Dacian bracelets
Dacian gold bracelet, dated to the 1st century BC or 1st century AD, from Sarmizegetusa Romania
Dacian bracelets
Dacians gold bracelet from Sarmizegetusa Regia, dated the 1st century BC or 1st century AD
Dacian bracelets
Dacian gold bracelet from Baiceni dated to the 4th century BC (Iași County)

The Dacian bracelets are bracelets associated with the ancient people known as the Dacians, a distinct branch of the Thracians. These bracelets were used as ornaments, currency, high rank insignia and votive offerings Their ornamentations consist of many elaborate regionally distinct styles. Bracelets of various types were worn by Dacians, but the most characteristic piece of their jewelry was the large multi-spiral bracelets; engraved with palmettes towards the ends and terminating in the shape of an animal head, usually that of a snake.

Dacian bracelets: Dacians background

Dacian bracelets
Spiral motif with gold bracelet found in Romania (dated to Bronze IV = Hallstatt A)) repository Kunsthistorisches Museum
Dacian bracelets
Horn motif with gold bracelet from Pipea (Mureș County) dated to Hallstatt period or to Bronze Age

The Dacians lived in a very large territory, stretching from the Balkans to the northern Carpathians and from the Black Sea and the Tyras River (Nistru) to the Tisa plain, and at times as far as the Middle Danube.

Dacian civilization went through several stages of development, from the Thracian stage in the Bronze Age to the Geto-Dacian stage in the classical period that lasted from the 1st century BC to the 1st century AD. The Thracian stage is associated with the emergence of Thracian populations from the fusion of the local Chalcolithic stock with the incoming peoples of the transitional Indo-Europeanization Period. By the time of Bronze Age, and during the transitional period to the Iron Age, the cultures of this Carpathian area may be attributed to proto-Thracian and even Thracian populations-ancestors of the peoples known to Herodotus as the Agathyrsae and the Getae, and to the Romans as the Dacians (by Iron Age II). The culture of these nuclear groups were typified by military aristocracies.

In these early times the most specific motifs of the bracelets are the spiral and the horn, used to provide the warrior with both physical and deistic protection.

  • The spiral motif (i.e. bracelets from Sacosu Mare, Firighiaz (now Firiteaz), Săcueni) is associated with solar cults. It might have been an inheritance of the local Chalcolithic culture, or an accentuated Mycenaean influence to the north of the Danube.
  • The horn motifs (i.e. bracelets from Pipea, Biia (Şona), Boarta (Şeica Mare)) might have been brought by the intrusive stockbreeders (Proto-Indo-Europeans).

The 5th century BC is associated with the Dacian stage of art and it is the time of the La Tène period (Iron Age II) when Dacian culture flourished, especially in Transylvanian citadels. The Dacian art of Iron Age II has all the characteristics of a mixed style, with its roots in the Hallstatt culture (1200–500 BC). It is characterized by an accentuated geometry, a curvilinear style and plant-based motifs. At this time, besides their older local types, Dacians made all kind of bracelets that were common in the Roman Empire. But, there was a constant preference of Dacians for decorating the silver spiral bracelets with animals protome such as snakes and wolves.

The period of time between the 2nd century BC and 1st century AD is termed "Classic Dacian". At this time the Dacians developed the art of silverworking, and a style which may be described specifically as the Dacian style. It consists of older traditional local elements, dating back to Iron Age I, but also of elements of Celtic, Scythian, Thracian, and especially Greek origins. The bracelets of this art-form include silver arm rings, with ends in the shape of stylized heads of animals, and heavy spiral-shaped armlets with gilded ends adorned with palm-leaves, and ending in animal-heads.

The Classic Dacian period ends when parts of the Dacian State were reduced to a Roman province by the Roman Empire under Trajan, partly in order to seize its gold mines. After the Second Dacian War (105–106 AD) Romans claimed they had looted 165 tonnes of gold and 300 tonnes of silver in a single haul, as estimated by modern historians. Its existence in only one spot (at Sarmizegethusa), suggests that there was a central control of precious metal circulation. According to the majority of historians this sort of monopoly of precious metals, and the Roman's forcible collection of Dacian gold objects, explains the scarcity of archaeological discoveries consisting of golden ornaments for the period between the 3rd century BC and the 1st century AD; however, the existence of the "Treasures of Dacian kings" has been confirmed by the latest archaeological finds of large gold spiral-shaped bracelets from Sarmizegetusa. It seems that the Romans did not find the entire royal treasure.

Dacian bracelets: Bracelets in the transition period North Thracian and proto-Dacian

Dacian bracelets: Types of bracelets in the Bronze Age and First Iron Age

Numerous bracelets were made of bronze and gold and many of them have been found in Transylvania, near the sources of the ores used in their manufacture. They include the following types:

  • unequally spiraled armlet made of bronze, worn on the forearm that is also called "arm guard" i.e. those found at Apa (Satu Mare County)
  • equally spiraled bracelet, used frequently in the early Hallstatt i.e. Pecica.
  • open bracelet with widened ends, made of double gold wire i.e. Ostrovu Mare (Gogoşu).
  • bracelet with spiralled or volutes endings i.e. Firighiaz/Firiteaz, Sacoșu Mare.
  • open bracelet decorated with incisions, with each end coiled in double opposed volutes i.e. Sacoșu Mare and Hodiş (Bihor County).
  • overlapped ends, rhombic cross section i.e. Sacoșu Mare and Şmig. The treasures from Şmig Sibiu County and from Ţufalău (Boroşneu Mare) contained also raw gold, thus suggesting the bracelets had been locally made.

Some bronze bracelet types of the Bronze Age (i.e. incised solid bracelets) continue throughout all the Late Bronze Age and Hallstatt phases.

Dacian bracelets: Various bracelets

Dacian bracelets
Hinova's gold bracelet, Bronze Age or early Hallstatt

Archaeological finds include two gold cylindrical muffs, a characteristic type of the middle and late Bronze Age and widespread throughout Central Europe. Two bronze specimens, both similar to the gold ones, have been discovered at Cehăluţ. The open cuff found at Hinova, and dated to the 12th century BC, is one of the largest gold bracelets of the proto-Dacians found to date. It is made of large gold sheet of 580 grams (1.27 pounds) in weight and decorated with ten buttons fixed into holes, five on each end.

Bracelets from Băleni, Galaţi (Late Romanian Bronze Age, Noua Culture) are particularly interesting because of their geometric décor, bands of right or oblique lines. They all have a green patina ranging from dark green to dull green, bluish green, bluish gloss.

The fragmentary iron bracelet from the cremation cemetery found at Bobda is among the few unequivocally dated iron objects equivalent to Hallstatt A 1–2 in this region.

A bracelet with snake-shape endings had been found at the Hallstattian necropolis in Ferigile (Vâlcea County).

Dacian bracelets: Spălnaca (Hopârta)

The bracelets from Spălnaca (Hopârta) are dated to Bronze Age IV (Iron Age I) and have decorations of geometric characters. Although not directly influenced by the Hallstatt styles, the objects from Spalnaca pre-date the later tendencies for geometric surface decoration of chiseled or engraved lines. Such discoveries at Spalnaca, Guterita and Dipsa show that bronze craftsmanship still flourished in the North Thracians from the Carpathian-Black Sea and Danube areas at the beginning of the Iron Age.

Dacian bracelets: Multi-spiral types

Dacian bracelets
Multi-spirals type gold bracelet from Hinova, Late Bronze Age or Early Hallstatt

This type of Dacian bracelet originated in the Bronze Age. The hoard found in 1980 at Hinova includes two such bracelets. Multi-spiral types can be dated to the early Hallstatt periodand comprises also open and closed-end bracelets. One of the spiral bracelets from Hinova weighed 261.55 grams and the other 497.13 grams. The former, made of a thinner and narrower gold leaf, had a decoration consisting of two furrows cut along the edges and separated by a median crest. A similar decoration, of a furrow along the median line, decorates a metal bracelet from the deposit found at Sânnicolau Român, dated to the second period of the Bronze Age.

Finds from Dacia include spiral bracelets made of double gold wire, the largest of which weighed nearly a hundred grams. Gold spiral bracelets of this type have been discovered in Transylvania and Banat, spanning a long period which begins with the very late phase of the Bronze Age and ends with the middle Hallstatt. Similar pieces made of bronze were discovered in the deposit of bronze objects at Sacot-Slatioara.

The multi-spiral bracelet type spans a long period of time that includes all Hallstattian stages.

Dacian bracelets: Spiral motif

Dacian bracelets
Quadrangular bracelets (Sighetu Marmaţiei?) The small ones may have been used as currency.

The traditional ornamental motifs of bracelets, the meander and the "whirling" spiral (i.e. Oradea, Firiteaz and Sacosul mare), are thought to follow the spread of a cult of the sun, their decorations suggesting the rotation of the sun on the heavenly vault. This motif is recognized as one of the parallels between the artifact decorations of this North Thracian group and the ornamentations from the Mycenaean Shaft Graves. It is found in both the Aegean and east-central Europe from the Neolithic onwards.

Scholars opinions are divided on the source of these comparable traits. One opinion states that the North Thracian spiral motifs originate from the local Eneolithic (Chalcolithic) antecedents rather than from any imported influence. There are specific forms widespread in northern Thrace that are unlikely inspired by the Mycenaeans. It is also argued that these motifs apparently did not appear in the intervening territory of South Thrace. With North Thracians, the spiral motif appears prominently in the form of massive armguard (armlet) terminals, offering physical as well as apotropaic protection. Hoddinott states that the twin spiral terminals, as on the bowl from Biia, would have been a natural development; either from a local single armlet type or from an Unetice spectacle pendant.

The other opinion attributes the spiral motif to a northward spread of Mycenaean influence. It is argued that the spiral of the Neolithic period disappeared during the transitional period towards the Bronze Age, and even during the Early Bronze Age; therefore, starting from the Middle Bronze Age the spiral would occur because of a Mycenaean sway to the north of the Danube. These comparable features might have occurred because of commercial relations between the Mycenaeans and Dacians relating to the gold mines of Transylvania.

Dacian bracelets: Spiral ending types

Dacian bracelets: Sacoşu Mare

Whatever may have been the origin of the spiral motif, the craftsmen of the late Carpatho-Danubian Bronze Age IV and Hallstatt A had a marked preference for bracelets with a spiral ending, as found at Sacosu Mare. The same décor featuring the coiled disk endings of the single- or double-spiral bracelets is found on contemporary ceramics. There is also a striking resemblance between the gold bracelets from Sacoșu Mare, from Firighiaz (or Firiteaz), and from other locations in Transylvania that suggest a spiritual affinity in the proto-Dacian world.

The hoard from Sacoşu Mare consists of bracelets and jewelry dated to the 13th to 12th centuries BC (Late Bronze Age and Hallstatt I). The golden bracelets, around 74.15 grams (2.6 ounces), have open ends of approximately 6.6 cm (2.6 inches) in diameter. Some terminate with convex volute ends, while others have double convex volute ends. The bracelet's bar is decorated with engraved rows of diamonds flanked by dotted lines.

Dacian bracelets: Firighiaz (Firiteaz)

The finds from Firighiaz (Firiteaz), Arad County, on left bank of the Lower Mureş River, are representative of the spiral motif bracelets of this period. The Firiteaz's treasure contains twenty-three bracelets made of gold bar, each weighing 0.2 kg (0.44 pounds), and the hoard is housed in the Vienna Museum. Bracelets made of bronze, similar to the Firiteaz ones made of gold, had been found in Transylvanian deposits dated to the Early Iron Age.

The Firighiaz treasure comprises three types of bracelets:

  • made of quadrangular cross-section bar; they are tapered at both ends (Type 1, dated to Late Bronze Age)
  • made of quadrangular cross-section bar; inverted spirals ends (Type 2)
  • made of semi-round cross section bar; these terminate with double volute spirals at each end (Type 3, dated to the 8th to 7th centuries BC)

The earliest type one bracelets did not have ornamentations, while the later ones are engraved with groups of lines and angles or group of lines that alternate with lozenges (i.e. those from Sălaj). This type is also common to the sites in: Domanesti (Sălaj County), Tăuteni (Bihor County) and Şpălnaca (Alba County). Bracelets with quadrangular cross-section had previously been made of bronze, such as those at the beginning of the Hallstatt period. The gold ones are numerous, but are mostly of small dimensions; these smaller ones are considered to have been used as currency.

The type two bracelets coil into spiral discs at only one end (terminal). At a later time, between the 8th and 7th centuries BC, they coiled at both terminals similar to the type three bracelets.

The designs in type 3 bracelets, double-coiled (one at each of the two terminals), have also been found in bracelets from Biia (Alba County Romania), Fokoru (Heves, Hungary) and Bilje (Croatia).

Spiral types similar to the Firighiaz type two have been found in a large area of Central and North-Western Europe: Bohemia, North-East Hungary, Moravia, Silesia, Poznań, West Poland, Pomerania, Lithuania, North Galicia, Germany (Bavaria, Wurttemberg, Turing, Mecklenburg) and Romania. Their prototypes may have been provided by the Lusatian Culture. Some scholars believe that these bracelets were a kind of defensive weapon. This view is supported by the fact that this type was found usually on weapons deposits in Germany, and that they appear to have been worn on the upper arm, as the traces of wear indicate.

These locally-made bracelets from Firighiaz (Firiteaz), and from other Transylvanian finds, are half the size of the armlets of the similar style found in Germany and they could not be worn. It seems they were simple ornamental objects, a common trait to many similar items found in Romania. Transylvanian bracelets of this type are described as nearly circular with 57 and 63 mm diameter. Their rods are of a circular cross-section (max. 10 mm thickness) gradually tapering towards the ends, where the cross-section becomes quadrangular and begins to curl in a spiral. The diameter of the spiral discs is 30–35 mm. Each of these discs are made from four spirals.

Dacian bracelets: Acâş and Săcueni

According to Pârvan (1928), the style of Firighiaz artifacts evolved over a considerable period of time into the later form styles of the Dacian Hallstattian bracelets as found at Săcueni (Bihor County), Pipea (Mureș County) and Biia (Alba County).

Bracelets with double-volute ends like with Firighiaz type two, but with a different style, have been found at Acâş and Săcueni. These are made of lozenge bar with a décor made of relief globule (similar to bracelets found at Saint-Babel) with double-coiled terminals. The gold bracelets from Săcueni, as well as those from Acâş (Satu Mare County) and Hajdúszoboszló (Hungary) are typical Dacian bracelets of the Hallstatt period.

Bronze bracelets of this type had previously been found in deposits belonging to the first Hallstatt period. Their ornamentation and groups of motifs is similar to the Firighiaz (Firiteaz) type. Analogous bracelets had also been found at Oradea. Two bracelets with spiral ends, dated to the Iron Age, have also been found in Dacian tombs of the Lower Danube.

Dacian bracelets: "Horn motif" from Pipea, Biia and Boarta

Dacian bracelets
The golden goblet from Biia with twin spiral terminals of the handles.

Bracelets from Biia and Pipea, found in the 19th century, have an unclear chronology. This series comprises a find from Abrud and another from an unknown Transylvanian location. Some archaeologists are reporting them as dating to the Hallstatt, though Márton (1933) dated them to the early La Tene period. Popescu (1956) estimates these can be dated to the Hallstat phase B (1000–800 BC), but no later than C (800–650 BC). whereas Mozsolics (1970) dates them to 1,500 BC. The so-called Biia bracelet was found with the Biia gold "kantharos" that can be dated between 1,500 and 1,000 BC. The handles of this goblet are also coiled into a double-spiral motif similar to other types of bracelets from the Carpathian area (i.e. Firigiaz 3, or Acas-Sacueni).

There, specimens are made of bronze and are prototypes of the Pipea–Biia–Boarta series of bracelets; therefore, scholars agree these bracelets had been made locally, in the Transylvanian goldsmith workshops. This opinion is supported by metal analysis.

These types of bracelets are possibly votive offerings, reminiscent of the cult of the bull. Their common trait is the stylized motif of "horns". All of them have large C-shaped "horns" as terminals. As with the spiral, Hoddinott purports that the east-central European bronzesmiths used this horn symbol to provide the warrior with both physical and deistic protection. In the Aegean Shaft Graves it occurs only on a stele, a gold bowl and three pairs of gold earrings, which Hoddinott considers to be possibly of central European origin. This thematic motif of the Carpathian peoples is confirmed by other archaeological finds from Transylvania that include three large rings weighing between 0.20 kilograms (0.44 pounds) and 0.60 kilograms (1.32 pounds). Their terminals are animal heads facing each other, depicting the heads of horses in two cases and bulls-heads in the third. Eluere (1987) identifies the endings of the Pipea-Biia bracelets with the cultic and religious powerful horns of the bull, and estimates that this myth was perpetuated for centuries.

According to Hoddinott (1989), the horned animal cults that are attested with these horns motifs were brought by the transitional Indo-Europeanization period immigrants who adopted these stylized motifs as their main apotropaic symbol; however, the symbols of the horned animal replaced the local ones but were later associated with the sun-fire symbols of the earlier culture.

The bracelet from Bilje (Croatia) belongs to the same Biia-Pipea type. Hartmann noted that the percentage of silver and tin in the bracelets from Belly (Croatia) and Pipea (Romania) is almost identical. This suggests both bracelets had been made in the same region. According to Marton, the armlets with semi-moon ends are part of an evolutionary series that terminates with the later silver snake-headed bracelets of the Classical Dacian times.

Dacian bracelets: Boarta type

The bracelet from Boarta (Şeica Mare-Sibiu County) was discovered in 1891 and is dated to 600 BC. It might be an example of the last phases in the evolution of the Biia-Pipea gold artifacts (For the photo of Boarta bracelet see the gallery of links ) A very similar copy of the Boarta type has been found with the treasure from Dalj, Slavonia.

Unlike the Biia-Pipe type bracelets, the Boarta bracelet is flat, band-shaped, and has three raised ribs resembling the body of two other bracelets from Oradea. Its semi moon-shape terminals are smaller than the Biia-Pipea terminals; thus, some scholars derive the type of the Boarta bracelet to be from some earlier bronze bracelets whose ends widen and whose bodies have more ridges.

It seems that some other bracelets found at Bihor, Oradea, Targu Mures and Făget could possibly belong to the Boarta type, and not to the Biia-Pipea type.

Dacian bracelets: Mosna, Sibiu County

The terminal adornments of this gold bracelet look like animals' heads, but the zoomorphic motif almost disappeared because of the geometric stylization (see picture Mosna 1 above). It is dated to the Hallstatt period. This is not an isolated item, since it is stylistically connected to the geometric and zoomorphism of a collar and two bracelets from Veliki Gaj (Hungarian Nagygáj, Romanian Gaiu Mare) in Serbia.

Dacian bracelets: Zoomorphic bracelets

Dacian bracelets
Gold bracelet with horse heads from Vad-Fagaras Brasov County; Kunsthistorisches Museum.

In the past, on the basis of a relatively small selection of archaeological finds, some scholars considered that the art of Geto-Dacians was geometrical and non-iconic. This led to the zoomorphic representations of Dacian bracelets being seen as an expression of the art of the steppes people, and Scythian art in particular. The majority of archaeological finds to date show that the main aspect of Geto-Dacian toreutics is in fact a zoomorphic motif style of its own. This Dacian style of animal art occurs at the time when various ancient historical sources begin to record the Geto-Dacians as an ethnic entity of the larger Thracian family; therefore, this artistic expression might be considered as specific to the Dacian society of the last centuries BC.

Some scholars sustain that the zoomorphic motifs of that particular time do not represent any kind of zoolatry of the Geto-Dacians. These would be iconographic motifs highlighting and multiplying certain attributes of the deities or of the kings.

Dacian bracelets: Ox-headed bracelets (Târgu Mureş, Apoldu de Sus, Vad)

The tendency towards the apotropaic zoomorphism that crystallized at the end of the Iron Age I (i.e. bracelets from Biia, Pipea, Boarta etc.) is clearly manifested with the bracelets possessing ornamented ox heads of the Iron Age II (La Tene) from Târgu Mureş (Mureş County), Apoldu de Sus (Sibiu County), Vad (Braşov County) and one from an unknown Transylvanian find. The bracelet from Apoldu de Sus seems to have an ox head at one terminus and a ram's head at the other end.

The ox-head bracelets have been associated with the clay Hallstatian’s Moon idol, with which they undoubtedly share a similarity.

The wires of these series of bracelets are thick, and decorated with ornamental protrusions. Their characteristic decor consists of relief or incised circles, while there are also those with cuts or incisions that form a fir-tree motif.

A bracelet with ox-heads discovered in the 19th century at Târgu Mureş (see picture) had been dated by some scholars to La Tene. Others such as Popescu (1956) dated this particular one to the last period of the Hallstatt, since it might have been deposited together with a semi-moon type bracelet of that period. As for the technique, it is noted that the bracelet from Targu Mures show a control of three-dimensional modeling, with silver inlays. There are two other bracelets of a similar type in the Transylvania Museum, though they are known to be discovered in Transylvania the original site is unknown.

The religious meaning of the sacred horn had been lost over time, the circlets keeping this shape can only be described as decorative ornamentation. The bracelet found in 1817 at Vad–Fagaras (Brasov County) terminating with horse heads depicted as wearing a bridle, is part of the general trend of bracelets replacing the sacred horn as a motif.

Dacian bracelets: Băiceni bracelets

Dacian bracelets
Dacian gold bracelet Băiceni (Cucuteni), 4th century BC
Dacian bracelets
Head 1 – Detail of one of the zoomorphic bracelets from Băiceni (Cucuteni), 4th century BC

In 1959 two bracelets terminating with "horned-horses", were found at Băiceni (Cucuteni). They are dated to the end of the Iron Age I and are found in the context of a hidden treasure of a Dacian nobleman. The treasure comprised 2 kilograms of gold ornaments; a helmet, necklace, appliqués, harness, and buttons for vestments. They were ceremonial ensemble for kings or noblemen and their horses. The bracelets and necklace terminate with protomes of horse heads and exhibit strong Thracian roots.

The heads have also been interpreted as goat-heads (ibex). Each head is very made of embossed gold foil with a filigree composition, and had sun-symbols on the middle of the forehead. They also have what may be seen as ram's- or goats-horns (see picture "Head 1" on the right). These Băiceni gold artworks of the 4th century BC are viewed as one of the links transferring the Thracian and North Thracian Art forms and motifs across to the Dacian silversmiths.

Dacian bracelets: Iron Age II (La Tene)

Dacians replaced gold, the popular Transylvanian metal during the Iron Age I period, with silver during Iron Age II. The types of ornaments also changed, perhaps due to new social structures and hierarchy or due to changes of the preferences of the populous and sacerdotal aristocracy.

Dacians absorbed influences from the western Celts and eastern Scythians, but also proved their artistic originality. The bracelet style of the former is more individual, as they synthesized the older local elements originating from the Bronze Age into a new combination adapted to include the contemporary decorative forms and motifs.

Objects specific to warriors (armors, harnesses etc.) became preponderant from the 5th century BC onwards, in contrast to the decorative objects (bracelets, torques and pendants) that predominated in the Bronze Age, and in the transition period leading up to the Iron Age. In the 2nd and 1st centuries BC gold and silver military objects are replaced so that the treasures of the late Dacian La Tene comprise ceremonial ensembles of silver ornaments and clothing accessories, bracelets along with some mastos or footed cup vases .

The geometrical and spiral motif ornamentation of earlier bracelets is more often replaced with zoomorphic and vegetal representations. The decorations of bracelets that have been found, across the whole territory inhabited by Dacians, consist of lines cut into fir-tree shapes, dots, circlets, palmettes, waves, and bead motifs.

Dacian bracelets: Toteşti bracelet

Dacian bracelets
Snake-headed Dacian bracelet from Totesti. Transitional Hallstatt-La Tene period

Various single-spiral bracelets made of solid quadrangular (rhombic) gold bars, whose overlapping ends represent the head of a snake, were found in 1889 at Toteşti in Hunedoara County. The head is geometrically stylized but clearly defined by decorative details. This artifact belongs to the so-called "Classic Dacian" period and described as a "primitive work done by a not skilful hand". It was noted that the snake head is realistically depicted by the representation of the eyes, ears and other elements of the vipera ammodytes that is so commonly found in the area. The same scholars related these gold circlets to the later silver multi-spirals snake protome and palmette bracelets from Vaidei-Romos, Senereuş, Hetur, Marca and Oradea Mare. Other scholars consider that Toteşti snake-headed ornaments should be interpreted on the basis of an abstract contemporary stylistic type, and not as an imitation of reality. In this interpretation Toteşti bracelets are not connected with the snakes from the region of Deva, but they are a tradition that began in Hallstatt times with the "Scythian rings" and continued into the La Tène period.

In the Scythian tombs of Northern Hungary that are related to the Scythian invasions from around 700 BC, as well as in those of central Romania, spiral-shaped rings known as the "Scythian rings" have been found; with one end forming a fantastic animal, such as a dragon or serpent. These apotropaic creatures, themselves Turano-Siberian varieties of old Mesopotamian monsters, might have provided the model for the Dacian protome bracelet from Toteşti-but neither the Scythian animals nor the Greek decorations appear to have had great success in Dacia, since the native geometric style continued to predominate.

Analogies to the Totesti bracelets can be found not only to the multi-spiral bracelets, but also in the overlapping-end bracelets whose ends sometimes terminate with stylized animal heads.

Dacian bracelets: Common Dacian types of the La Tene IB (250–150 BC)

Dacian bracelets
Silver Dacian bracelet from Transylvania, found also at Slimnic
Dacian bracelets
Silver Dacian bracelet from Transylvania, found also at Slimnic

The archaeological findings dated to this period of time comprise the following types:

  • One-spiral bracelet made of bar with engraved ends (mostly Hatching and Zigzag)
  • Bracelets with non-joined ends. It originates from Bronze Age i.e. from Spalnaca type
  • Bracelet made of bar having a plastic decoration of a Celtic type "S", i.e. Gyoma
  • Bracelets with overlapped ends (i.e. Slimnic (Sibiu County) and Sâncrăieni (Harghita County). These are artifacts of local Hallstattian tradition originating from the first period of the Iron Age, and preserved until the late La Tene period. Analogous models dated to the late Hallstatt period have been found at Balta Verde and Gogosu (both in Mehedinti County).
  • Bracelets with slightly widened or thickened ends.
  • Multi-spirals bracelet found with Slimnic treasure. This is a re-adaptation of the older Carpathian spiral bracelet, earlier forms of it have been found in Bronze Age deposits at Balta Verde and Gogoşu (Mehedinti County). This type could be considered as being just a simple form of the multi-spiral with protomes and palmettes.

Dacian bracelets: Bracelets in the "Classical Dacian" period of the Dacian State

The Dacian silver bracelet is one of the characteristic artworks of this period, and the most representative ornament on them is the snake protome. Dacian bracelets have mainly been thought of as women's adornments but it can not be excluded that some types of bracelets, especially the multi-spirals ones, represented insignia of politico-military and sacerdotal functions and therefore worn by men.

Bracelets became part of the objects that Dacians selected as votive offerings deposited outside settlements. Such offerings have been found in a fountain at Ciolanestii din Deal, Teleorman County, where silver bracelets and vases dated to 2nd or 1st century BC were found, and finds beside a lake in a forest at Contesti, Argeş County, where bracelets, pearls, and a drachma were found.

Types of the La Tene II period (150 BC – 100 AD) include:

  • Bracelets with the ends curled back around the bracelet's wire i.e. Cerbal (Hunedoara County) and Remetea (Timis County)
  • Bracelets made of multiple twisted wires i.e. at Cerbăl In the La Tène Age, this type appears to have been developed from the twisted types of the Bronze Age IV from Spalnaca.
  • Bracelets with double torsade i.e. Cerbăl
  • Bracelets made of decorated band with circles and dotted lines i.e. Cerbăl
  • Bracelets made of ribbed bar
  • Bracelets with single- or multi-spirals terminating with snake heads

Dacian bracelets: Regional finds

According to Horedt (1973), silver Dacian treasure finds can be typologically categorized into north and south groups, divided by the Târnava River. In the contact zone between them the artifacts are common to both zones. In this classification the silver multi-spiral bracelets that are ornamented with palmettes and snake protomes would belong to the southern group.

Dacian bracelets: East of the Carpathian Mountains

The Dacian bracelets that have been found East of the Carpathians can be categorized into two main types:

  • Non-joined ends i.e. those found at Poiana (Galati County) and Gradistea (Brăila County). Numerous specimens are made of bronze, such as those found at Brad, Racatau and Poiana.
  • Overlapped ends that are coiled onto the wire itself. This type has ornamentation consisting of geometrical motifs and sometimes of snake protomes.

The characteristic metals used for bracelets found in the area of the Siret River valley are bronze and iron, though silver was also probably used; a silver bracelet was found with a treasure of coins buried after 119–122 AD.

In the Prut-Dniester region sub-types have been identified such as:

  • Bronze bracelets such as those found at Trebujeni, Maşcăuţi and Hansca
  • Non-joined ends, bar with vegetal décor such as those from Palanca-Tudora
  • Bracelets made of 3–6 twisted bronze wires with flattened ornaments in the middle.
  • Multi-spiral types, such as the bracelets from the treasure found at Mateuţi (Rezina District) dated to the 4th century BC. This treasure includes two silver bracelets, one with five spirals and one with three.

Dacian bracelets: Moesia Superior

Dacian bracelets have been found in deposits from Tekija, Bare, Veliko Središte and Paraćin.

The style and type of the bracelets from Tekija and Bare are similar to the Dacian silver types; i.e. bracelets made of twisted wire and bracelets with overlapped ends that are coiled around the wire itself. Even though the origins of this type should not necessarily be located in Dacia itself, since bracelets of this type are scattered throughout the entire Balkan-Danube area, the earliest dated bracelets from Tekija and Bare are very large, as were those typical of the Dacian cultural complex. Bracelets with ends shaped as a head of, or tail of, a serpent are well represented in the Dacian deposits that are found at the Bare.

The Dacian bracelets that are decorated with spiral end-pieces, i.e. Belgrad-Guberevac (Leskovac), along with thin Dacian silver necklaces found in East Serbia, characterize the presence of a Dacian La Tene culture at Paraćin in Serbia.

Dacian bracelets: Bracelets with cord ornaments

An important category of the jewelry in the Daco-Getic environment are bronze bracelets with cord ornaments, whose typology consists of three types held in the Blaj Museum and in Simleul Silvaniei. Such circlets had been discovered at Ardeu, Cuciulata (Brasov), Costesti (Hunedoara), Ocnita (Valcea), Pecica (Arad), Simleul Silvaniei (Sălaj), Tilisca (Sibiu) and in the Orăstie Mountains. These ornaments do not seem to be specific to pre-Roman Dacia, as they were widely spread in contemporary Germany, Poland, Czech, Slovakia, Hungary and Slovenia-all during the La Tene period. Since their diameter is around 10 cm, apart from those found in Simleul Silvaniei and Orăstie which are 6 cm and 7.5 cm, they were probably worn on the arm or as anklets. They have been found mainly in fortresses or important centers of pre-Roman Dacia, and appear to have been prestige items of the local aristocracy.

Dacian bracelets: Bracelets with a double torsade

This type have been found with treasures from Cerbăl (Hunedoara County), Bistrita (Bistriţa-Năsăud County), Drăgeşti (Bihor County), Oradea-Sere (Bihor County), Saracsău (Alba County), and Tilişca (Sibiu County). The bracelets are made of wire turned two or three times to form a semicircular terminal. The three-turns style is seen only with a single bracelet from Cerbăl. These terminals are always decorated with stamped-dotted lines and are dated to the 1st century BC.

This type was designed and preferred by the intra-Carpathian regions. Only one presence occurs in the Danube area, at Iron Gates. Since this bracelet appears to have been a prestige ornament, its presence south of the Carpathians is seen as a component of the relationships between the elites of the two neighboring regions.

Dacian bracelets: The material of bracelets

Dacian bracelets
Dacian silver ornaments (Kunsthistorisches Museum)
Dacian bracelets
Silver Dacian treasures (dated to La Tene) found in Transylvania Romania (Kunsthistorisches Museum)

In the Bronze Age IV and Hallstatt periods Dacia was characterized by gold treasures and by a particular gold art, whereas archaeological finds dated to the La Tene period are mostly made of silver. This is a common characteristic of the Illyrian and Eastern Alps regions of the time, and not limited to the Dacian area. Some scholars, such as Glodariu, explain the scarcity of gold ornaments and bracelets in Dacian treasures by a custom of the Dacians, Celts, Germans and Romans in reserving golden ornaments for the king alone. Other scholars, such as Florescu, put forth the hypothesis of religious restrictions regarding the use of gold in the period of the Dacian state.

The golden Dacian bracelets, and indeed most of the jewelry, that has been found so far are made of unrefined gold from the Apuseni Mountains.

The silver of the Dacian bracelets and other ornaments of the time always contain between 0.63 and 6.35% gold. In some scholars opinions, such as Oberländer-Târnoveanu, it was obtained by melting Greek and Roman coins as well as importing from Balkan sources. Others, Popescu for example, support the thesis of a local extraction of silver from the Apuseni Mountains.

The work and typology of the silver multi-spirals snake-headed bracelets suggests the existence of a large manufacturing center, located most probably near the Dacian cites of the Orastie Mountains. From there silver artifacts spread throughout the entire area of modern-day Transylvania; and, as archaeological finds prove, these art works become later known in areas that encompass the modern regions of Moldavia, Muntenia and Oltenia.

In the second phase of La Tène, reasoned on the basis of finds, Dacia appears to have experienced a temporary "silver crisis", probably related to an increase in the minting of silver denarii; therefore, bracelets dated to that time had been made of mild alloy and only plated with a silver layer about 0.1 mm (0.004 inch) thick. The layer was so well welded that the welding can not be identified by the naked eye, even in cross sections. Specimens of the group include finds from Sarmasag (Salaj County) and Dersca (Botosani County). There were also similar finds at Slimnic (Sibiu County) and Herastrau Bucuresti.

Dacian bracelets
A gilded silver belt fragment Cioara – Alba County dated La Tene depicts warriors wearing bracelets

Dacian bracelets: Representations depicting the wearing of Dacian bracelets

The Dacian phalera from Lupu-Cergău, Alba County, depicts a feminine divinity wearing some circlets on her arms. Some scholars identified these with a representation of the Dacian bracelet types.

In 1820 at Cioara (today Săliştea) a fragmentary gilded silver plaque was discovered, dated to La Tène III, and primitively decorated au repousse ("by embossing"), with representations of two human characters, probably warriors. Hatched bands are visible on the arms and wrists that resemble regular bracelets. Even though the motifs of the plaque do not seem to be local, since it differs in some respects from those depicted on Trajan's Column, the silver-work itself seems to be Dacian. Other than the Dacians, no-one was working in this style at that time. The silversmith who made it is probably the same one who made the well known Dacian snake-headed bracelets from Hunedoara County.

A fragment from the Forum of Roman Emperor Trajan (2nd century AD) in Rome has a relief of a seated female, probably a Dacian (Dacia Capta – "the conquered Dacia"). She is depicted wearing a bracelet on each arm below the shoulder.

Dacian bracelets: Bracelets with a snake-motif

This motif is found with both the multi-spiral bracelets and also with the simple bracelets.

Dacian bracelets
Dacian bracelet from Transylvania; Slimnic type (La Tene Age)
  • Multi-spiral silver bracelets terminating with portions of palmettes and snake protome terminals at each end, i.e. those found at Cojocna, Bălăneşti (Mărunţei), Rociu, Coada Malului Drauseni (Caţa) (destroyed by 1941), Feldioara and Orastie. The endings of some of the bracelets were gilded: i.e. Coada Malului and Orastie.
  • Multi-spiral bracelets with snake-heads at each terminal, but whose terminals do not have the palmettes, that are plaques decorated with large scales, i.e. those from Herastrau (Bucuresti) dated to the 1st century BC. A bracelet from Bunesti (Vaslui County) is similar to the one from Herastrau, but it is dated earlier than the 1st century BC.
  • Simple bracelets, where stylized snake heads terminate the ends. The ends are either in the shape of an animal’s head summarily but adroitly stylized, as in the case of the Slimnic bracelets, or in other cases the animal's head is suggested by a few engraved lines, and the decorated ends were gilded. Finds include those from: Ocnita (Valcea County), Poiana (Tecuci), Săcălăsău Nou (Bihor County), in Romania; and also from Jakabszállás in Hungary.
  • Bronze bracelets cast and incised with snake protomes, i.e. those found in Râşnov, Braşov County, and dated to the 2nd or 1st century AD.

Dacian bracelets: Description of the silver multi-spiral bracelets with palmettes and protomes at both terminals

There are about 27 known Dacian silver or silver-gilt multi-spiral bracelets terminating with rectangular plaques and snake head protomes. They are exhibited or kept in repositories and museums in Bucharest (Romania), Budapest (Hungary) and Belgrade (Serbia). Additionally the Kunsthistorisches Museum holds Dacian silver bracelets such as the one found at Orastie (Hunedoara County) and the one from Feldioara (Brasov County).

Dacian bracelets
Silver bracelet from Rociu (Arges County)

All of these silver works are characterized by their large size. For example, the one found at Senereuş, now in the Brukenthal Museum weights aropund 0.4 kilograms (0.88 pounds). The wire used is 206 cm (6 feet 9 inches) long and 0.4 cm (0.157 inches) thick, while the heads are 21 cm each (8.26 inches). The inside diameter of the coils is 12.5 cm (4.92 inches) with an outside diameter of 13.3 cm (5.2 inches). These large diameters and the heavy weight of these armlets would suggest wearing them on the upper arm or on the leg. The coils of the specimen from Cluj Napoca have an even bigger outside diameter at 16 cm (6.3 inches); therefore, it is supposed that it was worn on the thigh or forearm over clothes

The specimen from the Transylvanian Museum at Cluj weighs 0.358 kilograms (0.79 pounds). It has been made by hammering a silver bar of a circular cross-section. It has 4 spirals and the ends are flattened, decorated with seven palmettes made by punching. The surfaces of the palmettes, and their extremities, are decorated with the "fir-tree" motif and incised circles.

The multi-spiral from Belgrad Museum has an interesting particularity in that the impression of the palmette motif has two puncheons of different dimensions. This might have been done in order to avoid the stereotypy of models.

Dacian bracelets: Origins

Snakes are depicted in Dacian toreutics from the 6th and 5th centuries BC, and also in the later period. Both types of bracelets with snake protomes, those of simple and multiple spirals, show an ancient Thracian tradition from the Hallstatt period (the Geto-Thracian period) of Geto-Dacian art evolution. Snake-shaped bracelets, and other ornaments of the same kind, speak not only of the spread of the decorative motif but also of a symbol and significance of this motif in the Dacian period.

Some scholars suppose that the Scythians provided the model of the snake décor found in the Classical Dacian bracelets, on the basis that the semi-spiraled Scythian snake type rings, were common in Dacia after the Hallstatt period. Those rings might have been continuously used until the La Tène period, or perhaps until the Roman era, as can be seen with a necropolis from Caşolţ, Sibiu County. If this was the case, Shchukin suggests it was a matter of transferred ideas rather than of imports.

These bracelets types can be explained by the typology of the local tradition of the Hallstattian period; and there were similar bracelets in the Thracian world of today's Romania and Bulgaria. Such examples include a mid-3rd-century BC spiral dragon-headed ring; a spiral snake-headed ring from Nesebar (Messembria); 4th century BC spiraled bracelets from Aitos; and a 3rd-century BC snake-headed ring of unknown origin in the British Museum.

The manufacture of the spirals, by wrapping the silver wire several times, belongs to the traditions of the Bronze Age; but those with their ends flattened, and decorated on the outside with intaglio palmettes, belong to a more modern style according to Popescu. The way in which these dragon patterned bracelets were developed by the Dacians was new, while its resemblance to the workmanship and style of other countries are so few, that these bracelets might very well be considered as specifically Dacian. It can be distinguished as a Dacian style since they remained faithful to their own geometric representations, and the palmette motif is not found in the neighboring areas.

Dacian bracelets: The dragon and snake-head motif

Within the multi-spiral group of bracelets with palmette scales, two sub-groups can be stylistically identified – one represented by the Feldioara find and the other by the Orastie find. These sub-groups show that the snake and dragon types were not absolutely immutable in the imagination of the Dacian silversmiths. Two variants were introduced: mammal head – snake head and crest – mane, as well as some transitional versions.

Dacian bracelets
The Dacian symbol Dacian Draco as depicted on the Trajan's Column
Dacian bracelets
Details of the "dragon" head of both ends; Silver bracelets from Hetur, Vaidei (Romos) and Darlos Romania

The bracelet discovered around 1856 at Orăștie consists of a single silver wire, with a circular cross-section, coiled into eight equal spirals terminating in a dragon head at both ends. It is analogous to the bracelet from Feldioara but its head is different in that the head is almost triangular. It has been made in a richer figurative manner than others.

The multi-spiral bracelet with zoomorphic (snake?) ends, found in 1859 with a treasure from Feldioara, is different because of the widened muzzle of the protome terminals. In the middle of the snake head the Dacian silversmith engraved braids, by the use of puncheons, consisting of two rows of small, oblique, divergent traits. The snake's eyes are depicted as two circles. A strong profile separates the head from a relatively rectangular plaque with rounded corners, and slightly arched edges representing the mane of the Dacian dragon. The profiled relief edges of the bracelet's rectangular plaque and its decoration with two rows of divergent slashes are suggestive of the mane of a dragon or wolf.

The bracelets from the Museum of Transylvania found in Cluj, Hetiur (Mureș County) and Ghelința are characterized by a more trenchant cutting and a more prominent relief for modeling the head. These traits are unlikely to represent a specific ophidian form and the longitudinal axis is marked by a stylistically different means.

The zoomorphic motif of the bracelets depicts a fantastic animal with the head and body of a serpent but the muzzle of a mammal, pointed or square, with a thick mane flowing on its back prolonged by a poly-lobed (multiple palmettes) body. The analysis of these Dacian symbols, performed by scholars-such as Florescu (1979), Parvan (1926), and Bichir (1984)-conclude that the symbol of the snake or dragon appears on the Geto-Dacian La Tene bracelets and on the Dacian standard (flag) that can be seen on Trajan's Column. The Dacians dragon probably combines two meanings: the agility and redoubtable ferocity of the wolf with the protective role of the snake. It was supposed to encourage the Getae and to scare their enemies. It also appeared to have been the only one known representation of the religious character of the Dacians of the time. Scholastic interpretations vary between considering this a representation of a "flying dragon", related to a Sky God, or a chthonic symbol.

Some bracelets from south of the Carpathians, such as those from Coada Malului, Bălăneşti and Rociu; and some from north of the Carpathians such as those from Dârlos and Vaidei (Romos)) do not have decorative elements to mark the median line on the rectangular plaque (the wider and flat portion coming next to the head). They instead have wavy lines, finely engraved, suggesting a mane or ridge. A similar style is seen in specimens from Senereuş, Dupuş (Sibiu County) and from the unknown Transylvanian site, the fragment of which is kept at the Budapest Museum. On the latter, the beam of wavy lines has been replaced by horizontal, short and dense, finely engraved lines.

The rectangular portion of the bracelets from Bălăneşti and Transylvania show a tendency to split into two teardrop-shaped lobes. On the subgroup of bracelets from Coada Malului, the fir-tree is depicted only schematically.

It was also noted that the snakes from the Agighiol artifacts of the 4th century BC, especially the depicted heads of snakes, have a stylization similar to that of the Dacian bracelet protomes; they have the same triangular form, and the same distribution of the decorations that mark the eye of the snake.

Dacian bracelets: The leaf motifs of the multi-spiral bracelets

Dacian bracelets
Detail: the fir-tree motif and the rectangular portion of the silver bracelet (1st century BC) repository Cluj-Napoca Museum
Dacian bracelets
Detail, palmette motif of the bracelet from Orastie (1st century BC)
Dacian bracelets
Palmettes on 4th-century BC helmet (some bracelets have similar palmette as the Agighiol helmet)

The flattened bands of the bracelets are decorated externally with a chain of geometrized palmettes that have been struck in much the same way as coins. It seems that the leaf-like ornaments have been made by impression, using ready-made moulds, as used in the manufacture of Dacian cups from the La Tène Crasani (com. Balaciu) site. Scholars, such as Popescu, related the chain of successive palmettes of the Dacian bracelets to the decoration of the borders on the Scythian Melgunov dagger sheath from the 6th century BC. Others consider that several multi-spiral bracelets, i.e. from Balanesti (Olt), have the same palmette motif as the typical decorations of the 4th-century BC Thracian-Getic helmet from Agighiol (com. Valea Nucarilor), Tulcea. In the opinion of Berciu, the palmette motif was adopted from the Greeks of the Black Sea coast during the Geto-Thracian Art period.

Dacian bracelets exhibit four decorative types of leaf-like triangular lobes: first is the most complex is of oval or triangular palmettes; the second is interpreted as representing fern leaves (e.g. the Orastie bracelet); the third is the fir-tree motif, where the rounded lobes become straight lines resembling a fir-tree branch; and the fourth whose shape preserves only the medial vein and the circles, suggesting the spiral arching of the lobes (e.g. the Feldioara bracelet).

The palmettes are more precisely outlined and more faithfully preserve the original lobes and palmette character, with several bracelets such as those from the Cluj Museum, Hetiur and Ghelinta. They are farthest away from a schematic fir-tree motif. A stylized ivy leaf-like style is common to the group of bracelets from Coada Malului, Rociu and Bălăneşti (Arges County), and Dupuş. It is formed using carved lines doubled with a fine series of dots.

Dacian bracelets: The same motif seen in other ornaments

The decorative snake style has been adopted in other types of ornaments, such as earrings from Răcătău and spiral rings from Sprâncenata and Popeşti-Novaci.

The silver ring from Măgura, Teleorman has four-and-a-half multi-spirals with snake-head terminals and a chain of five palmettes. It belongs to a small silver treasure-comprising three denarii that could be dated between 148–106 BC, and one ornament (the ring) -fortuitously discovered in 2005 and 2006 in a spot 330 m from Măgura village. The ring is considered by some, e.g. Mirea (2009), to be a miniaturized representation of the typical multi-spiral bracelets terminating with palmettes and snake protomes. There are particular analogies with the bracelets from Bălăneşti–Olt and Rociu–Argeş; as well as analogies with the spiral rings from Sprâncenata and Popeşti. The decorations are similar to a motif of the gold multi-spiral bracelets discovered in 1999–2001 at Sarmizegetusa Regia.

Dacian bracelets: Significance and archaeology of the silver multi-spiral bracelets with palmettes and protomes

Dacian bracelets
Locations of the 1st-century BC to 1st-century AD multi-spirals with protome and palmettes ornaments' finds .
Dacian bracelets
Silver snake-headed multi-spirals bracelet 1st century BC to 1st century AD (Transylvania, Romania).

The multi-spiral bracelets made of plates with zoomorphic extremities, all of them made of silver and sometimes gilded, are characteristic of the north-Danubian Dacian elite, in particular ones from Transylvania. Also, according to Medelet (1976), one Dacian silver bracelet from Malak Porovets (Isperih Municipality Bulgaria) and one Dacian silver bracelet from Velika Vrbica (Serbia), belong to the same typology. Some of this type of bracelets, such as the one in the Cluj-Napoca Transilvanias History Museum and the two others in the National Museum Budapest (Hungary), are from unknown Transylvanian sites.

It is possible the big silver multi-spirals were used with clothes worn for special celebrations, though they do not seem to have a simply decorative use. The context of burying these prestige aristocratic insignia suggests that the treasures they compound were rather votive deposits than funeral offerings (cenotaph?).

The silver snake-headed multi-spiral bracelets are found in the context of the so-called Dacian silver treasures. A significant fact regarding these treasures is the specificity of the time frame, from around 125 BC – 25 AD (one century). In historical terms, they are contemporary to the reigns of Burebista, Deceneus and Comosicus. It is probable that the hoards of silver bracelets and ornaments of the late Geto-Dacian began to be produced just prior to the reign of Burebista, a possible example being the one from Sâncrăieni. The manufacturing of silver ornaments continued during his reign, although to a lesser extent (perhaps due to his authoritarian, despotic and purist nature), and mostly after his suppression of the manufacture (44 BC – 46 AD); therefore the silver hoard production lasted almost a century. The burying of these Dacian silver jewelry items and bracelets (those made between 44 BC and 46 AD) occurred in the same period of time that was characterized by a scarcity of silver due to the turbulent situation in Dacia.

This particular type of design has a unitary typology and a highly standardized character. It does not contain goods that had been accumulated over years, but only sets of certain objects. Also, they have not been found in the context of settlements but outside them, on carefully prepared deposits. These objects had not been temporarily concealed or hidden, because of some exposure to dangerous situations, but they were rather supposed to preserve the symbolic attributes of the social status in the afterlife.

Several Dacian bracelets reached the collections of the Kunsthistorisches Vienna Museum through various channels: administrative, auctions, purchases, and donations. Though they were found in Transylvania, and belong to the similar archaeological context of the other Dacian silver treasures, they are rather accidental discoveries from the west and south of the Transylvanian plateau-both in the areas of the greatest concentration of Dacian culture in the Orăştie and Apuseni Mountains, where precious metal mineral deposits were, and are, to be found.

Dacian bracelets: Gold multi-spiraled dragon-headed and animal protome bracelets

Dacian bracelets
Gold bracelet from Sarmizegetusa Regia – 1st century BC (NMIR Museum Bucharest)
Dacian bracelets
Romans taking valuable Dacian loot (Trajan's Column Scene CXXXVIII)
Dacian bracelets
Dacian gold bracelet from Sarmizegetusa Regia; dated to the 1st century BC
Dacian bracelets
Dacian gold bracelet, dated to the 1st century BC, from Sarmizegetusa Romania
Dacian bracelets
Dacians gold bracelet from Sarmizegetusa Regia

Gold artifacts in general, and gold bracelets in particular, have been scarce archaeological finds during excavations. An explanation could be that the Romans collected all gold objects by force after conquering Dacia. Some, including Manaila, explained the scarcity of these kinds of archaeological finds as due to Dacian religious reasons, all gold being collected by the priests and given to the Dacian king. Numerous researchers, including Rustoiu, argued the existence of a royal monopoly of the gold and silver exploitation in Dacia; and that after the Roman conquest, this monopoly passed to the Roman Emperor.

Dacian bracelets: Description

These gold bracelets, adorned with leaves and snake heads, weigh around 2.2 pounds (1 kilogram) each. There are remarkable analogies between the gold armlets and those made of silver from Coada Malului (Prahova County), Senereuş (Hunedoara County), Orăştie (Hunedoara County) and Herăstrău-Bucureşti. Most of them exhibit similar design and artistic themes, but there are no two identical bracelets. The decorations on these bracelets is similar to the style of the ring from Magura (Teleorman County).

One such bracelet recovered in 2007 has both terminals depicting a stylized animal head, which represents a snake with a long muzzle, and is decorated with arched lines. The rectangular plaque's surface is decorated with transverse rows of arched incisions, grouped in four and a half metopes. The body is composed of seven palmettes, consisting of a fir tree-shape, and a dotted line in the middle, while the terminals oppose each other.

The number of spirals varies from six to eight. When uncoiled, some bracelets measure 2.30 m and others 2.80 m. The outside diameters range from 91 to 123 mm. The spirals consist of flat rectangular strips with richly incised decorations and stylized palmettes. In most of them, seven palmettes decorate both ends of the bracelets. The bracelets terminate with a decorative protoma, a beast-head motif which looks like the head of an animal (a wolf, a snake or a dog). The goldsmith technique, used for manufacturing all of these gold armlets, was the cold hammering of a rectangular-shaped gold ingot, followed by punching and engraving for their decorations. This was a typical method used by Dacians from the 4th century BC to 1st century AD.

A bracelet recovered in 2009 has ten spirals. The terminals depict a stylized snake protome. The long muzzle is straight cut and the eyes and eyebrows are represented by curved lines. The head continues onto a rectangular plaque of 3.4 cm in length whose relief edges are decorated with incised oblique lines in a "V" shape, separated by a medial line. This is followed by a series of six triangular-oval palmettes, made by three puncheons, and with a length of 14.3 cm. The first puncheon made the first two palmettes, the second made the next two palmettes, and the third was used for the last-which is also the smallest palmette. The palmettes have a foliage design and their edges are raised and decorated with small incised oblique lines.

Dacian bracelets: Context

Dacian bracelets
Ruins of temple of the ancient Dacian fortress of Sarmizegetusa (Hunedoara County – Romania)

Some two dozen of the gold multi-spiral zoomorphic-headed bracelets were discovered by archaeological looting in different spots in the area of Sarmisegetusa Regia, in the Orăștie Mountains. By 2011, twelve out of the twenty-four looted gold bracelets had been recovered and are housed at the Romanian National History Museum in Bucharest.

An archaeological context has been reconstituted on the basis of a forensic science approach, technical description, and archaeological interpretation. The multi-spiral bracelets had been uncovered from pits near to the "Sacred area" of the Dacian capital at Sarmizegetusa Regia (Hunedoara County), around 600 m from the sacred enclosure. The pits are located on the steep rocky slopes outside the ancient settlements, in a narrow valley. The bracelets site is located on a very steep and rocky area that involves a difficult climb and hinders "classical" archaeological approaches and research.

The treasure hunters discovered a spot where they found ten golden bracelets in a pit dug into natural rock on a 70° slope. The pit had two distinct overlapped cavities of triangular shape made of slabs, one containing six gold multi-spiral bracelets and the other four, that had each been deposited in pairs; the smaller bracelets were inserted into the larger ones. The finding of bracelets on such steep sloping cliffs, and at the outer limits (eastern) of the settlements, provides a new perspective regarding the ancient sites used for depositing artifacts with special religious significance. These deposits are composed of the same type of ornaments that have identical function and significance.

The general circumstances of the placement of these bracelets, deposited by the ancient populous, in these specially constructed pits and covered with uncut slabs imply that these artifacts were components of votive offerings. It seems as if these bracelets were used during initiations, or occult ceremonies, restricted to a certain category of people that had very important positions in the state: the king; the leaders of cities; the nobles from the royal entourage; and the priests. This explains the existence of similar pieces made of silver for the leading nobles and rulers of the cities, and the lack of similar specimens made of bronze, iron or other metals. It also explains why these types of bracelet do not appear in written sources, nor the figurative representations of the time.

Dacian bracelets: Chronology and authentication

Based on typological analogy and stylistic analysis, historians believe that these bracelets are authentic Dacian artifacts. Some chronological evidence is provided by dark blotches that indicate a long period of time underground, and also by the ancient coins that were found along with bracelets. These coins point to the late 2nd century BC and the first decades of the 1st century BC. It appears that the bracelets were buried, if not necessarily crafted, during a time frame between 100 – 70 BC.

The chronology of these bracelets corresponds to the emergence of the building of religious sanctuaries, digging and arranging pits with a religious purpose where deposits of offerings to the chthonian gods had been made.

In 2007 a compositional analysis of these gold objects was performed using a non-destructive method, particle-induced X-ray emission (micro-PIXE measurements) and synchrotron X-Ray fluorescence (SR-XRF) analysis. More studies were performed in 2008 and 2009 by a team consisting of members from the National Institute for Nuclear Physics and Engineering, Romania, the National History Museum of Romania, and the BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Germany. Researchers compared the gold composition, examining the trace platinum group elements, Tin, Tellurium, Antimony, Mercury, and Lead and comparing them with the corresponding elements of natural gold from Transylvania. This was done since these trace-elements are more significant for provenancing archaeological metallic-artifacts than the main element components. For these studies, several small fragments of natural Transylvanian gold – placer and primary – were analyzed using: the micro-PIXE technique at the Legnaro National Laboratory AN2000 micro-beam facility, Italy, and at the AGLAE accelerator, C2RMF, Paris, France; and by using micro-synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (micro-SR-XRF) at the BESSY synchrotron, Berlin, Germany. The studies of the teams concluded that the gold multi-spiral bracelets found between 1999–2001 at Sarmizegethusa had been made of native Transylvanian gold and not refined gold.

Because of the adverse conditions surrounding the hoard's discovery, their origins may never be authenticated to the full satisfaction of archaeologists and scientists. Sceptics suggest that the bracelets could have been produced in modern times from metal obtained by melting ancient gold coins, Dacian coins of the KOSON type or Greek Lysimachus coins; however, the analyses performed so far do not confirm the use of gold from these coins in the bracelets' manufacture.

It is most likely that no other group of ancient goldwork has been more thoroughly examined by scientists, technologists and scholars in various countries and various institutions than the Dacian gold spirals with dragon terminals found between 1999–2001 at Sarmizegethusa. In each case-study, and completely independent from each other, their examinations led to the same conclusion.

Dacian bracelets: Notes

  1. , p. 5.
  2. , p. 1040.
  3. , p. 1.
  4. , p. 1.
  5. For the various functions of bracelets with Dacians see Florescu et. al (1980) p.68
    • For the high rank insignia, see Sîrbu and Florea (2000) p.13
    • For the bracelets used as ornaments, see Dumitrescu H (1941), p.137
    • For the votive offerings see Spânu (1998) p.49
    • For the bracelet-currency see Popescu (1956) p.212
    • For the North Thracians see McHenry Encyclopædia Britannica (1993) p.602
  6. , p. 212.
  7. , p. 45.
  8. , p. 57.
  9. , p. 17.
  10. , p. 2.
  11. , p. 143.
  12. , p. 25.
  13. , p. 47.
  14. , p. 53.
  15. , p. 52.
  16. , p. 59.
  17. , p. 259.
  18. , p. 602.
  19. , p. 57.
  20. , p. 53.
  21. , p. 258.
  22. , p. 32.
  23. , p. 51.
  24. , p. 19.
  25. , p. 26.
  26. , p. 25.
  27. , p. 69.
  28. , p. 63.
  29. , p. 22.
  30. , p. 406.
  31. , p. 67.
  32. , p. 90.
  33. , p. 32.
  34. , p. 146.
  35. , p. 94.
  36. , p. 68.
  37. , p. 1.
  38. , p. 227.
  39. , p. 409.
  40. .
  41. , p. 134.
  42. , p. 350.
  43. , p. 93.
  44. , p. 117.
  45. , p. 1 poz. 134.
  46. , p. 345.
  47. , p. 77.
  48. , p. 168.
  49. , p. 73.
  50. , p. 12.
  51. , p. 37.
  52. , p. 597.
  53. , p. 136.
  54. , p. 94.
  55. , p. 63.
  56. , p. 212.
  57. , p. 31.
  58. , p. 169.
  59. , p. 1.
  60. , p. 141.
  61. , p. 215.
  62. , p. 136.
  63. , p. 326.
  64. , p. 133.
  65. , p. 140.
  66. , p. 137.
  67. , p. 120.
  68. , p. 163.
  69. , p. 330.
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  71. .
  72. , p. 288.
  73. , p. 288.
  74. , p. 239.
  75. , p. 59.
  76. , p. 2.
  77. , p. 222.
  78. , p. 7o.
  79. , p. 52.
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  81. , p. 76.
  82. , p. 58.
  83. , p. 58.
  84. , p. 214-216.
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  86. , p. 165.
  87. , p. 1.
  88. , p. 217.
  89. , p. 221.
  90. , p. 76.
  91. , p. 345.
  92. , p. 345.
  93. , p. 366.
  94. , p. 1.
  95. , p. 152.
  96. , p. 24.
  97. , p. 218.
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  100. , p. 28.
  101. , p. 197.
  102. , p. 150.
  103. , p. 151.
  104. , p. 341.
  105. , p. 46 and p=47.
  106. , p. 47.
  107. , p. 30.
  108. , p. 27.
  109. , p. 187.
  110. , p. 54.
  111. , p. 540.
  112. , p. 864.
  113. , p. 63.
  114. , p. 546.
  115. , p. 545.
  116. , p. 339.
  117. , p. 58.
  118. , p. 288.
  119. , p. 54.
  120. , p. 542-543.
  121. , p. 153.
  122. , p. 57.
  123. , p. 68.
  124. , p. 87.
  125. , p. 749.
  126. , p. 862.
  127. , p. 550.
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  129. , p. 542.
  130. , p. 216.
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  135. , p. 44.
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  137. , p. 164.
  138. , p. 22.
  139. , p. 42.
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  141. , p. 77.
  142. , p. 78.
  143. , p. 79.
  144. , p. 12.
  145. , p. 244.
  146. , p. 135.
  147. , p. 9.
  148. , p. 69.
  149. , p. 197.
  150. , p. 188.
  151. , p. 47.
  152. , p. 532.
  153. , p. 49.
  154. , p. 45.
  155. , p. 106.
  156. , p. 16.
  157. , p. 534.
  158. , p. 377.
  159. , p. 641.
  160. , p. 99.
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  163. , p. 346.
  164. , p. 264.
  165. , p. 46.
  166. , p. 201.
  167. , p. 116.
  168. , p. 66.
  169. , p. 1.
  170. , p. 1031.
  171. , p. 52.
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  • Samsaris, Dimitrios C. (1989). "Les Influences Myceniennes sur les Thraces". Thracians and Mycenaeans: Proceedings of the Fourth International Congress of Thracology Rotterdam, 24–26 September 1984 edited by Jan G. P. Best and Nanny M. W. de Vries. Brill Academic Pub. ISBN 978-90-04-08864-1.
  • Sandars, N.K. (1976). Recent thoughts reviewed; Celtic art in ancient Europe, five protohistoric centuries edited by Paul Marie Duval and Charles Francis Christopher Hawkes. Seminar Press London and New York. OCLC 2507009.
  • Sanie, Silviu (1995). Din istoria culturii şi religiei geto-dacice (in Romanian). Editura Universitatii Al. I. Cuza.
  • Seculici, Bogdan (2008). "Unele consideratii privind exploatarea si obtinerea aurului si argintului in Dacia preromana pp.65–73". BANATICA (in Romanian and French). Muzeul Banatului Montan. ISSN 1222-0612.
  • Sherratt, A.G. (1984). "The Prehistory of the Balkans to 1000 BC pp.1–27". The Cambridge Ancient History: Plates to Volume 3 edited by John Boardman. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-24289-9.
  • Shchukin, Mark B. (1989). Rome and the Barbarians in central and eastern Europe: 1st century B.C.-1st century A.D. / Mark B. Shchukin ; translated from the Russian. British Archaeological Reports, Oxford, England. ISBN 0-86054-690-X.
  • Sîrbu, Valeriu; Florea, Gelu (2000). Les Géto-Daces : iconographie et imaginaire (in French). Cluj-Napoca Centre d'Études Transylvaines, Fondation Culturelle Roumaine. ISBN 978-973-577-243-7.
  • Sîrbu, Valeriu; Florea, Gelu (1997). Imaginar şi imagine în Dacia preromană (in Romanian). Editura Istros.
  • Sîrbu, Valeriu (2007). "Sanctuaires et lieux de culte chez les Geto-Daces (IIe siecle av. J.-C. – Ier siecle ap. J.-C.)". L'âge du Fer dans l'arc jurassien et ses marges. Dépôts, lieux sacrés et territorialité à l'âge du Fer. Actes du XXIXe colloque international de l'AFEAF, Bienne, 5 – 8 Mai 2005 edited by Philippe Barral, Alain Daubigney, Cynthia Dunning, Gilbert Kaenel, M. -J. Roulière – Lambert (in French). Annales littéraires de l'Université de Franche-Comté. ISBN 978-2-84867-201-4.
  • Sîrbu, Valeriu (2004). Les Thraces entre les Carpates, les Balkans et la Mer Noire (Ve s.av.J.-C. – Ier s. apr. J.-C.) Quatre conference donnees a la Sorbonne (in French). Muzeul Brailei Editura Istros. ISBN 973-9469-48-5.
  • Spânu, Daniel (1998). "Semnificaţii ale îngropării tezaurelor dacice de piese de argint ‘Burial significances of the Dacian treasures of silver objects’". Ephemeris Napocensis (in Romanian and French). Institutul de Arheologie şi Istoria Artei Cluj. ISSN 1220-5249.
  • Spânu, Daniel; Cojocaru, Viorel (2009). "The Dacian hoard from Bucuresti-Herastrau, Archaeological and Archaeomettalurgical Approaches". Materiale si cercetari arheologice (in Romanian and English). Ed Academiei Bucuresti. ISSN 1220-5222. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  • Stoia, Adriana (1989). The Bronze Age-Iron Age transition in Europe: aspects of continuity and change in European societies, c. 1200 to 500 B.C., edited by Marie Louise Stig Sørensen, Roger Thomas. British Archaeological Reports. ISBN 978-0-86054-620-7.
  • Şandric, Bogdan (2008). "Pipea, com.(oraş Nadeş) brăţară 'bracelet'". 'ARCHAEOLOGICAL REPERTORY OF ROMANIA\' Archive Of The 'Vasile Parvan' Institute Of Archaeology (in Romanian). cIMeC – Institutul de Memorie Culturală. Archived from the original on May 21, 2011. Retrieved May 20, 2011.
  • Şandric, Bogdan (2003). "Biia, com./oraş Şona (denumire repertoriu: Biia sau Magyarbénye, Benden, jud. Târnava Mică)." (in Romanian). 'ARCHAEOLOGICAL REPERTORY OF ROMANIA' Archive Of The 'Vasile Parvan' Institute Of Archaeology, cIMeC – Institutul de Memorie Culturală. Archived from the original on May 21, 2011. Retrieved May 20, 2011.
  • Szekely, Zoltan (1965). "Noi tezaure dacice descoperite în sud – èstul Transilvaniei pp.51–66". Studii și cercetări de istorie veche și arheologie, Volume 16 (in Romanian and French). Editura Academiei România.
  • Taylor, Timothy (2001). Northeastern European Iron Age pages 210–221 and East Central European Iron Age pages 79–90’'. Springer Published in conjunction with the Human Relations Area Files. ISBN 978-0-306-46258-0.
  • Taylor, Timothy (1994). "Thracians, Scythians, and Dacians". The Oxford illustrated prehistory of Europe. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-814385-7.
  • Toma, Corina (2007). "Repertoriu orientativ al descoperirilor dacice de pe teritoriul Ungariei, A Catalogue of the Dacian Period Discoveries Found in the Territory of Hungary". Muzeul Ţării Crişurilor: 65–77. ISSN 1016-2798.
  • Trohani, George (2011-05-20). "Brăţară 'bracelet'". cIMeC; Muzeul Naţional de Istorie a României – București. p. 4. Check date values in: |year= / |date= mismatch (help)
  • Trohani, George (2007). "Bratara 2068/09.02.2007 – TezaurPoziţia 5; Mobile Cultural Objects Classified in the National Cultural Heritage". cIMeC; Muzeul Naţional de Istorie a României – București. p. 5. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04.
  • Trohani, George (2009). "Bratara TG 12 2419/05.10.2009 – Tezaur Poziţia 1;". cIMeC; Muzeul Naţional de Istorie a României – București. p. 1.
  • Turcu, Mioara (1979). Geto-dacii din Cîmpia Munteniei. Editura Științifică și Enciclopedică.
  • Tutilă, Oana (2004). Consideraţii asupra reprezentărilor imagistice de pe toreutica traco-geto-dacică ‘Some considerations regarding the figurative representations of the thracian-geto-dacian metal objects’ (in Romanian and English). Litere Nr. 2. ISSN 1453-7427.
  • Vauthey, Paul; Vauthey, Max (1968). Union Internationale des Sciences préhistoriques et protohistoriques, Inventaria archaeologica de roumanie, Sous la Direction de L. E. Marien (in French). Revue archéologique du centre de la France.
  • Vulpe, Alexandru (1967). Necropola hallstattiană de la Ferigile: monografie arheologică. Editura Academiei, Romania.
  • Watson, Traci (2011). "Ancient Transylvanians Rich in Gold, Treasure Shows, Surprisingly hefty snake bracelets traced to Romanian region, circa 100 B.C.". National Geographic. Archived from the original on 2011-05-08. Retrieved 2012-07-06.
  • Wittenberger, Mihai (2010). "Brăţară (Jud. Sibiu, Com. Boarta)". Bunuri culturale mobile clasate în Patrimoniul Cultural Naţional \'Mobile Cultural Objects Classified in the National Cultural Heritage. cIMeC; Muzeul Naţional de Istorie a României – București. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2011-05-22.
  • "Dacian gold bracelets at the National Museum of History in Bucharest". artline.ro. January 2007. Retrieved 2009-01-25. The four now famous Dacian gold bracelets ... External link in |journal= (help)

Dacian bracelets: Further reading

  • Berciu, Dumitru (1974). Contribution à l'étude de l'art thraco gète (in French). Editura Academiei, Romania.
  • Burda, Stefan (1979). Tezaure de aur din România. Editura Meridiane.
  • Florescu, Radu; Miclea, Ion; Kunsthistorisches Museum Wien (1979). Tezaure Transilvane (in Romanian). Ed. Meridiane.
  • MacKenzie, Andrew (1986). Archaeology in Romania: the mystery of the Roman occupation. Hale. ISBN 978-0-7090-2724-9.
  • Taylor, Timothy (1994). "Thracians, Scythians, and Dacians". The Oxford illustrated prehistory of Europe. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-814385-7.
  • Dacian Gold Bracelets, in the Trafficking Culture Encyclopedia
  • http://www.ccm.ro/muzeu/podoabe_htm/bracelets.htm
  • http://www.artline.ro/1_585_Dacian_gold_bracelets_at_the_National_Museum_of_History_in_Bucharest_11510.html

Dacian bracelets: Gallery / External links to bracelets and other ornaments mentioned in the article

  • Thracian bracelet snake-shaped
  • An example of Persian bracelet from Susa, Iran, gold, with lions' heads
  • Spiral snake-headed ring from Magura Teleorman County
  • Helmet from Agighiol Tulcea County
  • Dacian bracelet -Hellenistic (Dacia), 3rd century BC

Dacians' bracelets

  • Dacian ox-headed bracelet found in the 19th century at Targu Mures (Transylvania) Romania repository National Museum, Budapest, Hungary
  • Multi-spirals bracelet Bronze Age
  • Bracelet from Boarta (Sibiu County)
  • Fragment of Dacian multi-spirals snake-headed and palmettes bracelet found at Rociu – Argeş County (dated to La Tene) Repository Piteşti Museum of Argeş County
  • Dacian silver multi-spiral snake-headed and palmettes found at Rociu- Argeş County (dated to La Tene) Repository Piteşti Museum of Argeş County
  • Dacian silver multi-spiral snake-headed and palmettes bracelet from Balanesti-Maruntei (Olt County) (dated to La Tene) Repository Piteşti Museum of Argeş County
  • Dacian silver multi-spiral snake-headed and palmettes bracelet from Coada Malului-Magurele (Prahova County)
  • Silver bracelet (animal figurine) 1st century BC found at Banita repository Deva Museum Romania
  • Multi-spirals silver snake-headed and palmettes bracelet from Orastie, Romania, Diameter 10 cm, weight 536.19 g at Kunsthistorisches Museum, Antikensammlung, Vienna, Austria
  • Herastrau bracelet

Dacian bracelets: Information in other languages

Română Brățările dacice

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And today the products by request "Dacian bracelets" in New Mexico can be received in such cities as Albuquerque, Las Cruces, Rio Rancho, Santa Fe, Roswell, Farmington, South Valley, Clovis, Hobbs, Alamogordo, Carlsbad, Gallup, Deming, Los Lunas, Chaparral, Sunland Park, Las Vegas, Portales, Los Alamos, North Valley, Artesia, Lovington, Silver City, Española...

As you know, the goods by request "Dacian bracelets" in New York can be shipped to New York, Buffalo, Rochester, Yonkers, Syracuse, Albany, New Rochelle, Mount Vernon, Schenectady, Utica, White Plains, Troy, Niagara Falls, Binghamton, Rome, Long Beach, Poughkeepsie, North Tonawanda, Jamestown, Ithaca, Elmira, Newburgh, Middletown, Auburn, Watertown, Glen Cove, Saratoga Springs, Kingston, Peekskill, Lockport, Plattsburgh, Cortland, Amsterdam, Oswego, Lackawanna, Cohoes, Rye, Gloversville, Beacon, Batavia, Tonawanda, Glens Falls, Olean, Oneonta, Geneva, Dunkirk, Fulton, Oneida, Corning, Ogdensburg, Canandaigua, Watervliet, and so on.

Naturally, any things related with "Dacian bracelets" in North Carolina can be delivered to the following cities: Charlotte, Raleigh, Greensboro, Durham, Winston-Salem, Fayetteville, Cary, Wilmington, High Point, Greenville, Asheville, Concord, Gastonia, Jacksonville, Chapel Hill, Rocky Mount, Huntersville, Burlington, Wilson, Kannapolis, Apex, Hickory, Wake Forest, Indian Trail, Mooresville, Goldsboro, Monroe, Salisbury, Holly Springs, Matthews, New Bern, Sanford, Cornelius, Garner, Thomasville, Statesville, Asheboro, Mint Hill, Fuquay-Varina, Morrisville, Kernersville, Lumberton, Kinston, Carrboro, Havelock, Shelby, Clemmons, Lexington, Clayton, Boone, etc.

And the goods related with "Dacian bracelets" in North Dakota can be shipped to Fargo, Bismarck, Grand Forks, Minot, West Fargo, Williston, Dickinson, Mandan, Jamestown, Wahpeton, Devils Lake, Watford City, Valley City, Grafton, Lincoln, Beulah, Rugby, Stanley, Horace, Casselton, New Town, Hazen, Bottineau, Lisbon, Carrington.

No need to say, the goods related with "Dacian bracelets" in Ohio can be purchased if you live in Columbus, Cleveland, Cincinnati, Toledo, Akron, Dayton, Parma, Canton, Youngstown, Lorain, Hamilton, Springfield, Kettering, Elyria, Lakewood, Cuyahoga Falls, Euclid, Middletown, Mansfield, Newark, Mentor, Cleveland Heights, Beavercreek, Strongsville, Fairfield, Dublin, Warren, Findlay, Lancaster, Lima, Huber Heights, Marion, Westerville, Reynoldsburg, Grove City, Stow, Delaware, Brunswick, Upper Arlington, Gahanna, Westlake, North Olmsted, Fairborn, Massillon, Mason, North Royalton, Bowling Green, North Ridgeville, Kent, Garfield Heights, and so on.

No need to say, any products related with "Dacian bracelets" in Oklahoma can be delivered to the following cities: Oklahoma City, Tulsa, Norman, Broken Arrow, Lawton, Edmond, Moore, Midwest City, Enid, Stillwater, Muskogee, Bartlesville, Owasso, Shawnee, Yukon, Ardmore, Ponca City, Bixby, Duncan, Del City, Jenks, Sapulpa, Mustang, Sand Springs, Bethany, Altus, Claremore, El Reno, McAlester, Ada, Durant, Tahlequah, Chickasha, Miami, Glenpool, Elk City, Woodward, Okmulgee, Choctaw, Weatherford, Guymon, Guthrie, Warr Acres, and other cities.

And the goods by request "Dacian bracelets" in Oregon can be bought in Portland, Salem, Eugene, Gresham, Hillsboro, Beaverton, Bend, Medford, Springfield, Corvallis, Albany, Tigard, Lake Oswego, Keizer, Grants Pass, Oregon City, McMinnville, Redmond, Tualatin, West Linn, Woodburn, Forest Grove, Newberg, Wilsonville, Roseburg, Klamath Falls, Ashland, Milwaukie, Sherwood, Happy Valley, Central Point, Canby, Hermiston, Pendleton, Troutdale, Lebanon, Coos Bay, The Dalles, Dallas, St. Helens, La Grande, Cornelius, Gladstone, Ontario, Sandy, Newport, Monmouth, etc.

Of course, any things related with "Dacian bracelets" in Pennsylvania can be sent to Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Allentown, Erie, Reading, Scranton, Bethlehem, Lancaster, Harrisburg, Altoona, York, Wilkes-Barre, Chester, Williamsport, Easton, Lebanon, Hazleton, New Castle, Johnstown, McKeesport, Hermitage, Greensburg, Pottsville, Sharon, Butler, Washington, Meadville, New Kensington, Coatesville, St. Marys, Lower Burrell, Oil City, Nanticoke, Uniontown, and other cities and towns.

And of course, the found goods by query "Dacian bracelets" in Rhode Island can be purchased if you live in Providence, Warwick, Cranston, Pawtucket, East Providence, Woonsocket, Coventry, Cumberland, North Providence, South Kingstown, West Warwick, Johnston, North Kingstown, Newport, Bristol, Westerly, Smithfield, Lincoln, Central Falls, Portsmouth, Barrington, Middletown, Burrillville, Narragansett, Tiverton, East Greenwich, North Smithfield, Warren, Scituate and smaller towns.

Today the goods related with "Dacian bracelets" in South Carolina can be sent to Columbia, Charleston, North Charleston, Mount Pleasant, Rock Hill, Greenville, Summerville, Sumter, Hilton Head Island, Spartanburg, Florence, Goose Creek, Aiken, Myrtle Beach, Anderson, Greer, Mauldin, Greenwood, North Augusta, Easley, Simpsonville, Hanahan, Lexington, Conway, West Columbia, North Myrtle Beach, Clemson, Orangeburg, Cayce, Bluffton, Beaufort, Gaffney, Irmo, Fort Mill, Port Royal, Forest Acres, Newberry, and other cities.

Today the found goods by query "Dacian bracelets" in South Dakota can be shipped to such cities as Sioux Falls, Rapid City, Aberdeen, Brookings, Watertown, Mitchell, Yankton, Pierre, Huron, Spearfish, Vermillion, and other cities and towns.

As always, any products related with "Dacian bracelets" in Tennessee can be purchased if you live in Memphis, Nashville, Knoxville, Chattanooga, Clarksville, Murfreesboro, Franklin, Jackson, Johnson City, Bartlett, Hendersonville, Kingsport, Collierville, Smyrna, Cleveland, Brentwood, Germantown, Columbia, Spring Hill, La Vergne, Gallatin, Cookeville, Mount Juliet, Lebanon, Morristown, Oak Ridge, Maryville, Bristol, Farragut, Shelbyville, East Ridge, Tullahoma...

No doubt, the products related to the term "Dacian bracelets" in Texas can be purchased if you live in Houston, San Antonio, Dallas, Austin, Fort Worth, El Paso, Arlington, Corpus Christi, Plano, Laredo, Lubbock, Garland, Irving, Amarillo, Grand Prairie, Brownsville, McKinney, Frisco, Pasadena, Mesquite, Killeen, McAllen, Carrollton, Midland, Waco, Denton, Abilene, Odessa, Beaumont, Round Rock, The Woodlands, Richardson, Pearland, College Station, Wichita Falls, Lewisville, Tyler, San Angelo, League City, Allen, Sugar Land, Edinburg, Mission, Longview, Bryan, Pharr, Baytown, Missouri City, Temple, Flower Mound, New Braunfels, North Richland Hills, Conroe, Victoria, Cedar Park, Harlingen, Atascocita, Mansfield, Georgetown, San Marcos, Rowlett, Pflugerville, Port Arthur, Spring, Euless, DeSoto, Grapevine, Galveston, and other cities and towns.

And of course, the products by request "Dacian bracelets" in Utah can be shipped to Salt Lake City, West Valley City, Provo, West Jordan, Orem, Sandy, Ogden, St. George, Layton, Taylorsville, South Jordan, Logan, Lehi, Murray, Bountiful, Draper, Riverton, Roy, Spanish Fork, Pleasant Grove, Cottonwood Heights, Tooele, Springville, Cedar City, Midvale. It is also available for the people living in Kaysville, Holladay, American Fork, Clearfield, Syracuse, South Salt Lake, Herriman, Eagle Mountain, Clinton, Washington, Payson, Farmington, Brigham City, Saratoga Springs, North Ogden, South Ogden, North Salt Lake, Highland, Centerville, Hurricane, Heber City, West Haven, Lindon, and so on.

As always, the products related to the term "Dacian bracelets" in Vermont can be received in such cities as Burlington, South Burlington, Rutland, Barre, Montpelier, Winooski, St. Albans, Newport, Vergennes and smaller towns.

Of course, the goods related with "Dacian bracelets" in Virginia can be shipped to Virginia Beach, Norfolk, Chesapeake, Richmond, Newport News, Alexandria, Hampton, Roanoke, Portsmouth, Suffolk, Lynchburg, Harrisonburg, Charlottesville, Danville, Manassas, Petersburg, Fredericksburg, Winchester, Salem, Staunton, Fairfax, Hopewell, Waynesboro, Colonial Heights, Radford, Bristol, Manassas Park, Williamsburg, Falls Church, Martinsville, Poquoson and smaller towns.

As usual, the goods by request "Dacian bracelets" in Washington can be purchased if you live in Seattle, Spokane, Tacoma, Vancouver, Bellevue, Kent, Everett, Renton, Federal Way, Yakima, Spokane Valley, Kirkland, Bellingham, Kennewick, Auburn, Pasco, Marysville, Lakewood, Redmond, Shoreline, Richland, Sammamish, Burien, Olympia, Lacey. It is also available for the people living in Edmonds, Puyallup, Bremerton, Lynnwood, Bothell, Longview, Issaquah, Wenatchee, Mount Vernon, University Place, Walla Walla, Pullman, Des Moines, Lake Stevens, SeaTac, Maple Valley, Mercer Island, Bainbridge Island, Oak Harbor, Kenmore, Moses Lake, Camas, Mukilteo, Mountlake Terrace, Tukwila, and so on.

And today any products related with "Dacian bracelets" in West Virginia can be delivered to the following cities: Charleston, Huntington, Morgantown, Parkersburg, Wheeling, Weirton, Fairmont, Martinsburg, Beckley, Clarksburg, South Charleston, St. Albans, Vienna, Bluefield and smaller towns.

Today the found goods by query "Dacian bracelets" in Wisconsin can be received in Milwaukee, Madison, Green Bay, Kenosha, Racine, Appleton, Waukesha, Oshkosh, Eau Claire, Janesville, West Allis, La Crosse, Sheboygan, Wauwatosa, Fond du Lac, New Berlin, Wausau. You can also buy these goods in Brookfield, Beloit, Greenfield, Franklin, Oak Creek, Manitowoc, West Bend, Sun Prairie, Superior, Stevens Point, Neenah, Fitchburg, Muskego, Watertown, De Pere, Mequon, South Milwaukee, Marshfield and smaller towns.

Undoubtedly, the goods named "Dacian bracelets" in Wyoming can be sent to Cheyenne, Casper, Laramie, Gillette, Rock Springs, Sheridan, Green River, Evanston, Riverton, Jackson, Cody, Rawlins, Lander, Torrington, Powell, Douglas, Worland, and other cities and towns.

Canada Delivery, Shipping to Canada

As you know, the goods by your query "Dacian bracelets" in Canada can be sent to Toronto, Montreal, Calgary, Ottawa, Edmonton, Mississauga, Winnipeg, Vancouver, Brampton, Hamilton, Quebec City, Surrey, Laval, Halifax, London, Markham, Vaughan, Gatineau, Longueuil, Burnaby, Saskatoon, Kitchener, Windsor, Regina, Richmond, Richmond Hill.

Delivery is also carried out in Oakville, Burlington, Greater Sudbury, Sherbrooke, Oshawa, Saguenay, Lévis, Barrie, Abbotsford, St. Catharines, Trois-Rivières, Cambridge, Coquitlam, Kingston, Whitby, Guelph, Kelowna, Saanich, Ajax, Thunder Bay, Terrebonne, St. John's, Langley, Chatham-Kent, Delta.

It is also available for the people living in Waterloo, Cape Breton, Brantford, Strathcona County, Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Red Deer, Pickering, Kamloops, Clarington, North Vancouver, Milton, Nanaimo, Lethbridge, Niagara Falls, Repentigny, Victoria, Newmarket, Brossard, Peterborough, Chilliwack, Maple Ridge, Sault Ste. Marie, Kawartha Lakes, Sarnia, Prince George.

And also in Drummondville, Saint John, Moncton, Saint-Jérôme, New Westminster, Wood Buffalo, Granby, Norfolk County, St. Albert, Medicine Hat, Caledon, Halton Hills, Port Coquitlam, Fredericton, Grande Prairie, North Bay, Blainville, Saint-Hyacinthe, Aurora, Welland, Shawinigan, Dollard-des-Ormeaux, Belleville, North Vancouver, and other cities.

In fact, the goods by your query "Dacian bracelets" can be shipped to any place in Canada, including Ontario, Quebec, British Columbia, Alberta, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, and Prince Edward Island.

UK Delivery, Shipping to the United Kingdom

As always, the products related to the term "Dacian bracelets" in the United Kingdom can be purchased if you live in London, Birmingham, Leeds, Glasgow, Sheffield, Bradford, Edinburgh, Liverpool, Manchester, Bristol, Wakefield, Cardiff, Coventry, Nottingham, Leicester, Sunderland, Belfast, Newcastle upon Tyne, Brighton, Hull, Plymouth, Stoke-on-Trent.

Delivery is also carried out in Wolverhampton, Derby, Swansea, Southampton, Salford, Aberdeen, Westminster, Portsmouth, York, Peterborough, Dundee, Lancaster, Oxford, Newport, Preston, St Albans, Norwich, Chester, Cambridge, Salisbury, Exeter, Gloucester. And, of course, Lisburn, Chichester, Winchester, Londonderry, Carlisle, Worcester, Bath, Durham, Lincoln, Hereford, Armagh, Inverness, Stirling, Canterbury, Lichfield, Newry, Ripon, Bangor, Truro, Ely, Wells, St. Davids...

In fact, the products related to the term "Dacian bracelets" can be shipped to any place in the UK, including England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland.

Ireland Delivery, Shipping to Ireland

No doubt, the products by request "Dacian bracelets" in Ireland can be shipped to Dublin, Cork, Limerick, Galway, Waterford, Drogheda, Dundalk, Swords, Bray, Navan, Ennis, Kilkenny, Tralee, Carlow, Newbridge, Naas, Athlone, Portlaoise, Mullingar, Wexford, Balbriggan, Letterkenny, Celbridge, Sligo. It is also available for the people living in Clonmel, Greystones, Malahide, Leixlip, Carrigaline, Tullamore, Killarney, Arklow, Maynooth, Cobh, Castlebar, Midleton, Mallow, Ashbourne, Ballina, Laytown-Bettystown-Mornington, Enniscorthy, Wicklow, Tramore, Cavan, and so on.

Actually, the products by request "Dacian bracelets" can be shipped to any place in Ireland, including Leinster, Ulster, Munster, and Connacht.

Australia Delivery, Shipping to Australia

And today the goods related with "Dacian bracelets" in Australia can be received in such cities as Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth, Adelaide, Gold Coast, Tweed Heads, Newcastle, Maitland, Canberra, Queanbeyan, Sunshine Coast, Wollongong, Hobart, Geelong, Townsville, Cairns, Darwin, Toowoomba, Ballarat, Bendigo, Albury, Wodonga, Launceston, Mackay.

And also in Rockhampton, Bunbury, Bundaberg, Coffs Harbour, Wagga Wagga, Hervey Bay, Mildura, Wentworth, Shepparton, Mooroopna, Gladstone, Tannum Sands, Port Macquarie, Tamworth, Traralgon, Morwell, Orange, Geraldton, Bowral, Mittagong, Dubbo, Busselton, Bathurst, Nowra, Bomaderry, Warrnambool, Albany, Warragul, Drouin, Kalgoorlie, Boulder, Devonport, and other cities.

In other words, the goods named "Dacian bracelets" can be shipped to any place in Australia, including New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, Western Australia, South Australia, Tasmania, Australian Capital Territory, and Northern Territory.

New Zealand Delivery, Shipping to New Zealand

Normally, any products related with "Dacian bracelets" in New Zealand can be received in such cities as Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch, Hamilton, Tauranga, Napier-Hastings, Dunedin, Lower Hutt, Palmerston North, Nelson, Rotorua, New Plymouth, Whangarei, Invercargill, Whanganui, Gisborne, Porirua, Invercargill, Nelson, Upper Hutt, Gisborne, Blenheim, Pukekohe, Timaru, Taupo, and so on.

Basically, any things related with "Dacian bracelets" can be shipped to any place in New Zealand, including North Island, South Island, Waiheke Island, and smaller islands. Normally,the found goods by querycan be delivered toYou can also buy these goods in, and other cities.



Abkhazia: Gagra, Gudauta, Lake Ritsa, New Athos, Ochamchire, Pitsunda, Sukhumi, Tsandryphsh, etc.

Afghanistan: Herat, Jalalabad, Kabul, Kandahar, Kunduz, Mazar-i-Sharif, Taloqan, etc.

Albania: Berat, Butrint, Dhërmi, Durrës, Gjirokastër, Himarë, Korçë, Pogradec, Qeparo, Sarandë, Shkodër, Tirana, Velipojë, Vlorë, etc.

Algeria: Algiers, Oran, etc.

American Virgin Islands: Charlotte Amalie, etc.

Andorra: Andorra la Vella, Arinsal, El Pas de la Casa, Encamp, Grandvalira, Ordino, Pal, Soldeu, Vallnord, etc.

Angola: Benguela, Luanda, etc.

Anguilla: The Valley, West End, etc.

Antigua and Barbuda: Saint John’s, etc.

Argentina: Buenos Aires, Capilla del Monte, Colón, Córdoba, El Calafate, La Plata, Los Glaciares, Mar del Plata, Mendoza, Mina Clavero, Pinamar, Puerto Iguazú, Puerto Madryn, Rosario, Río Cuarto, Salta, San Carlos de Bariloche, San Martín de los Andes, San Miguel de Tucumán, San Rafael, Santa Rosa de Calamuchita, Tandil, Tierra del Fuego, Ushuaia, Villa Carlos Paz, Villa General Belgrano, Villa Gesell, Villa La Angostura, Villa de Merlo, etc.

Armenia: Dilijan, Etchmiadzin, Goris, Gyumri, Jermuk, Sevan, Stepanavan, Tsaghkadzor, Vagharshapat, Vanadzor, Yeghegnadzor, Yerevan, etc.

Aruba: Oranjestad, etc.

Australia: Adelaide, Airlie Beach, Alice Springs, Bondi Beach, Brisbane, Byron Bay, Cairns, Canberra, Coffs Harbour, Darwin, Daylesford, Fremantle, Geelong, Gold Coast, Great Barrier Reef, Hervey Bay, Hobart, Launceston, Logan City, Mackay, Mandurah, Maroochydore, Melbourne, Mooloolaba, Mount Gambier, New South Wales, Newcastle, Noosa Heads, Northern Territory, Perth, Port Douglas, Queensland, Redland City, Rockhampton, South Australia, Surfers Paradise, Sydney, Tasmania, Toowoomba, Townsville, Ulladulla, Victor Harbor, Victoria, Western Australia, Wollongong, etc.

Austria: Abtenau, Alpbach, Austrian Alps, Bad Gastein, Bad Hofgastein, Bad Kleinkirchheim, Dürnstein, Flachau, Fugen, Graz, Innsbruck, Ischgl, Kaprun, Kitzbühel, Klagenfurt, Kufstein, Lech, Leogang, Lienz, Linz, Maria Alm, Mayrhofen, Neustift im Stubaital, Obergurgl, Saalbach-Hinterglemm, Saalfelden, Salzburg, Schladming, Seefeld, Serfaus, St. Anton, St. Johann im Pongau, Sölden, Tux, Tyrol, Vienna, Villach, Wachau, Wagrain, Zell am See, etc.

Azerbaijan: Baku, Ganja, Lankaran, Quba, Qusar, Shahdag, Sheki, Stepanakert, etc.

Bahamas: Andros, Eleuthera, Exuma, Freeport, Grand Bahama, Nassau, New Providence, Paradise Island, etc.

Bahrain: Manama, etc.

Bangladesh: Chittagong, Cox's Bazar, Dhaka, Khulna, Narayanganj, Rajshahi, Sylhet, etc.

Barbados: Bridgetown, etc.

Belarus: Babruysk, Białowieża Forest, Brest Belarus, Gomel, Grodno, Lahoysk, Maladzyechna, Minsk, Mogilev, Nesvizh, Pinsk, Silichi, Vitebsk, etc.

Belgium: Antwerp, Ardennes, Blankenberge, Bouillon, Bruges, Brussels, Charleroi, De Haan, De Panne, Durbuy, Flanders, Ghent, Hasselt, Kortrijk, Leuven, Liège, Namur, Nieuwpoort, Ostend, Spa, Ypres, Zeebrugge, etc.

Belize: Ambergris Caye, Belize City, Caye Caulker, Placencia, San Pedro, etc.

Benin: Cotonou, etc.

Bermuda: Hamilton, etc.

Bhutan: Paro, Thimphu, etc.

Bolivia: Cochabamba, El Alto, La Paz, Oruro, Quillacollo, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Sucre, Uyuni, etc.

Bosnia and Herzegovina: Banja Luka, Bihać, Jahorina, Medjugorje, Mostar, Neum, Sarajevo, Travnik, Trebinje, etc.

Botswana: Gaborone, Maun, etc.

Brazil: Amazon River, Amazonia, Angra dos Reis, Arraial do Cabo, Atlantic Forest, Balneário Camboriú, Belo Horizonte, Belém, Bombinhas, Brasília, Búzios, Cabo Frio, Camaçari, Campinas, Campos do Jordão, Caraguatatuba, Copacabana, Costa do Sauípe, Curitiba, Duque de Caxias, Fernando de Noronha, Florianópolis, Fortaleza, Foz do Iguaçu, Goiânia, Gramado, Guarujá, Guarulhos, Iguazu Falls, Ilha Grande, Ilhabela, Ilhéus, Ipanema, Itacaré, Maceió, Manaus, Morro de São Paulo, Natal, Niterói, Osasco, Ouro Preto, Paraty, Petrópolis, Porto Alegre, Porto Seguro, Praia do Forte, Recife, Ribeirão Preto, Rio de Janeiro, Salvador, Santos, São Gonçalo, São José dos Campos, São Luís, São Paulo, São Sebastião, Trancoso, Ubatuba, Vila do Abraão, etc.

British Virgin Islands: Tortola, etc.

Brunei: Bandar Seri Begawan, etc.

Bulgaria: Albena, Apriltsi, Arbanasi, Balchik, Bansko, Blagoevgrad, Borovets, Burgas, Byala, Chepelare, Chernomorets, Dobrinishte, Gabrovo, Golden Sands, Hisarya, Kavarna, Kazanlak, Kiten, Koprivshtitsa, Kranevo, Lovech, Lozenets, Nesebar, Obzor, Pamporovo, Pazardzhik, Pirin, Pleven, Plovdiv, Pomorie, Primorsko, Ravda, Razlog, Rila, Ruse, Saints Constantine and Helena, Samokov, Sandanski, Sapareva Banya, Shumen, Smolyan, Sofia, Sozopol, Stara Zagora, Sunny Beach, Sveti Vlas, Tryavna, Tsarevo, Varna, Veliko Tarnovo, Velingrad, etc.

Burkina Faso: Bobo-Dioulasso, Ouagadougou, etc.

Burundi: Bujumbura, etc.

Cambodia: Angkor, Battambang, Kampot, Kep, Phnom Penh, Siem Reap, Sihanoukville, etc.

Cameroon: Bafoussam, Bamenda, Douala, Garoua, Kribi, Limbe, Maroua, Yaoundé, etc.

Canada: Alberta, Banff, Brampton, British Columbia, Burnaby, Calgary, Charlottetown, Edmonton, Fort McMurray, Gatineau, Halifax, Hamilton, Jasper, Kamloops, Kelowna, Kingston, Kitchener, Laval, London, Longueuil, Manitoba, Markham, Mississauga, Moncton, Mont-Tremblant, Montreal, Nanaimo, New Brunswick, Niagara Falls, Niagara on the Lake, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Ottawa, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Regina, Richmond, Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Surrey, Toronto, Vancouver, Vaughan, Victoria, Whistler, Whitehorse, Windsor, Winnipeg, Yukon, etc.

Cape Verde: Boa Vista Cape Verde, Sal, etc.

Caribbean Netherlands:, etc.

Cayman Islands: George Town, Grand Cayman, West Bay, etc.

Chad: N'Djamena, etc.

Chile: Antofagasta, Arica, Atacama, Coquimbo, Easter Island, Hanga Roa, Iquique, La Serena, Patagonia, Pucón, Puerto Montt, Puerto Natales, Puerto Varas, Punta Arenas, San Pedro de Atacama, Santiago, Torres del Paine, Valdivia, Valparaíso, Villarrica, Viña del Mar, etc.

China: Anshun, Baishan, Baoding, Baoshan, Baotou, Beihai, Beijing, Binzhou, Changchun, Changsha, Changzhi, Chengdu, Chongqing, Dali, Dalian, Datong, Dengfeng, Diqing, Dongguan, Emeishan, Foshan, Great Wall of China, Guangdong, Guangzhou, Guilin, Guiyang, Hainan, Hangzhou, Harbin, Honghe, Huashan, Huizhou, Jiangmen, Jiangxi, Jiaxing, Jilin, Jinan, Jincheng, Jingdezhen, Jinzhong, Jiujiang, Jiuzhaigou, Kashgar, Kunming, Langfang, Lanzhou, Laoshan, Leshan, Lhasa, Lianyungang, Lijiang, Linfen, Linyi, Liuzhou, Luoyang, Lushan, Lüliang, Mianyang, Nanchang, Nanchong, Nanjing, Nanning, Nantong, Ngawa, Ningbo, Qiandongnan, Qingdao, Qingyuan, Qinhuangdao, Qufu, Qujing, Rizhao, Sanya, Shanghai, Shangri-La, Shantou, Shanxi, Shaoguan, Shaolin, Shaoxing, Shenyang, Shenzhen, Shigatse, Shijiazhuang, Sichuan, Suzhou, Tai'an, Taiyuan, Taizhou Jiangsu, Tangshan, Tianjin, Tibet, Weifang, Weihai, Wuhan, Wulingyuan, Wutai, Wuxi, Xi'an, Xiamen, Xinzhou, Xishuangbanna, Ya'an, Yanbian, Yangtze, Yangzhou, Yantai, Yellow River, Yibin, Yinchuan, Yiwu, Yuncheng, Yunnan, Zhangjiajie, Zhanjiang, Zhejiang, Zhengzhou, Zhongshan, Zhongwei, Zhoushan, Zhuhai, Zunyi, Ürümqi, etc.

Colombia: Barranquilla, Bogotá, Bucaramanga, Cali, Cartagena, Medellín, Pereira, San Andrés, Santa Marta, Villa de Leyva, Villavicencio, etc.

Comoros: Moroni, etc.

Costa Rica: Alajuela, Jacó, La Fortuna, Manuel Antonio, Monteverde, Puerto Viejo de Talamanca, Puntarenas, Quepos, San José, Santa Teresa, Tamarindo, Tortuguero, etc.

Croatia: Baška Voda, Baška, Bibinje, Biograd na Moru, Bol, Brač, Brela, Cavtat, Cres, Dalmatia, Fažana, Hvar, Istria, Ičići, Korčula, Krk, Lopud, Lovran, Lošinj, Makarska, Mali Lošinj, Malinska, Medulin, Mlini, Nin, Novi Vinodolski, Novigrad, Omiš, Opatija, Orebić, Pag, Podstrana, Poreč, Pula, Rab, Rabac, Rijeka, Rovinj, Split, Stari Grad, Sukošan, Supetar, Trogir, Tučepi, Umag, Vrsar, Zadar, Zagreb, Čiovo, Šibenik, etc.

Cuba: Baracoa, Camagüey, Cayo Coco, Cayo Largo, Cayo Santa María, Cienfuegos, Guantánamo, Havana, Holguín, Pinar del Río, Remedios Cuba, Sancti Spíritus, Santa Clara Cuba, Santiago de Cuba, Trinidad, Varadero, Viñales, etc.

Curaçao: Sint Michiel, Westpunt, Willemstad, etc.

Cyprus: Ayia Napa, Coral Bay Cyprus, Famagusta, Kouklia, Kyrenia, Larnaca, Limassol, Nicosia, Paphos, Paralimni, Peyia, Pissouri, Polis, Protaras, etc.

Czech Republic: Bohemia, Brno, Děčín, Frymburk, Frýdek-Místek, Harrachov, Hradec Králové, Jihlava, Karlovy Vary, Kladno, Krkonoše, Kutná Hora, Liberec, Marienbad, Mikulov, Mladá Boleslav, Mělník, Olomouc, Ostrava, Pardubice, Plzeň, Poděbrady, Prague, Teplice, Třeboň, Zlín, Znojmo, Ústí nad Labem, České Budějovice, Český Krumlov, Špindlerův Mlýn, etc.

Democratic Republic of the Congo: Kinshasa, etc.

Denmark: Aalborg, Aarhus, Billund, Copenhagen, Ebeltoft, Esbjerg, Frederikshavn, Greenland, Helsingør, Herning, Hirtshals, Hjørring, Holstebro, Jutland, Odense, Silkeborg, Skagen, Skive, Sønderborg, Vejle, Viborg, etc.

Djibouti: Djibouti City, etc.

Dominican Republic: Boca Chica, Bávaro, Cabarete, La Romana, Las Terrenas, Puerto Plata, Punta Cana, Santiago de los Caballeros, Santo Domingo, Sosúa, etc.

East Timor: Dili, etc.

Ecuador: Baños, Cuenca, Galápagos Islands, Guayaquil, Manta, Otavalo, Puerto Ayora, Puerto López, Quito, Salinas, etc.

Egypt: Abu Simbel, Al Qusair, Alexandria, Aswan, Cairo, Dahab, El Alamein, El Gouna, El Hadaba, Faiyum, Giza, Hurghada, Luxor, Marsa Alam, Mersa Matruh, Naama Bay, Nabq Bay, Nile, Nuweiba, Port Said, Red Sea, Safaga, Sahl Hasheesh, Scharm asch-Schaich, Sharks Bay, Sinai, Suez, Taba, Valley of the Kings, etc.

El Salvador: La Libertad, San Salvador, etc.

Equatorial Guinea: Malabo, etc.

Eritrea: Asmara, etc.

Estonia: Haapsalu, Kuressaare, Narva, Pärnu, Saaremaa, Tallinn, Tartu, etc.

Ethiopia: Addis Ababa, Bahir Dar, Gondar, etc.

Falkland Islands: Stanley, etc.

Faroe Islands: Sørvágur, Tórshavn, etc.

Fiji: Nadi, Suva, Viti Levu Island, etc.

Finland: Espoo, Helsinki, Imatra, Joensuu, Jyväskylä, Jämsä, Kotka, Kuopio, Kuusamo, Lahti, Lapland, Lappeenranta, Levi, Mariehamn, Mikkeli, Moomin World, Naantali, Nilsiä, Oulu, Pori, Porvoo, Pyhätunturi, Rovaniemi, Rukatunturi, Saariselkä, Saimaa, Tampere, Turku, Vaasa, Vantaa, Vuokatti, Åland Islands, etc.

France: Aix-en-Provence, Ajaccio, Alsace, Annecy, Antibes, Aquitaine, Arles, Avignon, Avoriaz, Bayonne, Beaune, Besançon, Biarritz, Bonifacio, Bordeaux, Boulogne-sur-Mer, Briançon, Brittany, Burgundy, Cabourg, Cagnes-sur-Mer, Calais, Calvi, Canet-en-Roussillon, Cannes, Carcassonne, Cassis, Cavalaire-sur-Mer, Chambéry, Chamonix, Colmar, Corsica, Courchevel, Deauville, Dijon, Dunkirk, French Alps, French Riviera, Fréjus, Grenoble, Grimaud, Honfleur, Hyères, La Ciotat, La Plagne, La Rochelle, Le Grau-du-Roi, Le Havre, Le Lavandou, Les Arcs, Les Gets, Les Issambres, Les Menuires, Lille, Limoges, Lourdes, Lyon, Mandelieu-la-Napoule, Marseille, Megève, Menton, Montpellier, Morzine, Méribel, Nantes, Narbonne, Nice, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, Normandy, Nîmes, Paradiski, Paris, Pas-de-Calais, Perpignan, Portes du Soleil, Porto-Vecchio, Provence, Périgueux, Reims, Rhône-Alpes, Rouen, Saint-Gervais-les-Bains, Saint-Malo, Saint-Martin-de-Belleville, Saint-Raphaël, Saint-Rémy-de-Provence, Saint-Tropez, Sainte-Maxime, Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer, Strasbourg, The Three Valleys, Tignes, Toulon, Toulouse, Trouville-sur-Mer, Val Thorens, Val-d'Isère, Versailles, Étretat, Île-de-France, etc.

French Guiana: Cayenne, Kourou, etc.

French Polynesia: Bora Bora, Mo'orea, Papeete, Tahiti, etc.

Gabon: Libreville, etc.

Gambia: Banjul, Serekunda, etc.

Georgia: Bakuriani, Batumi, Borjomi, Gori, Gudauri, Kobuleti, Kutaisi, Mestia, Mtskheta, Poti, Sighnaghi, Stepantsminda, Tbilisi, Telavi, Zugdidi, etc.

Germany: Aachen, Augsburg, Bad Birnbach, Bad Driburg, Bad Ems, Bad Füssing, Bad Godesberg, Bad Harzburg, Bad Homburg, Bad Kissingen, Bad Kreuznach, Bad Mergentheim, Bad Neuenahr-Ahrweiler, Bad Reichenhall, Bad Salzuflen, Bad Schandau, Baden-Baden, Baden-Württemberg, Bamberg, Bavaria, Berchtesgaden, Bergen auf Rügen, Berlin, Bernkastel-Kues, Bielefeld, Binz, Bochum, Bonn, Bottrop, Brandenburg, Braunlage, Braunschweig, Bremen, Bremerhaven, Brilon, Chemnitz, Cochem, Cologne, Cuxhaven, Dortmund, Dresden, Duisburg, Düsseldorf, Eisenach, Erfurt, Erlangen, Essen, Europa-Park, Flensburg, Frankfurt, Freiburg, Friedrichshafen, Fürth, Füssen, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Gelsenkirchen, Glowe, Goslar, Görlitz, Göttingen, Hamburg, Hanover, Heide Park, Heidelberg, Heiligendamm, Heligoland, Hesse, Ingolstadt, Inzell, Karlsruhe, Kiel, Koblenz, Krefeld, Lake Constance, Leipzig, Lindau, Lower Saxony, Lübeck, Magdeburg, Mainz, Mannheim, Marburg, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Medebach, Monschau, Munich, Mönchengladbach, Mülheim an der Ruhr, Münster, Neuschwanstein Castle, Neuss, Norddeich, Norden, Norderney, North Rhine-Westphalia, Nuremberg, Oberhausen, Oberstdorf, Oldenburg, Olsberg, Osnabrück, Paderborn, Potsdam, Putbus, Quedlinburg, Rathen, Regensburg, Rhineland-Palatinate, Rostock, Rothenburg ob der Tauber, Ruhpolding, Rust, Rügen, Saarbrücken, Saarland, Sassnitz, Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, Schleswig-Holstein, Schmallenberg, Schwerin, Schönau am Königsee, Sindelfingen, Solingen, Soltau, Speyer, Stralsund, Stuttgart, Sylt, Thuringia, Travemünde, Trier, Ulm, Warnemünde, Weimar, Wernigerode, Westerland, Wiesbaden, Winterberg, Wolfsburg, Wuppertal, Würzburg, Xanten, Zingst, etc.

Ghana: Accra, Kumasi, etc.

Gibraltar:, etc.

Greece: Acharavi, Aegina, Afantou, Afytos, Agios Gordios, Andros, Arkadia, Athens, Cephalonia, Chania, Chaniotis, Chios, Corfu, Corinth, Crete, Cyclades, Dassia, Delphi, Dodecanese, Faliraki, Halkidiki, Heraklion, Hersonissos, Hydra, Ialysos, Ionian Islands, Kalamata, Kalavryta, Kalymnos, Kardamaina, Karpathos, Kassandra, Kastoria, Katerini, Kavos, Kefalos, Kokkari, Kos, Kriopigi, Laganas, Lefkada, Lemnos, Lesbos, Lindos, Loutraki, Marathokampos, Meteora, Mithymna, Monemvasia, Mount Athos, Mykonos, Mytilene, Nafplio, Naxos, Neos Marmaras, Paleokastritsa, Parga, Patmos, Patras, Pefkochori, Pefkos, Peloponnese, Polychrono, Poros, Pythagoreio, Rethymno, Rhodes, Samos, Samothrace, Santorini, Sidari, Sithonia, Sparta, Spetses, Sporades, Syros, Thasos, Thessaloniki, Tingaki, Zakynthos, etc.

Guadeloupe: Saint-François, etc.

Guam: Tamuning, Tumon, etc.

Guatemala: Antigua Guatemala, etc.

Guinea: Conakry, etc.

Guinea-Bissau: Bissau, etc.

Guyana: Georgetown, etc.

Haiti: Cap-Haitien, Port-au-Prince, etc.

Honduras: Roatán, Tegucigalpa, etc.

Hong Kong: Causeway Bay, Hong Kong Island, Kowloon, Mong Kok, New Territories, Repulse Bay, Tsim Sha Tsui, Wan Chai, etc.

Hungary: Balatonfüred, Budapest, Eger, Gyula, Hajdúszoboszló, Hévíz, Keszthely, Lake Balaton, Pécs, Siófok, Szeged, Székesfehérvár, Zalakaros, etc.

Iceland: Akureyri, Blue Lagoon, Borgarnes, Egilsstaðir, Garðabær, Hafnarfjörður, Hveragerði, Höfn, Keflavík, Kópavogur, Reykjavik, Selfoss, Vík í Mýrdal, Ísafjörður, etc.

India: Agra, Ahmedabad, Ajmer, Allahabad, Amritsar, Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Aurangabad, Ayodhya, Bangalore, Bhopal, Bikaner, Chandigarh, Chennai, Chhattisgarh, Darjeeling, Dehradun, Delhi, Dharamshala, Fatehpur Sikri, Gangtok, Goa, Gujarat, Gurgaon, Guwahati, Gwalior, Haridwar, Himachal Pradesh, Howrah, Hyderabad, Indore, Jabalpur, Jaipur, Jaisalmer, Jalandhar, Jammu and Kashmir, Jammu, Jodhpur, Kanpur, Karnataka, Katra, Kerala, Khajuraho, Kochi, Kolhapur, Kolkata, Ladakh, Leh, Lucknow, Ludhiana, Madhya Pradesh, Madikeri, Madurai, Maharashtra, Manali, Mangalore, Manipur, Mathura, Mount Abu, Mumbai, Munnar, Mussoorie, Mysore, Nagpur, Nainital, Nashik, Navi Mumbai, New Delhi, Noida, Ooty, Pachmarhi, Pahalgam, Palakkad, Pune, Punjab, Pushkar, Raipur, Rajasthan, Ramnagar, Rishikesh, Sawai Madhopur, Shimla, Sikkim, Siliguri, Srinagar, Tamil Nadu, Thane, Thiruvananthapuram, Tirupati, Udaipur, Ujjain, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Varanasi, Varkala, Vijayawada, Visakhapatnam, West Bengal, etc.

Indonesia: Bali, Balikpapan, Bandung, Batu, Bintan, Bogor, Borobudur, Denpasar, Jakarta, Java, Jimbaran, Kalimantan, Kuta, Lombok, Makassar, Malang, Mataram, Medan, Nusa Dua, Padang, Palembang, Pekanbaru, Sanur, Semarang, Seminyak, Sumatra, Surabaya, Surakarta, Ubud, Yogyakarta, etc.

Iran: Isfahan, Mashhad, Shiraz, Tehran, etc.

Iraq: Baghdad, Basra, Duhok, Erbil, Karbala, Sulaymaniyah, etc.

Ireland: Achill Island, Bray, Bundoran, Carlow, Clifden, Connemara, Cork, Dingle, Donegal, Doolin, Drogheda, Dublin, Dundalk, Ennis, Galway, Glendalough, Kenmare, Kilkenny, Killarney, Letterkenny, Limerick, Navan, Shannon, Swords, Tralee, Waterford, Westport, etc.

Isle of Man: Douglas, Port Erin, etc.

Israel: Acre, Amirim, Arad, Ashdod, Ashkelon, Bat Yam, Beersheba, Caesarea, Dead Sea, Eilat, Ein Bokek, Galilee, Golan Heights, Gush Dan, Had Nes, Haifa, Hermon, Herzliya, Jaffa, Jerusalem, Katzrin, Metula, Mitzpe Ramon, Nahariya, Nazareth, Netanya, Petah Tikva, Ramat Gan, Ramot, Rishon LeZion, Rosh Pinna, Safed, Sea of Galilee, Tel Aviv, Tiberias, Zikhron Ya'akov, etc.

Italy: Abano Terme, Abruzzo, Agrigento, Alassio, Alberobello, Alghero, Amalfi Coast, Aosta Valley, Apulia, Arezzo, Arona, Arzachena, Asciano, Ascoli Piceno, Assisi, Asti, Bardolino, Bari, Basilicata, Baveno, Bellagio, Bellaria-Igea Marina, Benevento, Bergamo, Bologna, Bolzano, Bordighera, Bormio, Bracciano, Brescia, Breuil-Cervinia, Brindisi, Cagliari, Calabria, Campania, Canazei, Caorle, Capri, Carrara, Castelnuovo Berardenga, Castiglion Fiorentino, Castiglione d'Orcia, Castiglione del Lago, Castiglione della Pescaia, Catania, Cefalù, Cervia, Cesenatico, Chianciano Terme, Chieti, Chioggia, Cinque Terre, Città della Pieve, Civitavecchia, Cortina d'Ampezzo, Cortona, Costa Smeralda, Courmayeur, Desenzano del Garda, Dolomites, Elba, Emilia-Romagna, Ercolano, Fabriano, Fasano, Fassa Valley, Ferrara, Finale Ligure, Fiumicino, Florence, Forte dei Marmi, Gaeta, Gallipoli, Genoa, Golfo Aranci, Greve in Chianti, Grosseto, Gubbio, Herculaneum, Imperia, Ischia, Italian Alps, Jesolo, L'Aquila, La Spezia, Lake Como, Lake Garda, Lake Maggiore, Lampedusa, Lazio, Lazise, Lecco, Lerici, Lido di Jesolo, Lignano Sabbiadoro, Liguria, Livigno, Livorno, Lombardy, Lucca, Madonna di Campiglio, Malcesine, Manarola, Mantua, Maratea, Massa, Matera, Menaggio, Merano, Messina, Mestre, Milan, Milazzo, Monopoli, Montalcino, Montecatini Terme, Montepulciano, Monterosso al Mare, Monza, Naples, Nardò, Novara, Olbia, Ortisei, Ostuni, Otranto, Padua, Palermo, Parma, Perugia, Pescara, Peschici, Peschiera del Garda, Piacenza, Piedmont, Pienza, Pisa, Pistoia, Pitigliano, Polignano a Mare, Pompeii, Pordenone, Porto Cervo, Porto Cesareo, Portoferraio, Portofino, Positano, Prato, Ragusa, Rapallo, Rapolano Terme, Ravenna, Riccione, Rimini, Riomaggiore, Riva del Garda, Rome, Salerno, San Casciano dei Bagni, San Gimignano, Sanremo, Sardinia, Savona, Sestriere, Sicily, Siena, Sinalunga, Siracusa, Sirmione, Sorrento, Sottomarina, Sperlonga, Stresa, Sëlva, Taormina, Taranto, Terracina, Tivoli, Torrita di Siena, Trani, Trapani, Trentino-Alto Adige, Trento, Treviso, Trieste, Tropea, Turin, Tuscany, Umbria, Urbino, Val Gardena, Veneto, Venice, Ventimiglia, Verbania, Vernazza, Verona, Vesuvius, Viareggio, Vicenza, Vieste, Viterbo, etc.

Ivory Coast: Abidjan, Assinie-Mafia, Bouaké, San-Pédro, Yamoussoukro, etc.

Jamaica: Kingston, Montego Bay, Negril, Ocho Rios, Port Antonio, Runaway Bay, etc.

Japan: Atami, Chiba, Fujisawa, Fukuoka, Furano, Hakodate, Hakone, Hakuba, Hamamatsu, Hiroshima, Hokkaido, Ishigaki, Itō, Kagoshima, Kanagawa, Kanazawa, Karuizawa, Kawasaki, Kitakyushu, Kobe, Kutchan, Kyoto, Lake Suwa, Matsumoto, Miyakojima, Nagasaki, Nagoya, Naha, Nanjō, Nikkō, Okinawa, Onna, Osaka, Sapporo, Sendai, Shizuoka, Takayama, Tokyo, Yokohama, etc.

Jordan: Amman, Aqaba, Irbid, Jerash, Madaba, Petra, Sweimeh, Wadi Musa, Wadi Rum, Zarqa, etc.

Kazakhstan: Aktau, Aktobe, Almaty, Astana, Atyrau, Burabay, Karagandy, Kokshetau, Kostanay, Lake Balkhash, Oskemen, Pavlodar, Semey, Shymbulak, Shymkent, Taraz, etc.

Kenya: Kisumu, Lake Victoria, Masai Mara, Mombasa, Nairobi, Ukunda, etc.

Kiribati: South Tarawa, etc.

Kongo: Brazzaville, Pointe-Noire, etc.

Kosovo: Pristina, Prizren, etc.

Kuwait: Hawally, Kuwait City, Salmiya, etc.

Kyrgyzstan: Bishkek, Bosteri, Cholpon-Ata, Issyk Kul, Karakol, Osh, etc.

Laos: Luang Prabang, Vang Vieng, Vientiane, etc.

Latvia: Cēsis, Daugavpils, Jelgava, Jūrmala, Liepāja, Riga, Rēzekne, Sigulda, Ventspils, etc.

Lebanon: Baalbeck, Beirut, Byblos, Faraya, Jounieh, Mzaar Kfardebian, Tripoli, etc.

Lesotho: Maseru, etc.

Liberia: Monrovia, etc.

Libya: Benghazi, Tripoli, etc.

Liechtenstein: Schaan, Vaduz, etc.

Lithuania: Druskininkai, Kaunas, Klaipėda, Nida, Palanga, Panevėžys, Trakai, Vilnius, Šiauliai, Šventoji, etc.

Luxembourg: Differdange, Dudelange, Echternach, Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg City, Vianden, etc.

Macau:, etc.

Macedonia: Bitola, Mavrovo, Ohrid, Skopje, etc.

Madagascar: Antananarivo, etc.

Malawi: Blantyre, Lilongwe, etc.

Malaysia: Borneo, George Town, Ipoh, Johor Bahru, Johor, Kedah, Kota Bharu, Kota Kinabalu, Kuah, Kuala Lumpur, Kuala Terengganu, Kuantan, Kuching, Langkawi, Malacca, Penang, Putrajaya, Sabah, Sarawak, Selangor, Shah Alam, etc.

Maldives: Kaafu Atoll, Malé, etc.

Mali: Bamako, etc.

Malta: Birżebbuġa, Buġibba, Gozo, Gżira, Mellieħa, Paceville, Pembroke, Qawra, Sliema, St. Julian's, St. Paul's Bay, Valletta, etc.

Martinique: Fort-de-France, La Trinité, Le Diamant, Les Trois-Îlets, Sainte-Luce, etc.

Mauritania: Mérida, Nouakchott, Puerto Escondido, Puerto Peñasco, etc.

Mauritius: Port Louis, etc.

Mexico: Acapulco, Akumal, Cabo San Lucas, Cancún, Chetumal, Chichen Itza, Chihuahua, Ciudad Juárez, Cozumel, Cuernavaca, Guadalajara, Guanajuato, Isla Mujeres, Los Cabos, Manzanillo, Mazatlán, Monterrey, Oaxaca, Playa del Carmen, Puebla, Puerto Aventuras, Puerto Morelos, Puerto Vallarta, Querétaro, Riviera Maya, San Cristóbal de las Casas, San Miguel de Allende, San Miguel de Cozumel, Tijuana, Tulum, etc.

Micronesia:, etc.

Moldova: Bălți, Chișinău, Tiraspol, etc.

Monaco: Monte Carlo, etc.

Mongolia: Darkhan, Erdenet, Ulaanbaatar, etc.

Montenegro: Bar, Bečići, Bijela, Budva, Cetinje, Dobra Voda, Dobrota, Herceg Novi, Igalo, Kolašin, Kotor, Miločer, Nikšić, Perast, Petrovac, Podgorica, Prčanj, Sutomore, Sveti Stefan, Tivat, Ulcinj, Žabljak, etc.

Montserrat: Plymouth, etc.

Morocco: Agadir, Asilah, Casablanca, Chefchaouen, El Jadida, Essaouira, Fez, Marrakesh, Meknes, Merzouga, Mohammedia, Nador, Ouarzazate, Rabat, Tangier, Taroudant, Tinghir, Tétouan, etc.

Mozambique: Maputo, etc.

Myanmar: Mandalay, Naypyidaw, Nyaung Shwe, Yangon, etc.

Namibia: Rundu, Swakopmund, Walvis Bay, Windhoek, etc.

Nepal: Chitwan, Himalayas, Kathmandu, Lukla, Lumbini, Mount Everest, Nagarkot, Namche Bazaar, Patan, Pokhara, Tengboche, etc.

Netherlands: 's-Hertogenbosch, Alkmaar, Amersfoort, Amsterdam, Arnhem, Breda, Delft, Domburg, Dordrecht, Eindhoven, Groningen, Haarlem, Leiden, Maastricht, Nijmegen, Noordwijk, Rotterdam, Texel, The Hague, Utrecht, Valkenburg aan de Geul, Wijk aan Zee, Zandvoort, etc.

New Zealand: Auckland, Christchurch, Dunedin, Gisborne, Hamilton, Hastings, Invercargill, Kaikoura, Lower Hutt, Napier, Nelson, New Plymouth, North Island, Palmerston North, Porirua, Queenstown, Rotorua, South Island, Taupo, Tauranga, Waiheke Island, Wanaka, Wellington, Whangarei, etc.

Nicaragua: Granada, Managua, etc.

Nigeria: Abuja, Benin City, Calabar, Enugu, Ibadan, Ilorin, Jos, Kaduna, Lagos, Owerri, Port Harcourt, Uyo, etc.

North Korea: Pyongyang, etc.

Northern Mariana Islands: Saipan, etc.

Norway: Arendal, Aurland, Beitostølen, Bergen, Bodø, Bærum, Fredrikstad, Gardermoen, Geilo, Geirangerfjord, Hardangerfjord, Hemsedal, Kirkenes, Kristiansand, Kristiansund, Larvik, Lillehammer, Lillestrøm, Lofoten, Narvik, Nordkapp, Nordland, Nærøyfjord, Oppdal, Oslo, Rana, Rauma, Røros, Sandnes, Sandvika, Sarpsborg, Sognefjord, Stavanger, Stryn, Svalbard, Svolvær, Tromsø, Trondheim, Vardø, Vestvågøy, Voss, Ålesund, etc.

Oman: Muscat, Nizwa, Salalah, Seeb, etc.

Pakistan: Bhurban, Faisalabad, Islamabad, Karachi, Lahore, Peshawar, Rawalpindi, etc.

Palau: Koror, Peleliu, etc.

Palestine: Beit Sahour, Bethlehem, Hebron, Jenin, Jericho, Nablus, Ramallah, etc.

Panama: Bocas del Toro, etc.

Papua New Guinea: Port Moresby, etc.

Paraguay: Asunción, Ciudad Del Este, Encarnación, Panama City, etc.

Peru: Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Chiclayo, Cusco, Huancayo, Huanchaco, Huaraz, Ica, Iquitos, Lima, Machu Picchu, Máncora, Nazca, Ollantaytambo, Paracas, Pisco, Piura, Puerto Maldonado, Puno, Tacna, Tarapoto, Trujillo, Urubamba, etc.

Philippines: Angeles City, Antipolo, Bacolod, Bacoor, Baguio, Batangas, Bohol, Boracay, Cagayan de Oro, Calamba, Caloocan, Cebu, Coron, Dasmariñas, Davao, Dumaguete, El Nido, General Santos, Iloilo City, Kalibo, Lapu-Lapu City, Las Piñas, Luzon, Mactan, Makati, Mandaue, Manila, Marikina, Mindanao, Muntinlupa, Olongapo, Palawan, Panglao, Parañaque, Pasay, Pasig, Puerto Galera, Puerto Princesa, Quezon City, Tagaytay, Tagbilaran, Taguig, Valenzuela, Visayas, Zamboanga, etc.

Poland: Augustów, Białka Tatrzańska, Białowieża Forest, Białystok, Bielsko-Biała, Bukowina Tatrzańska, Bydgoszcz, Ciechocinek, Częstochowa, Darłowo, Elbląg, Gdańsk, Gdynia, Giżycko, Gorzów Wielkopolski, Jastarnia, Jastrzębia Góra, Kalisz, Katowice, Kielce, Koszalin, Kołobrzeg, Kraków, Krynica Morska, Krynica-Zdrój, Lublin, Malbork, Mikołajki, Międzyzdroje, Mrągowo, Olsztyn, Opole, Oświęcim, Poznań, Puck, Płock, Radom, Rzeszów, Sopot, Szczawnica, Szczecin, Szczyrk, Słubice, Tarnów, Toruń, Tricity, Ustka, Ustroń, Warsaw, Wisła, Wrocław, Władysławowo, Zakopane, Zielona Góra, Łeba, Łódź, Świnoujście, etc.

Portugal: Albufeira, Algarve, Aljezur, Almancil, Armação de Pêra, Azores, Braga, Cabanas de Tavira, Carvoeiro, Cascais, Castro Marim, Coimbra, Estoril, Faro, Figueira da Foz, Funchal, Fátima, Guimarães, Lagoa, Lagos, Lisbon, Loulé, Madeira, Monte Gordo, Nazaré, Olhão, Ponta Delgada, Portimão, Porto, Praia da Luz, Quarteira, Sesimbra, Silves, Sintra, Tavira, Vila Real de Santo António, Vila do Bispo, Vilamoura, Évora, etc.

Puerto Rico: Bayamón, Caguas, Carolina, Mayagüez, Ponce, San Juan, Vieques, etc.

Qatar: Doha, etc.

Romania: Bran, Brașov, Bucharest, Cluj-Napoca, Constanța, Poiana Brașov, Sibiu, Sighișoara, Timișoara, Transylvania, etc.

Russia: Abakan, Abrau-Dyurso, Abzakovo, Adler, Altai Republic, Alupka, Alushta, Anadyr, Anapa, Angarsk, Arkhangelsk, Arkhipo Osipovka, Arkhyz, Armavir, Astrakhan, Bakhchysarai, Balaklava, Balakovo, Balashikha, Baltic Sea, Barnaul, Belgorod, Belokurikha, Biysk, Black Sea, Blagoveshchensk, Bolshoy Utrish, Bratsk, Bryansk, Caucasian Mineral Waters, Cheboksary, Chelyabinsk, Cherepovets, Cherkessk, Chita, Chornomorske, Crimea, Curonian Spit, Dagomys, Divnomorskoye, Dombay, Domodedovo, Dzerzhinsk, Dzhankhot, Dzhemete, Dzhubga, Elektrostal, Elista, Engels, Estosadok, Feodosia, Foros, Gaspra, Gatchina, Gelendzhik, Golden Ring, Golubitskaya, Gorky Gorod, Gornaya Karusel, Gorno-Altaysk, Goryachy Klyuch, Grozny, Gurzuf, Irkutsk, Ivanovo, Izhevsk, Kabardinka, Kaliningrad, Kaluga, Kamchatka, Kamensk-Uralsky, Karelia, Kazan, Kemerovo, Kerch, Khabarovsk, Khanty-Mansiysk, Khibiny, Khimki, Khosta, Kirov, Kirovsk, Kislovodsk, Kizhi, Koktebel, Kolomna, Komsomolsk on Amur, Konakovo, Koreiz, Korolev, Kostroma, Krasnaya Polyana, Krasnodar Krai, Krasnodar, Krasnogorsk, Krasnoyarsk, Kudepsta, Kurgan, Kursk, Kyzyl, Lake Baikal, Lake Seliger, Lazarevskoye, Lipetsk, Listvyanka, Loo, Lyubertsy, Magadan, Magnitogorsk, Makhachkala, Massandra, Matsesta, Maykop, Miass, Mineralnye Vody, Moscow, Mount Elbrus, Murmansk, Murom, Mytishchi, Naberezhnye Chelny, Nakhodka, Nalchik, Naryan-Mar, Nebug, Nizhnekamsk, Nizhnevartovsk, Nizhny Novgorod, Nizhny Tagil, Norilsk, Novokuznetsk, Novorossiysk, Novosibirsk, Novyi Svit, Novyy Urengoy, Obninsk, Odintsovo, Olginka, Omsk, Orenburg, Orsk, Oryol, Partenit, Penza, Pereslavl Zalessky, Perm, Pervouralsk, Petergof, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, Petrozavodsk, Plyos, Podolsk, Popovka, Prielbrusye, Primorsko-Akhtarsk, Pskov, Pulkovo, Pushkin, Pushkino, Pyatigorsk, Repino, Rosa Khutor, Rostov-on-Don, Ryazan, Rybachye, Rybinsk, Saint Petersburg, Sakhalin, Saky, Salekhard, Samara, Saransk, Saratov, Sea of Azov, Sergiyev Posad, Serpukhov, Sestroretsk, Sevastopol, Shakhty, Sheregesh, Sheremetyevo, Siberia, Simeiz, Simferopol, Smolensk, Sochi, Solovetsky Islands, Sortavala, Stary Oskol, Stavropol, Sterlitamak, Sudak, Sukko, Surgut, Suzdal, Svetlogorsk, Syktyvkar, Syzran, Taganrog, Taman, Tambov, Tarusa, Temryuk, Terskol, Tobolsk, Tolyatti, Tomsk, Torzhok, Tuapse, Tula, Tver, Tyumen, Ufa, Uglich, Ukhta, Ulan-Ude, Ulyanovsk, Usinsk, Ussuriysk, Utes, Valaam, Valday, Vardane, Velikiye Luki, Veliky Novgorod, Veliky Ustyug, Vityazevo, Vladikavkaz, Vladimir, Vladivostok, Vnukovo International Airport, Volga, Volgograd, Vologda, Volzhskiy, Vorkuta, Voronezh, Vyborg, Yakhroma, Yakornaya Shchel, Yakutsk, Yalta, Yaroslavl, Yekaterinburg, Yelets, Yenisei, Yessentuki, Yevpatoria, Yeysk, Yoshkar-Ola, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, Zavidovo, Zelenogradsk, Zheleznovodsk, Zhukovsky, Zvenigorod, etc.

Rwanda: Butare, Gisenyi, Kibuye, Kigali, etc.

Réunion: Saint-Denis, etc.

Saint Barthélemy: Gustavia, etc.

Saint Kitts and Nevis: Basseterre, etc.

Saint Lucia: Anse La Raye, Castries, Gros Islet, Soufrière, etc.

Saint Martin:, etc.

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines: Kingstown, etc.

Samoa: Apia, etc.

San Marino: City of San Marino, etc.

Saudi Arabia: Abha, Al Khobar, Buraydah, Dammam, Jeddah, Jizan, Jubail, Mecca, Medina, Riyadh, Ta'if, Tabuk, Yanbu, etc.

Senegal: Dakar, etc.

Serbia: Belgrade, Kopaonik, Niš, Novi Sad, Palić, Stara Planina, Subotica, Zlatibor, etc.

Seychelles: La Digue, Mahé, Praslin, etc.

Sierra Leone: Freetown, etc.

Singapore: Changi, Sentosa, etc.

Sint Maarten:, etc.

Slovakia: Bratislava, Jasná, Liptov, Tatranská Lomnica, Vysoké Tatry, Štrbské Pleso, etc.

Slovenia: Bled, Bohinj, Bovec, Kranjska Gora, Ljubljana, Maribor, Piran, Portorož, Rogaška Slatina, etc.

Solomon Islands: Honiara, etc.

Somalia: Mogadishu, etc.

Somaliland: Hargeisa, etc.

South Africa: Ballito, Benoni, Bloemfontein, Boksburg, Cape Town, Drakensberg, Durban, East London, George, Johannesburg, Kempton Park, Kimberley, Knysna, Kruger National Park, Marloth Park, Mossel Bay, Nelspruit, Pietermaritzburg, Plettenberg Bay, Polokwane, Port Elizabeth, Potchefstroom, Pretoria, Rustenburg, Sandton, Stellenbosch, Umhlanga, etc.

South Korea: Busan, Daegu, Daejeon, Gangneung, Gapyeong, Gwangju, Gwangyang, Gyeongju, Incheon, Jejudo, Jeonju, Pyeongchang, Seogwipo, Seoul, Sokcho, Suwon, Ulsan, Yangyang, Yeosu, etc.

Spain: A Coruña, Alcúdia, Algeciras, Alicante, Almería, Altea, Andalusia, Antequera, Aragon, Asturias, Ayamonte, Baiona, Balearic Islands, Barbate, Barcelona, Basque Country, Benalmádena, Benidorm, Benissa, Besalú, Bilbao, Blanes, Buñol, Cadaqués, Cala d'Or, Calella, Calonge, Calp, Calvià, Cambados, Cambrils, Canary Islands, Cangas de Onís, Cantabria, Cartagena, Castilla-La Mancha, Catalonia, Chiclana de la Frontera, Costa Blanca, Costa Brava, Costa Dorada, Costa del Maresme, Costa del Sol, Cádiz, Córdoba, Dénia, El Puerto de Santa María, Empuriabrava, Estepona, Figueres, Formentera, Fuerteventura, Galicia, Gijón, Girona, Gran Canaria, Granada, Ibiza, Jerez de la Frontera, L'Escala, L'Estartit, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, La Pineda, Lanzarote, Llançà, Lleida, Lloret de Mar, Madrid, Magaluf, Malgrat de Mar, Mallorca, Marbella, Maspalomas, Menorca, Mijas, Mojácar, Moraira, Murcia, Málaga, Navarre, Nerja, O Grove, Ourense, Oviedo, Palma Nova, Palma, Pals, Poio, Pollença, Pontevedra, PortAventura, Portonovo, Ronda, Roquetas de Mar, Roses, Salamanca, Salou, San Sebastian, Sant Antoni de Portmany, Santander, Santiago de Compostela, Santillana del Mar, Sanxenxo, Seville, Sidges, Sierra Nevada, Tarifa, Tarragona, Tenerife, Toledo, Torremolinos, Torrevieja, Torroella de Montgrí, Tossa de Mar, Valencia, Vigo, Vélez-Málaga, Xàbia, Zaragoza, etc.

Sri Lanka: Anuradhapura, Bentota, Beruwala, Colombo, Dambulla, Galle, Hikkaduwa, Jaffna, Kandy, Mirissa, Negombo, Nuwara Eliya, Sigiriya, Tangalle, Trincomalee, Unawatuna, Weligama, etc.

Sudan: Khartoum, Port Sudan, etc.

Suriname: Lelydorp, Nieuw Nickerie, Paramaribo, etc.

Swaziland: Lobamba, Mbabane, etc.

Sweden: Bohuslän, Borgholm, Borlänge, Dalarna, Falkenberg, Falun, Gothenburg, Gotland, Halmstad, Helsingborg, Jönköping, Kalmar, Karlshamn, Karlskrona, Karlstad, Kiruna, Kristianstad, Linköping, Lund, Malmö, Norrköping, Solna, Stockholm, Umeå, Uppsala, Vimmerby, Visby, Västerås, Växjö, Ystad, Ängelholm, Åre, Öland, Örebro, Östersund, etc.

Switzerland: Adelboden, Andermatt, Anzère, Arosa, Ascona, Basel, Bellinzona, Bern, Celerina, Château-d'Œx, Crans-Montana, Davos, Engadin, Engelberg, Falera, Flims, Fribourg, Geneva, Grindelwald, Gryon, Grächen, Gstaad, Haute-Nendaz, Interlaken, Jungfrau, Klosters, Laax, Lake Maggiore, Lausanne, Lauterbrunnen, Lenzerheide, Les Diablerets, Leukerbad, Leysin, Locarno, Lucerne, Lugano, Matterhorn, Meiringen, Montreux, Nendaz, Neuchâtel, Pontresina, Portes du Soleil, Riederalp, Saanen, Saas-Fee, Samnaun, Scuol, Sierre, Silvaplana, Sion, St. Gallen, St. Moritz, Swiss Alps, Ticino, Valais, Valbella, Verbier, Vevey, Veysonnaz, Villars-sur-Ollon, Vitznau, Wengen, Zermatt, Zug, Zürich, etc.

Syria: Aleppo, Damascus, Deir ez-Zor, Latakia, Palmyra, Tartus, etc.

Taiwan: Hsinchu, Kaohsiung, Taichung, Tainan, Taipei, etc.

Tajikistan: Dushanbe, Isfara, Khujand, etc.

Tanzania: Dar es Salaam, Mount Kilimanjaro, Serengeti, Zanzibar, etc.

Thailand: Ayutthaya, Bangkok, Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai, Chonburi, Hua Hin, Kanchanaburi, Karon, Khao Sok, Ko Chang, Ko Lanta, Ko Phangan, Ko Samui, Krabi, Pai, Patong, Pattaya, Phi Phi Islands, Phuket, Prachuap Khiri Khan, Ranong, River Kwai, Udon Thani, etc.

Togo: Lomé, etc.

Tonga: Nukuʻalofa, Tunis, etc.

Trinidad and Tobago: Port of Spain, etc.

Tunisia: Djerba, Hammamet, Midoun, Monastir, Port El Kantaoui, Sousse, etc.

Turkey: Adana, Afyonkarahisar, Akyaka, Alacati, Alanya, Ankara, Antakya, Antalya, Assos, Avanos, Ayvalık, Beldibi, Belek, Bodrum, Bozcaada, Bursa, Büyükada, Cappadocia, Dalyan, Datça, Denizli, Didim, Edirne, Ephesus, Erzincan, Erzurum, Eskişehir, Fethiye, Gaziantep, Gebze, Göcek, Göreme, Göynük, Hierapolis, Istanbul, Kalkan, Kayseri, Kaş, Kemer, Konakli, Konya, Kuşadası, Kütahya, Lara, Mahmutlar, Manavgat, Marmaris, Mersin, Muğla, Nevşehir, Olympos, Palandöken, Pamukkale, Prince Islands, Samsun, Sapanca, Sarigerme, Sarıkamış, Selimiye, Selçuk, Side, Tarsus, Tekirova, Trabzon, Troy, Turgutreis, Turkish Riviera, Uludağ, Uçhisar, Uçhisar, Van, Yalova, Yalıkavak, Çamyuva, Çanakkale, Çeşme, Çıralı, Ölüdeniz, Ürgüp, İskenderun, İzmir, İzmit, İçmeler, Şanlıurfa, etc.

Turkmenistan: Ashgabat, Avaza, etc.

Turks and Caicos Islands: Cockburn Town, North Caicos, Pine Cay, Providenciales, etc.

Uganda: Kampala, etc.

Ukraine: Berdiansk, Bila Tserkva, Boryspil, Bukovel, Cherkasy, Chernihiv, Chernivtsi, Dnipropetrovsk, Donetsk, Ivano-Frankivsk, Kamianets-Podilskyi, Kharkiv, Kherson, Kiev, Koblevo, Kremenchuk, Kryvyi Rih, Luhansk, Lviv, Mariupol, Melitopol, Mykolaiv, Odessa, Poltava, Rivne, Slavske, Sumy, Truskavets, Uzhgorod, Vinnytsia, Yaremche, Yasinya, Zaporizhia, Zatoka, Zhytomyr, etc.

United Arab Emirates: Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Al Ain, Dibba, Dubai, Fujairah, Palm Jumeirah, Persian Gulf, Ras Al Khaimah, Sharjah, Sir Bani Yas Island, Umm al-Quwain, etc.

United Kingdom: Aberdeen, Bath, Belfast, Blackpool, Bournemouth, Bradford, Brighton, Bristol, Cambridge, Canterbury, Cardiff, Channel Tunnel, Cheltenham, Chester, Cornwall, Coventry, Cumbria, Derry, Devon, Dorset, Dover, Eastbourne, Edinburgh, England, English Channel, Exeter, Folkestone, Fort William, Gatwick, Glasgow, Hampshire, Harrogate, Heathrow, Inverness, Isle of Wight, Kent, Lancashire, Leeds, Leicester, Liverpool, Llandudno, London, Manchester, Mansfield, Milton Keynes, Newcastle, Newquay, Northern Ireland, Norwich, Nottingham, Oban, Oxford, Paignton, Plymouth, Portmeirion, Portsmouth, Reading, Sandown, Scarborough, Scotland, Shanklin, Sheffield, Somerset, Southampton, St Albans, Stonehenge, Sussex, Swansea, Torquay, Wales, Whitby, Windsor, Woking, York, etc.

United States: Akron, Alabama, Alaska, Albuquerque, Amarillo, Anaheim, Anchorage, Ann Arbor, Arizona, Arkansas, Arlington, Aspen, Atlanta, Aurora, Austin, Bakersfield, Baltimore, Baton Rouge, Beaver Creek, Berkeley, Big Bear Lake, Billings, Biloxi, Birmingham, Boca Raton, Boise, Boston, Breckenridge, Brooklyn, Buffalo, California, Carlsbad, Carmel-by-the-Sea, Chandler, Charlotte, Chesapeake, Cheyenne, Chicago, Chula Vista, Cincinnati, Clearwater, Cleveland, Colorado Springs, Colorado, Columbus Georgia, Columbus, Connecticut, Corpus Christi, Costa Mesa, Cupertino, Dallas, Dana Point, Daytona Beach, Death Valley, Delaware, Delray Beach, Denver, Des Moines, Destin, Detroit, Durham, El Paso, Estes Park, Fargo, Fayetteville, Florida, Fontana, Fort Lauderdale, Fort Myers, Fort Walton Beach, Fort Wayne, Fort Worth, Fremont, Fresno, Galveston, Garland, Georgia, Gilbert, Glendale, Grand Canyon, Grand Rapids, Grand Teton, Great Smoky Mountains, Greensboro, Gulfport, Hawaii, Henderson, Hialeah, Hollywood, Honolulu, Hot Springs, Houston, Huntington Beach, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Indianapolis, Iowa, Irving, Jackson Mississippi, Jackson Wyoming, Jacksonville, Jersey City, Juneau, Kansas City, Kansas, Kentucky, Key Largo, Key West, La Jolla, Laguna Beach, Lahaina, Lake Tahoe, Laredo, Las Vegas, Lexington, Lincoln, Little Rock, Long Beach, Los Angeles, Louisiana, Louisville, Lubbock, Madison, Maine, Malibu, Mammoth Lakes, Manhattan, Marathon, Maryland, Massachusetts, Memphis, Menlo Park, Mesa, Mexico City, Miami Beach, Miami, Michigan, Milwaukee, Minneapolis, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Moab, Modesto, Montana, Monterey, Montgomery, Moreno Valley, Mountain View, Myrtle Beach, Napa, Naples, Nashville, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New Orleans, New York City, New York, Newark, Newport Beach, Newport, Norfolk, North Carolina, North Dakota, North Las Vegas, Oakland, Ocean City, Oceanside, Ohio, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, Omaha, Oregon, Orlando, Oxnard, Palm Coast, Palm Desert, Palm Springs, Palo Alto, Panama City Beach, Park City, Pasadena, Pennsylvania, Pensacola, Philadelphia, Phoenix, Pittsburgh, Plano, Pompano Beach, Portland, Portland, Providence, Raleigh, Redwood City, Reno, Rhode Island, Richmond, Riverside, Rochester, Rocky Mountains, Sacramento, Saint Paul, Salt Lake City, San Antonio, San Bernardino, San Diego, San Francisco, San Jose, San Mateo, Sanibel, Santa Ana, Santa Barbara, Santa Cruz, Santa Fe, Santa Monica, Santa Rosa, Sarasota, Savannah, Scottsdale, Seattle, Shreveport, Silicon Valley, South Carolina, South Dakota, South Lake Tahoe, Spokane, Springfield, Squaw Valley, St. Augustine, St. Louis, St. Petersburg, Steamboat Springs, Stockton, Sunny Isles Beach, Sunnyvale, Tacoma, Tallahassee, Tampa, Telluride, Tennessee, Texas, Thousand Oaks, Toledo, Tucson, Tulsa, Utah, Vail, Vermont, Virginia Beach, Virginia, Waikiki, Washington D.C., Washington, West Palm Beach, West Virginia, Wichita, Winston-Salem, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Yellowstone, Yonkers, Yosemite, Zion, etc.

Uruguay: Montevideo, Punta del Este, etc.

Uzbekistan: Bukhara, Fergana, Khiva, Kokand, Navoiy, Samarkand, Tashkent, Urgench, etc.

Vanuatu: Port Vila, etc.

Vatican:, etc.

Venezuela: Caracas, Isla Margarita, Maracaibo, Porlamar, etc.

Vietnam: Cần Thơ, Da Lat, Da Nang, Haiphong, Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, Huế, Hạ Long, Hội An, Long Hải, Mỹ Tho, Nha Trang, Ninh Bình, Phan Thiết, Phú Quốc, Qui Nhơn, Rạch Giá, Sa Pa, Vũng Tàu, Đồng Hới, etc.

Yemen: Aden, Sana'a, etc.

Zambia: Livingstone, Lusaka, etc.

Zimbabwe: Bulawayo, Harare, Mutare, Victoria Falls, etc.

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