may still be used in high-security locations, because it is more resistant to vandalism, more difficult to remove, and its scrap value is lower than copper or brass.

in older installations, threaded brass pipe was similarly used, and was considered superior to steel for drinking water, because it was more resistant to corrosion.

Assembling threaded steel pipe takes skill and planning to allow lengths of pipe to be screwed together in sequence. Most threaded-pipe systems require the use of strategically located pipe-union fittings in final assembly. Threaded steel pipe is heavy, and requires adequate attachment to support surfaces. Despite its thick walls steel pipe is no longer preferred for conveying drinking water, because corrosion can cause leakage especially at threaded joints, and deposits on internal surfaces will eventually restrict flow.

Piping and plumbing fitting: Solvent welding

Main article: Solvent welding
Three white plastic fittings: two tees and a union
Polypropylene fittings for solvent welding

A solvent is applied to PVC, CPVC, ABS or other plastic piping to partially dissolve and fuse the adjacent surfaces of piping and fitting. Solvent welding is usually used with a sleeve-type joint to connect pipe and fittings made of the same (or compatible) material.

Unlike metal welding, solvent welding is relatively easy to perform (although care is needed to make reliable joints). Solvents typically used for plastics are usually toxic and may be carcinogenic and flammable, requiring adequate ventilation.

Piping and plumbing fitting: Soldering

See caption
Brass fitting soft-soldered to copper pipe

To make a solder connection, a chemical flux is applied to the inner sleeve of a joint and the pipe is inserted. The joint is then heated using a propane or MAPP gas torch, solder is applied to the heated joint and the molten solder is drawn into the joint by capillary action as the flux vaporizes. "Sweating" is a term sometimes used to describe the soldering of pipe joints.

Where many connections must be made in a short period of time (such as plumbing of a new building), soldering is quicker and less expensive joinery than compression or flare fittings. A degree of skill is needed to make a number of reliable soldered joints quickly. If flux residue is thoroughly cleaned, soldering can produce a long-lasting connection at low cost. However, the use of an open flame for heating joints can present fire and health hazards to building occupants, and requires adequate ventilation.

Piping and plumbing fitting: Brazing

Brazing is a thermal joining process in which two pieces of base metal are joined by a molten brazing filler metal which is drawn between them by capillary action. The process can be used to join most metals and alloys commonly used in engineering. A brazing filler metal has a high melting temperature, which is nevertheless lower than the melting point of the metals being joined. Brazing can join pipes, rods, and metal pieces which fit tightly against each other without large gaps; it can even join tungsten carbide, ceramics, and similar non-metallic materials.

Well-brazed joints are as strong as their parent-metal pieces and can withstand demanding service. With smooth, neat fillets, they have good electrical conductivity.

Piping and plumbing fitting: Welding

See caption
Partially welded steel pipe joint

The welding of metals differs from soldering and brazing in that the joint is made without adding a lower-melting-point material (e.g. solder); instead, the pipe or tubing material is partially melted and the fitting and piping are directly fused. This generally requires that the piping and fitting are the same (or compatible) material. Skill is required to melt the joint sufficiently to ensure good fusion, while not deforming or damaging the pieces being joined.

Properly welded joints are considered reliable and durable. Pipe welding is often performed by specially licensed workers whose skills are retested periodically. For critical applications, every joint is tested with nondestructive methods. Because of the skills required, welded pipe joints are usually restricted to high-performance applications such as shipbuilding, and in chemical and nuclear reactors.

Adequate ventilation is essential to remove metal fumes from welding operations, and personal protective equipment must be worn. Because the high temperatures during welding can often generate intense ultraviolet light, dark goggles or full face shields must be used to protect the eyes. Precautions must also be taken to avoid starting fires caused by stray sparks and hot welding debris.

Piping and plumbing fitting: Compression fittings

Main article: Compression fitting
Disassembled three-piece valve
Compression connectors on an isolating valve; the reddish part is a copper compression ring

Compression fittings (sometimes called "lock-bush fittings") consist of a tapered, concave conical seat; a hollow, barrel-shaped compression ring (sometimes called a ferrule); and a compression nut which is threaded onto the body of the fitting and tightened to make a leakproof connection. They are typically made of brass or plastic, but stainless steel or other materials may be used.

Although compression connections are less durable than sweated connections, they are easy to install with simple tools. However, they take longer to install than sweated joints and sometimes require re-tightening to stop slow leaks which may develop over time. Because of this possible leakage, they are generally restricted to accessible locations (such as under a kitchen or bathroom sink), and are prohibited in concealed locations such as the interiors of walls.

Piping and plumbing fitting: Push-to-pull compression fittings

Main article: Push-to-pull compression fittings

Piping and plumbing fitting: Flare fittings

Main article: Flare fitting
Piping and plumbing fitting
Flare connection: 1) Screw thread; 2) O-ring; 3) Body; 4) Nut; 5) Seal interface; 6) Support ring (sleeve), and 7) Flared tubing

Flared connectors should not be confused with compression connectors, with which they are generally not interchangeable. Lacking a compression ring, they use a tapered conical shaped connection instead. A specialized flaring tool is used to enlarge tubing into a 45º tapered bell shape matching the projecting shape of the flare fitting. The flare nut, which had previously been installed over the tubing, is then tightened over the fitting to force the tapered surfaces tightly together. Flare connectors are typically made of brass or plastic, but stainless steel or other materials may be used.

Although flare connections are labor-intensive, they are durable and reliable. Considered more secure against leaks and sudden failure, they are used in hydraulic brake systems, and in other high-pressure, high-reliability applications.

Piping and plumbing fitting: Flange fittings

Illustration of fitting, indicating direction of flow
Flange connection with a gasket

Flange fittings are generally used for connections to valves, inline instruments or equipment nozzles. Two surfaces are joined tightly together with threaded bolts, wedges, clamps, or other means of applying high compressive force. Although a gasket, packing, or O-ring may be installed between the flanges to prevent leakage, it is sometimes possible to use only a special grease or nothing at all (if the mating surfaces are sufficiently precisely formed). Although flange fittings are bulky, they perform well in demanding applications such as large water supply networks and hydroelectric systems.

Flanges are rated at 150, 300, 400, 600, 900, 1500 and 2500 lbs or 10, 15, 25, 40, 64, 100 and 150 bars of pressure. Various types of flanges are available, depending on construction. Flanges used in piping (orifice, threaded, slip-on, blind, weld neck, socket, lap-joint, and reducing) are available with a variety of facings, such as raised, flat, and ring-joint.

Slip-on flanges are slipped over the pipe and welded to provide strength and prevent leakage. This flange is less expensive than a weld neck and requires less accuracy when cutting pipe to length. Blind flanges are used to shut off a piping system or opening, while still allowing easy access for inspection.

A weld neck flange is joined to a piping system by butt welding. Although its long neck (or hub) makes it expensive, it reduces mechanical stress on piping by distributing stress between the base of the flange and the wall at the weld. Turbulence and erosion are reduced due to the matching size of the pipe and flange.

A socket flange appears similar to a slip-on flange, but its bore is counter-bored to accept pipe. A fillet weld around the hub of the flange attaches the flange to the pipe, with an interval weld added in high-stress applications. It is most frequently used in high-pressure systems, such as hydraulic and steam lines.

A lap-joint flange is similar to a slip-on, with room at the intersection of the bore and the flange face for a lap stub end. The face of the stub end conforms to the gasket face of the flange. It is used where sections of piping need to be dismantled quickly and easily for inspection or replacement.

Piping and plumbing fitting: Mechanical fittings

Large pipes connected with clamps
Mechanical sleeve clamps

Manufacturers such as Victaulic and Grinnell produce sleeve-clamp fittings which are replacing many flange connections. They attach to the end of a pipe segment via circumferential grooves pressed (or cut) around the end of the pipe to be joined. They are widely used on larger steel pipes, and can also be used with other materials.

The chief advantage of these connectors is that they can be installed after cutting the pipe to length in the field. This can save time and considerable expense compared to flange connections, which must be factory- or field-welded to pipe segments. However, mechanically fastened joints are sensitive to residual and thickness stresses caused by dissimilar metals and temperature changes.

A grooved fitting, also known as a grooved coupling, has four elements: grooved pipe, gasket, coupling housing, and nuts and bolts. The groove is made by cold-forming (or machining) a groove at the end of a pipe. A gasket encompassed by coupling housing is wrapped around the two pipe ends, with the coupling engaging the groove; the bolts and nuts are tightened with a socket or impact wrench. The installed coupling housing encases the gasket and engages the grooves around the pipe to create a leakproof seal in a self-restrained pipe joint. There are two types of grooved coupling; a flexible coupling allows a limited amount of angular movement, and a rigid coupling does not allow movement and may be used where joint immobility is required (similar to a flange or welded joint).

Piping and plumbing fitting: Crimped or pressed fittings

Several different fittings, ready for pressing
Fittings for crimping

Crimped or pressed connections use special fittings which are permanently attached to tubing with a powered crimper. The fittings, manufactured with a pre-installed sealant, slide over the tubing to be connected. High pressure is used to deform the fitting and compress the sealant against the inner tubing, creating a leakproof seal.

The advantages of this method are durability, speed, neatness, and safety. Some crimped fittings are designed to be used with copper tubing, without requiring flux or filler metal. The connection can be made even when the tubing is wet. Although crimped fittings are suitable for drinking-water pipes and other hot-and-cold systems (including central heating), they are substantially more expensive than sweated fittings.

Piping and plumbing fitting: Leaded hub fittings

Piping and plumbing fitting
This view looking upwards through a hole in the ceiling shows a traditional leaded hub joint (at top) and a more recent rubber sleeved hubless connection (at lower left).

Piping and plumbing fitting: Rubber sleeve fittings

Cast iron DWV fittings are still used in premium construction because they muffle the sound of wastewater rushing through them, but today they are rarely joined with traditional lead joints. Instead, pipe and fittings with plain (non-belled) connections are butted against each other, and clamped with special rubber sleeve (or "no-hub") fittings. The rubber sleeves are jacketed with stainless steel clamps, which compress the rubber to make a tight seal around the pipes and fittings. Although the materials are not cheap, they are durable (the rubber is typically neoprene or PVC).

An advantage of flexible rubber fittings is that they can accommodate small misalignments, and can be flexed slightly for installation in tight locations. If necessary, the joints can be disassembled later, and the fittings and pipe may be reconfigured; however, it is often not customary to re-use the clamps and rubber sleeves.

Piping and plumbing fitting: See also

  • Flange
  • Gladhand connector
  • Pipe fitting
  • Plumber
  • Rainwater, surface, and subsurface water drainage
  • Septic systems
  • Traps, Drains, and Vents
  • Water cooling
  • Water supply systems

Piping and plumbing fitting: References

  1. "Use Proper Plumbing Tools To Avoid Flushing Money Down The Drain". Bangor Daily News. October 25, 1996. Retrieved December 26, 2013.
  2. "Proper Replacement Of Gaskets Important". The Victoria Advocate. Feb 26, 1963. Retrieved December 26, 2013.
  3. "Gaskets General – Non-Metallic Flat, Spiral Wound Gaskets, Camprofile Gaskets, Metal-Jacketed Gaskets and Metallic Gaskets -". wermac.org.
  4. "You Can Fix Plumbing Problems With The Right Equipment .". The Daily Courier. October 20, 1996. Retrieved December 27, 2013.
  5. "Slip-Joint". freeonlineplumber.com.
  6. "plumbing – In slip joints, what's the difference between rubber and nylon washers? - Home Improvement Stack Exchange". stackexchange.com.
  7. "plumbing – How do I make my bathroom pipes more practical? - Home Improvement Stack Exchange". stackexchange.com.
  8. "Advise Check Of Drains". Lodi News-Sentinel. Oct 4, 1937. Retrieved 2013-12-26.
  9. "Disposal won't drain". homerepairforum.com.
  10. http://www.nettally.com/palmk/GDplumbing.html
  11. "plumbing – combo tee vs. tee wye – Home Improvement Stack Exchange". stackexchange.com.
  12. http://www.ci.camarillo.ca.us/docs/Drainage%20Piping.pdf
  13. "New Methods Simplify Plumbing Problems". Schenectady Gazette. Sep 26, 1933. Retrieved December 26, 2013.
  14. Cauldwell, Rex (2007). Plumbing (for pros, by pros). Newtown, CT: Random House Inc. ISBN 978-1-56158-817-6.
  15. "Seal Between Flange, Toilet When Troubleshooting In Leaky bathrooms". Northwest Columbus News. September 4, 2002. Retrieved December 27, 2013.
  16. Cauldwell, Rex (2009). Taunton's plumbing complete : expert advice from start to finish. Newtown, CT: Taunton Press. ISBN 978-1-56158-855-8.
  • International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials
  • International Code Council
  • the American Society for Testing and Materials
  • Society of Piping Engineers and Designers-Society of piping professionals with many resources and technical information
  • Standard SS/CS pipe dimensions calculator

Piping and plumbing fitting

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US Delivery, Shipping to the United States

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Undoubtedly, any products related with "Piping and plumbing fitting" in Rhode Island can be shipped to Providence, Warwick, Cranston, Pawtucket, East Providence, Woonsocket, Coventry, Cumberland, North Providence, South Kingstown, West Warwick, Johnston, North Kingstown, Newport, Bristol, Westerly, Smithfield, Lincoln, Central Falls, Portsmouth, Barrington, Middletown, Burrillville, Narragansett, Tiverton, East Greenwich, North Smithfield, Warren, Scituate, and other cities.

Today any products related with "Piping and plumbing fitting" in South Carolina can be received in Columbia, Charleston, North Charleston, Mount Pleasant, Rock Hill, Greenville, Summerville, Sumter, Hilton Head Island, Spartanburg, Florence, Goose Creek, Aiken, Myrtle Beach, Anderson, Greer, Mauldin, Greenwood, North Augusta, Easley, Simpsonville, Hanahan, Lexington, Conway, West Columbia, North Myrtle Beach, Clemson, Orangeburg, Cayce, Bluffton, Beaufort, Gaffney, Irmo, Fort Mill, Port Royal, Forest Acres, Newberry, and other cities.

As you know, the goods named "Piping and plumbing fitting" in South Dakota can be delivered to Sioux Falls, Rapid City, Aberdeen, Brookings, Watertown, Mitchell, Yankton, Pierre, Huron, Spearfish, Vermillion, and so on.

And of course, the products by request "Piping and plumbing fitting" in Tennessee can be shipped to such cities as Memphis, Nashville, Knoxville, Chattanooga, Clarksville, Murfreesboro, Franklin, Jackson, Johnson City, Bartlett, Hendersonville, Kingsport, Collierville, Smyrna, Cleveland, Brentwood, Germantown, Columbia, Spring Hill, La Vergne, Gallatin, Cookeville, Mount Juliet, Lebanon, Morristown, Oak Ridge, Maryville, Bristol, Farragut, Shelbyville, East Ridge, Tullahoma, and so on.

As always, the found goods by query "Piping and plumbing fitting" in Texas can be sent to Houston, San Antonio, Dallas, Austin, Fort Worth, El Paso, Arlington, Corpus Christi, Plano, Laredo, Lubbock, Garland, Irving, Amarillo, Grand Prairie, Brownsville, McKinney, Frisco, Pasadena, Mesquite, Killeen, McAllen, Carrollton, Midland, Waco, Denton, Abilene, Odessa, Beaumont, Round Rock, The Woodlands, Richardson, Pearland, College Station, Wichita Falls, Lewisville, Tyler, San Angelo, League City, Allen, Sugar Land, Edinburg, Mission, Longview, Bryan, Pharr, Baytown, Missouri City, Temple, Flower Mound, New Braunfels, North Richland Hills, Conroe, Victoria, Cedar Park, Harlingen, Atascocita, Mansfield, Georgetown, San Marcos, Rowlett, Pflugerville, Port Arthur, Spring, Euless, DeSoto, Grapevine, Galveston and smaller towns.

Today any products related with "Piping and plumbing fitting" in Utah can be shipped to such cities as Salt Lake City, West Valley City, Provo, West Jordan, Orem, Sandy, Ogden, St. George, Layton, Taylorsville, South Jordan, Logan, Lehi, Murray, Bountiful, Draper, Riverton, Roy, Spanish Fork, Pleasant Grove, Cottonwood Heights, Tooele, Springville, Cedar City, Midvale. It is also available for the people living in Kaysville, Holladay, American Fork, Clearfield, Syracuse, South Salt Lake, Herriman, Eagle Mountain, Clinton, Washington, Payson, Farmington, Brigham City, Saratoga Springs, North Ogden, South Ogden, North Salt Lake, Highland, Centerville, Hurricane, Heber City, West Haven, Lindon, and other cities.

No need to say, any things related with "Piping and plumbing fitting" in Vermont can be delivered to Burlington, South Burlington, Rutland, Barre, Montpelier, Winooski, St. Albans, Newport, Vergennes, etc.

Normally, the goods named "Piping and plumbing fitting" in Virginia can be bought in Virginia Beach, Norfolk, Chesapeake, Richmond, Newport News, Alexandria, Hampton, Roanoke, Portsmouth, Suffolk, Lynchburg, Harrisonburg, Charlottesville, Danville, Manassas, Petersburg, Fredericksburg, Winchester, Salem, Staunton, Fairfax, Hopewell, Waynesboro, Colonial Heights, Radford, Bristol, Manassas Park, Williamsburg, Falls Church, Martinsville, Poquoson, and so on.

And today the goods by your query "Piping and plumbing fitting" in Washington can be delivered to the following cities: Seattle, Spokane, Tacoma, Vancouver, Bellevue, Kent, Everett, Renton, Federal Way, Yakima, Spokane Valley, Kirkland, Bellingham, Kennewick, Auburn, Pasco, Marysville, Lakewood, Redmond, Shoreline, Richland, Sammamish, Burien, Olympia, Lacey. It is also available for the people living in Edmonds, Puyallup, Bremerton, Lynnwood, Bothell, Longview, Issaquah, Wenatchee, Mount Vernon, University Place, Walla Walla, Pullman, Des Moines, Lake Stevens, SeaTac, Maple Valley, Mercer Island, Bainbridge Island, Oak Harbor, Kenmore, Moses Lake, Camas, Mukilteo, Mountlake Terrace, Tukwila and smaller towns.

It goes without saying that the goods by your query "Piping and plumbing fitting" in West Virginia can be shipped to such cities as Charleston, Huntington, Morgantown, Parkersburg, Wheeling, Weirton, Fairmont, Martinsburg, Beckley, Clarksburg, South Charleston, St. Albans, Vienna, Bluefield.

As usual, the products related to the term "Piping and plumbing fitting" in Wisconsin can be received in such cities as Milwaukee, Madison, Green Bay, Kenosha, Racine, Appleton, Waukesha, Oshkosh, Eau Claire, Janesville, West Allis, La Crosse, Sheboygan, Wauwatosa, Fond du Lac, New Berlin, Wausau. And other cities and towns, such as Brookfield, Beloit, Greenfield, Franklin, Oak Creek, Manitowoc, West Bend, Sun Prairie, Superior, Stevens Point, Neenah, Fitchburg, Muskego, Watertown, De Pere, Mequon, South Milwaukee, Marshfield, and other cities and towns.

Usually, the products by request "Piping and plumbing fitting" in Wyoming can be purchased if you live in Cheyenne, Casper, Laramie, Gillette, Rock Springs, Sheridan, Green River, Evanston, Riverton, Jackson, Cody, Rawlins, Lander, Torrington, Powell, Douglas, Worland.

Canada Delivery, Shipping to Canada

It goes without saying that the products related to the term "Piping and plumbing fitting" in Canada can be shipped to Toronto, Montreal, Calgary, Ottawa, Edmonton, Mississauga, Winnipeg, Vancouver, Brampton, Hamilton, Quebec City, Surrey, Laval, Halifax, London, Markham, Vaughan, Gatineau, Longueuil, Burnaby, Saskatoon, Kitchener, Windsor, Regina, Richmond, Richmond Hill.

And, of course, Oakville, Burlington, Greater Sudbury, Sherbrooke, Oshawa, Saguenay, Lévis, Barrie, Abbotsford, St. Catharines, Trois-Rivières, Cambridge, Coquitlam, Kingston, Whitby, Guelph, Kelowna, Saanich, Ajax, Thunder Bay, Terrebonne, St. John's, Langley, Chatham-Kent, Delta.

And also in Waterloo, Cape Breton, Brantford, Strathcona County, Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Red Deer, Pickering, Kamloops, Clarington, North Vancouver, Milton, Nanaimo, Lethbridge, Niagara Falls, Repentigny, Victoria, Newmarket, Brossard, Peterborough, Chilliwack, Maple Ridge, Sault Ste. Marie, Kawartha Lakes, Sarnia, Prince George.

And, of course, Drummondville, Saint John, Moncton, Saint-Jérôme, New Westminster, Wood Buffalo, Granby, Norfolk County, St. Albert, Medicine Hat, Caledon, Halton Hills, Port Coquitlam, Fredericton, Grande Prairie, North Bay, Blainville, Saint-Hyacinthe, Aurora, Welland, Shawinigan, Dollard-des-Ormeaux, Belleville, North Vancouver, and other cities.

In other words, any products related with "Piping and plumbing fitting" can be shipped to any place in Canada, including Ontario, Quebec, British Columbia, Alberta, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, and Prince Edward Island.

UK Delivery, Shipping to the United Kingdom

Undoubtedly, the products related to the term "Piping and plumbing fitting" in the United Kingdom can be shipped to such cities as London, Birmingham, Leeds, Glasgow, Sheffield, Bradford, Edinburgh, Liverpool, Manchester, Bristol, Wakefield, Cardiff, Coventry, Nottingham, Leicester, Sunderland, Belfast, Newcastle upon Tyne, Brighton, Hull, Plymouth, Stoke-on-Trent.

And other cities and towns, such as Wolverhampton, Derby, Swansea, Southampton, Salford, Aberdeen, Westminster, Portsmouth, York, Peterborough, Dundee, Lancaster, Oxford, Newport, Preston, St Albans, Norwich, Chester, Cambridge, Salisbury, Exeter, Gloucester. The delivery is also available in Lisburn, Chichester, Winchester, Londonderry, Carlisle, Worcester, Bath, Durham, Lincoln, Hereford, Armagh, Inverness, Stirling, Canterbury, Lichfield, Newry, Ripon, Bangor, Truro, Ely, Wells, St. Davids, etc.

In fact, the goods named "Piping and plumbing fitting" can be shipped to any place in the UK, including England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland.

Ireland Delivery, Shipping to Ireland

Today the goods related with "Piping and plumbing fitting" in Ireland can be bought in Dublin, Cork, Limerick, Galway, Waterford, Drogheda, Dundalk, Swords, Bray, Navan, Ennis, Kilkenny, Tralee, Carlow, Newbridge, Naas, Athlone, Portlaoise, Mullingar, Wexford, Balbriggan, Letterkenny, Celbridge, Sligo. It is also available for the people living in Clonmel, Greystones, Malahide, Leixlip, Carrigaline, Tullamore, Killarney, Arklow, Maynooth, Cobh, Castlebar, Midleton, Mallow, Ashbourne, Ballina, Laytown-Bettystown-Mornington, Enniscorthy, Wicklow, Tramore, Cavan, and other cities.

Generally, the goods related with "Piping and plumbing fitting" can be shipped to any place in Ireland, including Leinster, Ulster, Munster, and Connacht.

Australia Delivery, Shipping to Australia

Of course, the products by request "Piping and plumbing fitting" in Australia can be shipped to such cities as Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth, Adelaide, Gold Coast, Tweed Heads, Newcastle, Maitland, Canberra, Queanbeyan, Sunshine Coast, Wollongong, Hobart, Geelong, Townsville, Cairns, Darwin, Toowoomba, Ballarat, Bendigo, Albury, Wodonga, Launceston, Mackay.

It's also available for those who live in Rockhampton, Bunbury, Bundaberg, Coffs Harbour, Wagga Wagga, Hervey Bay, Mildura, Wentworth, Shepparton, Mooroopna, Gladstone, Tannum Sands, Port Macquarie, Tamworth, Traralgon, Morwell, Orange, Geraldton, Bowral, Mittagong, Dubbo, Busselton, Bathurst, Nowra, Bomaderry, Warrnambool, Albany, Warragul, Drouin, Kalgoorlie, Boulder, Devonport...

In other words, the goods named "Piping and plumbing fitting" can be shipped to any place in Australia, including New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, Western Australia, South Australia, Tasmania, Australian Capital Territory, and Northern Territory.

New Zealand Delivery, Shipping to New Zealand

Today the goods related with "Piping and plumbing fitting" in New Zealand can be sent to Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch, Hamilton, Tauranga, Napier-Hastings, Dunedin, Lower Hutt, Palmerston North, Nelson, Rotorua, New Plymouth, Whangarei, Invercargill, Whanganui, Gisborne, Porirua, Invercargill, Nelson, Upper Hutt, Gisborne, Blenheim, Pukekohe, Timaru, Taupo...

In other words, the found goods by query "Piping and plumbing fitting" can be shipped to any place in New Zealand, including North Island, South Island, Waiheke Island, and smaller islands. As you know,any things related withcan be delivered toAnd also in, and other cities.

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Delivery

Abkhazia: Gagra, Gudauta, Lake Ritsa, New Athos, Ochamchire, Pitsunda, Sukhumi, Tsandryphsh, etc.

Afghanistan: Herat, Jalalabad, Kabul, Kandahar, Kunduz, Mazar-i-Sharif, Taloqan, etc.

Albania: Durrës, Himarë, Sarandë, Shkodër, Tirana, Vlorë, etc.

Algeria: Algiers, Oran, etc.

Andorra: Andorra la Vella, Arinsal, El Pas de la Casa, Encamp, Grandvalira, Ordino, Pal, Soldeu, Vallnord, etc.

Angola: Benguela, Luanda, etc.

Anguilla: The Valley, West End, etc.

Antigua And Barbuda: Saint John’s, etc.

Argentina: Buenos Aires, Colón, Córdoba, El Calafate, La Plata, Los Glaciares, Mar del Plata, Mendoza, Pinamar, Puerto Iguazú, Puerto Madryn, Rosario, Salta, San Carlos de Bariloche, San Martín de los Andes, San Miguel de Tucumán, San Rafael, Tandil, Tierra del Fuego, Ushuaia, Villa Carlos Paz, Villa Gesell, Villa La Angostura, Villa de Merlo, etc.

Armenia: Dilijan, Etchmiadzin, Goris, Gyumri, Jermuk, Sevan, Stepanavan, Tsaghkadzor, Vagharshapat, Vanadzor, Yeghegnadzor, Yerevan, etc.

Aruba: Oranjestad, etc.

Australia: Adelaide, Brisbane, Byron Bay, Cairns, Canberra, Darwin, Gold Coast, Great Barrier Reef, Hobart, Melbourne, Perth, Sydney, Tasmania, etc.

Austria: Abtenau, Alpbach, Austrian Alps, Bad Gastein, Bad Hofgastein, Bad Kleinkirchheim, Dürnstein, Flachau, Fugen, Graz, Innsbruck, Ischgl, Kaprun, Kitzbühel, Klagenfurt, Kufstein, Lech, Leogang, Lienz, Linz, Maria Alm, Mayrhofen, Neustift im Stubaital, Obergurgl, Saalbach-Hinterglemm, Saalfelden, Salzburg, Schladming, Seefeld, Serfaus, St. Anton, St. Johann im Pongau, Sölden, Tux, Tyrol, Vienna, Villach, Wachau, Wagrain, Zell am See, etc.

Azerbaijan: Baku, Ganja, Lankaran, Quba, Qusar, Shahdag, Sheki, Stepanakert, etc.

Bahamas: Andros, Eleuthera, Exuma, Freeport, Grand Bahama, Nassau, New Providence, Paradise Island, etc.

Bahrain: Manama, etc.

Bangladesh: Chittagong, Cox's Bazar, Dhaka, Khulna, Narayanganj, Rajshahi, Sylhet, etc.

Barbados: Bridgetown, etc.

Belarus: Babruysk, Białowieża Forest, Brest Belarus, Gomel, Grodno, Lahoysk, Maladzyechna, Minsk, Mogilev, Nesvizh, Pinsk, Silichi, Vitebsk, etc.

Belgium: Antwerp, Ardennes, Blankenberge, Bouillon, Bruges, Brussels, Charleroi, De Haan, De Panne, Durbuy, Flanders, Ghent, Hasselt, Kortrijk, Leuven, Liège, Namur, Nieuwpoort, Ostend, Spa, Ypres, Zeebrugge, etc.

Belize: Ambergris Caye, Belize City, Caye Caulker, Placencia, San Pedro, etc.

Benin: Cotonou, etc.

Bermuda: Hamilton, etc.

Bhutan: Paro, Thimphu, etc.

Bolivia: Cochabamba, El Alto, La Paz, Oruro, Quillacollo, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Sucre, Uyuni, etc.

Bosnia and Herzegovina: Banja Luka, Jahorina, Medjugorje, Mostar, Neum, Sarajevo, etc.

Botswana: Gaborone, Maun, etc.

Brazil: Amazon River, Amazonia, Angra dos Reis, Arraial do Cabo, Atlantic Forest, Balneário Camboriú, Belo Horizonte, Belém, Bombinhas, Brasília, Búzios, Cabo Frio, Camaçari, Campinas, Campos do Jordão, Caraguatatuba, Copacabana, Costa do Sauípe, Curitiba, Duque de Caxias, Fernando de Noronha, Florianópolis, Fortaleza, Foz do Iguaçu, Goiânia, Gramado, Guarujá, Guarulhos, Iguazu Falls, Ilha Grande, Ilhabela, Ilhéus, Ipanema, Itacaré, Maceió, Manaus, Morro de São Paulo, Natal, Niterói, Osasco, Ouro Preto, Paraty, Petrópolis, Porto Alegre, Porto Seguro, Praia do Forte, Recife, Ribeirão Preto, Rio de Janeiro, Salvador, Santos, São Gonçalo, São José dos Campos, São Luís, São Paulo, São Sebastião, Trancoso, Ubatuba, Vila do Abraão, etc.

British Virgin Islands: Tortola, etc.

Brunei: Bandar Seri Begawan, etc.

Bulgaria: Albena, Balchik, Bansko, Blagoevgrad, Borovets, Burgas, Chernomorets, Dobrinishte, Golden Sands, Kiten, Koprivshtitsa, Lozenets, Nesebar, Obzor, Pamporovo, Pirin, Pleven, Plovdiv, Pomorie, Primorsko, Ravda, Razlog, Rila, Ruse, Samokov, Sandanski, Shumen, Sofia, Sozopol, Stara Zagora, Sunny Beach, Sveti Vlas, Tsarevo, Varna, Veliko Tarnovo, etc.

Burkina Faso: Bobo-Dioulasso, Ouagadougou, etc.

Burundi: Bujumbura, etc.

Cambodia: Angkor, Battambang, Kampot, Kep, Phnom Penh, Siem Reap, Sihanoukville, etc.

Cameroon: Bafoussam, Bamenda, Douala, Garoua, Kribi, Limbe, Maroua, Yaoundé, etc.

Canada: Alberta, Banff, Brampton, British Columbia, Burnaby, Calgary, Charlottetown, Edmonton, Fort McMurray, Gatineau, Halifax, Hamilton, Jasper, Kamloops, Kelowna, Kingston, Kitchener, Laval, London, Longueuil, Manitoba, Markham, Mississauga, Moncton, Mont-Tremblant, Montreal, Nanaimo, New Brunswick, Niagara Falls, Niagara on the Lake, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Ottawa, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Regina, Richmond, Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Surrey, Toronto, Vancouver, Vaughan, Victoria, Whistler, Whitehorse, Windsor, Winnipeg, Yukon, etc.

Cape Verde: Boa Vista Cape Verde, Sal, etc.

Caribbean Netherlands:, etc.

Cayman Islands: George Town, West Bay, etc.

Chad: N'Djamena, etc.

Chile: Antofagasta, Arica, Atacama, Coquimbo, Easter Island, Hanga Roa, Iquique, La Serena, Patagonia, Pucón, Puerto Montt, Puerto Natales, Puerto Varas, Punta Arenas, San Pedro de Atacama, Santiago, Torres del Paine, Valdivia, Valparaíso, Villarrica, Viña del Mar, etc.

China: Anshun, Baishan, Baoding, Baoshan, Baotou, Beijing, Binzhou, Changchun, Changsha, Changzhi, Chengdu, Chongqing, Dali, Dalian, Datong, Dengfeng, Diqing, Dongguan, Emeishan, Foshan, Great Wall of China, Guangdong, Guangzhou, Guilin, Guiyang, Hainan, Hangzhou, Harbin, Honghe, Huashan, Huizhou, Jiangmen, Jiangxi, Jiaxing, Jilin, Jinan, Jincheng, Jingdezhen, Jinzhong, Jiujiang, Jiuzhaigou, Kunming, Langfang, Lanzhou, Laoshan, Leshan, Lhasa, Lianyungang, Lijiang, Linfen, Linyi, Luoyang, Lushan, Lüliang, Mianyang, Nanchang, Nanchong, Nanjing, Nantong, Ngawa, Ningbo, Qiandongnan, Qingdao, Qingyuan, Qinhuangdao, Qufu, Qujing, Rizhao, Sanya, Shanghai, Shangri-La, Shantou, Shanxi, Shaoguan, Shaolin, Shaoxing, Shenyang, Shenzhen, Shigatse, Shijiazhuang, Sichuan, Suzhou, Tai'an, Taiyuan, Taizhou Jiangsu, Tangshan, Tianjin, Tibet, Weifang, Weihai, Wuhan, Wulingyuan, Wutai, Wuxi, Xi'an, Xiamen, Xinzhou, Xishuangbanna, Ya'an, Yanbian, Yangtze, Yangzhou, Yantai, Yellow River, Yibin, Yinchuan, Yiwu, Yuncheng, Yunnan, Zhangjiajie, Zhanjiang, Zhejiang, Zhengzhou, Zhongshan, Zhongwei, Zhoushan, Zhuhai, Zunyi, etc.

Colombia: Barranquilla, Bogotá, Bucaramanga, Cali, Cartagena, Medellín, Pereira, San Andrés, Santa Marta, Villa de Leyva, Villavicencio, etc.

Costa Rica: Alajuela, Jacó, La Fortuna, Manuel Antonio, Monteverde, Puerto Viejo de Talamanca, Puntarenas, Quepos, San José, Santa Teresa, Tamarindo, Tortuguero, etc.

Croatia: Baška Voda, Baška, Bibinje, Biograd na Moru, Bol, Brač, Brela, Cavtat, Cres, Dalmatia, Fažana, Hvar, Istria, Ičići, Korčula, Krk, Lopud, Lovran, Lošinj, Makarska, Mali Lošinj, Malinska, Medulin, Mlini, Nin, Novi Vinodolski, Novigrad, Omiš, Opatija, Orebić, Pag, Podstrana, Poreč, Pula, Rab, Rabac, Rijeka, Rovinj, Split, Stari Grad, Sukošan, Supetar, Trogir, Tučepi, Umag, Vrsar, Zadar, Zagreb, Čiovo, Šibenik, etc.

Cuba: Baracoa, Camagüey, Cayo Coco, Cayo Largo, Cayo Santa María, Cienfuegos, Guantánamo, Havana, Holguín, Pinar del Río, Remedios Cuba, Sancti Spíritus, Santa Clara Cuba, Santiago de Cuba, Trinidad, Varadero, Viñales, etc.

Curaçao: Sint Michiel, Westpunt, Willemstad, etc.

Cyprus: Ayia Napa, Coral Bay Cyprus, Famagusta, Kouklia, Kyrenia, Larnaca, Limassol, Nicosia, Paphos, Paralimni, Peyia, Pissouri, Polis, Protaras, etc.

Czech Republic: Bohemia, Brno, Děčín, Frymburk, Frýdek-Místek, Harrachov, Hradec Králové, Jihlava, Karlovy Vary, Kladno, Krkonoše, Kutná Hora, Liberec, Marienbad, Mikulov, Mladá Boleslav, Mělník, Olomouc, Ostrava, Pardubice, Plzeň, Poděbrady, Prague, Teplice, Třeboň, Zlín, Znojmo, Ústí nad Labem, České Budějovice, Český Krumlov, Špindlerův Mlýn, etc.

Democratic Republic of the Congo: Kinshasa, etc.

Denmark: Aalborg, Aarhus, Billund, Copenhagen, Ebeltoft, Esbjerg, Frederikshavn, Greenland, Helsingør, Herning, Hirtshals, Hjørring, Holstebro, Jutland, Odense, Silkeborg, Skagen, Skive, Sønderborg, Vejle, Viborg, etc.

Djibouti: Djibouti City, etc.

Dominican Republic: Boca Chica, Bávaro, Punta Cana, Santo Domingo, Sosúa, etc.

Ecuador: Baños, Cuenca, Galápagos Islands, Guayaquil, Manta, Otavalo, Puerto Ayora, Puerto López, Quito, Salinas, etc.

Egypt: Abu Simbel, Al Qusair, Alexandria, Aswan, Cairo, Dahab, El Alamein, El Gouna, El Hadaba, Faiyum, Giza, Hurghada, Luxor, Marsa Alam, Mersa Matruh, Naama Bay, Nabq Bay, Nile, Nuweiba, Port Said, Red Sea, Safaga, Sahl Hasheesh, Scharm asch-Schaich, Sharks Bay, Sinai, Suez, Taba, Valley of the Kings, etc.

El Salvador: La Libertad, San Salvador, etc.

Equatorial Guinea: Malabo, etc.

Eritrea: Asmara, etc.

Estonia: Haapsalu, Kuressaare, Narva, Pärnu, Saaremaa, Tallinn, Tartu, etc.

Ethiopia: Addis Ababa, Bahir Dar, Gondar, etc.

Faroe Islands: Tórshavn, etc.

Fiji: Nadi, Suva, Viti Levu Island, etc.

Finland: Espoo, Helsinki, Imatra, Joensuu, Jyväskylä, Jämsä, Kotka, Kuopio, Kuusamo, Lahti, Lapland, Lappeenranta, Levi, Mariehamn, Mikkeli, Moomin World, Naantali, Nilsiä, Oulu, Pori, Porvoo, Pyhätunturi, Rovaniemi, Rukatunturi, Saariselkä, Saimaa, Tampere, Turku, Vaasa, Vantaa, Vuokatti, Åland Islands, etc.

France: Aix-en-Provence, Ajaccio, Alsace, Annecy, Antibes, Aquitaine, Arles, Avignon, Avoriaz, Bayonne, Beaune, Besançon, Biarritz, Bonifacio, Bordeaux, Briançon, Brittany, Burgundy, Cabourg, Cagnes-sur-Mer, Calais, Calvi, Canet-en-Roussillon, Cannes, Carcassonne, Cassis, Chambéry, Chamonix, Colmar, Corsica, Courchevel, Deauville, Dijon, Dunkirk, French Alps, French Riviera, Fréjus, Grenoble, Honfleur, La Ciotat, La Plagne, La Rochelle, Le Grau-du-Roi, Le Havre, Les Arcs, Les Gets, Les Menuires, Lille, Limoges, Lourdes, Lyon, Mandelieu-la-Napoule, Marseille, Megève, Menton, Montpellier, Morzine, Méribel, Nantes, Narbonne, Nice, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, Normandy, Nîmes, Paradiski, Paris, Pas-de-Calais, Perpignan, Portes du Soleil, Porto-Vecchio, Provence, Périgueux, Reims, Rhône-Alpes, Rouen, Saint-Gervais-les-Bains, Saint-Malo, Saint-Martin-de-Belleville, Saint-Rémy-de-Provence, Saint-Tropez, Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer, Strasbourg, The Three Valleys, Tignes, Toulouse, Trouville-sur-Mer, Val Thorens, Val-d'Isère, Versailles, Île-de-France, etc.

French Guiana: Cayenne, Kourou, etc.

French Polynesia: Bora Bora, Mo'orea, Papeete, Tahiti, etc.

Gabon: Libreville, etc.

Gambia: Banjul, Serekunda, etc.

Georgia: Bakuriani, Batumi, Borjomi, Gori, Gudauri, Kobuleti, Kutaisi, Mestia, Mtskheta, Poti, Sighnaghi, Stepantsminda, Tbilisi, Telavi, Zugdidi, etc.

Germany: Aachen, Augsburg, Bad Birnbach, Bad Ems, Bad Füssing, Bad Godesberg, Bad Harzburg, Bad Homburg, Bad Kissingen, Bad Mergentheim, Bad Neuenahr-Ahrweiler, Bad Reichenhall, Bad Salzuflen, Bad Schandau, Baden-Baden, Baden-Württemberg, Bamberg, Bavaria, Berchtesgaden, Berlin, Bernkastel-Kues, Bielefeld, Binz, Bonn, Brandenburg, Braunlage, Braunschweig, Bremen, Bremerhaven, Chemnitz, Cochem, Cologne, Cuxhaven, Dortmund, Dresden, Duisburg, Düsseldorf, Eisenach, Erfurt, Erlangen, Essen, Europa-Park, Frankfurt, Freiburg, Friedrichshafen, Fürth, Füssen, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Goslar, Görlitz, Göttingen, Hamburg, Hanover, Heidelberg, Heiligendamm, Heligoland, Hesse, Ingolstadt, Inzell, Karlsruhe, Kiel, Koblenz, Lake Constance, Leipzig, Lindau, Lower Saxony, Lübeck, Magdeburg, Mainz, Mannheim, Marburg, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Munich, Münster, Neuschwanstein Castle, Neuss, Norddeich, Norden, North Rhine-Westphalia, Nuremberg, Oberstdorf, Oldenburg, Osnabrück, Paderborn, Potsdam, Quedlinburg, Regensburg, Rhineland-Palatinate, Rostock, Rothenburg ob der Tauber, Ruhpolding, Rust, Rügen, Saarbrücken, Saarland, Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, Schleswig-Holstein, Schmallenberg, Schwerin, Schönau am Königsee, Sindelfingen, Speyer, Stuttgart, Sylt, Thuringia, Travemünde, Trier, Ulm, Warnemünde, Weimar, Wernigerode, Westerland, Wiesbaden, Wolfsburg, Würzburg, etc.

Ghana: Accra, Kumasi, etc.

Gibraltar:, etc.

Greece: Acharavi, Aegina, Afantou, Afytos, Agios Gordios, Andros, Arkadia, Athens, Cephalonia, Chania, Chaniotis, Chios, Corfu, Corinth, Crete, Cyclades, Dassia, Delphi, Dodecanese, Faliraki, Halkidiki, Heraklion, Hersonissos, Hydra, Ialysos, Ionian Islands, Kalamata, Kalavryta, Kalymnos, Kardamaina, Karpathos, Kassandra, Kastoria, Katerini, Kavos, Kefalos, Kokkari, Kos, Kriopigi, Laganas, Lefkada, Lemnos, Lesbos, Lindos, Loutraki, Marathokampos, Meteora, Mithymna, Monemvasia, Mount Athos, Mykonos, Mytilene, Nafplio, Naxos, Neos Marmaras, Paleokastritsa, Parga, Patmos, Patras, Pefkochori, Pefkos, Peloponnese, Polychrono, Poros, Pythagoreio, Rethymno, Rhodes, Samos, Samothrace, Santorini, Sidari, Sithonia, Sparta, Spetses, Sporades, Syros, Thasos, Thessaloniki, Tingaki, Zakynthos, etc.

Guadeloupe: Saint-François, etc.

Guam: Tamuning, Tumon, etc.

Guatemala: Antigua Guatemala, etc.

Guinea: Conakry, etc.

Guyana: Georgetown, etc.

Haiti: Cap-Haitien, Port-au-Prince, etc.

Honduras: Roatán, Tegucigalpa, etc.

Hong Kong: Causeway Bay, Hong Kong Island, Kowloon, Mong Kok, New Territories, Repulse Bay, Tsim Sha Tsui, Wan Chai, etc.

Hungary: Budapest, Eger, Gyula, Hajdúszoboszló, Hévíz, Lake Balaton, Pécs, Siófok, Szeged, Zalakaros, etc.

Iceland: Akureyri, Blue Lagoon, Borgarnes, Egilsstaðir, Garðabær, Hafnarfjörður, Hveragerði, Höfn, Keflavík, Kópavogur, Reykjavik, Selfoss, Vík í Mýrdal, Ísafjörður, etc.

India: Agra, Ahmedabad, Ajmer, Allahabad, Amritsar, Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Aurangabad, Bangalore, Bhopal, Bikaner, Chandigarh, Chennai, Darjeeling, Dehradun, Delhi, Dharamshala, Fatehpur Sikri, Gangtok, Goa, Gujarat, Gurgaon, Guwahati, Gwalior, Haridwar, Himachal Pradesh, Hyderabad, Indore, Jabalpur, Jaipur, Jaisalmer, Jalandhar, Jodhpur, Kanpur, Karnataka, Kerala, Khajuraho, Kochi, Kolhapur, Kolkata, Ladakh, Leh, Lucknow, Ludhiana, Madhya Pradesh, Madikeri, Madurai, Maharashtra, Manali, Mangalore, Mathura, Mount Abu, Mumbai, Munnar, Mussoorie, Mysore, Nagpur, Nainital, Nashik, Navi Mumbai, New Delhi, Noida, Ooty, Pachmarhi, Pune, Punjab, Pushkar, Rajasthan, Ramnagar, Rishikesh, Sawai Madhopur, Shimla, Sikkim, Srinagar, Tamil Nadu, Thane, Thiruvananthapuram, Tirupati, Udaipur, Ujjain, Uttar Pradesh, Varanasi, Varkala, Vijayawada, Visakhapatnam, etc.

Indonesia: Bali, Balikpapan, Bandung, Batu, Bintan, Bogor, Borobudur, Denpasar, Jakarta, Java, Jimbaran, Kalimantan, Kuta, Lombok, Makassar, Malang, Mataram, Medan, Nusa Dua, Padang, Palembang, Pekanbaru, Sanur, Semarang, Seminyak, Sumatra, Surabaya, Surakarta, Ubud, Yogyakarta, etc.

Iran: Isfahan, Mashhad, Shiraz, Tehran, etc.

Iraq: Baghdad, Basra, Duhok, Erbil, Karbala, Sulaymaniyah, etc.

Ireland: Bundoran, Connemara, Cork, Dingle, Donegal, Doolin, Dublin, Ennis, Galway, Kenmare, Kilkenny, Killarney, Letterkenny, Limerick, Shannon, Tralee, Westport, etc.

Isle of Man: Douglas, etc.

Israel: Acre, Arad, Ashdod, Ashkelon, Bat Yam, Beersheba, Caesarea, Dead Sea, Eilat, Ein Bokek, Galilee, Golan Heights, Gush Dan, Haifa, Hermon, Herzliya, Jerusalem, Mitzpe Ramon, Nahariya, Nazareth, Netanya, Petah Tikva, Ramat Gan, Rishon LeZion, Rosh Pinna, Safed, Tel Aviv, Tiberias, Zikhron Ya'akov, etc.

Italy: Abano Terme, Abruzzo, Agrigento, Alassio, Alberobello, Alghero, Amalfi Coast, Aosta Valley, Apulia, Arezzo, Arzachena, Ascoli Piceno, Assisi, Asti, Bardolino, Bari, Basilicata, Bellagio, Bellaria-Igea Marina, Benevento, Bergamo, Bologna, Bolzano, Bordighera, Bormio, Bracciano, Brescia, Breuil-Cervinia, Brindisi, Cagliari, Calabria, Campania, Canazei, Caorle, Capri, Carrara, Castiglione della Pescaia, Catania, Cefalù, Cervia, Cesenatico, Chieti, Chioggia, Cinque Terre, Civitavecchia, Cortina d'Ampezzo, Cortona, Costa Smeralda, Courmayeur, Desenzano del Garda, Dolomites, Elba, Emilia-Romagna, Ercolano, Fasano, Fassa Valley, Ferrara, Finale Ligure, Fiumicino, Florence, Forte dei Marmi, Gaeta, Gallipoli, Genoa, Golfo Aranci, Greve in Chianti, Grosseto, Gubbio, Herculaneum, Imperia, Ischia, Italian Alps, Jesolo, L'Aquila, La Spezia, Lake Como, Lake Garda, Lake Maggiore, Lampedusa, Lazio, Lazise, Lecco, Lerici, Lido di Jesolo, Lignano Sabbiadoro, Liguria, Livigno, Livorno, Lombardy, Lucca, Madonna di Campiglio, Malcesine, Manarola, Mantua, Maratea, Massa, Matera, Menaggio, Merano, Messina, Mestre, Milan, Milazzo, Monopoli, Montecatini Terme, Montepulciano, Monterosso al Mare, Monza, Naples, Nardò, Novara, Olbia, Ortisei, Ostuni, Otranto, Padua, Palermo, Parma, Perugia, Pescara, Peschici, Peschiera del Garda, Piacenza, Piedmont, Pisa, Pistoia, Polignano a Mare, Pompeii, Porto Cervo, Porto Cesareo, Portoferraio, Portofino, Positano, Prato, Ragusa, Rapallo, Ravenna, Riccione, Rimini, Riomaggiore, Riva del Garda, Rome, Salerno, San Gimignano, Sanremo, Sardinia, Savona, Sestriere, Sicily, Siena, Siracusa, Sirmione, Sorrento, Sottomarina, Sperlonga, Stresa, Sëlva, Taormina, Taranto, Terracina, Tivoli, Trani, Trapani, Trentino-Alto Adige, Trento, Treviso, Trieste, Turin, Tuscany, Umbria, Urbino, Val Gardena, Veneto, Venice, Ventimiglia, Verbania, Vernazza, Verona, Vesuvius, Viareggio, Vicenza, Vieste, Viterbo, etc.

Ivory Coast: Abidjan, Assinie-Mafia, Bouaké, San-Pédro, Yamoussoukro, etc.

Jamaica: Kingston, Montego Bay, Negril, Ocho Rios, Port Antonio, Runaway Bay, etc.

Japan: Atami, Fujisawa, Fukuoka, Furano, Hakodate, Hakone, Hakuba, Hamamatsu, Hiroshima, Hokkaido, Ishigaki, Itō, Kagoshima, Kanagawa, Kanazawa, Karuizawa, Kawasaki, Kobe, Kutchan, Kyoto, Lake Suwa, Matsumoto, Miyakojima, Nagasaki, Nagoya, Naha, Nanjō, Nikkō, Okinawa, Onna, Osaka, Sapporo, Sendai, Shizuoka, Takayama, Tokyo, Yokohama, etc.

Jordan: Amman, Aqaba, Irbid, Jerash, Madaba, Petra, Sweimeh, Wadi Musa, Wadi Rum, Zarqa, etc.

Kazakhstan: Aktau, Aktobe, Almaty, Astana, Atyrau, Burabay, Karagandy, Kokshetau, Kostanay, Lake Balkhash, Oskemen, Pavlodar, Semey, Shymbulak, Shymkent, Taraz, etc.

Kenya: Kisumu, Lake Victoria, Masai Mara, Mombasa, Nairobi, Ukunda, etc.

Kiribati: South Tarawa, etc.

Kongo: Brazzaville, Pointe-Noire, etc.

Kosovo: Pristina, Prizren, etc.

Kuwait: Hawally, Kuwait City, Salmiya, etc.

Kyrgyzstan: Bishkek, Bosteri, Cholpon-Ata, Issyk Kul, Karakol, Osh, etc.

Laos: Luang Prabang, Vang Vieng, Vientiane, etc.

Latvia: Cēsis, Daugavpils, Jūrmala, Liepāja, Riga, Rēzekne, Sigulda, Ventspils, etc.

Lebanon: Baalbeck, Beirut, Byblos, Faraya, Jounieh, Mzaar Kfardebian, Tripoli, etc.

Lesotho: Maseru, etc.

Libya: Benghazi, Tripoli, etc.

Liechtenstein: Schaan, Vaduz, etc.

Lithuania: Druskininkai, Kaunas, Klaipėda, Nida, Palanga, Panevėžys, Trakai, Vilnius, Šiauliai, Šventoji, etc.

Luxembourg: Differdange, Dudelange, Echternach, Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg City, Vianden, etc.

Macau:, etc.

Macedonia: Bitola, Mavrovo, Ohrid, Skopje, etc.

Madagascar: Antananarivo, etc.

Malawi: Blantyre, Lilongwe, etc.

Malaysia: Borneo, George Town, Ipoh, Johor Bahru, Johor, Kedah, Kota Bharu, Kota Kinabalu, Kuah, Kuala Lumpur, Kuala Terengganu, Kuantan, Kuching, Langkawi, Malacca, Penang, Putrajaya, Sabah, Sarawak, Selangor, Shah Alam, etc.

Maldives: Kaafu Atoll, Malé, etc.

Mali: Bamako, etc.

Malta: Birżebbuġa, Buġibba, Gozo, Gżira, Mellieħa, Paceville, Pembroke, Qawra, Sliema, St. Julian's, St. Paul's Bay, Valletta, etc.

Martinique: Fort-de-France, Les Trois-Îlets, Sainte-Luce, etc.

Mauritania: Mexico City, Nouakchott, etc.

Mauritius: Port Louis, etc.

Mexico: Acapulco, Akumal, Cabo San Lucas, Cancún, Chetumal, Chichen Itza, Chihuahua, Ciudad Juárez, Cozumel, Cuernavaca, Guadalajara, Guanajuato, Isla Mujeres, Los Cabos, Manzanillo, Mazatlán, Monterrey, Mérida, Oaxaca, Playa del Carmen, Puebla, Puerto Aventuras, Puerto Escondido, Puerto Morelos, Puerto Peñasco, Puerto Vallarta, Querétaro, Riviera Maya, San Cristóbal de las Casas, San Miguel de Allende, San Miguel de Cozumel, Tulum, etc.

Moldova: Bălți, Chișinău, Tiraspol, etc.

Monaco: Monte Carlo, etc.

Mongolia: Darkhan, Erdenet, Ulaanbaatar, etc.

Montenegro: Bar, Bečići, Bijela, Budva, Cetinje, Dobra Voda, Dobrota, Herceg Novi, Igalo, Kolašin, Kotor, Miločer, Nikšić, Perast, Petrovac, Podgorica, Prčanj, Sutomore, Sveti Stefan, Tivat, Ulcinj, Žabljak, etc.

Morocco: Agadir, Asilah, Casablanca, Chefchaouen, El Jadida, Essaouira, Fez, Marrakesh, Meknes, Merzouga, Mohammedia, Nador, Ouarzazate, Rabat, Tangier, Taroudant, Tinghir, Tétouan, etc.

Mozambique: Maputo, etc.

Myanmar: Mandalay, Naypyidaw, Nyaung Shwe, Yangon, etc.

Namibia: Rundu, Swakopmund, Walvis Bay, Windhoek, etc.

Nepal: Chitwan, Himalayas, Kathmandu, Lukla, Lumbini, Mount Everest, Nagarkot, Namche Bazaar, Patan, Pokhara, Tengboche, etc.

Netherlands: 's-Hertogenbosch, Alkmaar, Amersfoort, Amsterdam, Arnhem, Breda, Delft, Domburg, Dordrecht, Eindhoven, Groningen, Haarlem, Leiden, Maastricht, Nijmegen, Noordwijk, Rotterdam, Texel, The Hague, Utrecht, Valkenburg aan de Geul, Wijk aan Zee, Zandvoort, etc.

New Zealand: Auckland, Christchurch, Dunedin, Gisborne, Hamilton, Hastings, Invercargill, Kaikoura, Lower Hutt, Napier, Nelson, New Plymouth, North Island, Palmerston North, Porirua, Queenstown, Rotorua, South Island, Taupo, Tauranga, Waiheke Island, Wanaka, Wellington, Whangarei, etc.

Nicaragua: Granada, Managua, etc.

Nigeria: Abuja, Benin City, Calabar, Enugu, Ibadan, Ilorin, Jos, Kaduna, Lagos, Owerri, Port Harcourt, Uyo, etc.

North Korea: Pyongyang, etc.

Northern Mariana Islands: Saipan, etc.

Norway: Beitostølen, Bergen, Bodø, Gardermoen, Geilo, Geirangerfjord, Hardangerfjord, Hemsedal, Kristiansand, Larvik, Lillehammer, Lofoten, Narvik, Oslo, Sognefjord, Stavanger, Stryn, Svalbard, Tromsø, Trondheim, Ålesund, etc.

Oman: Muscat, Nizwa, Salalah, Seeb, etc.

Pakistan: Bhurban, Faisalabad, Islamabad, Karachi, Lahore, Peshawar, Rawalpindi, etc.

Palau: Koror, Peleliu, etc.

Palestine: Beit Sahour, Bethlehem, Hebron, Jenin, Jericho, Nablus, Ramallah, etc.

Panama: Bocas del Toro, etc.

Papua New Guinea: Port Moresby, etc.

Paraguay: Asunción, Ciudad Del Este, Encarnación, Panama City, etc.

Peru: Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Chiclayo, Cusco, Huancayo, Huanchaco, Huaraz, Ica, Iquitos, Lima, Machu Picchu, Máncora, Nazca, Ollantaytambo, Paracas, Pisco, Piura, Puerto Maldonado, Puno, Tacna, Tarapoto, Trujillo, Urubamba, etc.

Philippines: Angeles City, Antipolo, Bacolod, Bacoor, Baguio, Batangas, Bohol, Boracay, Cagayan de Oro, Calamba, Caloocan, Cebu, Coron, Dasmariñas, Davao, Dumaguete, El Nido, General Santos, Iloilo City, Kalibo, Lapu-Lapu City, Las Piñas, Luzon, Mactan, Makati, Mandaue, Manila, Marikina, Mindanao, Muntinlupa, Olongapo, Palawan, Panglao, Parañaque, Pasay, Pasig, Puerto Galera, Puerto Princesa, Quezon City, Tagaytay, Tagbilaran, Taguig, Valenzuela, Visayas, Zamboanga, etc.

Poland: Białka Tatrzańska, Białowieża Forest, Białystok, Bielsko-Biała, Bukowina Tatrzańska, Bydgoszcz, Elbląg, Gdańsk, Gdynia, Katowice, Kielce, Kołobrzeg, Kraków, Krynica Morska, Krynica-Zdrój, Lublin, Malbork, Olsztyn, Opole, Oświęcim, Poznań, Rzeszów, Sopot, Szczecin, Tarnów, Toruń, Tricity, Warsaw, Wrocław, Zakopane, Zielona Góra, Łódź, Świnoujście, etc.

Portugal: Albufeira, Algarve, Aljezur, Almancil, Armação de Pêra, Azores, Braga, Cabanas de Tavira, Carvoeiro, Cascais, Castro Marim, Coimbra, Estoril, Faro, Funchal, Fátima, Guimarães, Lagoa, Lagos, Lisbon, Loulé, Madeira, Monte Gordo, Nazaré, Olhão, Ponta Delgada, Portimão, Porto, Praia da Luz, Quarteira, Sesimbra, Silves, Sintra, Tavira, Vila Real de Santo António, Vila do Bispo, Vilamoura, Évora, etc.

Puerto Rico: Bayamón, Caguas, Carolina, Ponce, San Juan, Vieques, etc.

Qatar: Doha, etc.

Romania: Bran, Brașov, Bucharest, Cluj-Napoca, Constanța, Poiana Brașov, Sibiu, Sighișoara, Timișoara, Transylvania, etc.

Russia: Abakan, Abrau-Dyurso, Abzakovo, Adler, Altai Republic, Alupka, Alushta, Anadyr, Anapa, Angarsk, Arkhangelsk, Arkhipo Osipovka, Arkhyz, Armavir, Astrakhan, Bakhchysarai, Balakovo, Balashikha, Baltic Sea, Barnaul, Belgorod, Belokurikha, Biysk, Black Sea, Blagoveshchensk, Bolshoy Utrish, Bratsk, Bryansk, Caucasian Mineral Waters, Cheboksary, Chelyabinsk, Cherepovets, Cherkessk, Chita, Chornomorske, Crimea, Curonian Spit, Dagomys, Divnomorskoye, Dombay, Domodedovo, Dzerzhinsk, Dzhankhot, Dzhemete, Dzhubga, Elektrostal, Elista, Engels, Estosadok, Feodosia, Foros, Gaspra, Gatchina, Gelendzhik, Golden Ring, Golubitskaya, Gornaya Karusel, Gorno-Altaysk, Goryachy Klyuch, Grozny, Gurzuf, Irkutsk, Ivanovo, Izhevsk, Kabardinka, Kaliningrad, Kaluga, Kamchatka, Kamensk-Uralsky, Karelia, Kazan, Kemerovo, Kerch, Khabarovsk, Khanty-Mansiysk, Khibiny, Khimki, Khosta, Kirov, Kirovsk, Kislovodsk, Kizhi, Koktebel, Kolomna, Komsomolsk on Amur, Konakovo, Koreiz, Korolev, Kostroma, Krasnaya Polyana, Krasnodar Krai, Krasnodar, Krasnogorsk, Krasnoyarsk, Kurgan, Kursk, Kyzyl, Lake Baikal, Lake Seliger, Lazarevskoye, Lipetsk, Listvyanka, Loo, Lyubertsy, Magadan, Magnitogorsk, Makhachkala, Massandra, Matsesta, Maykop, Miass, Mineralnye Vody, Moscow, Mount Elbrus, Murmansk, Murom, Mytishchi, Naberezhnye Chelny, Nakhodka, Nalchik, Naryan-Mar, Nebug, Nizhnekamsk, Nizhnevartovsk, Nizhny Novgorod, Nizhny Tagil, Norilsk, Novokuznetsk, Novorossiysk, Novosibirsk, Novyi Svit, Novyy Urengoy, Obninsk, Odintsovo, Olginka, Omsk, Orenburg, Orsk, Oryol, Partenit, Penza, Pereslavl Zalessky, Perm, Pervouralsk, Petergof, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, Petrozavodsk, Plyos, Podolsk, Popovka, Primorsko-Akhtarsk, Pskov, Pulkovo, Pushkin, Pushkino, Pyatigorsk, Repino, Rosa Khutor, Rostov-on-Don, Ryazan, Rybachye, Rybinsk, Saint Petersburg, Sakhalin, Saky, Salekhard, Samara, Saransk, Saratov, Sea of Azov, Sergiyev Posad, Serpukhov, Sestroretsk, Sevastopol, Shakhty, Sheregesh, Sheremetyevo, Siberia, Simeiz, Simferopol, Smolensk, Sochi, Solovetsky Islands, Sortavala, Stary Oskol, Stavropol, Sterlitamak, Sudak, Sukko, Surgut, Suzdal, Svetlogorsk, Syktyvkar, Syzran, Taganrog, Taman, Tambov, Tarusa, Temryuk, Terskol, Tobolsk, Tolyatti, Tomsk, Torzhok, Tuapse, Tula, Tver, Tyumen, Ufa, Uglich, Ukhta, Ulan-Ude, Ulyanovsk, Usinsk, Utes, Valaam, Valday, Velikiye Luki, Veliky Novgorod, Veliky Ustyug, Vityazevo, Vladikavkaz, Vladimir, Vladivostok, Vnukovo International Airport, Volga, Volgograd, Vologda, Volzhskiy, Vorkuta, Voronezh, Vyborg, Yakhroma, Yakornaya Shchel, Yakutsk, Yalta, Yaroslavl, Yekaterinburg, Yelets, Yenisei, Yessentuki, Yevpatoria, Yeysk, Yoshkar-Ola, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, Zavidovo, Zelenogradsk, Zheleznovodsk, Zhukovsky, Zvenigorod, etc.

Rwanda: Butare, Gisenyi, Kibuye, Kigali, etc.

Réunion: Saint-Denis, etc.

Saint Barthélemy: Gustavia, etc.

Saint Kitts and Nevis: Basseterre, etc.

Saint Lucia: Anse La Raye, Castries, Gros Islet, Soufrière, etc.

Saint Martin:, etc.

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines: Kingstown, etc.

Samoa: Apia, etc.

San Marino: City of San Marino, etc.

Saudi Arabia: Abha, Al Khobar, Buraydah, Dammam, Jeddah, Jizan, Jubail, Mecca, Medina, Riyadh, Ta'if, Tabuk, Yanbu, etc.

Senegal: Dakar, etc.

Serbia: Belgrade, Kopaonik, Niš, Novi Sad, Palić, Stara Planina, Subotica, Zlatibor, etc.

Seychelles: La Digue, Mahé, Praslin, etc.

Sierra Leone: Freetown, etc.

Singapore: Changi, Sentosa, etc.

Sint Maarten:, etc.

Slovakia: Bratislava, Jasná, Liptov, Tatranská Lomnica, Vysoké Tatry, Štrbské Pleso, etc.

Slovenia: Bled, Bohinj, Bovec, Kranjska Gora, Ljubljana, Maribor, Piran, Portorož, Rogaška Slatina, etc.

Solomon Islands: Honiara, etc.

South Africa: Ballito, Benoni, Bloemfontein, Boksburg, Cape Town, Drakensberg, Durban, East London, George, Johannesburg, Kempton Park, Kimberley, Knysna, Kruger National Park, Marloth Park, Mossel Bay, Nelspruit, Pietermaritzburg, Plettenberg Bay, Polokwane, Port Elizabeth, Potchefstroom, Pretoria, Rustenburg, Sandton, Stellenbosch, Umhlanga, etc.

South Korea: Busan, Daegu, Daejeon, Gangneung, Gapyeong, Gwangju, Gwangyang, Gyeongju, Incheon, Jejudo, Jeonju, Pyeongchang, Seogwipo, Seoul, Sokcho, Suwon, Ulsan, Yangyang, Yeosu, etc.

Spain: A Coruña, Alcúdia, Algeciras, Alicante, Almería, Altea, Andalusia, Antequera, Aragon, Asturias, Ayamonte, Baiona, Balearic Islands, Barbate, Barcelona, Basque Country, Benalmádena, Benidorm, Benissa, Besalú, Bilbao, Blanes, Buñol, Cadaqués, Cala d'Or, Calella, Calonge, Calp, Calvià, Cambados, Cambrils, Canary Islands, Cangas de Onís, Cantabria, Cartagena, Castilla-La Mancha, Catalonia, Chiclana de la Frontera, Costa Blanca, Costa Brava, Costa Dorada, Costa del Maresme, Costa del Sol, Cádiz, Córdoba, Dénia, El Puerto de Santa María, Empuriabrava, Estepona, Figueres, Formentera, Fuerteventura, Galicia, Gijón, Girona, Gran Canaria, Granada, Ibiza, Jerez de la Frontera, L'Escala, L'Estartit, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, La Pineda, Lanzarote, Llançà, Lleida, Lloret de Mar, Madrid, Magaluf, Malgrat de Mar, Mallorca, Marbella, Maspalomas, Menorca, Mijas, Mojácar, Moraira, Murcia, Málaga, Navarre, Nerja, O Grove, Ourense, Oviedo, Palma Nova, Palma, Pals, Poio, Pollença, Pontevedra, PortAventura, Portonovo, Ronda, Roquetas de Mar, Roses, Salamanca, Salou, San Sebastian, Sant Antoni de Portmany, Santander, Santiago de Compostela, Santillana del Mar, Sanxenxo, Seville, Sidges, Sierra Nevada, Tarifa, Tarragona, Tenerife, Toledo, Torremolinos, Torrevieja, Torroella de Montgrí, Tossa de Mar, Valencia, Vigo, Vélez-Málaga, Xàbia, Zaragoza, etc.

Sri Lanka: Anuradhapura, Bentota, Beruwala, Colombo, Dambulla, Galle, Hikkaduwa, Jaffna, Kandy, Mirissa, Negombo, Nuwara Eliya, Sigiriya, Tangalle, Trincomalee, Unawatuna, Weligama, etc.

Sudan: Khartoum, Port Sudan, etc.

Suriname: Lelydorp, Nieuw Nickerie, Paramaribo, etc.

Swaziland: Lobamba, Mbabane, etc.

Sweden: Bohuslän, Gothenburg, Gotland, Helsingborg, Lund, Malmö, Stockholm, Uppsala, Visby, Åre, etc.

Switzerland: Adelboden, Andermatt, Anzère, Arosa, Ascona, Basel, Bellinzona, Bern, Crans-Montana, Davos, Engelberg, Fribourg, Geneva, Grindelwald, Gstaad, Haute-Nendaz, Interlaken, Jungfrau, Lake Maggiore, Lausanne, Lauterbrunnen, Locarno, Lucerne, Lugano, Matterhorn, Montreux, Nendaz, Neuchâtel, Pontresina, Portes du Soleil, Saas-Fee, Silvaplana, Sion, St. Gallen, St. Moritz, Swiss Alps, Ticino, Valais, Verbier, Vevey, Veysonnaz, Wengen, Zermatt, Zug, Zürich, etc.

Syria: Aleppo, Damascus, Deir ez-Zor, Latakia, Palmyra, Tartus, etc.

Taiwan: Hsinchu, Kaohsiung, Taichung, Tainan, Taipei, etc.

Tajikistan: Dushanbe, Isfara, Khujand, etc.

Tanzania: Dar es Salaam, Mount Kilimanjaro, Serengeti, Zanzibar, etc.

Thailand: Ayutthaya, Bangkok, Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai, Chonburi, Hua Hin, Kanchanaburi, Karon, Ko Chang, Ko Lanta, Ko Phangan, Ko Samui, Krabi, Pai, Patong, Pattaya, Phi Phi Islands, Phuket, Ranong, River Kwai, Udon Thani, etc.

Togo: Lomé, etc.

Tonga: Nukuʻalofa, Tunis, etc.

Trinidad and Tobago: Port of Spain, etc.

Tunisia: Djerba, Hammamet, Midoun, Monastir, Port El Kantaoui, Sousse, etc.

Turkey: Adana, Alacati, Alanya, Ankara, Antakya, Antalya, Ayvalık, Beldibi, Belek, Bodrum, Bozcaada, Bursa, Büyükada, Cappadocia, Dalyan, Datça, Denizli, Didim, Edirne, Ephesus, Erzurum, Eskişehir, Fethiye, Gaziantep, Göynük, Istanbul, Kalkan, Kayseri, Kaş, Kemer, Konakli, Konya, Kuşadası, Lara, Mahmutlar, Marmaris, Mersin, Olympos, Palandöken, Pamukkale, Prince Islands, Samsun, Sapanca, Sarıkamış, Selçuk, Side, Tekirova, Trabzon, Troy, Turkish Riviera, Uludağ, Van, Çamyuva, Çanakkale, Çeşme, Çıralı, Ölüdeniz, İzmir, İçmeler, Şanlıurfa, etc.

Turkmenistan: Ashgabat, Avaza, etc.

Turks and Caicos Islands: Cockburn Town, North Caicos, Pine Cay, Providenciales, etc.

U.S. Virgin Islands: Charlotte Amalie, etc.

Uganda: Kampala, etc.

Ukraine: Berdiansk, Bila Tserkva, Boryspil, Bukovel, Cherkasy, Chernihiv, Chernivtsi, Dnipropetrovsk, Donetsk, Ivano-Frankivsk, Kamianets-Podilskyi, Kharkiv, Kherson, Kiev, Koblevo, Kremenchuk, Kryvyi Rih, Luhansk, Lviv, Mariupol, Melitopol, Mykolaiv, Odessa, Poltava, Slavske, Sumy, Truskavets, Uzhgorod, Vinnytsia, Yaremche, Yasinya, Zaporizhia, Zatoka, Zhytomyr, etc.

United Arab Emirates: Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Persian Gulf, Ras Al Khaimah, Sharjah, etc.

United Kingdom: Aberdeen, Bath, Belfast, Blackpool, Bournemouth, Bradford, Brighton, Bristol, Cambridge, Canterbury, Cardiff, Channel Tunnel, Cheltenham, Chester, Cornwall, Coventry, Cumbria, Derry, Devon, Dorset, Dover, Eastbourne, Edinburgh, England, English Channel, Exeter, Folkestone, Fort William, Glasgow, Hampshire, Harrogate, Inverness, Isle of Wight, Kent, Lancashire, Leeds, Leicester, Liverpool, Llandudno, London, Manchester, Mansfield, Milton Keynes, Newcastle, Newquay, Northern Ireland, Norwich, Nottingham, Oban, Oxford, Paignton, Plymouth, Portmeirion, Portsmouth, Reading, Sandown, Scarborough, Scotland, Shanklin, Sheffield, Somerset, Southampton, St Albans, Stonehenge, Sussex, Swansea, Torquay, Wales, Whitby, Windsor, York, etc.

United States: Alabama, Alaska, Albuquerque, Amarillo, Anaheim, Anchorage, Arizona, Arkansas, Arlington, Aspen, Atlanta, Aurora, Austin, Bakersfield, Baltimore, Beaver Creek, Billings, Birmingham, Boise, Boston, Breckenridge, Brooklyn, Buffalo, California, Carlsbad, Chandler, Charlotte, Cheyenne, Chicago, Chula Vista, Cincinnati, Clearwater, Cleveland, Colorado Springs, Colorado, Columbus, Connecticut, Corpus Christi, Dallas, Daytona Beach, Death Valley, Delaware, Denver, Des Moines, Destin, Detroit, Durham, El Paso, Estes Park, Fargo, Florida, Fort Lauderdale, Fort Myers, Fort Walton Beach, Fort Wayne, Fort Worth, Fresno, Galveston, Georgia, Gilbert, Glendale, Grand Canyon, Grand Teton, Great Smoky Mountains, Greensboro, Hawaii, Henderson, Hialeah, Hollywood, Honolulu, Hot Springs, Houston, Huntington Beach, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Indianapolis, Iowa, Irving, Jackson Mississippi, Jackson Wyoming, Jacksonville, Jersey City, Juneau, Kansas City, Kansas, Kentucky, Key Largo, Key West, Lahaina, Lake Tahoe, Laredo, Las Vegas, Lexington, Lincoln, Little Rock, Long Beach, Los Angeles, Louisiana, Louisville, Lubbock, Madison, Maine, Manhattan, Marathon, Maryland, Massachusetts, Memphis, Mesa, Miami Beach, Miami, Michigan, Milwaukee, Minneapolis, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Moab, Montana, Monterey, Mountain View, Myrtle Beach, Napa, Naples, Nashville, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New Orleans, New York City, New York, Newark, Newport, Norfolk, North Carolina, North Dakota, Oakland, Ocean City, Ohio, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, Omaha, Oregon, Orlando, Palm Coast, Palm Desert, Palm Springs, Panama City Beach, Park City, Pasadena, Pennsylvania, Pensacola, Philadelphia, Phoenix, Pittsburgh, Plano, Portland, Portland, Providence, Raleigh, Reno, Rhode Island, Richmond, Riverside, Rocky Mountains, Sacramento, Saint Paul, Salt Lake City, San Antonio, San Diego, San Francisco, Sanibel, Santa Ana, Santa Barbara, Santa Cruz, Santa Fe, Santa Monica, Sarasota, Savannah, Scottsdale, Seattle, Silicon Valley, South Carolina, South Dakota, Springfield, Squaw Valley, St. Augustine, St. Louis, St. Petersburg, Steamboat Springs, Stockton, Sunny Isles Beach, Tallahassee, Tampa, Telluride, Tennessee, Texas, Thousand Oaks, Toledo, Tucson, Tulsa, Utah, Vail, Vermont, Virginia Beach, Virginia, Waikiki, Washington D.C., Washington, West Virginia, Wichita, Winston-Salem, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Yellowstone, Yosemite, Zion, etc.

Uruguay: Montevideo, Punta del Este, etc.

Uzbekistan: Bukhara, Fergana, Khiva, Kokand, Navoiy, Samarkand, Tashkent, Urgench, etc.

Vanuatu: Port Vila, etc.

Vatican City:, etc.

Venezuela: Caracas, Isla Margarita, Maracaibo, Porlamar, etc.

Vietnam: Cần Thơ, Da Lat, Da Nang, Haiphong, Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, Huế, Hạ Long, Hội An, Long Hải, Mỹ Tho, Nha Trang, Ninh Bình, Phan Thiết, Phú Quốc, Qui Nhơn, Rạch Giá, Sa Pa, Vũng Tàu, Đồng Hới, etc.

Yemen: Aden, Sana'a, etc.

Zambia: Livingstone, Lusaka, etc.

Zimbabwe: Bulawayo, Harare, Mutare, Victoria Falls, etc.

Home: Popular Goods
Home appliances
Air conditioning
Air ioniser
Appliance plug
Aroma lamp
Attic fan
Back boiler
Bio fireplace
Boiler (water heating)
Ceiling fan
Clothes dryer
Combo washer dryer
Compactor
Convection heater
Dehumidifier
Dish draining closet
Dishwasher
Domestic robot
Comparison of domestic robots
Drawer dishwasher
EcoCute
Electric water boiler
Exhaust hood
Fan heater
Fireplace
Flame supervision device
Forced-air
Futon dryer
Garbage disposal unit
Gas appliance
Go-to-bed matchbox
Hair dryer
‎▪ Heating appliances
Hob (hearth)
Home appliance
Home automation
Humidifier
Icebox
Clothes iron
Ironing
Ironman (ironing)
Lighter
List of home appliances
Major appliance
Mangle (machine)
Manual vacuum cleaner
Matchbook
Micathermic heater
Mousetrap
Oil heater
Patio heater
Radiator (heating)
Rat trap
Redheads (matches)
Robotic vacuum cleaner
Home server
Sewing machine
Small appliance
Sump pump
Thermal mass refrigerator
Thor washing machine
Tie press
Trouser press
Vacuum cleaner
‎▪ Vacuum cleaners
Washing machine
Water cooker
Water heating
Wig wag (washing machines)
Window fan

Furniture
Adjustable shelving
Animal furniture
Antique furniture
Aquarium furniture
Art Nouveau furniture
Asian furniture
Baby furniture
Baker's rack
Bamboo wife
Bar table
Bassinet
Bathroom cabinet
Bay (shelving)
Beach furniture
Bean bag
Bean bag chair
Bedroom furniture
Beds
Bench
‎▪ Benches
Book truck
Bookwheel
Box-spring
Brasero (heater)
Bunkie board
Butler's desk
‎▪ Cabinets
Cabriole leg
Canapé (furniture)
Caning (furniture)
Cardboard furniture
Casegoods
Cellarette
‎▪ Chairs
Chairs list
Chest of drawers
‎▪ Chests
Clothes valet
Coat rack
Commode
Concrete furniture
Coromandel screen
Cottage furniture
Couch
‎▪ Couches
Counter
Countertop
Courting bench
Credenza
Cubicle
Cupboard
Curio cabinet
Daybed
Deckchair
Deep sprung seating
Desk
‎▪ Desks
Drawer
Drawer pull
Drawing board
Easel
Encoignure
Étagère
Faldstool
Faux painting
Filing cabinet
Floating shelf
Folding screen
Folding seat
Foot (furniture)
Footman (furniture)
Footstool
‎▪ Furnishings
Furniture types
Furniture-making
Furniture preservation
‎▪ Furniture stubs
‎▪ Furniture
Garden furniture
Girandole
Gjernes
Grange Furniture
Green furniture
Guéridon
Hall tree
Hatstand
Hoosier cabinet
Horn furniture
Hutch
Jentique
‎▪ Kitchen countertops
Klippan (sofa)
Kneeler
Kōbako
Kreuzschwinger
Ladderax
Lap desk
Lighthouse Furniture
Live edge
Locker
Log furniture
Lowboy
Lusterweibchen
Lyre arm
Mahogany
Marshmallow sofa
Metal furniture
Metamorphic library steps
Mobile shelving
Modern antique
Modern furniture
Modesty panel
Monks bench
Monobloc (chair)
Nightstand
Noguchi table
Occasional furniture
Ottoman (furniture)
Park furniture
Pastiglia
Patina
Paw feet
Pie safe
Playpen
Racchabanda
Refinishing
Replica furniture
Roll-out shelf
Room divider
Rosewood
Rotary storage
Rustic furniture
Seat
‎▪ Seats
Sedia
Serpentine shape
Sewing table
Shaker furniture
Shelf
Sideboard
Sling
Slipcover
Soban
Spalliera
Spindle
Stationery cabinet
Studio Furniture
Systems furniture
Table
‎▪ Tables
Taboret
Takhta
Tallboy
Tansu
Teak furniture
Teapoy
Toilet roll holder
Transitional Style
Trapezophoron
Tray
Trumeau mirror
Tuffet
Umbrella stand
Upholstery
‎▪ Upholstery list
Upholstery frame
Vinyl strapping
Wall unit
Wardrobe
Welsh dresser
Wet bar
What-not
Window Cornice
Window seat
Windsor chair

Bedding
Baby bedding
Bed sheet
Bed skirt
Bed warmer
‎▪ Bedding
Bedgear Performance Bedding
Blanket
Blankets
Bolster
Box-spring
Bunkie board
ChenOne
Cowboy Bedroll
Draw sheet
Futon dryer
Grupo Lo Monaco
Law label
Mattress
Mattress pad
Mattress protector
Memory foam
Nightstand
Orthopedic mattress
Palliasse
Performance bedding
Petate
‎▪ Pillows
Pikolin
Possum-skin cloak
Protect-A-Bed
Savoir Beds
Sheex
Sleeping bag
Sleeping bag liner
Solapuri chaddar
Stuffed article
Waterbed

Linens
Bed sheet
Bedskirt
Blankets
Dishcloth
Doily
Draw sheet
Dust ruffle
Floorcloth
Foot towel
Glass cloth
Linen Rolls
‎▪ Linens
Manuterge
Marghab Linens
Napkin
Placemat
Rushnyk
Salux cloth
Solapuri chaddar
Table runner
Tablecloth
Towel
Towel animal
Washing mitt
White sale

Plumbing
Boilers
‎▪ Brazing and soldering
‎▪ Drinking fountains
‎▪ Piping
‎▪ Plumbers
‎▪ Plumbing materials companies
‎▪ Plumbing valves
‎▪ Toilets
‎▪ Tubing (material)
‎▪ Plumbing
Ace duraflo
Air gap (plumbing)
Air lock
American Residential Services
AN thread
Aquastat
Automatic bleeding valve
Back boiler
Backflow
Backflow prevention device
Backwater valve
Basin wrench
Bathtub
Bend radius
Bidet
Bidet shower
Bo le lavabo
Boiler
Bowl sink
British Standard Pipe
Buchan trap
Buffalo Box
Central heating
Chicago Faucet
Chicago fitting
Chip heater
Cistern
Closet flange
Compression fitting
Copper tubing
Coupling (piping)
Cross-linked polyethylene
Cutting ring fitting
Descaling agent
Dipper well
Double-walled pipe
Drain (plumbing)
Drain cleaner
Drain rods
Drain-waste-vent system
Drinking fountain
Drinking fountains in the United States
Driving cap
Dry riser
Dual piping
Electrofusion
Emergency shower
Expansion tank
External water spray system
Fire sprinkler system
Fixture unit
Flange
Flare fitting
Floor drain
Flow limiter
Four-way valve
Gallons per watt-hour
Gas Safe Register
Gender of connectors and fasteners
Grease trap
GreenPlumbers
Gunmetal
Philip Haas (inventor)
Hazen–Williams equation
Heat trap
History of water supply and sanitation
Hot tapping
Hot tub
Household hardware
Hydronics
IAPMO
IAPMO R&T
IAPMO Standards
International Plumbing Code
Island fixture vent
Isolation valve
Jetstream furnace
Lead wool
Leak
Line stopping
Marman clamp
Mr. Rooter
National pipe thread
Nipple (plumbing)
Orangeburg pipe
Pimlico Plumbers
Pipe (fluid conveyance)
Pipe dope
Pipe fitting
Pipe marking
Pipe wrench
Pipeline video inspection
Piping
Piping and plumbing fitting
Plastic pipework
Plumber
Plumber wrench
Plumber's putty
Plumber's snake
Plumbing & Drainage Institute
Plumbing code
Plumbing fixture
Plumbing Manufacturers International
Plunger
Pressure-balanced valve
Push-to-pull compression fittings
PVC Bendit
Quick connect fitting
Radiant cooling
Radiator
Radiator (heating)
Rain chain
Riser clamp
Roman lead pipe inscription
Roman shower
Roto-Rooter
Sewer dosing unit
Sewer gas
Shower
Sink
Solder ring fitting
Street elbow
Sump pump
Surge control
Tank Connectors
Tap (valve)
Thermostatic mixing valve
Thermostatic radiator valve
Thread seal tape
Threaded pipe
Trace heating
Trap (plumbing)
U-bend
Uniform Codes
Uniform Plumbing Code
Uniform Solar Energy and Hydronics Code
Uniform Swimming Pool, Spa and Hot Tub Code
Vacuum flange
Valve
Valve exerciser
Water hammer
Water heating
Water pipe
Weld-On
World Plumbing Council
Zimmber

Light Fixtures
Lighthouse fixtures
‎▪ Stage lighting instruments
‎▪ Light fixture
Accent lighting
Balanced-arm lamp
Banker's lamp
Bartlett Street Lamps
Chandelier
Cresset
Electrolier
Floodlight
Gas mantle
Girandole
Gooseneck lamp
Grave candle
Lamp harp
Lampshade
Lantern
Lava lamp
Luxo Jr.
Mogul lamp
Nightlight
Paper lantern
Pendant light
PH Artichoke
PH-lamp
Recessed light
Rope light
Sconce (light fixture)
Sky lantern
Solar lamp
Street light
Surgical lighting
T5 retrofit conversion
Tiffany lamp
Tizio
Tolomeo desk lamp
Torchère
Touch-sensitive lamp
Track lighting
Traditional lighting equipment of Japan
Troffer
Under-Cabinet Lighting
Vitrite
Wheel chandelier
Worklight
Yard light

Hand tools
Air hammer (fabrication)
Automatic center punch
Backscratcher
Block plane
Bullwhip
Burin
Card scraper
Claw tool
Corner chisel
Crowbar (tool)
Dolabra
Ear pick
Hacking knife
Hackle (wig making)
Hacksaw
Halligan bar
Hand fan
Hand saw
Hand steel
Hand truck
‎▪ Hand tool
Hand-held power tools
Handspike
Hawk (plasterer's tool)
Hook (hand tool)
Ice scraper
‎▪ Knives
‎▪ Ladders
Measuring rod
‎▪ Mechanical hand tools
‎▪ Metalworking hand tools
Pickaxe
Podger spanner
Punch (tool)
Set square
Shove knife
Slide Hammer
Snow shovel
Spike maul
Spline roller
Stanley Odd Jobs
Stone and muller
Technical drawing tool
The Pig
Trash hook
Upholstery hammer
Wire brush
‎▪ Woodworking hand tools

Gardening tools
Anvil pruner
Ard (plough)
Auger (drill)
Averruncator
Axe
Berry-picking rake
Billhook
Blow torch
Broadfork
Brush hook
Chainsaw
Coa de jima
Cradle (grain)
Cultivator
Daisy grubber
Dibber
Digging stick
Edger
Elec-Trak
Foot plough
Garden fork
Garden hose
‎▪ Garden tool
Grafter
Grass shears
Grass stitcher
Hedge trimmer
Hoe (tool)
Hori hori
Irrigation sprinkler
Kaiser blade
Khurpa
Kirpi
Kunai
Lawn aerator
‎▪ Lawn and garden tractors
Lawn mower
‎▪ Lawn mowers
Lawn sweeper
Leaf blower
Loppers
‎▪ Machetes
Mammoty
Mattock
Pickaxe
Pitchfork
Post hole digger
Potting bench
Pruning shears
Rake (tool)
Rhubarb forcer
Riddle (tool)
Sally Saw
Scythe
Shovel
Spade
String trimmer
Sussex trug
Tap (valve)
Trowel
Watering can
Weeder
Wheelbarrow
Woodchipper

Building materials
Aluminium composite panels
‎▪ Artificial stone
‎▪ Asphalt
‎▪ Bricks
‎▪ Building automation
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‎▪ Composite materials
‎▪ Concrete
‎▪ Doors
‎▪ Electrical systems
‎▪ Fasteners
‎▪ Glass architecture
‎▪ Hemp
‎▪ Building insulation materials
‎▪ Metals
‎▪ Moisture protection
‎▪ Pavements
‎▪ Plastering
‎▪ Plastics
‎▪ Plumbing
‎▪ Rammed earth
‎▪ Recycled building materials
‎▪ Reflective building components
‎▪ Road construction materials
‎▪ Roof tiles
‎▪ Sand
‎▪ Soil-based building materials
‎▪ Terracotta
‎▪ Thermoplastics
‎▪ Tiling
‎▪ Wood

Wallcoverings
‎▪ Anaglypta
Ashlar
Azulejo
Cement board
Cement render
Drywall
Fireboard
Flexible stone veneer
Frame and panel
Glazed architectural terra-cotta
Ingrain wallpaper
Lime render
Lincrusta
Magnesium oxide wallboard
Marmorino
‎▪ Murals
‎▪ Painting techniques
Panelling
Pargeting
Plaster
Plaster veneer
Polished plaster
Scagliola
Stone cladding
Stone veneer
Stucco
Tadelakt
‎▪ Tapestries
Wall decal
Wall tile
Wallpaper
Wallpaper paste
Zellige
Home: Popular Brands & Companies
Popular Goods
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Tops
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Footwear
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Swimsuits
Accessories

Cosmetics
Perfumery
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Jewellery
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Home appliances
Interior design
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Bedding
Linens
Plumbing
Lamps
Hand tools
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Building materials

Culinary (Cooking)
Foods
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Cooking appliances
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Kitchenware
Crockery
Cookware & bakeware

Toys
Children's clothing

Electronics
Activity trackers
Audio electronics
Apple electronics
Batteries
BlackBerry
Computer hardware
Computer peripherals
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Digital electronics
iPhone
GPS
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Musical instruments
Optical devices
Photography equipment
PlayStation
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Wireless
Xbox

Sports
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Travel
Tourism
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Tires

Software
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Video games, PC games

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