Guru Hargobind Emperor Akbar Guru Gobind Singh Bhai Daya Singh Sahibzada Ajit Singh Sahibzada Jujhar Singh Kapur Singh Mai Bhago Baba Deep Singh Phula Singh
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Traditional Sikh flag (Nishan Sahib). Official flag of the Dal Khalsa, having weapons used in Gatka: Katar, Dhal Shield and Talwar.
Gatka (Punjabi: ਗਤਕਾgatkā) is a traditional South Asian form of combat-training, developed by Sikhs, in which wooden sticks are used to simulate swords in sparring matches. In modern usage, it commonly refers to the northwestern Indian martial arts, which should more properly be called shastara vidiyā (ਸ਼ਸਤਰ ਵਿਦਿਆ, from Sanskrit shastra-vidya or "science of weapons"). Attacks and counterattacks vary from one community to another but the basic techniques are the same. This article will primarily use the extended definition of gatka, making it synonymous with shastara-vidiya.
Gatka can be practiced either as a sport (khel) or ritual (rasmi). The sport form is played by two opponents wielding wooden staves called gatka. These sticks may be paired with a shield. Points are scored for making contact with the stick. The other weapons are not used for full-contact sparring, but their techniques are taught through forms training. The ritual form is purely for demonstration and is performed to music during occasions such as weddings, or as part of a theatrical performance like the chhau dance. A practitioner of gatka is called a gatkabaj while a teacher is addressed as Guru or Gurudev.
Sikhs and Punjabis in general were known throughout South Asia for their stature and comparatively large build. Guru Angad Dev, taught followers to train the body physically, mentally and spiritually, encouraging the practice of martial arts. One of Guru Nanak's early disciples, Baba Buddha, taught the boy who would eventually become the sixth Sikh patriarch, Guru Hargobind.
Guru Hargobind founded the original Sikh fighting school, the Ranjit Akhara (lit. "invincible training hall") at Amritsar, with its armed force known as the Akal Sena or "immortal army". He propagated the theory of the warrior-saint (miri-piri) and emphasized the need to practice fighting for self-defence against the Mughal rulers due to growing animosities. The Guru began the practice of laying out weapons in the form of a lotus flower for saluting and worshipping before a training session. The weapons were a straight khanda (sword) representing Mahakala and a curved talwar (sabre) representing Bhavani. The Prem Sumārag tells that these are the katara (dagger), churi (knife), jamadār (poniard), kirpan (sword), kamān (bow), and dhāla (shield).
The tenth patriarch Guru Gobind Singh was a master of armed fighting who carried five weapons (pancha shastra): the karaga (sword), kamān (bow), chakram (war-quoit), katara (dagger), and banduk (rifle). In 1699 he galvanized the martial energies of the Sikh community by founding the Khalsa brotherhood. Under his leadership, the Sikh community turned from a scattered movement of socio-religious reform to a prominent military force and quickly developed a reputation as a warrior people which would carry into the present day. Supporters of this more confrontational stance came from around north India. Addressing the Sikh community, he declared that they "will love the weapons of war, be excellent horsemen, marksmen and wielders of the sword, the chakram and the spear. Physical prowess will be as sacred to you as spiritual sensitivity."
The Khalsa's aims were to fight oppression, assist the poor, worship the one God, abandon superstition, and defend the freedom of faiths. This is symbolised by the kirpan or dagger, one of the five Ks which every baptised Sikh is required to carry. In regards to training the brotherhood, Guru Gobind Singh pledged that he would "teach the sparrow to fight the hawk". Women faced no restriction from learning the use of weapons, due to the Guru's teaching of gender equality. The Nihang, a strict warrior order of Sikhs, exemplified his principles of combining spirituality with combat training.
After the Guru and his sons were assassinated in the early 1700s, the disciple Banda Singh Bahadur began collecting arms and followers. Though poorly armed, Banda's followers were well-trained in the martial arts and managed to systematically storm the region's Muslim towns. The continued onslaught of the emperor forced Banda and his sympathisers to flee to the hills, and he was eventually captured and killed along with 700 other Sikhs. But by following his example, the Sikhs managed to subvert the foundations of Mughal power until the province was in total disarray by the mid-18th century.
Even from childhood, Sikhs would supplement their training with martial games or sonchi which were meant to develop physical fitness, endurance, flexibility and agility. The famous commander Nawab Kapur Singh is recorded as playing such a game during his childhood by organizing the boys into two armies who would engage each other in mock warfare. Their fights were aggressive and hardly less dangerous than real combat. During one training exercise Kapur Singh himself was struck in the shoulder with a blow so deep that the doctors believed he would not recover.
Following the Second Anglo-Sikh War of 1848 to 1849 and the establishment of the British Raj, the northwest Indian martial traditions and practitioners suffered greatly. Ever wary of the Sikhs, the British ordered effective disarmament of the entire community. The Nihang, considered the keepers of all Sikh traditions, were regarded as disloyal to the colonists. More than 1,500 Nihang were killed by the British for plotting rebellion. According to folklore, some fled and spent the rest of their lives in the northern mountains.
During the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the Sikhs assisted the British in crushing the mutiny. As a consequence of this assistance, restrictions on fighting practices were relaxed. The old method of sword training was used by the Khalsa Army in the 1860s as practice for hand-to-hand combat. Richard F. Burton describes gatka matches in which the swordsmen fight with a ribboned stick in one hand and a small shield in the other.
As Sikh colleges opened during the 1880s, European rules of fencing were applied to create what is now called khel or sport gatka. The European colonists also brought Sikhs from India to other British colonies to work as soldiers and security guards. Gatka is still practiced by the Sikh communities of former British colonies and neighbouring countries such as Malaysia, Singapore, Hong Kong, and Thailand.
Gatka: Jat influence
The Jats were originally a nomadic pastoral community living mainly in northwest India and northeast Pakistan. As they increasingly interacted with settled agriculturists, many Jats of peasant-warrior background combined their simple fighting art with military strategy to overcome superior enemies and eventually come into positions of leadership during the 1700s. The Jats practiced a style of gatka which was relatively basic and taught openly in comparison to the more sophisticated and secretive techniques employed by the kyshatria. Their style, Jat ka gatka, was absorbed into the Sikh akhara where its simplicity was valued. Despite lacking the subtle refinement of higher forms, the Jat system allowed large numbers of inexperienced soldiers to acquire sufficiently effective skill in fighting and self-defense easily and within a short timespan. Historically it was used by the shock troops of the Sikh armies who would engage the enemy with bows, javelins, and slings before closing in with hand-to-hand weaponry.
The Jat system of gatka is still practiced by the rural communities of India and Pakistan today, in addition to being taught as a basic form by Sikh gatka masters.
Singhs at World Gatka Cup
Since India's independence from colonial rule, gatka has been managed and promoted in India by the Panjab Gatka Association, Gatka Federation of India and International Sikh Martial Art Academy. The latter organization formulated and standardized rules and regulations for gatka as a sport, and providing free training through seminars, workshops and camps under the new rules. The Panjab & Chandigarh Education Departments have introduced gatka into the school sports calendars in the state, while the School Games Federation Of India also incorporated gatka into the 56th national school games calendar 2011–2012. Gatka is still practiced by some communities in Pakistan but is increasingly uncommon and does not get much support from the government. To promote and popularize the art outside India, the Asian Gatka Federation, Commonwealth Gatka Federation and World Gatka Federation besides International Sikh Martial Art Academy have also been constituted. From 2011, the Panjabi University Patiala have started to host All India inter-varsity gatka championships annually.
Today gatka is most often showcased during the martial festival of Hola Mohalla, as well as Independence Day and Republic Day celebrations in the Panjab. Gatka is one of the competitions held during an annual sporting event in the rural Indian city of Kila Raipur, and the Sikh community of Malaysia often holds gatka demonstrations during Vaisakhi or the Sikh new year. Once considered a diminishing art by UNESCO and SAARC, the intense and concerted efforts of these gatka federations has popularized it among the students in north India. While the urbanization of gatka has helped keep it alive, traditional masters often bemoan the lack of technique among modern competitors who tactlessly beat each other's sword or shield. Modern competitions are sometimes derogatively called the "ox-beating game" (sandeh kot di khel). To differentiate between gatka as a sport and as a martial art, the terms shoshabaji (exhibitionist) and chatka (quick kill) are used.
The Defendu system devised by Captain William Ewart Fairbairn and Captain Eric Anthony Sykes borrowed methodologies from gatka, jujutsu, Chinese martial arts, and "gutter fighting". This method was used to train soldiers in close-combat techniques at the Commando Basic Training Centre in Achnacarry, Scotland.
The traditional training hall for gatka is the akhara. Sikhs may train in a religious or semi-religious situation, such as in a gurdwara (Sikh temple). Traditionally, drug addiction and alcoholism were considered among the worst of earthly evils, and masters refused to teach addicts or drunkards. Typical akhara still do not allow anyone to enter the training hall while intoxicated.
Like most South Asian martial arts, gatka begins with footwork and tactical body positioning (pentra). The foundation of the art is a movement methodology for the use of the feet, body, arms and weapons in unison. In the first and most basic stance, the feet are spaced about shoulder-width apart with the weight divided evenly between them. While walking from this position, the exponent spills their centre of gravity as they initiate any movement. This is done by stepping forward just before the front knee locks out, never hyper-extending the leg at any point. This gait is meant to be applied to daily life so that it becomes natural in battle where it allows one to quickly change direction. Gatka favors rhythmic movement, without hesitation, doubt or anxiety. The attacking and defense methods are based upon the positions of the hands, feet and weapon(s) during the dexterity regimen. Chanting of holy verses may accompany these exercises, and the three-beat-per-cycle played by a drummer adds to the coordination during practice.
By conception, gatka is defensive as well as offensive Instruction falls into the two main categories of sava-raksha (self-defense) and yuddha-vidiya (battlefield science). Sava-raksha takes into account the specific needs, strength and anatomy of the practitioner. Teachings include armed and unarmed fighting, defense against an armed opponent, defense against several opponents, escaping from grabs, and the psychology of combat. It also incorporates various battle chants, verbal formula, and general philosophical advice on fighting and defending oneself. Tactics and moves exist which are specifically tailored for women and children
In contrast, yuddha-vidiya is much more comprehensive. Fully mastering it is said to take a lifetime due to the fact that a master needs to learn the form, function, and theory of the art before being considered a gurudeva. This refers to the actual techniques, their application in combat, and memorising the oral tradition which includes various strategems. Like sava-raksha, yuddha-vidiya also teaches single combat, fighting in groups, defense against several opponents, etc. But as the latter was designed for war training, it also includes skirmishing, ambushes, battle formations, defense of a house (ger), and defense of a village (gao). Yuddha-vidiya further incorporates projectile weapons, seizing and disarming, strangling (thagi), and traditional medicine.
The concept of range is based on the principle that, no matter how strong or fast the opponent is, it means nothing if they can't reach their target. The ideal range therefore is just barely out of reach of the opponent's weapon, or the tip of their toe in the case of unarmed fighting. Side-stepping is used extensively, anticipating an opponent's move before countering. Dodging is considered superior and more important than blocking, which necessitates agility and speed. As a person gets older and agile maneuvres become less practical, the exponent adapts their style to become what is traditionally described as "lazy". This essentially means using fewer movements to win, applying superior tactical knowledge rather than physical prowess.
Gatka emphasizes having something in both hands, e.g. two sticks, a stick and a sword, a sword and a shield or any other combination. Training with "both hands full" is believed to be an excellent exercise for coordinating the two halves of the body, a concept also found in Filipino martial arts. Ambidexterity is thus a highly valued quality, and such a fighter is known in Hindi as doh-baha. Students are taught stances (asana) and forms (yudhan) before they progress to free sparring. The individual's preference for weapons, combination of weapons, and movement patterns leads to the development of individual fighting methods.
A basic concept of the north Indian martial arts is that of chatka meaning a quick kill. The traditional Hindu method of slaughtering an animal for food was by beheading swiftly with a single blow of the sword, so as to inflict as little pain as possible. Conservative Sikhs today abstain from any meat unless the animal was killed in this way. In battle this means finishing the fight as soon as possible, either by killing or otherwise rendering the opponent incapable of continuing by knocking them unconscious, disarming them, or disabling a limb.
To condition their bodies, practitioners may also engage in meditation, yoga, martial games (sonchi), and traditional weight training similar to that used by wrestlers. Together with the dietary regimen this is intended to increase stamina, maintain a healthy digestive system, improve quality of sleep, increase hand speed, improve mind-body coordination, and keep the mind calm even under pressure.
Ready to perform
Chakari demonstration at Yuba City
A young practitioner with chakari
Khel (meaning sport or game) is the modern competitive aspect of gatka, originally used as a method of sword-training (fari-gatka) or stick-fighting (lathi khela) in medieval times. Competitors spar using sticks called gatka, from which the sport derives its name. The gatka are about three handspans long, made from light wood or bamboo and covered in leather. It may be used on its own or paired with another stick but for official matches, the gatka is paired with a leather shield called a pari. The fixed distance of sparring was introduced from British fencing during the colonial era. Points are scored for hitting or touching (shu) the opponent with the stick, but hits to vital points are forbidden. Victory by touch is known as shubaji.
While khel gatka is today most commonly associated with Sikhs, it has always been used in the martial arts of other ethno-cultural groups as well such as Rajputs and Mughals. It is still practiced in India and Pakistan by the Tanoli and Gurjara communities. In Manipur, thang-ta practitioners refer to their own sword-practice as cheibi gatka, wherein the players spar with a two-foot leather-encased cudgel which may be paired with a leather shield measuring one metre in diameter. In some arts today, the sword-fighting is more akin to a dance than a form of combat. For example, the daal fari khadga of Andhra Pradesh is usually choreographed, but is performed with real swords and shields rather than wooden ones.
The performance aspect of gatka is known as rasmi meaning "ritual" or "official". During weddings and other festivals, the men perform repetitive swinging and twirling movements with one or two swords. The first part of the chhau dance is known as pari-khanda or fori-khanda and is performed with a sword and shield. Traditionally such sword-dances were typically performed by martial artists but today they are generally taught as separate disciplines altogether.
Gatka: Unarmed combat
Bare-handed fighting, or bhuja-yuddha, is rarely taught in gatka today and until modern times had always been considered secondary to armed combat. Every form or yudhan has its own unarmed set (platha). Punches, kicks, elbows, knees, and finger strikes are all incorporated along with grabs, throws, locks, chokeholds, pressure point striking, and many other forms of attack. The main targets are the eyes, throat, groin, ankles and knees, but this varies considerably from one style to another. Interchanging between armed and unarmed fighting is a common tactic, relying on small concealable weapons like knives and daggers. When wearing armour, bhuja-yuddha can even be used against an armed opponent by blocking the opponent's attacks with gauntlets for example. Because gatka favours avoidance over blocking, a common tactic is to sidestep while the opponent comes forward and then counter by kicking at the legs and lower body.
The correct use of weapons is central to gatka, with techniques depending on the nature of the weapon.
All pole weapons begin with the staff, known as a dang or lathi. The dang's ideal length is either equal to the height or the armspan of its wielder. Gatka typically uses a bamboo staff, which may be steel-tipped and encased in leather. This type of dang is held with both hands on one end and used for swinging techniques. The light weight of the bamboo allows for great speed and a variety of twirling maneuvres. This style of fighting was often used by peasants and commoners for whom the staff was a domestic tool and a convenient implement of self-defense. For warriors who used the dang as a training tool for edged weapons, a different method was employed. In this style, the dang is held diagonally with the hands far apart. The butt end of the weapon is held with one hand, while the other hand is further down the middle or just above the other end. This grip lends itself to thrusting attacks aimed at the vital points (marma), done by pushing the weapon forward with the back hand through the front hand, though it also incorporates barta, techniques in which both ends are used to attack. This thrust-based method can be easily adapted to edged weapons such as spears, tridents and battle-axes. In the case of the axe, thrusts hit with the weapon's head, which can also be used defensively to stop an opponent's attack or to break their fingers. The barta method can also be adapted to edged polearms, most of which have a weighted or spiked back end. When wielding a heavy polearm in close-quarters, the fighter may hold a katara on one hand.
Gandasa with bhuj
Pole weapons include the following.
Dang/ Lathi: staff of wood or bamboo measuring one to three meters in length
Naga dang: lit. "cobra staff", a wooden staff with a head like a cobra's hood
Chakri dang: bamboo staff with a chakram attached at one end
Lohangi: metal-capped staff
Trishula: trident used to cut at a horse's legs, typically with a spiked back end
Pinakha/ Bisekh: trident with an iron shaft and a bronze head
Barsha/ Barcha: heavy spear made entirely of iron or steel and used by infantry
Barshi: short spear or lance
Ballam: short spear with an almond shaped blade
Pandi-ballam: hog-spear with an iron leaf-shaped blade at the end of a bamboo shaft
Bhala: spear with a ridged or grooved blade, sometimes forked
Bhima pala: heavy spear named after the hero Bhima
Grar: thorned spear
Kumbareh: spear used to pierce through the head of war-elephants
Bijeh: a spear with three stabbing points
Marhati: 4-foot bamboo spear with blades at both ends. During war, the spearheads would be replaced with flaming cloth balls and used to frighten enemy elephants.
Sang: Rajput lance made entirely from iron and wielded by cavalry. The long slender head may be 3 or 4-sided and the grip is covered in velvet
Tasria: bamboo spear with a length of cord attached
Gandasa: bill-hook or pole-axe with a steel chopper attached to a long pole. Used by the chaukidar or village watchmen
Gajakati: short poleaxe for cutting at the legs of elephants
Dhodhara gati: double-edged sword blade attached to a five-foot wooden staff
Danga: polearm with a crescent shaped blade
Krapa: polearm with a 3-foot double edge blade on the front end and a spiked metal ball at the back end
Nagni: snake-head spear
Neja: Panjabi cavalry lance with a small slender steel head and a long bamboo shaft
Ankusha: elephant goad. The head of the weapon (ankusha sira) can be wielded on its own in close-quarters
Nachak: northern forked spear
Panjamuka: lit. "five-faced", a Gujrati five-headed spear
Swordsmanship is known as asiyuddha or karaga-yuddha. Ancient swords (assu or khadga) were mostly of the straight variety, their form preserved in the khanda. The most common type of sword today is the Central Asian-derived talwar, but a wide variety of other swords are also incorporated. The more traditional katti is used for advanced forms, in particular those styles based on the Hindu gods. Sword-belts were in general broad and handsomely embroidered. On horseback they were worn on a belt hanging over the shoulder. Otherwise warriors carried their sword by three straps hanging from a waist-belt. The sword may be paired with another sword, an axe, a spear, a katara, a maru, or any other one-handed weapon, but its most typical pairing is with a shield.
Aara demonstration at Sirhind
Types of swords include the following.
Khanda: straight double-edge sword with a broad blade four feet long and a cross hilt
Talwar / Prak: curved one-sided sword, measuring about 3 feet long
Katti: lightweight single-edge sword with a slight curve
Kirpan: originally synonymous with the talwar but today usually refers to a dagger worn by baptised Sikhs at all times
Kroli: small straight sword or knife
Kroti: serrated talwar
Gupti: straight sword concealed in the sheath of a walking stick
Kora: Nepalese sword with a heavy inward-curving single-edge blade that broadens toward the point
Aara: flexible sword
A shield always accompanied a sword as part of the swordsman's equipment. Carried on the left arm, or when out of use, slung over the shoulder, shields were made of steel or hide and were generally from 17 to 24 inches (430 to 610 mm) in diameter. If made of steel they were often highly ornamented with patterns in gold damascening while hide shields bore silver or gold bosses, crescents, or stars. Shields were made of sambar deer, buffalo, nilgai, elephant, or rhinoceros hide, the last being the most highly prized. Brahmans, who objected to leather, had shields made from forty or fifty folds of silk painted red and ornamented, lined with velvet or snakeskin. While shields can be used to block sword attacks, in South Asia they are more often used offensively as an impact weapon or pushed against the opponent to prevent them from attacking, in addition to deflecting projectiles. A dagger is often held in the same hand, protruding from under the shield.
Dala/ Khetak: small circular shields of cane or bamboo
Atak: buffalo-hide shield
Charm: rhino-hide shield, regarded by Indians as the superior form of shield
Stick-fighting or danda-yuddha employs either the single or double stick. The stick or danda is generally the length of three handspans and made of Indian ebony. They are often capped with steel on one end. Sticks are used as an implement of instruction for small weapons such as axes (kuhara), but were also used during war to beat down armoured opponents. The danda is traditionally worn on the right side and drawn from underneath the belt, in contrast to swords which are worn on the opposite side and drawn from above. Stick fighters generally employ a single-hand grip but the double grip is also commonly used for certain techniques. When attacking, the fighter hits their opponent with only the rim of the danda's tip, thereby focusing all the power into a small point. One stance is the angaraksha or bodyguard position in which the feet are placed slightly more than shoulder-width apart and the arms are placed across the chest, as if crossed, while the danda is held in the right hand. This stance was once used by armed guards who relied on their peripheral vision to watch for attackers. Modern exponents still use this form of training to develop surti or awareness so that they can anticipate an attack from behind or from the side without having to look directly at the attacker.
Sticks and club-type weapons include the following.
Danda: short stick, sometimes with a steel tip
Safa jang: small axe
Mogri: small club
Mutri: short heavy club or staff
18th-century katara (dagger)
Katara: push-dagger with a H-shaped handle
Kara: iron bracelet worn on one wrist by all Sikhs, removed and wielded like a knuckleduster. Some variations may include one or several spikes.
Chakram: circular edged weapon that can be thrown or used in-close
Gada: mace made entirely of steel
Kaman/ Chap/ Khatang: Bow and arrow, either traditional steel recurve bows or true composite bows made of wood, horn and sinew. Fletched reed arrows with tanged steel points are typically used. Bamboo bows are known as garia
Baneti: two thin chains with blades attached, connected together by a single thick chain
Bindapala: originally a wooden throwing stick, the word also refers to an iron arrow thrown with the hand
Chakari: a wooden ring from which hang cloth or steel balls connected by string or chain. When the balls had been lit with fire, they were twirled in the face of enemy elephants.
Gajagah: originally a title given to a warrior who single-handedly defeats a war-elephant, it now refers to the arrow- and crescent-shaped weapon worn as an ornament by Nihang in their turbans
Kukri: bent dagger which broadens towards the point
Krora: flail consisting of a shaft connected to one or more chained balls. The balls are sometimes spiked
Nagni barcha: javelin
Naka angusht: claw-like weapon worn on the thumb
Pashi: lasso made of plant fibre or metal wire
Samha vali dang kmandi: flail consisting of a ball and chain attached to a metal-capped staff of bamboo or hardwood
Treh kon chura: a knife with two blades protruding from a central handle with their edges facing opposite to each other. A third blade extends from the guard above the handle
Vajra: a type of club said to be able to break sword blades.
Bagh naka: "leopard claw", a spiked weapon worn on the hand
Maru: a defensive stabbing weapon inspired by deer horns
Gatka: Mughal weapons
See also: Mughal weapons
Ain-i Akbari weaponry
Weapons and armour of Central Asian and Middle Eastern origin were introduced by the Mughal tribe. Most of these are used primarily by Muslim and Sikh practitioners. Some - like the talwar and gurj - were adopted even by Hindus and became so common that they are hardly considered uniquely Mughal today. The Mughals commonly used Arabic or Persian terminology for Indian weapons. The words talwar (Hindi), shamshir (Persian) and tegh (Arabic) were often interchangeable, while the Arabic term sef was occasionally used for the Indian katti. The generic Mughal word for spear was sinan.
Khanjar: poignard-type dagger with a hilt like a sword of which most had doubly curved blades
Gurj: Persian gurz, a flanged or spiked mace made out of steel. The head may also be connected to a chain
Karud: Persian kard, a type of knife resembling a buther's knife
Gupti-karud: a karud inserted into a stick
Qamchi-karud: whip-shaped knife
Peshkaj: Persian pesh-kabz, a pointed one-edged dagger generally with a thick straight back to the blade and a straight handle, though at times the blade was curved, or even double-curved.
Shamshir/ Shamsher: Persian scimitar
Zaghnal: lit. "crow's beak", a battle-axe with one or two curved blades
Forms in gatka are referred to as yudhan. As with Silat Pattani, most gatka schools make use of mainly freestyle routines each governed by particular principles rather than the preset forms of other systems. There are altogether ten yudhan which, when taken as a whole, collect all the techniques and strategies of gatka. The first six forms imitate animals and are grouped under Khat Ang Yudhan meaning "six parts" or "six limbs". The seventh form collates the previous six into a seamless whole. The final forms are based on deities and are grouped as Deva Ang Yudhan meaning "limbs of the gods". Each builds upon the last, requiring that trainees progress through them systematically in a specific order. Many yudhan also have an opposing form which acts as counter and complement to the other. The combat application of the techniques become less obviously apparent in the higher forms which not only include more weapons and techniques but also enrich the understanding of the lower forms. Originating in different parts of India, every yudhan has its own characteristic focus, gait, weapons and unarmed techniques. They can be practiced individually, in pairs, in groups, or formerly, as an army.
The Jat style of gatka (Jat ka gatka) is sometimes incorporated as a yudhan to acquaint beginners with basic asana (stances) and tactics, although many masters refuse to acknowledge it due to the form's peasant origins. The most basic stance (mulasana) is a crouching position which provides a stable base from which to launch attacks and avoid being knocked down. Unarmed techniques are divided into six components which altogether incorporate strikes with the fists, open hands, knees, elbows and feet, attacks to the vital points, grappling, torso throws, and tripping the opponent from the legs. In terms of defense, students are also taught how to escape from various frontal and rear grabs and chokeholds. Many of these techniques are also used in kusti, so fighters sometimes supplement their training with wrestling. Armed training may include swords, shields, axes, battle-axes, spears, clubs, maces, daggers, sticks and kukri.
The boar style or Varaha Yudhan is associated with the varaha avatar of Vishnu. Originating in Bihar, it specializes in close-quarter combat and short explosive strikes with the fists, elbows, knees, feet and single knuckles. As the first formal yudhan, it teaches basic principles such as body positioning, misalignment, and hitting vital areas to end the fight quickly. The boar is the simplest and easiest style to master, but provides the foundation for all succeeding forms. Its weapons are the gada (mace) and daggers, taking advantage of the form's short movements. One crucial principle of the boar style is drawing the hand in towards the body before throwing a punch. In this way, the fighter can easily draw a weapon from the waist or anywhere else on the upper body.
The snake style is known as Shesha-naga Yudhan, named after the serpent lord Shesha. Acting as a counter and complement of the boar style, it is based on the cobra (naga) and python (ajagara). It begins with a salutation in which the arms are brought upwards from the sides in a continuous arc til the hands are straight above the head. In contrast to the straightforward blows of its counterpart, the snake style is subtle and focuses on parrying attacks and striking at vital points with looping circular motions. Characteristic of the snake style is the entangling of limbs, combined with whipping strikes, locks, joint manipulation, and chokeholds. Its weapons include scarves, knives, axes and spears.
Garuda Yudhan is variously rendered in English as the bird style or eagle style. Originating in Kashmir, it is named after the mythical garuda. It imitates four different birds, namely the peacock (mayura), eagle (garuda), goose (hamsa) and rooster (kukkuta). It specializes in hit-and-run tactics, mimicking a bird flying at its prey. It is characterized with an angling side-to-side motion. Techniques include attacks delivered with the hands and feet, elbows, knees, sweeps, and stomps in the case of a downed opponent. The garuda style is most notable as the basic sword-fighting form and the first yudhan in which upper body armor may be worn. Categorized as a skirmishing style, it can be employed either on foot or horseback. The garuda leads with the tip of the sword, stabbing at the opponent's arms and hands like a bird's peak. It is most suited to the talwar. Weapons include any combination of the sword, axe, dagger, shield, and spear.
The bull style is named Nandi Yudhan after Nandi, the mount and gatekeeper of Shiva. Originating in the Himalayas, it is the first grappling style and specialises in upright grabbing. The counter and complement of garuda, the bull is also a skirmishing style which can be used on foot or horseback. Like its counterpart, Nandi also employs the motion of angling from left to right in order to find the correct trajectory. The difference between them is that the more aggressive bull style favours infighting and grappling, using leverage to damage the opponent's back with spinal twists, knees, and heavy close-quarter fist strikes. As with garuda, the bull style includes a variety of attacks against a fallen opponent such as stomps and knee drops. Weapons include daggers and curved swords. To counter the garuda stabbing from a safe distance, Nandi instead closes in and attacks with the centre of the blade.
Narasingha Yudhan is named after the Narasingh avatar of Vishnu, variously depicted as a man with the head and claws of a lion, tiger or leopard. It was used to support the vanguard during battle and therefore favours armed combat and specializes in fighting heavily armoured opponents. Practitioners may also wear heavier armour than in previous forms, including chainmail. Narasingha is categorized as a duelling yudhan and its wide entrenched stance is well-suited for swampy terrain. Imitating the agility and attack style of big cats, it is highly evasive and constantly seeks to reach the opponent's head and neck. Aside from swords, the most characteristic weapons of Narasingha are the large heavy shield and the long-handled battle-axe.
The monkey style or Hanuman Yudhan has its origins in Central India, particularly around Maharashtra and the Dakhin Plateau. It is named after the monkey god Hanuman. As counter and complement to Narasingha, the monkey style is also a duelling yudhan and once provided support to the vanguard. It employs a similar wide stance as its counterpart, but with the hips sunk in lower. Using momentum to redirect an opponent's energy while grappling, it also teaches to advance while avoiding the opponent's attacks, and eventually trample them when they have been knocked down. It mainly targets the lower body, particularly the legs and groin. Primarily an armed form, weapons of the monkey style include the gada (mace) and curved daggers.
The leopard or panther form is called Bagh Yudhan in Hindi and is associated with the mount of Durga. Originating in the Himalayas, it is regarded as the seventh animal style even though they are numbered at six. As with the corresponding style in Burmese bando, the leopard is actually a more advanced application of all the previous forms and teaches how they may be combined into one single system. Taught at both the shota (immature) and vada (mature) levels, it possesses great speed and agility. The most famous application of the leopard form is loh-musti or iron-fist boxing in which the boxers wield an iron bracelet (kara) on one hand.
The first of the Deva Ang Yudhan is named for the eight-armed goddess (Ashtabuja Devi). It is divided into four sub-styles, representing the various aspects of the devi. The first sub-style is Chandi Yudhan, known for its graceful, elegant movements imitating the goddess as a beautiful young girl. Chandika is well-suited for fighting multiple opponents and specializes in gatti sakti, using their own energy against them. The Kali Yudhan is a more direct and aggressive version of Chandi, which aims to kill as quickly as possible and specialises in confusing and misleading the opponent. The Jagdambeh Yudhan ("World-Mother") makes use of quick footwork to circle around the opponent in a manner similar to Chinese baguazhang. Its more aggressive counterpart is the Kalika Vambrolah Yudhan or "Whirlwind Kali" form. Weapons include various blades such as swords and daggers, as well as the spear and the bow. Partly out of respect and partly out of practicality, only the finest and most advanced weapons are used in this style.
Adi Deva Yudhan ("Primordial God Form") is divided into four sub-styles. In contrast to the goddess form, Adi Deva represents akarshan sakti or gravitational energy. Shiva Yudhan specializes in unbalancing and manipulating their centre of gravity. Ganpat Yudhan (Ganesha style) is much the same but with a focus on grappling and facing a larger opponent. Jaganatha Yudhan focuses on quickly moving in on the opponent and striking at pressure points while avoiding their attacks. The highest of the Adi Deva forms is Mahakala Yudhan which was traditionally employed by an army's vanguard. Like the other sub-styles, it also relies on misalignment while closing in, but with an emphasis on snapping the opponent's neck.
The final yudhan is named Ardhanarishvara Yudhan after the androgynous composite of Shiva and Parvati. It combines all the forms into a single seamless whole, to the point that the exponent reacts spontaneously without thinking and all forms become "formless". Achieving mastery of this final form is traditionally compared to attaining enlightenment or ascending Mount Kailash.
Indian martial arts
Deva Raya II
Jatindra Charan Goho
The Great Gama
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Gatka: See also
Indian martial arts
Donn F. Draeger and Robert W. Smith (1969). Comprehensive Asian Fighting Arts. Kodansha International Limited.
Sikh martial art `Gatka' takes the West by storm. (Press Trust of India). The Hindu
[v MILITARY SIKHS: The Education of a Sikh Warrior. Victoria and Albert Museum.] 'An introduction to Shastar Vidiya - the education of a Sikh warrior' was a lecture by Nidar Singh, given as part of the Sikh Arts and Heritage Lecture Series at the V&A, 10 October 2001.
O. Janson. Fairbairn-Sykes Fighting knife: The famous fighting-knife used by British commandos and SOE during WW2. Gothia Arms Historical Society
Singh, Arjun (2006). Gatka. Atlanta Martial Arts Directory.
Nanak Dev Singh Khalsa & Sat Katar Kaur Ocasio-Khalsa (1991) Gatka as taught by Nanak Dev Singh, Book One - Dance of the Sword (2nd Edition). GT International, Phoenix, Arizona. Buy book ISBN 0-89509-087-2
Gatka: External links
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sikh martial arts.
Punjab Gatka Association (Regd.)
International Sikh Martial Art Academy (Regd.)
International Gatka Organisation (IGO)
Gatka Federation of India (GFI) (Regd.)
Indian martial arts
Deva Raya II
Jatindra Charan Goho
The Great Gama
Martial arts portal
Čeština Gatka ▪ Dansk Gatka ▪ Español Gatka ▪ हिन्दी गतका ▪ Italiano Gatka ▪ മലയാളം ഗത്ക ▪ 日本語 ガッカ ▪ ਪੰਜਾਬੀ ਗੱਤਕਾ ▪ Русский Гатка ▪ Simple English Gatka ▪ Українська Гатка (бойове мистецтво) ▪ اردو گتکا ▪
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It goes without saying that the goods by your query "Gatka" in Oklahoma can be delivered to Oklahoma City, Tulsa, Norman, Broken Arrow, Lawton, Edmond, Moore, Midwest City, Enid, Stillwater, Muskogee, Bartlesville, Owasso, Shawnee, Yukon, Ardmore, Ponca City, Bixby, Duncan, Del City, Jenks, Sapulpa, Mustang, Sand Springs, Bethany, Altus, Claremore, El Reno, McAlester, Ada, Durant, Tahlequah, Chickasha, Miami, Glenpool, Elk City, Woodward, Okmulgee, Choctaw, Weatherford, Guymon, Guthrie, Warr Acres...
And today any things related with "Gatka" in Oregon can be shipped to such cities as Portland, Salem, Eugene, Gresham, Hillsboro, Beaverton, Bend, Medford, Springfield, Corvallis, Albany, Tigard, Lake Oswego, Keizer, Grants Pass, Oregon City, McMinnville, Redmond, Tualatin, West Linn, Woodburn, Forest Grove, Newberg, Wilsonville, Roseburg, Klamath Falls, Ashland, Milwaukie, Sherwood, Happy Valley, Central Point, Canby, Hermiston, Pendleton, Troutdale, Lebanon, Coos Bay, The Dalles, Dallas, St. Helens, La Grande, Cornelius, Gladstone, Ontario, Sandy, Newport, Monmouth, etc.
No doubt, the goods named "Gatka" in Pennsylvania can be received in Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Allentown, Erie, Reading, Scranton, Bethlehem, Lancaster, Harrisburg, Altoona, York, Wilkes-Barre, Chester, Williamsport, Easton, Lebanon, Hazleton, New Castle, Johnstown, McKeesport, Hermitage, Greensburg, Pottsville, Sharon, Butler, Washington, Meadville, New Kensington, Coatesville, St. Marys, Lower Burrell, Oil City, Nanticoke, Uniontown...
Naturally, any things related with "Gatka" in Rhode Island can be received in such cities as Providence, Warwick, Cranston, Pawtucket, East Providence, Woonsocket, Coventry, Cumberland, North Providence, South Kingstown, West Warwick, Johnston, North Kingstown, Newport, Bristol, Westerly, Smithfield, Lincoln, Central Falls, Portsmouth, Barrington, Middletown, Burrillville, Narragansett, Tiverton, East Greenwich, North Smithfield, Warren, Scituate.
No need to say, any products related with "Gatka" in South Carolina can be purchased if you live in Columbia, Charleston, North Charleston, Mount Pleasant, Rock Hill, Greenville, Summerville, Sumter, Hilton Head Island, Spartanburg, Florence, Goose Creek, Aiken, Myrtle Beach, Anderson, Greer, Mauldin, Greenwood, North Augusta, Easley, Simpsonville, Hanahan, Lexington, Conway, West Columbia, North Myrtle Beach, Clemson, Orangeburg, Cayce, Bluffton, Beaufort, Gaffney, Irmo, Fort Mill, Port Royal, Forest Acres, Newberry, etc.
No need to say, any things related with "Gatka" in South Dakota can be bought in Sioux Falls, Rapid City, Aberdeen, Brookings, Watertown, Mitchell, Yankton, Pierre, Huron, Spearfish, Vermillion, and other cities.
Usually, the found goods by query "Gatka" in Tennessee can be shipped to such cities as Memphis, Nashville, Knoxville, Chattanooga, Clarksville, Murfreesboro, Franklin, Jackson, Johnson City, Bartlett, Hendersonville, Kingsport, Collierville, Smyrna, Cleveland, Brentwood, Germantown, Columbia, Spring Hill, La Vergne, Gallatin, Cookeville, Mount Juliet, Lebanon, Morristown, Oak Ridge, Maryville, Bristol, Farragut, Shelbyville, East Ridge, Tullahoma.
And the goods by request "Gatka" in Texas can be shipped to such cities as Houston, San Antonio, Dallas, Austin, Fort Worth, El Paso, Arlington, Corpus Christi, Plano, Laredo, Lubbock, Garland, Irving, Amarillo, Grand Prairie, Brownsville, McKinney, Frisco, Pasadena, Mesquite, Killeen, McAllen, Carrollton, Midland, Waco, Denton, Abilene, Odessa, Beaumont, Round Rock, The Woodlands, Richardson, Pearland, College Station, Wichita Falls, Lewisville, Tyler, San Angelo, League City, Allen, Sugar Land, Edinburg, Mission, Longview, Bryan, Pharr, Baytown, Missouri City, Temple, Flower Mound, New Braunfels, North Richland Hills, Conroe, Victoria, Cedar Park, Harlingen, Atascocita, Mansfield, Georgetown, San Marcos, Rowlett, Pflugerville, Port Arthur, Spring, Euless, DeSoto, Grapevine, Galveston, etc.
Today the found goods by query "Gatka" in Utah can be shipped to Salt Lake City, West Valley City, Provo, West Jordan, Orem, Sandy, Ogden, St. George, Layton, Taylorsville, South Jordan, Logan, Lehi, Murray, Bountiful, Draper, Riverton, Roy, Spanish Fork, Pleasant Grove, Cottonwood Heights, Tooele, Springville, Cedar City, Midvale. The delivery is also available in Kaysville, Holladay, American Fork, Clearfield, Syracuse, South Salt Lake, Herriman, Eagle Mountain, Clinton, Washington, Payson, Farmington, Brigham City, Saratoga Springs, North Ogden, South Ogden, North Salt Lake, Highland, Centerville, Hurricane, Heber City, West Haven, Lindon.
And any things related with "Gatka" in Vermont can be bought in Burlington, South Burlington, Rutland, Barre, Montpelier, Winooski, St. Albans, Newport, Vergennes, etc.
As always, the products related to the term "Gatka" in Virginia can be shipped to Virginia Beach, Norfolk, Chesapeake, Richmond, Newport News, Alexandria, Hampton, Roanoke, Portsmouth, Suffolk, Lynchburg, Harrisonburg, Charlottesville, Danville, Manassas, Petersburg, Fredericksburg, Winchester, Salem, Staunton, Fairfax, Hopewell, Waynesboro, Colonial Heights, Radford, Bristol, Manassas Park, Williamsburg, Falls Church, Martinsville, Poquoson...
Today any products related with "Gatka" in Washington can be sent to Seattle, Spokane, Tacoma, Vancouver, Bellevue, Kent, Everett, Renton, Federal Way, Yakima, Spokane Valley, Kirkland, Bellingham, Kennewick, Auburn, Pasco, Marysville, Lakewood, Redmond, Shoreline, Richland, Sammamish, Burien, Olympia, Lacey. And also in Edmonds, Puyallup, Bremerton, Lynnwood, Bothell, Longview, Issaquah, Wenatchee, Mount Vernon, University Place, Walla Walla, Pullman, Des Moines, Lake Stevens, SeaTac, Maple Valley, Mercer Island, Bainbridge Island, Oak Harbor, Kenmore, Moses Lake, Camas, Mukilteo, Mountlake Terrace, Tukwila, and other cities and towns.
No doubt, the goods related with "Gatka" in West Virginia can be shipped to Charleston, Huntington, Morgantown, Parkersburg, Wheeling, Weirton, Fairmont, Martinsburg, Beckley, Clarksburg, South Charleston, St. Albans, Vienna, Bluefield, etc.
It goes without saying that the goods by request "Gatka" in Wisconsin can be sent to Milwaukee, Madison, Green Bay, Kenosha, Racine, Appleton, Waukesha, Oshkosh, Eau Claire, Janesville, West Allis, La Crosse, Sheboygan, Wauwatosa, Fond du Lac, New Berlin, Wausau. As well as in Brookfield, Beloit, Greenfield, Franklin, Oak Creek, Manitowoc, West Bend, Sun Prairie, Superior, Stevens Point, Neenah, Fitchburg, Muskego, Watertown, De Pere, Mequon, South Milwaukee, Marshfield and smaller towns.
No need to say, the products related to the term "Gatka" in Wyoming can be received in such cities as Cheyenne, Casper, Laramie, Gillette, Rock Springs, Sheridan, Green River, Evanston, Riverton, Jackson, Cody, Rawlins, Lander, Torrington, Powell, Douglas, Worland, etc.
Canada Delivery, Shipping to Canada
Of course, the goods named "Gatka" in Canada can be received in Toronto, Montreal, Calgary, Ottawa, Edmonton, Mississauga, Winnipeg, Vancouver, Brampton, Hamilton, Quebec City, Surrey, Laval, Halifax, London, Markham, Vaughan, Gatineau, Longueuil, Burnaby, Saskatoon, Kitchener, Windsor, Regina, Richmond, Richmond Hill.
The shipping is also available in Oakville, Burlington, Greater Sudbury, Sherbrooke, Oshawa, Saguenay, Lévis, Barrie, Abbotsford, St. Catharines, Trois-Rivières, Cambridge, Coquitlam, Kingston, Whitby, Guelph, Kelowna, Saanich, Ajax, Thunder Bay, Terrebonne, St. John's, Langley, Chatham-Kent, Delta.
And, of course, Waterloo, Cape Breton, Brantford, Strathcona County, Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Red Deer, Pickering, Kamloops, Clarington, North Vancouver, Milton, Nanaimo, Lethbridge, Niagara Falls, Repentigny, Victoria, Newmarket, Brossard, Peterborough, Chilliwack, Maple Ridge, Sault Ste. Marie, Kawartha Lakes, Sarnia, Prince George.
You can also buy these goods in Drummondville, Saint John, Moncton, Saint-Jérôme, New Westminster, Wood Buffalo, Granby, Norfolk County, St. Albert, Medicine Hat, Caledon, Halton Hills, Port Coquitlam, Fredericton, Grande Prairie, North Bay, Blainville, Saint-Hyacinthe, Aurora, Welland, Shawinigan, Dollard-des-Ormeaux, Belleville, North Vancouver, etc.
Actually, the products by request "Gatka" can be shipped to any place in Canada, including Ontario, Quebec, British Columbia, Alberta, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, and Prince Edward Island.
UK Delivery, Shipping to the United Kingdom
As always, the goods by request "Gatka" in the United Kingdom can be received in London, Birmingham, Leeds, Glasgow, Sheffield, Bradford, Edinburgh, Liverpool, Manchester, Bristol, Wakefield, Cardiff, Coventry, Nottingham, Leicester, Sunderland, Belfast, Newcastle upon Tyne, Brighton, Hull, Plymouth, Stoke-on-Trent.
And other cities and towns, such as Wolverhampton, Derby, Swansea, Southampton, Salford, Aberdeen, Westminster, Portsmouth, York, Peterborough, Dundee, Lancaster, Oxford, Newport, Preston, St Albans, Norwich, Chester, Cambridge, Salisbury, Exeter, Gloucester. You can also buy these goods in Lisburn, Chichester, Winchester, Londonderry, Carlisle, Worcester, Bath, Durham, Lincoln, Hereford, Armagh, Inverness, Stirling, Canterbury, Lichfield, Newry, Ripon, Bangor, Truro, Ely, Wells, St. Davids...
In fact, any things related with "Gatka" can be shipped to any place in the UK, including England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland.
Ireland Delivery, Shipping to Ireland
And of course, any products related with "Gatka" in Ireland can be received in Dublin, Cork, Limerick, Galway, Waterford, Drogheda, Dundalk, Swords, Bray, Navan, Ennis, Kilkenny, Tralee, Carlow, Newbridge, Naas, Athlone, Portlaoise, Mullingar, Wexford, Balbriggan, Letterkenny, Celbridge, Sligo. And, of course, Clonmel, Greystones, Malahide, Leixlip, Carrigaline, Tullamore, Killarney, Arklow, Maynooth, Cobh, Castlebar, Midleton, Mallow, Ashbourne, Ballina, Laytown-Bettystown-Mornington, Enniscorthy, Wicklow, Tramore, Cavan...
In other words, any things related with "Gatka" can be shipped to any place in Ireland, including Leinster, Ulster, Munster, and Connacht.
Australia Delivery, Shipping to Australia
As always, the goods by request "Gatka" in Australia can be purchased if you live in Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth, Adelaide, Gold Coast, Tweed Heads, Newcastle, Maitland, Canberra, Queanbeyan, Sunshine Coast, Wollongong, Hobart, Geelong, Townsville, Cairns, Darwin, Toowoomba, Ballarat, Bendigo, Albury, Wodonga, Launceston, Mackay.
It is also available for the people living in Rockhampton, Bunbury, Bundaberg, Coffs Harbour, Wagga Wagga, Hervey Bay, Mildura, Wentworth, Shepparton, Mooroopna, Gladstone, Tannum Sands, Port Macquarie, Tamworth, Traralgon, Morwell, Orange, Geraldton, Bowral, Mittagong, Dubbo, Busselton, Bathurst, Nowra, Bomaderry, Warrnambool, Albany, Warragul, Drouin, Kalgoorlie, Boulder, Devonport...
Basically, the products by request "Gatka" can be shipped to any place in Australia, including New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, Western Australia, South Australia, Tasmania, Australian Capital Territory, and Northern Territory.
New Zealand Delivery, Shipping to New Zealand
As always, the goods by your query "Gatka" in New Zealand can be delivered to the following cities: Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch, Hamilton, Tauranga, Napier-Hastings, Dunedin, Lower Hutt, Palmerston North, Nelson, Rotorua, New Plymouth, Whangarei, Invercargill, Whanganui, Gisborne, Porirua, Invercargill, Nelson, Upper Hutt, Gisborne, Blenheim, Pukekohe, Timaru, Taupo, and other cities and towns.
In other words, the goods by your query "Gatka" can be shipped to any place in New Zealand, including North Island, South Island, Waiheke Island, and smaller islands.
And todaythe products by requestcan be sent toAnd other cities and towns, such as...
Abkhazia: Gagra, Gudauta, Lake Ritsa, New Athos, Ochamchire, Pitsunda, Sukhumi, Tsandryphsh, etc.
Afghanistan: Herat, Jalalabad, Kabul, Kandahar, Kunduz, Mazar-i-Sharif, Taloqan, etc.
Albania: Durrës, Himarë, Sarandë, Shkodër, Tirana, Vlorë, etc.
Algeria: Algiers, Oran, etc.
Andorra: Andorra la Vella, Arinsal, El Pas de la Casa, Encamp, Grandvalira, Ordino, Pal, Soldeu, Vallnord, etc.
Angola: Benguela, Luanda, etc.
Anguilla: The Valley, West End, etc.
Antigua And Barbuda: Saint John’s, etc.
Argentina: Buenos Aires, Colón, Córdoba, El Calafate, La Plata, Los Glaciares, Mar del Plata, Mendoza, Pinamar, Puerto Iguazú, Puerto Madryn, Rosario, Salta, San Carlos de Bariloche, San Martín de los Andes, San Miguel de Tucumán, San Rafael, Tandil, Tierra del Fuego, Ushuaia, Villa Carlos Paz, Villa Gesell, Villa La Angostura, Villa de Merlo, etc.
Australia: Adelaide, Brisbane, Byron Bay, Cairns, Canberra, Darwin, Gold Coast, Great Barrier Reef, Hobart, Melbourne, Perth, Sydney, Tasmania, etc.
Austria: Abtenau, Alpbach, Austrian Alps, Bad Gastein, Bad Hofgastein, Bad Kleinkirchheim, Dürnstein, Flachau, Fugen, Graz, Innsbruck, Ischgl, Kaprun, Kitzbühel, Klagenfurt, Kufstein, Lech, Leogang, Lienz, Linz, Maria Alm, Mayrhofen, Neustift im Stubaital, Obergurgl, Saalbach-Hinterglemm, Saalfelden, Salzburg, Schladming, Seefeld, Serfaus, St. Anton, St. Johann im Pongau, Sölden, Tux, Tyrol, Vienna, Villach, Wachau, Wagrain, Zell am See, etc.
Azerbaijan: Baku, Ganja, Lankaran, Quba, Qusar, Shahdag, Sheki, Stepanakert, etc.
Bahamas: Andros, Eleuthera, Exuma, Freeport, Grand Bahama, Nassau, New Providence, Paradise Island, etc.
Bahrain: Manama, etc.
Bangladesh: Chittagong, Cox's Bazar, Dhaka, Khulna, Narayanganj, Rajshahi, Sylhet, etc.
Belgium: Antwerp, Ardennes, Blankenberge, Bouillon, Bruges, Brussels, Charleroi, De Haan, De Panne, Durbuy, Flanders, Ghent, Hasselt, Kortrijk, Leuven, Liège, Namur, Nieuwpoort, Ostend, Spa, Ypres, Zeebrugge, etc.
Belize: Ambergris Caye, Belize City, Caye Caulker, Placencia, San Pedro, etc.
Benin: Cotonou, etc.
Bermuda: Hamilton, etc.
Bhutan: Paro, Thimphu, etc.
Bolivia: Cochabamba, El Alto, La Paz, Oruro, Quillacollo, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Sucre, Uyuni, etc.
Bosnia and Herzegovina: Banja Luka, Jahorina, Medjugorje, Mostar, Neum, Sarajevo, etc.
Botswana: Gaborone, Maun, etc.
Brazil: Amazon River, Amazonia, Angra dos Reis, Arraial do Cabo, Atlantic Forest, Balneário Camboriú, Belo Horizonte, Belém, Bombinhas, Brasília, Búzios, Cabo Frio, Camaçari, Campinas, Campos do Jordão, Caraguatatuba, Copacabana, Costa do Sauípe, Curitiba, Duque de Caxias, Fernando de Noronha, Florianópolis, Fortaleza, Foz do Iguaçu, Goiânia, Gramado, Guarujá, Guarulhos, Iguazu Falls, Ilha Grande, Ilhabela, Ilhéus, Ipanema, Itacaré, Maceió, Manaus, Morro de São Paulo, Natal, Niterói, Osasco, Ouro Preto, Paraty, Petrópolis, Porto Alegre, Porto Seguro, Praia do Forte, Recife, Ribeirão Preto, Rio de Janeiro, Salvador, Santos, São Gonçalo, São José dos Campos, São Luís, São Paulo, São Sebastião, Trancoso, Ubatuba, Vila do Abraão, etc.
British Virgin Islands: Tortola, etc.
Brunei: Bandar Seri Begawan, etc.
Bulgaria: Albena, Balchik, Bansko, Blagoevgrad, Borovets, Burgas, Chernomorets, Dobrinishte, Golden Sands, Kiten, Koprivshtitsa, Lozenets, Nesebar, Obzor, Pamporovo, Pirin, Pleven, Plovdiv, Pomorie, Primorsko, Ravda, Razlog, Rila, Ruse, Samokov, Sandanski, Shumen, Sofia, Sozopol, Stara Zagora, Sunny Beach, Sveti Vlas, Tsarevo, Varna, Veliko Tarnovo, etc.
Cameroon: Bafoussam, Bamenda, Douala, Garoua, Kribi, Limbe, Maroua, Yaoundé, etc.
Canada: Alberta, Banff, Brampton, British Columbia, Burnaby, Calgary, Charlottetown, Edmonton, Fort McMurray, Gatineau, Halifax, Hamilton, Jasper, Kamloops, Kelowna, Kingston, Kitchener, Laval, London, Longueuil, Manitoba, Markham, Mississauga, Moncton, Mont-Tremblant, Montreal, Nanaimo, New Brunswick, Niagara Falls, Niagara on the Lake, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Ottawa, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Regina, Richmond, Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Surrey, Toronto, Vancouver, Vaughan, Victoria, Whistler, Whitehorse, Windsor, Winnipeg, Yukon, etc.
Cape Verde: Boa Vista Cape Verde, Sal, etc.
Caribbean Netherlands:, etc.
Cayman Islands: George Town, West Bay, etc.
Chad: N'Djamena, etc.
Chile: Antofagasta, Arica, Atacama, Coquimbo, Easter Island, Hanga Roa, Iquique, La Serena, Patagonia, Pucón, Puerto Montt, Puerto Natales, Puerto Varas, Punta Arenas, San Pedro de Atacama, Santiago, Torres del Paine, Valdivia, Valparaíso, Villarrica, Viña del Mar, etc.
Colombia: Barranquilla, Bogotá, Bucaramanga, Cali, Cartagena, Medellín, Pereira, San Andrés, Santa Marta, Villa de Leyva, Villavicencio, etc.
Costa Rica: Alajuela, Jacó, La Fortuna, Manuel Antonio, Monteverde, Puerto Viejo de Talamanca, Puntarenas, Quepos, San José, Santa Teresa, Tamarindo, Tortuguero, etc.
Croatia: Baška Voda, Baška, Bibinje, Biograd na Moru, Bol, Brač, Brela, Cavtat, Cres, Dalmatia, Fažana, Hvar, Istria, Ičići, Korčula, Krk, Lopud, Lovran, Lošinj, Makarska, Mali Lošinj, Malinska, Medulin, Mlini, Nin, Novi Vinodolski, Novigrad, Omiš, Opatija, Orebić, Pag, Podstrana, Poreč, Pula, Rab, Rabac, Rijeka, Rovinj, Split, Stari Grad, Sukošan, Supetar, Trogir, Tučepi, Umag, Vrsar, Zadar, Zagreb, Čiovo, Šibenik, etc.
Cuba: Baracoa, Camagüey, Cayo Coco, Cayo Largo, Cayo Santa María, Cienfuegos, Guantánamo, Havana, Holguín, Pinar del Río, Remedios Cuba, Sancti Spíritus, Santa Clara Cuba, Santiago de Cuba, Trinidad, Varadero, Viñales, etc.
Curaçao: Sint Michiel, Westpunt, Willemstad, etc.
Cyprus: Ayia Napa, Coral Bay Cyprus, Famagusta, Kouklia, Kyrenia, Larnaca, Limassol, Nicosia, Paphos, Paralimni, Peyia, Pissouri, Polis, Protaras, etc.
Czech Republic: Bohemia, Brno, Děčín, Frymburk, Frýdek-Místek, Harrachov, Hradec Králové, Jihlava, Karlovy Vary, Kladno, Krkonoše, Kutná Hora, Liberec, Marienbad, Mikulov, Mladá Boleslav, Mělník, Olomouc, Ostrava, Pardubice, Plzeň, Poděbrady, Prague, Teplice, Třeboň, Zlín, Znojmo, Ústí nad Labem, České Budějovice, Český Krumlov, Špindlerův Mlýn, etc.
Ecuador: Baños, Cuenca, Galápagos Islands, Guayaquil, Manta, Otavalo, Puerto Ayora, Puerto López, Quito, Salinas, etc.
Egypt: Abu Simbel, Al Qusair, Alexandria, Aswan, Cairo, Dahab, El Alamein, El Gouna, El Hadaba, Faiyum, Giza, Hurghada, Luxor, Marsa Alam, Mersa Matruh, Naama Bay, Nabq Bay, Nile, Nuweiba, Port Said, Red Sea, Safaga, Sahl Hasheesh, Scharm asch-Schaich, Sharks Bay, Sinai, Suez, Taba, Valley of the Kings, etc.
El Salvador: La Libertad, San Salvador, etc.
Equatorial Guinea: Malabo, etc.
Eritrea: Asmara, etc.
Estonia: Haapsalu, Kuressaare, Narva, Pärnu, Saaremaa, Tallinn, Tartu, etc.
Indonesia: Bali, Balikpapan, Bandung, Batu, Bintan, Bogor, Borobudur, Denpasar, Jakarta, Java, Jimbaran, Kalimantan, Kuta, Lombok, Makassar, Malang, Mataram, Medan, Nusa Dua, Padang, Palembang, Pekanbaru, Sanur, Semarang, Seminyak, Sumatra, Surabaya, Surakarta, Ubud, Yogyakarta, etc.
Iran: Isfahan, Mashhad, Shiraz, Tehran, etc.
Iraq: Baghdad, Basra, Duhok, Erbil, Karbala, Sulaymaniyah, etc.
Kazakhstan: Aktau, Aktobe, Almaty, Astana, Atyrau, Burabay, Karagandy, Kokshetau, Kostanay, Lake Balkhash, Oskemen, Pavlodar, Semey, Shymbulak, Shymkent, Taraz, etc.
Kenya: Kisumu, Lake Victoria, Masai Mara, Mombasa, Nairobi, Ukunda, etc.
Kiribati: South Tarawa, etc.
Kongo: Brazzaville, Pointe-Noire, etc.
Kosovo: Pristina, Prizren, etc.
Kuwait: Hawally, Kuwait City, Salmiya, etc.
Kyrgyzstan: Bishkek, Bosteri, Cholpon-Ata, Issyk Kul, Karakol, Osh, etc.
Laos: Luang Prabang, Vang Vieng, Vientiane, etc.
Latvia: Cēsis, Daugavpils, Jūrmala, Liepāja, Riga, Rēzekne, Sigulda, Ventspils, etc.
Lebanon: Baalbeck, Beirut, Byblos, Faraya, Jounieh, Mzaar Kfardebian, Tripoli, etc.
Lesotho: Maseru, etc.
Libya: Benghazi, Tripoli, etc.
Liechtenstein: Schaan, Vaduz, etc.
Lithuania: Druskininkai, Kaunas, Klaipėda, Nida, Palanga, Panevėžys, Trakai, Vilnius, Šiauliai, Šventoji, etc.
Luxembourg: Differdange, Dudelange, Echternach, Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg City, Vianden, etc.
Macedonia: Bitola, Mavrovo, Ohrid, Skopje, etc.
Madagascar: Antananarivo, etc.
Malawi: Blantyre, Lilongwe, etc.
Malaysia: Borneo, George Town, Ipoh, Johor Bahru, Johor, Kedah, Kota Bharu, Kota Kinabalu, Kuah, Kuala Lumpur, Kuala Terengganu, Kuantan, Kuching, Langkawi, Malacca, Penang, Putrajaya, Sabah, Sarawak, Selangor, Shah Alam, etc.
Maldives: Kaafu Atoll, Malé, etc.
Mali: Bamako, etc.
Malta: Birżebbuġa, Buġibba, Gozo, Gżira, Mellieħa, Paceville, Pembroke, Qawra, Sliema, St. Julian's, St. Paul's Bay, Valletta, etc.
Martinique: Fort-de-France, Les Trois-Îlets, Sainte-Luce, etc.
Mauritania: Mexico City, Nouakchott, etc.
Mauritius: Port Louis, etc.
Mexico: Acapulco, Akumal, Cabo San Lucas, Cancún, Chetumal, Chichen Itza, Chihuahua, Ciudad Juárez, Cozumel, Cuernavaca, Guadalajara, Guanajuato, Isla Mujeres, Los Cabos, Manzanillo, Mazatlán, Monterrey, Mérida, Oaxaca, Playa del Carmen, Puebla, Puerto Aventuras, Puerto Escondido, Puerto Morelos, Puerto Peñasco, Puerto Vallarta, Querétaro, Riviera Maya, San Cristóbal de las Casas, San Miguel de Allende, San Miguel de Cozumel, Tulum, etc.
Moldova: Bălți, Chișinău, Tiraspol, etc.
Monaco: Monte Carlo, etc.
Mongolia: Darkhan, Erdenet, Ulaanbaatar, etc.
Montenegro: Bar, Bečići, Bijela, Budva, Cetinje, Dobra Voda, Dobrota, Herceg Novi, Igalo, Kolašin, Kotor, Miločer, Nikšić, Perast, Petrovac, Podgorica, Prčanj, Sutomore, Sveti Stefan, Tivat, Ulcinj, Žabljak, etc.
Myanmar: Mandalay, Naypyidaw, Nyaung Shwe, Yangon, etc.
Namibia: Rundu, Swakopmund, Walvis Bay, Windhoek, etc.
Nepal: Chitwan, Himalayas, Kathmandu, Lukla, Lumbini, Mount Everest, Nagarkot, Namche Bazaar, Patan, Pokhara, Tengboche, etc.
Netherlands: 's-Hertogenbosch, Alkmaar, Amersfoort, Amsterdam, Arnhem, Breda, Delft, Domburg, Dordrecht, Eindhoven, Groningen, Haarlem, Leiden, Maastricht, Nijmegen, Noordwijk, Rotterdam, Texel, The Hague, Utrecht, Valkenburg aan de Geul, Wijk aan Zee, Zandvoort, etc.
New Zealand: Auckland, Christchurch, Dunedin, Gisborne, Hamilton, Hastings, Invercargill, Kaikoura, Lower Hutt, Napier, Nelson, New Plymouth, North Island, Palmerston North, Porirua, Queenstown, Rotorua, South Island, Taupo, Tauranga, Waiheke Island, Wanaka, Wellington, Whangarei, etc.
Nicaragua: Granada, Managua, etc.
Nigeria: Abuja, Benin City, Calabar, Enugu, Ibadan, Ilorin, Jos, Kaduna, Lagos, Owerri, Port Harcourt, Uyo, etc.
Philippines: Angeles City, Antipolo, Bacolod, Bacoor, Baguio, Batangas, Bohol, Boracay, Cagayan de Oro, Calamba, Caloocan, Cebu, Coron, Dasmariñas, Davao, Dumaguete, El Nido, General Santos, Iloilo City, Kalibo, Lapu-Lapu City, Las Piñas, Luzon, Mactan, Makati, Mandaue, Manila, Marikina, Mindanao, Muntinlupa, Olongapo, Palawan, Panglao, Parañaque, Pasay, Pasig, Puerto Galera, Puerto Princesa, Quezon City, Tagaytay, Tagbilaran, Taguig, Valenzuela, Visayas, Zamboanga, etc.
Saint Lucia: Anse La Raye, Castries, Gros Islet, Soufrière, etc.
Saint Martin:, etc.
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines: Kingstown, etc.
Samoa: Apia, etc.
San Marino: City of San Marino, etc.
Saudi Arabia: Abha, Al Khobar, Buraydah, Dammam, Jeddah, Jizan, Jubail, Mecca, Medina, Riyadh, Ta'if, Tabuk, Yanbu, etc.
Senegal: Dakar, etc.
Serbia: Belgrade, Kopaonik, Niš, Novi Sad, Palić, Stara Planina, Subotica, Zlatibor, etc.
Seychelles: La Digue, Mahé, Praslin, etc.
Sierra Leone: Freetown, etc.
Singapore: Changi, Sentosa, etc.
Sint Maarten:, etc.
Slovakia: Bratislava, Jasná, Liptov, Tatranská Lomnica, Vysoké Tatry, Štrbské Pleso, etc.
Slovenia: Bled, Bohinj, Bovec, Kranjska Gora, Ljubljana, Maribor, Piran, Portorož, Rogaška Slatina, etc.
Solomon Islands: Honiara, etc.
South Africa: Ballito, Benoni, Bloemfontein, Boksburg, Cape Town, Drakensberg, Durban, East London, George, Johannesburg, Kempton Park, Kimberley, Knysna, Kruger National Park, Marloth Park, Mossel Bay, Nelspruit, Pietermaritzburg, Plettenberg Bay, Polokwane, Port Elizabeth, Potchefstroom, Pretoria, Rustenburg, Sandton, Stellenbosch, Umhlanga, etc.
Spain: A Coruña, Alcúdia, Algeciras, Alicante, Almería, Altea, Andalusia, Antequera, Aragon, Asturias, Ayamonte, Baiona, Balearic Islands, Barbate, Barcelona, Basque Country, Benalmádena, Benidorm, Benissa, Besalú, Bilbao, Blanes, Buñol, Cadaqués, Cala d'Or, Calella, Calonge, Calp, Calvià, Cambados, Cambrils, Canary Islands, Cangas de Onís, Cantabria, Cartagena, Castilla-La Mancha, Catalonia, Chiclana de la Frontera, Costa Blanca, Costa Brava, Costa Dorada, Costa del Maresme, Costa del Sol, Cádiz, Córdoba, Dénia, El Puerto de Santa María, Empuriabrava, Estepona, Figueres, Formentera, Fuerteventura, Galicia, Gijón, Girona, Gran Canaria, Granada, Ibiza, Jerez de la Frontera, L'Escala, L'Estartit, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, La Pineda, Lanzarote, Llançà, Lleida, Lloret de Mar, Madrid, Magaluf, Malgrat de Mar, Mallorca, Marbella, Maspalomas, Menorca, Mijas, Mojácar, Moraira, Murcia, Málaga, Navarre, Nerja, O Grove, Ourense, Oviedo, Palma Nova, Palma, Pals, Poio, Pollença, Pontevedra, PortAventura, Portonovo, Ronda, Roquetas de Mar, Roses, Salamanca, Salou, San Sebastian, Sant Antoni de Portmany, Santander, Santiago de Compostela, Santillana del Mar, Sanxenxo, Seville, Sidges, Sierra Nevada, Tarifa, Tarragona, Tenerife, Toledo, Torremolinos, Torrevieja, Torroella de Montgrí, Tossa de Mar, Valencia, Vigo, Vélez-Málaga, Xàbia, Zaragoza, etc.
Syria: Aleppo, Damascus, Deir ez-Zor, Latakia, Palmyra, Tartus, etc.
Taiwan: Hsinchu, Kaohsiung, Taichung, Tainan, Taipei, etc.
Tajikistan: Dushanbe, Isfara, Khujand, etc.
Tanzania: Dar es Salaam, Mount Kilimanjaro, Serengeti, Zanzibar, etc.
Thailand: Ayutthaya, Bangkok, Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai, Chonburi, Hua Hin, Kanchanaburi, Karon, Ko Chang, Ko Lanta, Ko Phangan, Ko Samui, Krabi, Pai, Patong, Pattaya, Phi Phi Islands, Phuket, Ranong, River Kwai, Udon Thani, etc.
Togo: Lomé, etc.
Tonga: Nukuʻalofa, Tunis, etc.
Trinidad and Tobago: Port of Spain, etc.
Tunisia: Djerba, Hammamet, Midoun, Monastir, Port El Kantaoui, Sousse, etc.
United States: Alabama, Alaska, Albuquerque, Amarillo, Anaheim, Anchorage, Arizona, Arkansas, Arlington, Aspen, Atlanta, Aurora, Austin, Bakersfield, Baltimore, Beaver Creek, Billings, Birmingham, Boise, Boston, Breckenridge, Brooklyn, Buffalo, California, Carlsbad, Chandler, Charlotte, Cheyenne, Chicago, Chula Vista, Cincinnati, Clearwater, Cleveland, Colorado Springs, Colorado, Columbus, Connecticut, Corpus Christi, Dallas, Daytona Beach, Death Valley, Delaware, Denver, Des Moines, Destin, Detroit, Durham, El Paso, Estes Park, Fargo, Florida, Fort Lauderdale, Fort Myers, Fort Walton Beach, Fort Wayne, Fort Worth, Fresno, Galveston, Georgia, Gilbert, Glendale, Grand Canyon, Grand Teton, Great Smoky Mountains, Greensboro, Hawaii, Henderson, Hialeah, Hollywood, Honolulu, Hot Springs, Houston, Huntington Beach, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Indianapolis, Iowa, Irving, Jackson Mississippi, Jackson Wyoming, Jacksonville, Jersey City, Juneau, Kansas City, Kansas, Kentucky, Key Largo, Key West, Lahaina, Lake Tahoe, Laredo, Las Vegas, Lexington, Lincoln, Little Rock, Long Beach, Los Angeles, Louisiana, Louisville, Lubbock, Madison, Maine, Manhattan, Marathon, Maryland, Massachusetts, Memphis, Mesa, Miami Beach, Miami, Michigan, Milwaukee, Minneapolis, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Moab, Montana, Monterey, Mountain View, Myrtle Beach, Napa, Naples, Nashville, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New Orleans, New York City, New York, Newark, Newport, Norfolk, North Carolina, North Dakota, Oakland, Ocean City, Ohio, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, Omaha, Oregon, Orlando, Palm Coast, Palm Desert, Palm Springs, Panama City Beach, Park City, Pasadena, Pennsylvania, Pensacola, Philadelphia, Phoenix, Pittsburgh, Plano, Portland, Portland, Providence, Raleigh, Reno, Rhode Island, Richmond, Riverside, Rocky Mountains, Sacramento, Saint Paul, Salt Lake City, San Antonio, San Diego, San Francisco, Sanibel, Santa Ana, Santa Barbara, Santa Cruz, Santa Fe, Santa Monica, Sarasota, Savannah, Scottsdale, Seattle, Silicon Valley, South Carolina, South Dakota, Springfield, Squaw Valley, St. Augustine, St. Louis, St. Petersburg, Steamboat Springs, Stockton, Sunny Isles Beach, Tallahassee, Tampa, Telluride, Tennessee, Texas, Thousand Oaks, Toledo, Tucson, Tulsa, Utah, Vail, Vermont, Virginia Beach, Virginia, Waikiki, Washington D.C., Washington, West Virginia, Wichita, Winston-Salem, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Yellowstone, Yosemite, Zion, etc.
Uruguay: Montevideo, Punta del Este, etc.
Uzbekistan: Bukhara, Fergana, Khiva, Kokand, Navoiy, Samarkand, Tashkent, Urgench, etc.
Vanuatu: Port Vila, etc.
Vatican City:, etc.
Venezuela: Caracas, Isla Margarita, Maracaibo, Porlamar, etc.
Vietnam: Cần Thơ, Da Lat, Da Nang, Haiphong, Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, Huế, Hạ Long, Hội An, Long Hải, Mỹ Tho, Nha Trang, Ninh Bình, Phan Thiết, Phú Quốc, Qui Nhơn, Rạch Giá, Sa Pa, Vũng Tàu, Đồng Hới, etc.
Yemen: Aden, Sana'a, etc.
Zambia: Livingstone, Lusaka, etc.
Zimbabwe: Bulawayo, Harare, Mutare, Victoria Falls, etc.