This article is about the martial art. For the film, see Hapkido (film).
Hapkido tournament in Korea
Also known as
Hap Ki Do, Hapki-Do
Eclectic and Hybrid
Country of origin
Choi Yong-Sool (최용술)
Japanese martial arts
mainly Daitō-ryū Aiki-jūjutsu, Judo, Taekkyeon, Tang Soo Do
Sin Moo Hapkido, Hankido, Hwa Rang Do, Kuk Sul Won, Combat Hapkido, Hapki yusul
This article contains Korean text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Hangul and Hanja.
Hapkido (RP:/ˌhæpkiːˈdəʊ/, GA:/hɑːp'kiːdoʊ/, also spelled hap ki do or hapki-do; Korean: 합기도, Korean pronunciation: [hap̚.k͈i.do]) is a highly eclecticKorean martial art. It is a form of self-defense that employs joint locks, grappling, and throwing techniques similar to those of other martial arts, as well as kicks, punches, and other striking attacks. It also teaches the use of traditional weapons, including knife, sword, rope, ssang juhl bong (nunchaku), cane (ji pang ee), short stick (dan bong), and middle-length staff (joong bong, gun (analogous to the Japanese jō), and bō (Japanese)), which vary in emphasis depending on the particular tradition examined.
Hapkido employs both long-range and close-range fighting techniques, utilizing jumping kicks and percussive hand strikes at longer ranges, and pressure point strikes, joint locks, and throws at closer fighting distances. Hapkido emphasizes circular motion, redirection of force, and control of the opponent. Practitioners seek to gain advantage over their opponents through footwork and body positioning to incorporate the use of leverage, avoiding the use of brute strength against brute strength.
The art was adapted from Daitō-ryū Aiki-jūjutsu as it was taught by Choi Yong-Sool (최용술) when he returned to Korea after World War II after having lived inJapan for 30 years. This system was later combined by Choi´s disciples with kicking and striking techniques of indigenous and contemporary arts such as taekkyeon, and Tang Soo Do; as well as various throwing techniques and ground fighting from Japanese Judo.
Hapkido is rendered "합기도" in the native Korean writing system known as hangul, the script used most widely in modern Korea. The art's name can also however be written "合氣道" utilizing the same traditionalChinese characters which would have been used to refer to the Japanese martial art of aikido in the pre-1946 period. The current preference in Japan is for the use of a modern simplified second character; substituting 気 for the earlier, more complex character 氣. The character 合 hap means "coordinated" or "joining"; 氣ki describes internal energy, spirit, strength, or power; and 道 do means "way" or "art", yielding a literal translation of "joining-energy-way". It is most often translated as "the way of coordinating energy", "the way of coordinated power" or "the way of harmony".
Although Japanese aikido and Korean hapkido share common technical origins, in time they have become separate and distinct from one another. They differ significantly in philosophy, range of responses and manner of executing techniques. The fact that they share the same Japanese technical ancestry represented by their respective founders practice of Daitō-ryū Aiki-jūjutsu, and that they share the same Chinese characters, despite 合 being pronounced "ai" in Japanese and "hap" in Korean, has proved problematic in promoting Hapkido internationally as a discipline with its own set of unique characteristics differing from those common to Japanese martial arts.
Hapkido: History and major figures from Korea
The birth of modern hapkido can be traced to the efforts of a group of Korean nationals in the post Japanese colonial period of Korea, Choi Yong-Sool (최용술) (1904–1986) and his most prominent students; Chinil Chang, his personally chosen successor, Seo Bok-Seob, the first student of the art; Ji Han-Jae (born 1936), one of the earliest promoters of the art; Kim Moo-Hong, a major innovator; Myung Jae-Nam, a connector between the art of hapkido and aikido, Myung Kwang-Sik the historian and ambassador, all of whom were direct students of Choi or of his immediate students.
Hapkido: Choi, Yong-Sool
Main article: Choi Yong-Sool
Choi Yong-Sool (최용술)'s training in martial arts is a subject of contention. It is known that Choi was sent to Japan as a young boy and returned to Korea with techniques characteristic of Daitō-ryū Aiki-jūjutsu, a forerunner of aikido. The next portion of the story is quite controversial in Daitō-ryū circles but is claimed by many contemporary hapkido-ists and is attributed to Choi in an interview (released posthumously) that took place during a trip Choi made to the United States in 1980 to visit his second direct lineage successor Chinil Chang in New York City.
In the interview with Chin Il Chang, Choi is claimed to have been adopted by Takeda Sōkaku when he was 11 years old and was given the Japanese name, Yoshida Asao. He claims to have been taken to Takeda's home and dojo in Akita on Shin Shu mountain where he lived and trained with the master for 30 years. The interview also asserts that he travelled with him as a teaching assistant, that he was employed to catch war deserters and that he was the only student to have a complete understanding of the system taught by Takeda.
This is contradicted by other claims asserting that Choi was simply a worker in the home of Takeda. The meticulous enrollment and fee records of Tokimune Takeda, Takeda's eldest son and Daitō-ryū's successor, do not seem to include Choi's name among them. Therefore, except for claims made by Choi himself, there is little evidence that Choi was the adopted son of Takeda, or that he ever formally studied Daitō-ryū under the founder of the art.
Retouched photograph of the master of Daito Ryu Aiki-jujutsu Takeda Sōkaku circa 1888
Stanley Pranin, then of Aiki News and now editor of the Aikidojournal.com, asked Kisshomaru Ueshiba about Choi Yong-Sool and hapkido:
On another subject, it is true that a Korean named "Choi" who founded hapkido studied aikido or Daito-ryu?
I don't know what art it was but I understand that there was a young Korean of about 17 or 18 who participated in a seminar of Sokaku Takeda Sensei held in Asahikawa City in Hokkaidō. It seems that he studied the art together with my father and would refer to him as his "senior".
If that's the case the art must have been Daito-ryu.
I've heard that this man who studied Daito-ryu had some contact with my father after that. Then he returned to Korea and began teaching Daito-ryu on a modest scale. The art gradually became popular and many Koreans trained with him. Since aikido became popular in Japan he called his art hapkido [written in Korean with the same characters as aikido]. Then the art split into many schools before anyone realized it. This is what my father told me. I once received a letter from this teacher after my father's death.
Some argue that Choi Yong-Sool's potential omission from the records, and the ensuing debate over hapkido's origins, may be due to tensions between Koreans and Japanese, partly as a result of the Japanese occupation of Korea. At the height of dispute, it is claimed by hapkido practitioners that Koreans were excluded from listing, though this is contradicted by Takeda's records which contain other Korean names. While some commentators claim hapkido has a Japanese lineage, others state that its origins lay with indigenous Korean martial arts.
Choi Yong-Sool's first student, and the man whom some claim helped him develop the art of hapkido was Seo Bok-Seob, a Korean judo black belt when they met. Some of Choi's other respected senior students are: Chinil Chang, Ji Han-Jae, Chung Kee Tae, Kim Moo-Hong, and arguably Suh In-Hyuk (Hangul: 서인혁) and Lee Joo-Bang (Hangul: 이주방) who went on to form the arts of Kuk Sool Won and modern Hwa Rang Do respectively (though some argue that their training stems from time spent training under Kim Moo-Hong).
Hapkido: Chang, Chin Il
A direct student of Choi, Chin Il Chang(장진일) inherited the title of Doju in Choi's personal and complete system of Hapkido on January 15, 1985, becoming the second direct lineage Grandmaster.
On April 5, 1985 Choi personally awarded Chang the only existing 10th Dan certificate in Hapkido history. Chang also had the privilege and honor of being the first Hapkido master awarded the 9th Dan certificate by Choi in 1980.
A large inauguration ceremony followed on April 11, 1985. The historic event was covered and documented by Korea Sports News and MBC Korean Television. Choi Young-sool, Chang, and Choi's son, the late Choi Bok-Yeol, were in attendance. Chang is the only Hapkido master ever awarded the 10th Dan and Doju title directly from Choi. Choi left the full documentation and recordings of the system to Chang, who continued to research and document the full history and development of Hapkido.
Furthermore, the future Grandmaster, who was a personally trained, closed-door disciple of Choi, was given Letter of Appointment certificates, the second dated December 1, 1977 and the third dated March 5, 1980. This gave Chang more progressive power and authority in Choi's Hapkido Association. These specific certificates, along with his 9th Dan ranking in 1980, and 10th Dan ranking in 1985, amply demonstrate that Choi was grooming Chang to be the future Grandmaster of Hapkido.
Chang's intimate video interview with his teacher Doju Choi during his visit to New York City has been abused through numerous interpretations and translations. Some have even claimed erroneously to have conducted the interview themselves, further clouding and distorting the truth and gravity inherent in the interview. These endless distortions were generally rebutted in various media each time they appeared.
Doju Chang continues to teach in New York City after decades of maintaining a commercial school, as well as a stint teaching Hapkido at the United Nations. He currently teaches a small group in NYC dedicated to the preservation of Hapkido. Many detractors have spread endless conjecture about him. One lineage created further controversy by stating Choi passed the system to his only son, Choi Bok-Yeol, which is incorrect, misleading, and insulting to the legacy and wishes of Choi. Black Belt Magazine, respecting Chin Il Chang as the second lineage successor, asked him to write a brief obituary on Choi that appeared in the April 1987 issue.
Hapkido: Seo, Bok-Seob
Main article: Seo Bok-Seob
Choi's first student and the first person known to have opened up a dojang under Choi was Seo Bok-Seob (서복섭, also spelled Suh Bok-Sup).
In 1948, when Seo Bok-sub was still in his early 20s, he had already earned his black belt in judo and was a graduate of Korea University. After watching Choi Yong-Sool successfully defend himself against a group of men when an argument erupted in the yard of the Seo Brewery Company, Seo who was son of the chairman of the company, invited Choi to begin teaching martial arts to him and some workers at the distillery where he had prepared a dojang.
In 1951, Seo opened up the first proper dojang called the "Daehan Hapki Yukwonsool Dojang (대한합기유권술도장)". Seo also incorporated many of judo´s throws and ground work techniques to the teachings of master Choi. The first symbol for Hapkido was designed by Seo, which was used to denote the art was the inverted arrowhead design featured in both the modern incarnation of the KiDo Association and by Myung Kwang-Sik's World Hapkido Federation. Choi Yong-Sool was also employed during this time as a bodyguard to Seo's father who was a congressman. Seo and Choi agreed to shorten the name of the art from 'hapki yu kwon sool' to 'hapkido' in 1959.
Hapkido: Ji, Han-Jae
Grand Master Ji Han Jae (left) and Hapkido founder Choi Yong Sul (right).
Main article: Ji Han-Jae
Ji Han-Jae (지한재) was undoubtedly the prime mover in the art of Korean hapkido. It is due to his physical skills, technical contributions, promotional efforts and political connections as head hapkido instructor to the presidential body guard under Korean President Park Chung-hee that hapkido became popularized, first within Korea and then internationally.
If the martial art education of Choi Yong-Sool is unconfirmed, the same must be said for martial art history of Ji Han-Jae's training, apart from his time as a student of Choi. Ji was an early student (Dan #14) of Choi. He details that prior to opening his martial art school in Seoul, the Sung Moo Kwan (성무관), he also supposedlly studied from a man known as 'Taoist Lee' and an old woman he knew as 'Grandma'.
As a teacher of hapkido, Ji incorporated traditional Korean kicking techniques (from Taoist Lee and the art Sam Rang Do Tek Gi) and punching techniques into the system and gave the resulting synthesis the name hapkido in 1957. Hapkido is the Korean pronunciation of (Japanese) aikido and is sometimes erroneously referred to as its Korean cousin.
Although a founding member of the Korea Kido Association(대한기도회) in 1963 with Choi Yong-Sool as titular Chairman and Kim Jeong-Yoon as Secretary General and Head Instructor for the association Ji found himself not able to exert as much control over the organization as he might have wished. To this end and with the support of the Head of the Security Forces, Park Jong-Kyu, Ji founded the very successful Korea Hapkido Association (대한 합기도 협회) in 1965.
Later when this organization combined with the organizations founded by Myung Jae-Nam (Korea Hapki Association/한국 합기회) and Kim Moo-Hong (Korean Hapkido Association/한국 합기도 협회) in 1973 they became the very extensive and influential organization known as the Republic of Korea Hapkido Association (대한민국 합기도 협회).
In 1984, after being released from prison for fraud, Ji moved first to Germany and then to the United States and founded Sin Moo Hapkido (신무 합기도), which incorporates philosophical tenets, a specific series of techniques (including kicks) and healing techniques into the art. Three of Ji Han-Jae's notable students in Korea were Kwon Tae-Man (권태만), Myung Jae-Nam (명재남) and Chang Young Shil (장영실) who is the current president of the International Hapkido Federation. Ji can be seen in the films Lady Kung-fu and Game of Death in which he takes part in a long fight scene against Bruce Lee.
After the death of Choi Yong-Sool in 1986, Ji came forward with the assertion that it was he who founded the Korean art of hapkido, asserting that Choi Yong-Sool taught only yawara based skills and that it was he who added much of the kicking and weapon techniques we now associate with modern hapkido. The reality being that Grandmaster Choi Yong-Sool taught him little of the original art and higher level techniques so he fabricated a new system on his own terms. He also asserts that it was he that first used the term 'hapkido' to refer to the art. While both claims are contested by some of the other senior teachers of the art, what is not contested is the undeniably huge contributions made by Ji to the art, its systematization and its promotion worldwide.
Hapkido: Han, Bong-Soo
Main article: Han Bong-Soo
(alternately rendered as Bong Soo Han)
Han Bong-Soo (한봉수) began his training in Hapkido after going to see a demonstration put on by the founder, Yong Sul Choi. From then on, he committed himself to Hapkido training under Choi and other teachers but never received any direct high ranking from Choi himself. Han was one of the world's foremost practitioners of Hapkido, and is referred to as the Father of his own offshoot of modern Hapkido in the Western World. He led a dedicated effort in the development of his own version of Hapkido. He taught thousands of loyal students throughout his life with many becoming masters themselves. Other masters across all styles have sought out his wisdom and teachings.
In 1967, Han emigrated to the United States of America, first staying with and teaching at his friend S. O. Choi's hapkido school in California. Han later opened his own school in Los Angeles in 1968. His early years were difficult and he worked in a factory during the day while he taught at a struggling hapkido school in the evening located in an economically depressed area. Later, he relocated his school to the Pacific Palisades area in an effort to be closer to Hollywood and the movie industry.
On July 4, 1969, Han Bong Soo was giving a demonstration of Hapkido at a park in Pacific Palisades, California. In the audience was Tom Laughlin. After a spectacular demonstration, Laughlin approached Han about being involved in a movie project called Billy Jack. Han gained critical acclaim for staging and performing some of the most realistic martial arts fight sequences in a film. Before Billy Jack, movies contained at most brief references to martial arts, with fights portrayed by actors who had little training. With Billy Jack, Han introduced authentic hapkido techniques to Western audiences. In its sequel, The Trial of Billy Jack, he received a co-starring part where he spoke about and demonstrated the art, mentioning the art by name for the first time.
Han studied and refined this Korean martial art for more than 60 years. He was not a direct high level student of Grandmaster Yong Sul Choi but created and crafted his own limited version from various other teachers that he expanded and taught throughout the world.
Hapkido: Kim, Moo-Hong
Main article: Kim Moo-Hong
(alternately rendered as Kim Moo-Woong or Kim Mu-Hyun)
A student from the Choi and Seo's Daehan Hapki Yukwonsool Dojang, was Kim Moo-Hong (김무홍), who later taught at Seo's main dojang in Taegu. Seo, who promoted Kim to 4th degree, credits Kim with the development of many kicks which are still used in hapkido today. Kim apparentally took the concepts from very basic kicks he had learned from Choi and went to a temple to work on developing them to a much greater degree. Later, in 1961, Kim travelled to Seoul and while staying at Ji Han-Jae's Sung Moo Kwan dojang they finalized the kicking curriculum.
Kim went on to found his Shin Moo Kwan dojang (신무관) in the Jongmyo section of Seoul, also in 1961. Won Kwang-Hwa (원광화) and Kim Jung-Soo(김정수) also served as instructors at this dojang. Kim's notable students were Lee Han-Cheol (이한철), Kim Woo-Tak (김우탁; who founded the Kuk Sool Kwan Hapkido dojang), Huh Il-Woong (허일웅), Lee Joo-Bang (이주방; who founded modern Hwa Rang Do), Na Han-Dong (나한동), Shin Dong-Ki (신동기) and Seo In-Hyuk (서인혁; who founded Kuk Sool Won).
Originally a member of the Korea Kido Association, the organization sent Kim to teach hapkido in the United States in 1969. Upon returning to Korea in 1970, Kim looked to Ji Han-Jae's move to set up his own organization and with the encouragement of his students followed suit and founded the Korean Hapkido Association in 1971. Later he combined this organization with the groups led by Ji Han-Jae and Myung Jae-Nam to form the Republic of Korea Hapkido Association.
Hapkido: Kim, Jung-Soo
Kim Jung-Soo (김정수) was born and raised in the Taegu area, Korea, and started training Hapkido directly under Choi Yong-Sool (최용술) in 1957. He was one of the earlier students of Hapkido, and one source puts him as the eight original student of Choi Yong-Sool. Kim Jung-Soo trained sporadically under Choi Yong-Sool (최용술) along with his primary teachers and influencers Kim Moo-Hong (김무홍) and Won Kwang-Wha (원광화) from 1957 until 1986.
In 1961, Kim Moo-Hong (김무홍) moved to Seoul to open a dojang, and Kim Jung-Soo (김정수) and Won Kwang-Wha (원광화) went with him and became his dojang's primary instructors. Together, they developed the Shin Moo Kwan(신무관) branch of Hapkido. In 1963 Kim Jung-Soo (김정수) decided to go his own way and opened his own dojang in Taegu under the banner of Yun Bee Kwan (윤비관). Later, his students began opening branch schools throughout the greater Taegu aerea, under various names, but still considered to be part of the Yun Bee Kwan (윤비관) family. These schools are known to hold tightly to the original teachings of Choi, Yong Sool (김정수), while also including most of the refinements done by Kim Moo-Hong (김무홍) in terms of kicking methods.
Kim Jung-Soo (김정수) is mostly known for being the founder and president of the Korea-based World Hapkido General Federation, also known as World Hapkido Federation, collecting most of the schools under the Yun Bee Kwan(윤비관) linage in one federation. This organization has since expanded worldwide. While having a similar name, this organization is not to be confused with the U.S. based World Hapkido Federation founded by Kwang Sik Myung (광시숭).
Kim Jung-Soo is currently teaching from his dojang in Taegu City, South Korea.
Hapkido: Myung, Jae-Nam
Main article: Myung Jae-Nam
In 1972, Myung Jae-Nam (명재남) was one of the original members of the Korea Hapkido Association(대한 합기도 협회), which was formed in 1965 at the request of the South Korean President Park Jeong-Hee. The Korea Hapkido Association was formed with the assistance of Park Jong Kyu, who was the head of the Presidential Protective Forces and one of the most powerful men in Korea at the time.
Myung Jae Nam exchanged martial art techniques and information with an Aikido practitioner named Hirata in 1965, for a period of about four years and included many aikido-like techniques into his version of hapkido. He has produced Several books and videos on the subject of hapkido self-defense. Later Myung Jae-Nam broke away from all the other organizations and started to focus on promoting a new style, hankido. Until his death in 1999 he was the leader of the International Hapkido Federation.
Hapkido: Lee, Chong-Min
Main article: Lee Chong Min
Chong Min Lee was born and raised in Seoul, Korea. He began his study of Hapkido as a teenager and continued studying Hapkido throughout his life though not a direct student of the late Grandmaster Yong Sool Choi. He is a self-promoted 9th Degree Black Belt, the Master Instructor of Hapkido Center, President of The World Hapkido Association.
Lee served as an Instructor with the 1st Special Forces Group in the Korean Army, and has taught martial arts to the Police Departments in Seoul as well as Plainfield, New Jersey. He has also served as the director of Hapkido demonstrations for such dignitaries as Hubert H. Humphrey and the Chancellor of the Republic of China, Mr. Chang, during their visits to Seoul, Korea. Lee came to the United States in June 1980. He currently operates a Hapkido Center in Warren, New Jersey and is also a member of the Law Enforcement Officers Association New Jersey State. He has been instructing students for over 42 years in Hapkido.
Hapkido: Park, Song Il
Park Song Il was born in Korea in 1945. During his early school years, he studied Judo and Tae kwon do, but due to the limited and repetitive curriculum of these arts, he began studying HAPKIDO in 1958 at the Sung Moo Kwan under HAPKIDO founder Grandmaster Ji Han Jae. In 1976, Grandmaster Park relocated to the Republic of Panama, establishing his own style called Song Moo HAPKIDO or HAPKIDO Song Moo Kwan. He is currently still teaching in Panama.
Hapkido: Kim, Yun-Sik
Main article: Kim Yun-Sik
Kim Yun-Sik (김윤식)was born in Seoul, Korea in 1943. He is the founder of Bum Moo Kwan Hapkido. He began his martial arts training in 1954 under the direction of Choi Yong-Sool, and received the black belt from Choi in 1957. In the same year he received the black belt in taekwondo from Grandmaster Hwang Kee.
Kim is the founder of the Bum Moo Kwan style, in which the practitioner is instructed to finish the encounter quickly, using any available material as weapon or any part of his body, aiming the opponent's pressure or vital points. Bum Moo is one of the three original and government regulated Hapkido Kwans.
Residing, teaching and training in Brazil since 1977, Kim was the master of several Hapkido World Champions, such as Leandro Heck Gemeo and Norberto Serrano Jr.
On the "hard-soft" scale of martial arts, hapkido stands somewhere in the middle, employing "soft" techniques similar to jujutsu and aikido as well as "hard" techniques reminiscent of taekwondo and tang soo do. Even the "hard" techniques, though, emphasize circular rather than linear movements. Hapkido is an eclectic, hybrid martial art, and different hapkido schools emphasize different techniques. However, some core techniques are found in each school (kwan), and all techniques should follow the three principles of hapkido:
Nonresistance or harmony (Hangul: 화; Hanja: 和; RR: hwa)
Circle principle (Hangul: 원; Hanja: 圓; RR: won)
The Water/Flexible principle (Hangul: 유; Hanja: 流; RR: yu)
Hwa, or non-resistance, is simply the act of remaining relaxed and not directly opposing an opponent's strength. For example, if an opponent were to push against a hapkido student's chest, rather than resist and push back, the hapkido student would avoid a direct confrontation by moving in the same direction as the push and utilizing the opponent's forward momentum to throw him.
Won, the circular principle, is a way to gain momentum for executing the techniques in a natural and free-flowing manner. If an opponent attacks in linear motion, as in a punch or knife thrust, the hapkido student would redirect the opponent's force by leading the attack in a circular pattern, thereby adding the attacker's power to his own. Once he has redirected the power, the hapkido student can execute any of a variety of techniques to incapacitate his attacker. The hapkido practitioner learns to view an attacker as an "energy entity" rather than as a physical entity. The bigger the person is, the more energy a person has, the better it is for the hapkido student.
Yu, the water principle, is analogous to the term Jū used in the names of Japanese arts such as judo and jujutsu, and can be thought of as the soft, adaptable strength of water.
Hapkido is "soft" in that it does not rely on physical force alone, much like water is soft to touch. It is adaptable in that a hapkido master will attempt to deflect an opponent's strike, in a way that is similar to free-flowing water being divided around a stone only to return and envelop it.
Hapkido seeks to be a fully comprehensive fighting style and as such tries to avoid narrow specialization in any particular type of technique or range of fighting. It maintains a wide range of tactics for striking, standing joint locks, throwing techniques (both pure and joint manipulating throws) and pinning techniques. Some styles also incorporate tactics for ground fighting although these tactics generally tend to be focused upon escaping and regaining footing or controlling, striking, and finishing a downed opponent, rather than lengthy wrestling or submission grappling engagements.
The Korean term for technique is sool (Hangul: 술; Hanja: 術; RR: sul). As terminology varies between schools, some refer to defensive maneuvers as soolgi (술기; loosely translated as "technique-ing"), while hoshinsool (Hangul: 호신술; Hanja: 護身術; RR: hosinsul; meaning "self-defense") is preferred by others.
Proper hapkido tactics include using footwork and a series of kicks and hand strikes to bridge the distance with an opponent. Then to immediately control the balance of the opponent (typically by manipulating the head and neck), for a take down or to isolate a wrist or arm and apply a joint twisting throw, depending upon the situation; Hapkido is a comprehensive system and once the opponent's balance has been taken, there are a myriad of techniques to disable and subdue the opponent.
Hapkido makes use of pressure points known in Korean as hyeol (Hangul: 혈; Hanja: 穴) which are also used in traditional Asian medical practices such as acupuncture point. These pressure points are either struck to produce unconsciousness or manipulated to create pain allowing one to more easily upset the balance of one's opponent prior to a throw or joint manipulation.
Hapkido emphasizes self-defense over sport fighting and as such employs the use of weapons, including environmental weapons of opportunity, in addition to empty hand techniques. Some schools also teach hyeong (Hangul: 형; Hanja: 形), the Korean equivalent of what is commonly known as "kata" (or "forms") in Japanese martial arts.
A bidirectional kick.
A flying side kick.
The wide variety of kicks in hapkido make it distinctly Korean. Taekwondo kicks appear to be similar to many of the kicks found in hapkido, though again circular motion is emphasized. Also, in contrast to most modern taekwondo styles, hapkido utilises a wide variety of low (below the waist), hooking or sweeping kicks, with one of the most distinctive being the low spinning (sweeping) heel kick.
Hapkido's method of delivery tends toward greater weight commitment to the strikes and less concern for quick retraction of the kicking leg. Traditionally, Choi Yong-Sool's yu kwon sool (Hangul: 유권술; Hanja: 柔拳術; RR: yugwonsul) kicking techniques were only to the lower body, but most derived varieties of hapkido, probably as a direct influence from other Korean arts, also include high kicks and jumping kicks. At the more advanced levels of Hapkido the practitioner learns "blade kicks" which utilize sweeping blade strikes of the inner and outer foot against pressure points of the body.
Two of the earliest innovators in this regard were Ji Han-Jae and Kim Moo-Hong, both of whom were exposed to what were thought to be indigenous Korean kicking arts. They combined these forms together with the yu sool concepts for striking taught to them by Choi and during a period of 8 months training together in 1961 finalized the kicking curriculum which would be used by the Korea Hapkido Association for many years to come.
Other influences also were exerted on the kicking techniques of important hapkido teachers. Kwon Tae-Man (권태만) initially studied under Ji Han-Jae before immigrating to southern California in the United States. Han Bong-soo studied under Gwonbeop (Hangul: 권법; Hanja: 拳法) and Shūdōkankarate from Yoon Byung-In (윤병인), whose students were influential in the later forming of Kong Soo Do and Taekwondo styles, specifically the Chang Moo Kwan and Jidokwan. He, like Kim Moo-Hong, also trained briefly in the Korean art of taekkyeon under Lee Bok-Yong (이복용).
Many other teachers like Myung Kwang-Sik (명광식), Jeong Kee-Tae (정기태), Lim Hyun-Soo (임현수), and many others trained in tang soo do and kong soo do, Shotokan and Shūdōkan karate based systems which predated and influenced the forming of first tae soo do and later modern taekwondo styles.
Kim Sang-Cook states that while many of the original yu kwon sool students were exposed to many different contemporary Korean arts the Chung Do Kwan was of particular importance in the transition from the original jujutsu based form to what we know today as modern hapkido.
Most forms of hapkido include a series of double kicks used to promote balance, coordination and muscular control.
Inside Crescent Kick - Side Kick (or Inside Heeldown Kick and Side Kick)
Outside Heel-down Kick - Roundhouse Kick
Ankle Scoop Kick - Side Kick
Cover Kick - Front Kick
Inside Heel Hooking-the-Thigh Kick-Front Kick
High Spinning Heel Kick - Low Spinning Heel Kick
Inside Footblade Kick – Outside Footblade Kick
Outside Heeldown Kick - Roundhouse
After these kicks are mastered using one foot kick the student moves on to jumping versions using alternate kicking legs.
Kim Chong Sung (김종성, Jang Mu Won Hapkido Founder), was one of the oldest living active hapkido instructors, maintains that the source of these kicking methods is from the indigenous Korean kicking art of taekkyeon. Others feel that these kicks are more representative of kong soo do and tang soo do styles which emerged from an adaptation of Japanese karate forms.
Hapkido: Hand strikes
Like most martial arts, hapkido employs a great number of punches and hand strikes, as well as elbow strikes. A distinctive example of hapkido hand techniques is "live hand" strike that focuses energy to the baek hwa hyul in the hand, producing energy strikes and internal strikes. The hand strikes are often used to weaken the opponent before joint locking and throwing, and also as finishing techniques.
Hand striking in hapkido (unless in competition) is not restricted to punches and open hand striking; some significance is given to striking with fingernails at the throat and eyes; pulling at the opponent's genitals is also covered in conventional training.
In order to recall hand strikes more easily in an emotionally charged situation, beginning students are taught conventional, effective patterns of blocks and counter-attacks called makko chigi (막고 치기), which progress to more complex techniques as the student becomes familiar with them.
Hapkido: Joint manipulation techniques
A hyperflexing wristlock used as a pain compliance technique.
The straight armlock is an example of a very effective elbowlock.
Many of hapkido's joint control techniques are said to be derived largely from Daitō-ryū Aiki-jūjutsu. They are taught similarly to Aikido and Ju Jutsu techniques, but in general the circles are smaller and the techniques are applied in a more linear fashion. Hapkido's joint manipulation techniques attack both large joints (such as the elbow, shoulder, neck, back, knee, and hip) and small joints (such as wrists, fingers, ankles, toes, and jaw).
Most techniques involve applying force in the direction that a joint moves naturally and then forcing it to overextend or by forcing a joint to move in a direction that goes against its natural range of motion. These techniques can be used to cause pain and force a submission, to gain control of an opponent for a 'come along' techniques (as is often employed in law enforcement), to assist in a hard or gentle throw or to cause the dislocation or breaking of the joint. Hapkido differs from some post war styles of aikido in its preservation of a great many techniques which are applied against the joint that were deemed by some to be inconsistent with aikido's more pacifistic philosophy.
Hapkido is well known for its use of a wide variety of wristlocks. These techniques are believed to have been derived from Daitō-ryū Aiki-jūjutsu although their manner of performance is not always identical to that of the parent art. Still many of the techniques found in hapkido are quite similar to those of Daito-ryu and of aikido, which was derived from that art. Examples of such techniques are: the supinating wristlock, pronating wristlock, internal rotational wristlock, and the utilization of pressure points on the wrist. These techniques are common to many forms of Japanese jujutsu, Chinese chin na, and even "catch as catch can" wrestling.
Although well known for its wristlocking techniques, hapkido has an equally wide array of tactics which center upon the manipulation of the elbow joint (see armlock). The first self-defense technique typically taught in many hapkido schools is the knife-hand elbow press. This technique is thought to be derived from Daitō-ryū's ippondori, a method of disarming and destroying the elbow joint of a sword-wielding opponent. Hapkido typically introduces this technique off a wrist-grabbing attack where the defender makes a circular movement with his hands to free himself from the opponent's grasp and applies a pronating wristlock while cutting down upon the elbow joint with their forearm, taking their opponent down to the ground, where an elbow lock is applied with one's hand or knee to immobilize the attacker in a pin. Both Daito-ryu and aikido prefer to use hand pressure on the elbow throughout the technique rather than using the forearm as a "hand blade (Hangul: 수도; Hanja: 手刀)", cutting into the elbow joint, in the hapkido manner.
Hapkido: Throwing techniques
Hapkido students practice throws and joint manipulation in a dojang.
In addition to throws which are achieved by unbalancing one's opponent through the twisting of their joints, hapkido also contains techniques of pure throwing which do not require the assistance of jointlocks. Some of these techniques are found within Daito-ryu but a great many of them are held in common with judo (pronounced "yudo 유도" in Korean). Many of early practitioners of hapkido had extensive judo backgrounds including Choi Yong-Sool's first student Seo Bok-Seob.
Judo techniques were introduced in the early years of the 20th century in Korea during the Japanese colonial period. Judo/Yudo tactics employ extensive use of throws, various chokes, hold downs, joint locks, and other grappling techniques used to control the opponent on the ground. It is believed that these techniques were absorbed into the hapkido curriculum from judo as there were a great many judo practitioners in Korea at that time and its tactics were commonly employed in the fighting of the period. Indeed, there also exists a portion of the hapkido curriculum which consists of techniques specifically designed to thwart judo style attacks.
Hapkido holds many throwing techniques in common with judo.
Nunchaku (Ssahng Jol Gohn; 쌍절곤), one of hapkido weapons.
The judo/yudo techniques were however adopted with adjustments made to make them blend more completely with the self-defence orientation which hapkido stresses. For example, many of the judo style throwing techniques employed in hapkido do not rely upon the use of traditional judo grips on the uniform, which can play a large role in the Japanese sport. Instead in many cases they rely upon gripping the limbs, head or neck in order to be successful.
Even today Korea remains one of the strongest countries in the world for the sport of judo and this cross influence on the art of Korean hapkido to be felt in Hapkido influenced styles such as GongKwon Yusul (공권유술).
As a hapkido student advances through the various belt levels (essentially the same as other Korean arts, e.g. taekwondo), he or she learns how to employ and defend against various weapons. The first weapon encountered is most often a knife (Hangul: 칼; RR: kal). Another initial weapon used to teach both control and the basic precepts of utilizing a weapon with Hapkido techniques is the Jung Bong (police baton sized stick), techniques and defenses against the 35 cm short stick (Hangul: 단봉; Hanja: 短棒; RR: danbong), a walking stick or cane (ji-pang-ee; 지팡이), and a rope are introduced in hapkido training. Many hapkido organisations may also include other weapons training such as a sword (gum; 검), long staff (Hangul: 장봉; Hanja: 長棒; RR: jangbong), middle length staff, nunchaku (Hangul: 쌍절곤; Hanja: 雙節棍; RR: ssangjeolgon), war-fan or other types of bladed weapons such as twin short swords. Some schools even teach students to defend against firearms. Hapkido weapons techniques are often incorporated into many military and law enforcement training curricula.
Hapkido training takes place in a dojang. While training methods vary, a typical training session will contain technique practice (striking techniques as well as defensive throws and grappling), break falling (Hangul: 낙법; Hanja: 落法; RR: nakbeop), sparring, meditation and exercises to develop internal energy (ki, Hangul: 기; Hanja: 氣; RR: gi).
Hapkido is predominantly a "soft" art, but this does not mean that it is easier on the opponent, or that training is easier (see Hard and soft (martial arts)). Hapkido training is vigorous and demanding. The practitioner could benefit in training by being lean and muscular. However, strength is not a prerequisite of hapkido; what strength and fitness is necessary to perform the techniques develops naturally as a result of training.
The following is an example of the Korea Hapkido Association technical requirements from 1st degree to 5th degree Black Belt as recorded by He-Young Kimm in 1991, created in association with Ji Han Jae. These techniques are now considered pre-dan level.
1st Degree Black Belt
Wrist Seize Defense
Clothing Seize Defense
Attacking Techniques / Taking the Initiative
2nd Degree Black Belt
Advanced Wrist Grab Defense
Advanced Clothing Grab Defense
Advanced Punch Defense
Advanced Kick Defense
Advanced Attacking Techniques / Taking the Initiative
Defense From A Sitting Or Lying Posture
3rd Degree Black Belt
Joint locking Counters
Short Stick Techniques
4th Degree Black Belt
Defense Against Multiple Attackers
5th Degree Black Belt
Techniques Using Opponent's Force
Knife Throwing Techniques
Hapkido: See also
Aiki (martial arts principle)
"hapkido". OxfordDictionaries.com. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 8 January 2017.
"hapkido". Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 8 January 2017.
"[박정진의 무맥] (24) 일본에서 다시 돌아온 화랑무예 합기도 - 세상을 보는 눈, 글로벌 미디어 - 세계일보". Segye.com. Retrieved 2015-10-28.
"[허인욱의 무인이야기]장보고와 정년 그리고 송징". Mookas.com. Retrieved 2015-10-28.
Sheya, Joseph K. (1982). "Historical Interview: Hapkido Grandmaster Choi, Yong-Sool (1904–1986)". Rim's Hapkido. Retrieved 2007-03-17.
Pranin, Stanley (2007). "Choi, Yong-Sool". Encyclopedia of Aikido. Retrieved 2007-08-04.
Pranin, Stanley (April 1988). "Interview with Kisshomaru Ueshiba: The Early Days of Aikido". Aiki News. 77. Retrieved 2006-12-03.
Giordano, Vincent (2003). Hidden Masters of the Martial Arts. New York City: Unpublished manuscript.
Giordano, Vincent (May 12, 2006). Interview with Doju Chin Il Chang. New York City: Personal interview.
Giordano, Vincent (February 1, 2013). Interview with Doju Chin Il Chang. New York City: Personal interview.
Giordano, Vincent (May 12, 2006). Interview with Doju Chinil Chang. New York City: Personal interview.
"Posthumously Released Interview with Choi Yong-Sool". Mynextbelt.com. Retrieved 2015-10-28.
Jong bae, Rim; Sheya, Joe; Burke, Mike (June 1999). "Birth of Hapkido: Founder Choi Yong-sul Reveals the Truth About the Art's Origin". Black Belt Magazine: 130–139.
Giordano, Vincent (August 1999). "Hapkido History Heresy?". Black Belt Magazine: 43.
"The late Choi Bok-Yoel as second successor of Hapkido". Hapkiyusul.com. Retrieved 2015-10-28.
"Kim Yung Sang as third successor of Hapkido". Hapkiyusul.com. Retrieved 2015-10-28.
Restall, Barry (November 2006). "Young Sul Kwan: History of the Korean Hapkido Hapkiyusul Headquarters". Tae Kwon Do Times: 24–28.
Chang, Chinil (April 1987). "Hapkido Founder Choi Passes On". Black Belt Magazine: 16.
Young, Robert (January 1994). "Jujutsu vs. Hapkido". Black Belt Magazine: 26–31.
Kimm, He-Young (1991). The Hapkido Bible. Baton Rouge, Louisiana: Andrew Jackson Press.
Wollmershauser, Mike (1996). Eric Hentz, ed. "The Beginning of Hapkido; An Interview with Hapkido Master Seo Bok-Seob". Taekwondo Times. 16 (8).
"태권도조선 - 태권도 전문 온라인 미디어". Taekwondo.chosun.com. Retrieved 2015-10-28.
Corcoran, John. Inside Taekwondo. Vol.1, No.1. Feb. 1992. Article by James Dolmage Hapkido Grandmaster Ji Han-Jae Reveals the Truth; The Beauty and the Benefits of Hapkido CFW Enterprises. Burbank, USA. 1991.
According to published works by Seo Bok-Seob, Han Bong-Soo, Myung Kwang-Sik, Kim Jong-Seong, Jeong Kee-Tae, Spear, Robert K., etc.
"Hapkido Family Tree". Koti.mbnet.fi. Retrieved 2015-10-28.
"World Hapkido Federation(s) | MartialTalk.Com - Friendly Martial Arts Forum Community". MartialTalk.Com. Retrieved 2015-10-28.
"Yun Sik Kim –". Cbhkd.com.br. Retrieved 2015-10-28.
Walker, Byron, Reflections of a Master: Philosophies of Hapkido Stylist Han Bong-soo. Martial Arts and Combat Sports Magazine. September 2001.
Hentz, Eric (editor). Article by Dick Morgan Interview With Grandmaster Kim Sang-Cook. Taekwondo Times, November 2005. Tri-Mount Publications, Iowa 2005.
Hapkido: Further reading
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hapkido.
Look up hapkido in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Myung, Kwang-Sik. Korean Hapkido: Ancient Art of Masters. World Hapkido Federation, Los Angeles, California, 1976.
Myung, Kwang-Sik. Hapkido: Special Self-Protection Techniques. World Hapkido Federation, Los Angeles, California, 1993.
Myung, Kwang-Sik. Hapkido Textbook (Vol. 1–5). World Hapkido Federation, Los Angeles, California, 2000.
Kim, He-Young. Hapkido. Andrew Jackson Press, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, 1991.
Kim, He-Young. Hapkido II. Andrew Jackson Press, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, 1994.
Kim, He-Young. History of Korea and Hapkido. Andrew Jackson Press, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, 2008.
Korean martial arts
Sin Moo Hapkido
Hapki Kochido Musool
Korea Hapkido Federation
International H.K.D Federation
Jaenam Musul Won Foundation
Tang Soo Do
Kong Soo Do
Kuk Sool Won
Korean martial arts
Kong Soo Do
Tae Soo Do
Hwa Soo Do
Tang Soo Do
Soo Bahk Do
Shim Gum Do
Hwa Rang Do
Kuk Sool Won
Kuk Sul Do
Chon-Tu Kwan Hapkido
Kong Soo Do
Kuk Sul Do
Kuk Sool Won
Moo Duk Kwan Taekwondo
Shim Gum Do
Soo Bahk Do
Tae Soo Do
Tang Soo Do
Sae Sok O-Gye
List of styles
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No doubt, the goods by request "Hapkido" in Michigan can be shipped to such cities as Detroit, Grand Rapids, Warren, Sterling Heights, Lansing, Ann Arbor, Flint, Dearborn, Livonia, Clinton, Canton, Westland, Troy, Farmington Hills, Macomb Township, Kalamazoo, Shelby, Wyoming, Southfield, Waterford, Rochester Hills, West Bloomfield, Taylor, Saint Clair Shores, Pontiac, Dearborn Heights, Royal Oak, Novi, Ypsilanti, Battle Creek, Saginaw, Kentwood, East Lansing, Redford, Roseville, Georgetown, Portage, Chesterfield Township, Midland, Bloomfield Charter Township, Oakland County, Saginaw, Commerce, Meridian, Muskegon, Lincoln Park, Grand Blanc, Holland, Orion, Bay City, Independence Charter Township, etc.
It goes without saying that the products by request "Hapkido" in Minnesota can be shipped to such cities as Minneapolis, Saint Paul, Rochester, Bloomington, Duluth, Brooklyn Park, Plymouth, Maple Grove, Woodbury, St. Cloud, Eagan, Eden Prairie, Coon Rapids, Blaine, Burnsville, Lakeville, Minnetonka, Apple Valley, Edina, St. Louis Park, Moorhead, Mankato, Maplewood, Shakopee, Richfield, Cottage Grove, Roseville, Inver Grove Heights, Andover, Brooklyn Center, Savage, Oakdale, Fridley, Winona, Shoreview, Ramsey, Owatonna, Chanhassen, Prior Lake, White Bear Lake, Chaska, Austin, Elk River, Champlin, Faribault, Rosemount, Crystal, Farmington, Hastings, New Brighton.
And of course, the products by request "Hapkido" in Mississippi can be shipped to Jackson, Gulfport, Southaven, Hattiesburg, Biloxi, Meridian, Tupelo, Greenville, Olive Branch, Horn Lake, Clinton, Pearl, Ridgeland, Starkville, Columbus, Vicksburg, Pascagoula, Clarksdale, Oxford, Laurel, Gautier, Ocean Springs, Madison, Brandon, Greenwood, Cleveland, Natchez, Long Beach, Corinth, Hernando, Moss Point, McComb, Canton, Carriere, Grenada, Brookhaven, Indianola, Yazoo City, West Point, Picayune, Petal, and other cities and towns.
Naturally, the goods related with "Hapkido" in Missouri can be purchased if you live in Kansas City, St. Louis, Springfield, Independence, Columbia, Lee’s Summit, O’Fallon, St. Joseph, St. Charles, Blue Springs, St. Peters, Florissant, Joplin, Chesterfield, Jefferson City, Cape Girardeau, Oakville, Wildwood, University City, Ballwin, Raytown, Liberty, Wentzville, Mehlville, Kirkwood, Maryland Heights, Hazelwood, Gladstone, Grandview, Belton, Webster Groves, Sedalia, Ferguson, Arnold, Affton and smaller towns.
Today the products related to the term "Hapkido" in Montana can be shipped to Billings, Missoula, Great Falls, Bozeman, Butte, Helena, Kalispell, Havre, Anaconda, Miles City, Belgrade, Livingston, Laurel, Whitefish, Lewistown, Sidney and smaller towns.
As always, the goods by your query "Hapkido" in Nebraska can be bought in Omaha, Lincoln, Bellevue, Grand Island, Kearney, Fremont, Hastings, Norfolk, North Platte, Papillion, Columbus, La Vista, Scottsbluff, South Sioux City, Beatrice, Lexington, and so on.
No need to say, any products related with "Hapkido" in Nevada can be shipped to such cities as Las Vegas, Henderson, Reno, North Las Vegas, Sparks, Carson City, Fernley, Elko, Mesquite, Boulder City, Fallon, Winnemucca, West Wendover, Ely, Yerington, Carlin, Lovelock, Wells, Caliente.
As always, the goods by request "Hapkido" in New Hampshire can be received in such cities as Manchester, Nashua, Concord, Derry, Dover, Rochester, Salem, Merrimack, Hudson, Londonderry, Keene, Bedford, Portsmouth, Goffstown, Laconia, Hampton, Milford, Durham, Exeter, Windham, Hooksett, Claremont, Lebanon, Pelham, Somersworth, Hanover, Amherst, Raymond, Conway, Berlin, etc.
Today the products by request "Hapkido" in New Jersey can be delivered to the following cities: Newark, Jersey City, Paterson, Elizabeth, Edison, Woodbridge, Lakewood, Toms River, Hamilton, Trenton, Clifton, Camden, Brick, Cherry Hill, Passaic, Middletown, Union City, Old Bridge, Gloucester Township, East Orange, Bayonne, Franklin, North Bergen, Vineland, Union, Piscataway, New Brunswick, Jackson, Wayne, Irvington, Parsippany-Troy Hills, Howell, Perth Amboy, Hoboken, Plainfield, West New York, Washington Township, East Brunswick, Bloomfield, West Orange, Evesham, Bridgewater, South Brunswick, Egg Harbor, Manchester, Hackensack, Sayreville, Mount Laurel, Berkeley, North Brunswick, etc.
As you know, the goods named "Hapkido" in New Mexico can be shipped to Albuquerque, Las Cruces, Rio Rancho, Santa Fe, Roswell, Farmington, South Valley, Clovis, Hobbs, Alamogordo, Carlsbad, Gallup, Deming, Los Lunas, Chaparral, Sunland Park, Las Vegas, Portales, Los Alamos, North Valley, Artesia, Lovington, Silver City, Española...
It goes without saying that the products by request "Hapkido" in New York can be bought in New York, Buffalo, Rochester, Yonkers, Syracuse, Albany, New Rochelle, Mount Vernon, Schenectady, Utica, White Plains, Troy, Niagara Falls, Binghamton, Rome, Long Beach, Poughkeepsie, North Tonawanda, Jamestown, Ithaca, Elmira, Newburgh, Middletown, Auburn, Watertown, Glen Cove, Saratoga Springs, Kingston, Peekskill, Lockport, Plattsburgh, Cortland, Amsterdam, Oswego, Lackawanna, Cohoes, Rye, Gloversville, Beacon, Batavia, Tonawanda, Glens Falls, Olean, Oneonta, Geneva, Dunkirk, Fulton, Oneida, Corning, Ogdensburg, Canandaigua, Watervliet and smaller towns.
Today the goods named "Hapkido" in North Carolina can be shipped to such cities as Charlotte, Raleigh, Greensboro, Durham, Winston-Salem, Fayetteville, Cary, Wilmington, High Point, Greenville, Asheville, Concord, Gastonia, Jacksonville, Chapel Hill, Rocky Mount, Huntersville, Burlington, Wilson, Kannapolis, Apex, Hickory, Wake Forest, Indian Trail, Mooresville, Goldsboro, Monroe, Salisbury, Holly Springs, Matthews, New Bern, Sanford, Cornelius, Garner, Thomasville, Statesville, Asheboro, Mint Hill, Fuquay-Varina, Morrisville, Kernersville, Lumberton, Kinston, Carrboro, Havelock, Shelby, Clemmons, Lexington, Clayton, Boone and smaller towns.
Undoubtedly, the products by request "Hapkido" in North Dakota can be received in Fargo, Bismarck, Grand Forks, Minot, West Fargo, Williston, Dickinson, Mandan, Jamestown, Wahpeton, Devils Lake, Watford City, Valley City, Grafton, Lincoln, Beulah, Rugby, Stanley, Horace, Casselton, New Town, Hazen, Bottineau, Lisbon, Carrington and smaller towns.
As you know, the products by request "Hapkido" in Ohio can be bought in Columbus, Cleveland, Cincinnati, Toledo, Akron, Dayton, Parma, Canton, Youngstown, Lorain, Hamilton, Springfield, Kettering, Elyria, Lakewood, Cuyahoga Falls, Euclid, Middletown, Mansfield, Newark, Mentor, Cleveland Heights, Beavercreek, Strongsville, Fairfield, Dublin, Warren, Findlay, Lancaster, Lima, Huber Heights, Marion, Westerville, Reynoldsburg, Grove City, Stow, Delaware, Brunswick, Upper Arlington, Gahanna, Westlake, North Olmsted, Fairborn, Massillon, Mason, North Royalton, Bowling Green, North Ridgeville, Kent, Garfield Heights, and so on.
And of course, any products related with "Hapkido" in Oklahoma can be received in such cities as Oklahoma City, Tulsa, Norman, Broken Arrow, Lawton, Edmond, Moore, Midwest City, Enid, Stillwater, Muskogee, Bartlesville, Owasso, Shawnee, Yukon, Ardmore, Ponca City, Bixby, Duncan, Del City, Jenks, Sapulpa, Mustang, Sand Springs, Bethany, Altus, Claremore, El Reno, McAlester, Ada, Durant, Tahlequah, Chickasha, Miami, Glenpool, Elk City, Woodward, Okmulgee, Choctaw, Weatherford, Guymon, Guthrie, Warr Acres and smaller towns.
Undoubtedly, any products related with "Hapkido" in Oregon can be delivered to Portland, Salem, Eugene, Gresham, Hillsboro, Beaverton, Bend, Medford, Springfield, Corvallis, Albany, Tigard, Lake Oswego, Keizer, Grants Pass, Oregon City, McMinnville, Redmond, Tualatin, West Linn, Woodburn, Forest Grove, Newberg, Wilsonville, Roseburg, Klamath Falls, Ashland, Milwaukie, Sherwood, Happy Valley, Central Point, Canby, Hermiston, Pendleton, Troutdale, Lebanon, Coos Bay, The Dalles, Dallas, St. Helens, La Grande, Cornelius, Gladstone, Ontario, Sandy, Newport, Monmouth, and so on.
As usual, the goods named "Hapkido" in Pennsylvania can be delivered to the following cities: Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Allentown, Erie, Reading, Scranton, Bethlehem, Lancaster, Harrisburg, Altoona, York, Wilkes-Barre, Chester, Williamsport, Easton, Lebanon, Hazleton, New Castle, Johnstown, McKeesport, Hermitage, Greensburg, Pottsville, Sharon, Butler, Washington, Meadville, New Kensington, Coatesville, St. Marys, Lower Burrell, Oil City, Nanticoke, Uniontown, etc.
Today the found goods by query "Hapkido" in Rhode Island can be sent to Providence, Warwick, Cranston, Pawtucket, East Providence, Woonsocket, Coventry, Cumberland, North Providence, South Kingstown, West Warwick, Johnston, North Kingstown, Newport, Bristol, Westerly, Smithfield, Lincoln, Central Falls, Portsmouth, Barrington, Middletown, Burrillville, Narragansett, Tiverton, East Greenwich, North Smithfield, Warren, Scituate, and so on.
Naturally, the goods related with "Hapkido" in South Carolina can be sent to Columbia, Charleston, North Charleston, Mount Pleasant, Rock Hill, Greenville, Summerville, Sumter, Hilton Head Island, Spartanburg, Florence, Goose Creek, Aiken, Myrtle Beach, Anderson, Greer, Mauldin, Greenwood, North Augusta, Easley, Simpsonville, Hanahan, Lexington, Conway, West Columbia, North Myrtle Beach, Clemson, Orangeburg, Cayce, Bluffton, Beaufort, Gaffney, Irmo, Fort Mill, Port Royal, Forest Acres, Newberry, and other cities and towns.
Usually, the goods by request "Hapkido" in South Dakota can be sent to Sioux Falls, Rapid City, Aberdeen, Brookings, Watertown, Mitchell, Yankton, Pierre, Huron, Spearfish, Vermillion...
And today the products by request "Hapkido" in Tennessee can be received in such cities as Memphis, Nashville, Knoxville, Chattanooga, Clarksville, Murfreesboro, Franklin, Jackson, Johnson City, Bartlett, Hendersonville, Kingsport, Collierville, Smyrna, Cleveland, Brentwood, Germantown, Columbia, Spring Hill, La Vergne, Gallatin, Cookeville, Mount Juliet, Lebanon, Morristown, Oak Ridge, Maryville, Bristol, Farragut, Shelbyville, East Ridge, Tullahoma, and other cities and towns.
No need to say, the goods by request "Hapkido" in Texas can be shipped to Houston, San Antonio, Dallas, Austin, Fort Worth, El Paso, Arlington, Corpus Christi, Plano, Laredo, Lubbock, Garland, Irving, Amarillo, Grand Prairie, Brownsville, McKinney, Frisco, Pasadena, Mesquite, Killeen, McAllen, Carrollton, Midland, Waco, Denton, Abilene, Odessa, Beaumont, Round Rock, The Woodlands, Richardson, Pearland, College Station, Wichita Falls, Lewisville, Tyler, San Angelo, League City, Allen, Sugar Land, Edinburg, Mission, Longview, Bryan, Pharr, Baytown, Missouri City, Temple, Flower Mound, New Braunfels, North Richland Hills, Conroe, Victoria, Cedar Park, Harlingen, Atascocita, Mansfield, Georgetown, San Marcos, Rowlett, Pflugerville, Port Arthur, Spring, Euless, DeSoto, Grapevine, Galveston...
Usually, the goods by request "Hapkido" in Utah can be delivered to the following cities: Salt Lake City, West Valley City, Provo, West Jordan, Orem, Sandy, Ogden, St. George, Layton, Taylorsville, South Jordan, Logan, Lehi, Murray, Bountiful, Draper, Riverton, Roy, Spanish Fork, Pleasant Grove, Cottonwood Heights, Tooele, Springville, Cedar City, Midvale. And, of course, Kaysville, Holladay, American Fork, Clearfield, Syracuse, South Salt Lake, Herriman, Eagle Mountain, Clinton, Washington, Payson, Farmington, Brigham City, Saratoga Springs, North Ogden, South Ogden, North Salt Lake, Highland, Centerville, Hurricane, Heber City, West Haven, Lindon, and so on.
Undoubtedly, any things related with "Hapkido" in Vermont can be delivered to the following cities: Burlington, South Burlington, Rutland, Barre, Montpelier, Winooski, St. Albans, Newport, Vergennes, and so on.
No doubt, the products by request "Hapkido" in Virginia can be purchased if you live in Virginia Beach, Norfolk, Chesapeake, Richmond, Newport News, Alexandria, Hampton, Roanoke, Portsmouth, Suffolk, Lynchburg, Harrisonburg, Charlottesville, Danville, Manassas, Petersburg, Fredericksburg, Winchester, Salem, Staunton, Fairfax, Hopewell, Waynesboro, Colonial Heights, Radford, Bristol, Manassas Park, Williamsburg, Falls Church, Martinsville, Poquoson...
As usual, the products related to the term "Hapkido" in Washington can be delivered to the following cities: Seattle, Spokane, Tacoma, Vancouver, Bellevue, Kent, Everett, Renton, Federal Way, Yakima, Spokane Valley, Kirkland, Bellingham, Kennewick, Auburn, Pasco, Marysville, Lakewood, Redmond, Shoreline, Richland, Sammamish, Burien, Olympia, Lacey. It's also available for those who live in Edmonds, Puyallup, Bremerton, Lynnwood, Bothell, Longview, Issaquah, Wenatchee, Mount Vernon, University Place, Walla Walla, Pullman, Des Moines, Lake Stevens, SeaTac, Maple Valley, Mercer Island, Bainbridge Island, Oak Harbor, Kenmore, Moses Lake, Camas, Mukilteo, Mountlake Terrace, Tukwila and smaller towns.
No need to say, the goods by request "Hapkido" in West Virginia can be bought in Charleston, Huntington, Morgantown, Parkersburg, Wheeling, Weirton, Fairmont, Martinsburg, Beckley, Clarksburg, South Charleston, St. Albans, Vienna, Bluefield, and other cities and towns.
And of course, the products related to the term "Hapkido" in Wisconsin can be shipped to such cities as Milwaukee, Madison, Green Bay, Kenosha, Racine, Appleton, Waukesha, Oshkosh, Eau Claire, Janesville, West Allis, La Crosse, Sheboygan, Wauwatosa, Fond du Lac, New Berlin, Wausau. The shipping is also available in Brookfield, Beloit, Greenfield, Franklin, Oak Creek, Manitowoc, West Bend, Sun Prairie, Superior, Stevens Point, Neenah, Fitchburg, Muskego, Watertown, De Pere, Mequon, South Milwaukee, Marshfield, etc.
It goes without saying that the products by request "Hapkido" in Wyoming can be delivered to the following cities: Cheyenne, Casper, Laramie, Gillette, Rock Springs, Sheridan, Green River, Evanston, Riverton, Jackson, Cody, Rawlins, Lander, Torrington, Powell, Douglas, Worland, and so on.
Canada Delivery, Shipping to Canada
Usually, the goods named "Hapkido" in Canada can be received in Toronto, Montreal, Calgary, Ottawa, Edmonton, Mississauga, Winnipeg, Vancouver, Brampton, Hamilton, Quebec City, Surrey, Laval, Halifax, London, Markham, Vaughan, Gatineau, Longueuil, Burnaby, Saskatoon, Kitchener, Windsor, Regina, Richmond, Richmond Hill.
Delivery is also carried out in Oakville, Burlington, Greater Sudbury, Sherbrooke, Oshawa, Saguenay, Lévis, Barrie, Abbotsford, St. Catharines, Trois-Rivières, Cambridge, Coquitlam, Kingston, Whitby, Guelph, Kelowna, Saanich, Ajax, Thunder Bay, Terrebonne, St. John's, Langley, Chatham-Kent, Delta.
It's also available for those who live in Waterloo, Cape Breton, Brantford, Strathcona County, Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Red Deer, Pickering, Kamloops, Clarington, North Vancouver, Milton, Nanaimo, Lethbridge, Niagara Falls, Repentigny, Victoria, Newmarket, Brossard, Peterborough, Chilliwack, Maple Ridge, Sault Ste. Marie, Kawartha Lakes, Sarnia, Prince George.
The shipping is also available in Drummondville, Saint John, Moncton, Saint-Jérôme, New Westminster, Wood Buffalo, Granby, Norfolk County, St. Albert, Medicine Hat, Caledon, Halton Hills, Port Coquitlam, Fredericton, Grande Prairie, North Bay, Blainville, Saint-Hyacinthe, Aurora, Welland, Shawinigan, Dollard-des-Ormeaux, Belleville, North Vancouver, and other cities.
Actually, any products related with "Hapkido" can be shipped to any place in Canada, including Ontario, Quebec, British Columbia, Alberta, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, and Prince Edward Island.
UK Delivery, Shipping to the United Kingdom
Of course, the products related to the term "Hapkido" in the United Kingdom can be delivered to London, Birmingham, Leeds, Glasgow, Sheffield, Bradford, Edinburgh, Liverpool, Manchester, Bristol, Wakefield, Cardiff, Coventry, Nottingham, Leicester, Sunderland, Belfast, Newcastle upon Tyne, Brighton, Hull, Plymouth, Stoke-on-Trent.
And also in Wolverhampton, Derby, Swansea, Southampton, Salford, Aberdeen, Westminster, Portsmouth, York, Peterborough, Dundee, Lancaster, Oxford, Newport, Preston, St Albans, Norwich, Chester, Cambridge, Salisbury, Exeter, Gloucester. And also in Lisburn, Chichester, Winchester, Londonderry, Carlisle, Worcester, Bath, Durham, Lincoln, Hereford, Armagh, Inverness, Stirling, Canterbury, Lichfield, Newry, Ripon, Bangor, Truro, Ely, Wells, St. Davids, and other cities.
Basically, the found goods by query "Hapkido" can be shipped to any place in the UK, including England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland.
Ireland Delivery, Shipping to Ireland
And of course, the products related to the term "Hapkido" in Ireland can be delivered to the following cities: Dublin, Cork, Limerick, Galway, Waterford, Drogheda, Dundalk, Swords, Bray, Navan, Ennis, Kilkenny, Tralee, Carlow, Newbridge, Naas, Athlone, Portlaoise, Mullingar, Wexford, Balbriggan, Letterkenny, Celbridge, Sligo. Delivery is also carried out in Clonmel, Greystones, Malahide, Leixlip, Carrigaline, Tullamore, Killarney, Arklow, Maynooth, Cobh, Castlebar, Midleton, Mallow, Ashbourne, Ballina, Laytown-Bettystown-Mornington, Enniscorthy, Wicklow, Tramore, Cavan, and other cities.
Basically, the goods by your query "Hapkido" can be shipped to any place in Ireland, including Leinster, Ulster, Munster, and Connacht.
Australia Delivery, Shipping to Australia
It goes without saying that any products related with "Hapkido" in Australia can be shipped to such cities as Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth, Adelaide, Gold Coast, Tweed Heads, Newcastle, Maitland, Canberra, Queanbeyan, Sunshine Coast, Wollongong, Hobart, Geelong, Townsville, Cairns, Darwin, Toowoomba, Ballarat, Bendigo, Albury, Wodonga, Launceston, Mackay.
You can also buy these goods in Rockhampton, Bunbury, Bundaberg, Coffs Harbour, Wagga Wagga, Hervey Bay, Mildura, Wentworth, Shepparton, Mooroopna, Gladstone, Tannum Sands, Port Macquarie, Tamworth, Traralgon, Morwell, Orange, Geraldton, Bowral, Mittagong, Dubbo, Busselton, Bathurst, Nowra, Bomaderry, Warrnambool, Albany, Warragul, Drouin, Kalgoorlie, Boulder, Devonport and smaller towns.
In fact, the goods named "Hapkido" can be shipped to any place in Australia, including New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, Western Australia, South Australia, Tasmania, Australian Capital Territory, and Northern Territory.
New Zealand Delivery, Shipping to New Zealand
No doubt, the products by request "Hapkido" in New Zealand can be received in Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch, Hamilton, Tauranga, Napier-Hastings, Dunedin, Lower Hutt, Palmerston North, Nelson, Rotorua, New Plymouth, Whangarei, Invercargill, Whanganui, Gisborne, Porirua, Invercargill, Nelson, Upper Hutt, Gisborne, Blenheim, Pukekohe, Timaru, Taupo, and other cities.
Generally, the goods related with "Hapkido" can be shipped to any place in New Zealand, including North Island, South Island, Waiheke Island, and smaller islands.
As usual,any products related withcan be sent toDelivery is also carried out in...
Abkhazia: Gagra, Gudauta, Lake Ritsa, New Athos, Ochamchire, Pitsunda, Sukhumi, Tsandryphsh, etc.
Afghanistan: Herat, Jalalabad, Kabul, Kandahar, Kunduz, Mazar-i-Sharif, Taloqan, etc.
Albania: Durrës, Himarë, Sarandë, Shkodër, Tirana, Vlorë, etc.
Algeria: Algiers, Oran, etc.
American Virgin Islands: Charlotte Amalie, etc.
Andorra: Andorra la Vella, Arinsal, El Pas de la Casa, Encamp, Grandvalira, Ordino, Pal, Soldeu, Vallnord, etc.
Angola: Benguela, Luanda, etc.
Anguilla: The Valley, West End, etc.
Antigua and Barbuda: Saint John’s, etc.
Argentina: Buenos Aires, Colón, Córdoba, El Calafate, La Plata, Los Glaciares, Mar del Plata, Mendoza, Pinamar, Puerto Iguazú, Puerto Madryn, Rosario, Salta, San Carlos de Bariloche, San Martín de los Andes, San Miguel de Tucumán, San Rafael, Tandil, Tierra del Fuego, Ushuaia, Villa Carlos Paz, Villa Gesell, Villa La Angostura, Villa de Merlo, etc.
Australia: Adelaide, Brisbane, Byron Bay, Cairns, Canberra, Darwin, Gold Coast, Great Barrier Reef, Hobart, Melbourne, Perth, Sydney, Tasmania, etc.
Austria: Abtenau, Alpbach, Austrian Alps, Bad Gastein, Bad Hofgastein, Bad Kleinkirchheim, Dürnstein, Flachau, Fugen, Graz, Innsbruck, Ischgl, Kaprun, Kitzbühel, Klagenfurt, Kufstein, Lech, Leogang, Lienz, Linz, Maria Alm, Mayrhofen, Neustift im Stubaital, Obergurgl, Saalbach-Hinterglemm, Saalfelden, Salzburg, Schladming, Seefeld, Serfaus, St. Anton, St. Johann im Pongau, Sölden, Tux, Tyrol, Vienna, Villach, Wachau, Wagrain, Zell am See, etc.
Azerbaijan: Baku, Ganja, Lankaran, Quba, Qusar, Shahdag, Sheki, Stepanakert, etc.
Bahamas: Andros, Eleuthera, Exuma, Freeport, Grand Bahama, Nassau, New Providence, Paradise Island, etc.
Bahrain: Manama, etc.
Bangladesh: Chittagong, Cox's Bazar, Dhaka, Khulna, Narayanganj, Rajshahi, Sylhet, etc.
Belgium: Antwerp, Ardennes, Blankenberge, Bouillon, Bruges, Brussels, Charleroi, De Haan, De Panne, Durbuy, Flanders, Ghent, Hasselt, Kortrijk, Leuven, Liège, Namur, Nieuwpoort, Ostend, Spa, Ypres, Zeebrugge, etc.
Belize: Ambergris Caye, Belize City, Caye Caulker, Placencia, San Pedro, etc.
Benin: Cotonou, etc.
Bermuda: Hamilton, etc.
Bhutan: Paro, Thimphu, etc.
Bolivia: Cochabamba, El Alto, La Paz, Oruro, Quillacollo, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Sucre, Uyuni, etc.
Bosnia and Herzegovina: Banja Luka, Jahorina, Medjugorje, Mostar, Neum, Sarajevo, etc.
Botswana: Gaborone, Maun, etc.
Brazil: Amazon River, Amazonia, Angra dos Reis, Arraial do Cabo, Atlantic Forest, Balneário Camboriú, Belo Horizonte, Belém, Bombinhas, Brasília, Búzios, Cabo Frio, Camaçari, Campinas, Campos do Jordão, Caraguatatuba, Copacabana, Costa do Sauípe, Curitiba, Duque de Caxias, Fernando de Noronha, Florianópolis, Fortaleza, Foz do Iguaçu, Goiânia, Gramado, Guarujá, Guarulhos, Iguazu Falls, Ilha Grande, Ilhabela, Ilhéus, Ipanema, Itacaré, Maceió, Manaus, Morro de São Paulo, Natal, Niterói, Osasco, Ouro Preto, Paraty, Petrópolis, Porto Alegre, Porto Seguro, Praia do Forte, Recife, Ribeirão Preto, Rio de Janeiro, Salvador, Santos, São Gonçalo, São José dos Campos, São Luís, São Paulo, São Sebastião, Trancoso, Ubatuba, Vila do Abraão, etc.
British Virgin Islands: Tortola, etc.
Brunei: Bandar Seri Begawan, etc.
Bulgaria: Albena, Balchik, Bansko, Blagoevgrad, Borovets, Burgas, Chernomorets, Dobrinishte, Golden Sands, Kiten, Koprivshtitsa, Lozenets, Nesebar, Obzor, Pamporovo, Pirin, Pleven, Plovdiv, Pomorie, Primorsko, Ravda, Razlog, Rila, Ruse, Samokov, Sandanski, Shumen, Sofia, Sozopol, Stara Zagora, Sunny Beach, Sveti Vlas, Tsarevo, Varna, Veliko Tarnovo, etc.
Cameroon: Bafoussam, Bamenda, Douala, Garoua, Kribi, Limbe, Maroua, Yaoundé, etc.
Canada: Alberta, Banff, Brampton, British Columbia, Burnaby, Calgary, Charlottetown, Edmonton, Fort McMurray, Gatineau, Halifax, Hamilton, Jasper, Kamloops, Kelowna, Kingston, Kitchener, Laval, London, Longueuil, Manitoba, Markham, Mississauga, Moncton, Mont-Tremblant, Montreal, Nanaimo, New Brunswick, Niagara Falls, Niagara on the Lake, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Ottawa, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Regina, Richmond, Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Surrey, Toronto, Vancouver, Vaughan, Victoria, Whistler, Whitehorse, Windsor, Winnipeg, Yukon, etc.
Cape Verde: Boa Vista Cape Verde, Sal, etc.
Caribbean Netherlands:, etc.
Cayman Islands: George Town, Grand Cayman, West Bay, etc.
Chad: N'Djamena, etc.
Chile: Antofagasta, Arica, Atacama, Coquimbo, Easter Island, Hanga Roa, Iquique, La Serena, Patagonia, Pucón, Puerto Montt, Puerto Natales, Puerto Varas, Punta Arenas, San Pedro de Atacama, Santiago, Torres del Paine, Valdivia, Valparaíso, Villarrica, Viña del Mar, etc.
Colombia: Barranquilla, Bogotá, Bucaramanga, Cali, Cartagena, Medellín, Pereira, San Andrés, Santa Marta, Villa de Leyva, Villavicencio, etc.
Costa Rica: Alajuela, Jacó, La Fortuna, Manuel Antonio, Monteverde, Puerto Viejo de Talamanca, Puntarenas, Quepos, San José, Santa Teresa, Tamarindo, Tortuguero, etc.
Croatia: Baška Voda, Baška, Bibinje, Biograd na Moru, Bol, Brač, Brela, Cavtat, Cres, Dalmatia, Fažana, Hvar, Istria, Ičići, Korčula, Krk, Lopud, Lovran, Lošinj, Makarska, Mali Lošinj, Malinska, Medulin, Mlini, Nin, Novi Vinodolski, Novigrad, Omiš, Opatija, Orebić, Pag, Podstrana, Poreč, Pula, Rab, Rabac, Rijeka, Rovinj, Split, Stari Grad, Sukošan, Supetar, Trogir, Tučepi, Umag, Vrsar, Zadar, Zagreb, Čiovo, Šibenik, etc.
Cuba: Baracoa, Camagüey, Cayo Coco, Cayo Largo, Cayo Santa María, Cienfuegos, Guantánamo, Havana, Holguín, Pinar del Río, Remedios Cuba, Sancti Spíritus, Santa Clara Cuba, Santiago de Cuba, Trinidad, Varadero, Viñales, etc.
Curaçao: Sint Michiel, Westpunt, Willemstad, etc.
Cyprus: Ayia Napa, Coral Bay Cyprus, Famagusta, Kouklia, Kyrenia, Larnaca, Limassol, Nicosia, Paphos, Paralimni, Peyia, Pissouri, Polis, Protaras, etc.
Czech Republic: Bohemia, Brno, Děčín, Frymburk, Frýdek-Místek, Harrachov, Hradec Králové, Jihlava, Karlovy Vary, Kladno, Krkonoše, Kutná Hora, Liberec, Marienbad, Mikulov, Mladá Boleslav, Mělník, Olomouc, Ostrava, Pardubice, Plzeň, Poděbrady, Prague, Teplice, Třeboň, Zlín, Znojmo, Ústí nad Labem, České Budějovice, Český Krumlov, Špindlerův Mlýn, etc.
Ecuador: Baños, Cuenca, Galápagos Islands, Guayaquil, Manta, Otavalo, Puerto Ayora, Puerto López, Quito, Salinas, etc.
Egypt: Abu Simbel, Al Qusair, Alexandria, Aswan, Cairo, Dahab, El Alamein, El Gouna, El Hadaba, Faiyum, Giza, Hurghada, Luxor, Marsa Alam, Mersa Matruh, Naama Bay, Nabq Bay, Nile, Nuweiba, Port Said, Red Sea, Safaga, Sahl Hasheesh, Scharm asch-Schaich, Sharks Bay, Sinai, Suez, Taba, Valley of the Kings, etc.
El Salvador: La Libertad, San Salvador, etc.
Equatorial Guinea: Malabo, etc.
Eritrea: Asmara, etc.
Estonia: Haapsalu, Kuressaare, Narva, Pärnu, Saaremaa, Tallinn, Tartu, etc.
Indonesia: Bali, Balikpapan, Bandung, Batu, Bintan, Bogor, Borobudur, Denpasar, Jakarta, Java, Jimbaran, Kalimantan, Kuta, Lombok, Makassar, Malang, Mataram, Medan, Nusa Dua, Padang, Palembang, Pekanbaru, Sanur, Semarang, Seminyak, Sumatra, Surabaya, Surakarta, Ubud, Yogyakarta, etc.
Iran: Isfahan, Mashhad, Shiraz, Tehran, etc.
Iraq: Baghdad, Basra, Duhok, Erbil, Karbala, Sulaymaniyah, etc.
Kazakhstan: Aktau, Aktobe, Almaty, Astana, Atyrau, Burabay, Karagandy, Kokshetau, Kostanay, Lake Balkhash, Oskemen, Pavlodar, Semey, Shymbulak, Shymkent, Taraz, etc.
Kenya: Kisumu, Lake Victoria, Masai Mara, Mombasa, Nairobi, Ukunda, etc.
Kiribati: South Tarawa, etc.
Kongo: Brazzaville, Pointe-Noire, etc.
Kosovo: Pristina, Prizren, etc.
Kuwait: Hawally, Kuwait City, Salmiya, etc.
Kyrgyzstan: Bishkek, Bosteri, Cholpon-Ata, Issyk Kul, Karakol, Osh, etc.
Laos: Luang Prabang, Vang Vieng, Vientiane, etc.
Latvia: Cēsis, Daugavpils, Jūrmala, Liepāja, Riga, Rēzekne, Sigulda, Ventspils, etc.
Lebanon: Baalbeck, Beirut, Byblos, Faraya, Jounieh, Mzaar Kfardebian, Tripoli, etc.
Lesotho: Maseru, etc.
Liberia: Monrovia, etc.
Libya: Benghazi, Tripoli, etc.
Liechtenstein: Schaan, Vaduz, etc.
Lithuania: Druskininkai, Kaunas, Klaipėda, Nida, Palanga, Panevėžys, Trakai, Vilnius, Šiauliai, Šventoji, etc.
Luxembourg: Differdange, Dudelange, Echternach, Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg City, Vianden, etc.
Macedonia: Bitola, Mavrovo, Ohrid, Skopje, etc.
Madagascar: Antananarivo, etc.
Malawi: Blantyre, Lilongwe, etc.
Malaysia: Borneo, George Town, Ipoh, Johor Bahru, Johor, Kedah, Kota Bharu, Kota Kinabalu, Kuah, Kuala Lumpur, Kuala Terengganu, Kuantan, Kuching, Langkawi, Malacca, Penang, Putrajaya, Sabah, Sarawak, Selangor, Shah Alam, etc.
Maldives: Kaafu Atoll, Malé, etc.
Mali: Bamako, etc.
Malta: Birżebbuġa, Buġibba, Gozo, Gżira, Mellieħa, Paceville, Pembroke, Qawra, Sliema, St. Julian's, St. Paul's Bay, Valletta, etc.
Martinique: Fort-de-France, Les Trois-Îlets, Sainte-Luce, etc.
Mauritania: Mexico City, Nouakchott, etc.
Mauritius: Port Louis, etc.
Mexico: Acapulco, Akumal, Cabo San Lucas, Cancún, Chetumal, Chichen Itza, Chihuahua, Ciudad Juárez, Cozumel, Cuernavaca, Guadalajara, Guanajuato, Isla Mujeres, Los Cabos, Manzanillo, Mazatlán, Monterrey, Mérida, Oaxaca, Playa del Carmen, Puebla, Puerto Aventuras, Puerto Escondido, Puerto Morelos, Puerto Peñasco, Puerto Vallarta, Querétaro, Riviera Maya, San Cristóbal de las Casas, San Miguel de Allende, San Miguel de Cozumel, Tulum, etc.
Moldova: Bălți, Chișinău, Tiraspol, etc.
Monaco: Monte Carlo, etc.
Mongolia: Darkhan, Erdenet, Ulaanbaatar, etc.
Montenegro: Bar, Bečići, Bijela, Budva, Cetinje, Dobra Voda, Dobrota, Herceg Novi, Igalo, Kolašin, Kotor, Miločer, Nikšić, Perast, Petrovac, Podgorica, Prčanj, Sutomore, Sveti Stefan, Tivat, Ulcinj, Žabljak, etc.
Myanmar: Mandalay, Naypyidaw, Nyaung Shwe, Yangon, etc.
Namibia: Rundu, Swakopmund, Walvis Bay, Windhoek, etc.
Nepal: Chitwan, Himalayas, Kathmandu, Lukla, Lumbini, Mount Everest, Nagarkot, Namche Bazaar, Patan, Pokhara, Tengboche, etc.
Netherlands: 's-Hertogenbosch, Alkmaar, Amersfoort, Amsterdam, Arnhem, Breda, Delft, Domburg, Dordrecht, Eindhoven, Groningen, Haarlem, Leiden, Maastricht, Nijmegen, Noordwijk, Rotterdam, Texel, The Hague, Utrecht, Valkenburg aan de Geul, Wijk aan Zee, Zandvoort, etc.
New Zealand: Auckland, Christchurch, Dunedin, Gisborne, Hamilton, Hastings, Invercargill, Kaikoura, Lower Hutt, Napier, Nelson, New Plymouth, North Island, Palmerston North, Porirua, Queenstown, Rotorua, South Island, Taupo, Tauranga, Waiheke Island, Wanaka, Wellington, Whangarei, etc.
Nicaragua: Granada, Managua, etc.
Nigeria: Abuja, Benin City, Calabar, Enugu, Ibadan, Ilorin, Jos, Kaduna, Lagos, Owerri, Port Harcourt, Uyo, etc.
Philippines: Angeles City, Antipolo, Bacolod, Bacoor, Baguio, Batangas, Bohol, Boracay, Cagayan de Oro, Calamba, Caloocan, Cebu, Coron, Dasmariñas, Davao, Dumaguete, El Nido, General Santos, Iloilo City, Kalibo, Lapu-Lapu City, Las Piñas, Luzon, Mactan, Makati, Mandaue, Manila, Marikina, Mindanao, Muntinlupa, Olongapo, Palawan, Panglao, Parañaque, Pasay, Pasig, Puerto Galera, Puerto Princesa, Quezon City, Tagaytay, Tagbilaran, Taguig, Valenzuela, Visayas, Zamboanga, etc.
Saint Lucia: Anse La Raye, Castries, Gros Islet, Soufrière, etc.
Saint Martin:, etc.
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines: Kingstown, etc.
Samoa: Apia, etc.
San Marino: City of San Marino, etc.
Saudi Arabia: Abha, Al Khobar, Buraydah, Dammam, Jeddah, Jizan, Jubail, Mecca, Medina, Riyadh, Ta'if, Tabuk, Yanbu, etc.
Senegal: Dakar, etc.
Serbia: Belgrade, Kopaonik, Niš, Novi Sad, Palić, Stara Planina, Subotica, Zlatibor, etc.
Seychelles: La Digue, Mahé, Praslin, etc.
Sierra Leone: Freetown, etc.
Singapore: Changi, Sentosa, etc.
Sint Maarten:, etc.
Slovakia: Bratislava, Jasná, Liptov, Tatranská Lomnica, Vysoké Tatry, Štrbské Pleso, etc.
Slovenia: Bled, Bohinj, Bovec, Kranjska Gora, Ljubljana, Maribor, Piran, Portorož, Rogaška Slatina, etc.
Solomon Islands: Honiara, etc.
Somalia: Mogadishu, etc.
Somaliland: Hargeisa, etc.
South Africa: Ballito, Benoni, Bloemfontein, Boksburg, Cape Town, Drakensberg, Durban, East London, George, Johannesburg, Kempton Park, Kimberley, Knysna, Kruger National Park, Marloth Park, Mossel Bay, Nelspruit, Pietermaritzburg, Plettenberg Bay, Polokwane, Port Elizabeth, Potchefstroom, Pretoria, Rustenburg, Sandton, Stellenbosch, Umhlanga, etc.
Spain: A Coruña, Alcúdia, Algeciras, Alicante, Almería, Altea, Andalusia, Antequera, Aragon, Asturias, Ayamonte, Baiona, Balearic Islands, Barbate, Barcelona, Basque Country, Benalmádena, Benidorm, Benissa, Besalú, Bilbao, Blanes, Buñol, Cadaqués, Cala d'Or, Calella, Calonge, Calp, Calvià, Cambados, Cambrils, Canary Islands, Cangas de Onís, Cantabria, Cartagena, Castilla-La Mancha, Catalonia, Chiclana de la Frontera, Costa Blanca, Costa Brava, Costa Dorada, Costa del Maresme, Costa del Sol, Cádiz, Córdoba, Dénia, El Puerto de Santa María, Empuriabrava, Estepona, Figueres, Formentera, Fuerteventura, Galicia, Gijón, Girona, Gran Canaria, Granada, Ibiza, Jerez de la Frontera, L'Escala, L'Estartit, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, La Pineda, Lanzarote, Llançà, Lleida, Lloret de Mar, Madrid, Magaluf, Malgrat de Mar, Mallorca, Marbella, Maspalomas, Menorca, Mijas, Mojácar, Moraira, Murcia, Málaga, Navarre, Nerja, O Grove, Ourense, Oviedo, Palma Nova, Palma, Pals, Poio, Pollença, Pontevedra, PortAventura, Portonovo, Ronda, Roquetas de Mar, Roses, Salamanca, Salou, San Sebastian, Sant Antoni de Portmany, Santander, Santiago de Compostela, Santillana del Mar, Sanxenxo, Seville, Sidges, Sierra Nevada, Tarifa, Tarragona, Tenerife, Toledo, Torremolinos, Torrevieja, Torroella de Montgrí, Tossa de Mar, Valencia, Vigo, Vélez-Málaga, Xàbia, Zaragoza, etc.
Syria: Aleppo, Damascus, Deir ez-Zor, Latakia, Palmyra, Tartus, etc.
Taiwan: Hsinchu, Kaohsiung, Taichung, Tainan, Taipei, etc.
Tajikistan: Dushanbe, Isfara, Khujand, etc.
Tanzania: Dar es Salaam, Mount Kilimanjaro, Serengeti, Zanzibar, etc.
Thailand: Ayutthaya, Bangkok, Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai, Chonburi, Hua Hin, Kanchanaburi, Karon, Ko Chang, Ko Lanta, Ko Phangan, Ko Samui, Krabi, Pai, Patong, Pattaya, Phi Phi Islands, Phuket, Ranong, River Kwai, Udon Thani, etc.
Togo: Lomé, etc.
Tonga: Nukuʻalofa, Tunis, etc.
Trinidad and Tobago: Port of Spain, etc.
Tunisia: Djerba, Hammamet, Midoun, Monastir, Port El Kantaoui, Sousse, etc.
United States: Akron, Alabama, Alaska, Albuquerque, Amarillo, Anaheim, Anchorage, Ann Arbor, Arizona, Arkansas, Arlington, Aspen, Atlanta, Aurora, Austin, Bakersfield, Baltimore, Baton Rouge, Beaver Creek, Big Bear Lake, Billings, Biloxi, Birmingham, Boise, Boston, Breckenridge, Brooklyn, Buffalo, California, Carlsbad, Carmel-by-the-Sea, Chandler, Charlotte, Chesapeake, Cheyenne, Chicago, Chula Vista, Cincinnati, Clearwater, Cleveland, Colorado Springs, Colorado, Columbus Georgia, Columbus, Connecticut, Corpus Christi, Costa Mesa, Dallas, Dana Point, Daytona Beach, Death Valley, Delaware, Denver, Des Moines, Destin, Detroit, Durham, El Paso, Estes Park, Fargo, Fayetteville, Florida, Fontana, Fort Lauderdale, Fort Myers, Fort Walton Beach, Fort Wayne, Fort Worth, Fremont, Fresno, Galveston, Garland, Georgia, Gilbert, Glendale, Grand Canyon, Grand Rapids, Grand Teton, Great Smoky Mountains, Greensboro, Gulfport, Hawaii, Henderson, Hialeah, Hollywood, Honolulu, Hot Springs, Houston, Huntington Beach, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Indianapolis, Iowa, Irving, Jackson Mississippi, Jackson Wyoming, Jacksonville, Jersey City, Juneau, Kansas City, Kansas, Kentucky, Key Largo, Key West, Laguna Beach, Lahaina, Lake Tahoe, Laredo, Las Vegas, Lexington, Lincoln, Little Rock, Long Beach, Los Angeles, Louisiana, Louisville, Lubbock, Madison, Maine, Malibu, Mammoth Lakes, Manhattan, Marathon, Maryland, Massachusetts, Memphis, Mesa, Miami Beach, Miami, Michigan, Milwaukee, Minneapolis, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Moab, Modesto, Montana, Monterey, Montgomery, Moreno Valley, Mountain View, Myrtle Beach, Napa, Naples, Nashville, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New Orleans, New York City, New York, Newark, Newport Beach, Newport, Norfolk, North Carolina, North Dakota, North Las Vegas, Oakland, Ocean City, Oceanside, Ohio, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, Omaha, Oregon, Orlando, Oxnard, Palm Coast, Palm Desert, Palm Springs, Panama City Beach, Park City, Pasadena, Pennsylvania, Pensacola, Philadelphia, Phoenix, Pittsburgh, Plano, Portland, Portland, Providence, Raleigh, Reno, Rhode Island, Richmond, Riverside, Rochester, Rocky Mountains, Sacramento, Saint Paul, Salt Lake City, San Antonio, San Bernardino, San Diego, San Francisco, San Jose, Sanibel, Santa Ana, Santa Barbara, Santa Cruz, Santa Fe, Santa Monica, Sarasota, Savannah, Scottsdale, Seattle, Shreveport, Silicon Valley, South Carolina, South Dakota, South Lake Tahoe, Spokane, Springfield, Squaw Valley, St. Augustine, St. Louis, St. Petersburg, Steamboat Springs, Stockton, Sunny Isles Beach, Tacoma, Tallahassee, Tampa, Telluride, Tennessee, Texas, Thousand Oaks, Toledo, Tucson, Tulsa, Utah, Vail, Vermont, Virginia Beach, Virginia, Waikiki, Washington D.C., Washington, West Virginia, Wichita, Winston-Salem, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Yellowstone, Yonkers, Yosemite, Zion, etc.
Uruguay: Montevideo, Punta del Este, etc.
Uzbekistan: Bukhara, Fergana, Khiva, Kokand, Navoiy, Samarkand, Tashkent, Urgench, etc.
Vanuatu: Port Vila, etc.
Vatican City:, etc.
Venezuela: Caracas, Isla Margarita, Maracaibo, Porlamar, etc.
Vietnam: Cần Thơ, Da Lat, Da Nang, Haiphong, Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, Huế, Hạ Long, Hội An, Long Hải, Mỹ Tho, Nha Trang, Ninh Bình, Phan Thiết, Phú Quốc, Qui Nhơn, Rạch Giá, Sa Pa, Vũng Tàu, Đồng Hới, etc.
Yemen: Aden, Sana'a, etc.
Zambia: Livingstone, Lusaka, etc.
Zimbabwe: Bulawayo, Harare, Mutare, Victoria Falls, etc.