Mixed martial arts (MMA)
Junior dos Santos, in white shorts, and Shane Carwin, in black shorts, during an MMA fight at the main event of UFC 131 in Vancouver, British Columbia, on June 11, 2011.
||No - not recognized by the IOC
Mixed martial arts (MMA) is a full-contact combat sport that allows both striking and grappling, both standing and on the ground, using techniques from other combat sports and martial arts. The first documented use of the term mixed martial arts was in a review of UFC 1 by television critic Howard Rosenberg in 1993. The term gained popularity when newfullcontact.com, then one of the largest websites covering the sport, hosted and republished the article. The question of who actually coined the term is subject to debate.
During the early 20th century, various mixed-style contests took place throughout Japan and the Pacific Rim. In 1980 CV Productions, Inc. created the first regulated MMA league in the United States, named Tough Guy Contest, later renamed Battle of the Superfighters. The company sanctioned ten tournaments in Pennsylvania. However, in 1983 the Pennsylvania State Senate passed a bill prohibiting the sport.
In 1993, the Gracie family brought vale tudo, developed in Brazil from the 1920s, to the United States by founding the Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC) MMA promotion company.
Originally promoted as a competition to find the most effective martial arts for real unarmed combat, competitors from different fighting styles were pitted against one another in contests with relatively few rules. Later, individual fighters employed multiple martial arts into their style. MMA promoters were pressured to adopt additional rules to increase competitors' safety, to comply with sport regulations and to broaden mainstream acceptance of the sport. Following these changes, the sport has seen increased popularity with a pay-per-view business that rivals boxing and professional wrestling.
Mixed martial arts: Men's competition
Mixed martial arts: Early history
A Greek statue
pancratium, an event showcased at the Roman Colosseum
and used by Alexander the Great in battle. Even as late as the Early Middle Ages
, statues were put up in Rome and other cities to honour remarkable pankratiasts of Rome.
A scene of Ancient Greek pankratiasts fighting. Originally found on a Panathenaic amphora, Lamberg Collection.
In Ancient Greece there was a sport called pankration, which featured a combination of grappling and striking skills similar to those found in modern MMA. Pankration was formed by a combination of the already established wrestling and boxing traditions and, in Olympic terms, first featured in the 33rd Olympiad, 648 B.C. All strikes and holds were allowed with the exception of biting and gouging, which were banned. Fighters, also known as pankratiasts, fought until a fighter submitted; there were no rounds. According to E. Norman Gardiner, 'No branch of athletics was more popular than the pankration.' From its origins in Ancient Greece, pankration was later passed on to the Romans.
The mid-19th century saw the prominence of the new sport savate in the combat sports circle. At that time, French fighters wanted to test out the sport against the traditional combat styles of its time. In 1852, a contest was held in France between French savateurs and English bare-knuckle boxers in which French fighter Rambaud alias la Resistance fought English fighter Dickinson and won using his kicks. However, the English team still won the four other match-ups during the contest. Since then other similar contest also occurred by the late 19th to mid-20th century between French Savateurs and other combat styles. Examples include a 1905 fight between a French savateur George Dubois and a judo practitioner Re-nierand which resulted in the latter winning by submission, as well as the highly publicized 1957 fight between French savateur and professional boxer Jacques Cayron and a young Japanese karateka named Mochizuki Hiroo which ended when Cayron knocked Hiroo out with a hook.
No-holds-barred fighting reportedly took place in the late 1880s when wrestlers representing styles, Greco-Roman wrestling and many others met in tournaments and music-hall challenge matches throughout Europe. In the USA, the first major encounter between a boxer and a wrestler in modern times took place in 1887 when John L. Sullivan, then heavyweight world boxing champion, entered the ring with his trainer, Greco-Roman Wrestling champion William Muldoon, and was slammed to the mat in two minutes. The next publicized encounter occurred in the late 1890s when future heavyweight boxing champion Bob Fitzsimmons took on European Greco-Roman Wrestling champion Ernest Roeber. In September 1901, Frank "Paddy" Slavin, who had been a contender for Sullivan's boxing title, knocked out future world wrestling champion Frank Gotch in Dawson City, Canada. The judo-practitioner Ren-nierand who gained fame after defeating George Dubois, would fight again in another similar contest against Ukrainian wrestler Ivan Poddubny and lost.
Another early example of mixed martial arts was Bartitsu, which Edward William Barton-Wright founded in London in 1899. Combining judo, jujutsu, boxing, savate, wrestling and canne de combat (French stick fighting), Bartitsu was the first martial art known to have combined Asian and European fighting styles, and which saw MMA-style contests throughout England, pitting European and Japanese champions against representatives of various European wrestling styles.
Timeline of major events
|Late 19th century
||– Hybrid martial arts
||– Early NHB and Mixed Style contests
||– Barton-Wright and Bartitsu
||– Merikan contests
||– Early vale tudo and Gracie Challenge
|1960s and 1970s
||– Bruce Lee and Jeet Kune Do
||– Antonio Inoki and Ishu Kakutōgi Sen
||– Shooto forms
||– First professional Shooto event
||– First Desafio (BJJ vs. Luta Livre) event
||– Pancrase forms
||– UFC forms
||– International Vale Tudo
||– PRIDE FC and UFC era
||– New Jersey SACB develops Unified rules
||– Zuffa buys UFC
||– The Ultimate Fighter Debuts
||– US Army begins sanctioning MMA
||– UFC dominance and international growth
||– Zuffa buys WFA and WEC
||– UFC 66 generates over a million PPV buys
||– Zuffa buys PRIDE FC
||– EliteXC: Primetime gains 6.5 million peak viewers on CBS
||– Strikeforce holds 1st major card with female main event
||– WEC merged with UFC
||– Zuffa buys Strikeforce
||– UFC on Fox gains 8.8 million peak viewers on Fox
||– WMG/IMG buys UFC for US$4 billion
The history of modern MMA competition can be traced to mixed style contests throughout Europe, Japan, and the Pacific Rim during the early 1900s; In Japan these contests were known as merikan, from the Japanese slang for "American [fighting]". Merikan contests were fought under a variety of rules, including points decision, best of three throws or knockdowns, and victory via knockout or submission.
As the popularity of professional wrestling waned after World War I, the sport split into two genres: "shoot", in which the fighters actually competed, and "show", which evolved into modern professional wrestling.
In 1936, heavyweight boxing contender Kingfish Levinsky and veteran professional wrestler Ray Steele competed in a mixed match, which Steele won in 35 seconds.
In 1963, "Judo" Gene Lebell fought professional boxer Milo Savage in a no-holds-barred match. Lebell won by Harai Goshi to rear naked choke, leaving Savage unconscious. This was the first televised bout of mixed-style fighting in North America. The hometown crowd was so enraged that they began to boo and throw chairs at Lebell.
During the late 1960s to early 1970s, the concept of combining the elements of multiple martial arts was popularized in the west by Bruce Lee via his system of Jeet Kune Do. Lee believed that "the best fighter is not a Boxer, Karate or Judo man. The best fighter is someone who can adapt to any style, to be formless, to adopt an individual's own style and not following the system of styles." In 2004, UFC President Dana White would call Lee the "father of mixed martial arts" stating: "If you look at the way Bruce Lee trained, the way he fought, and many of the things he wrote, he said the perfect style was no style. You take a little something from everything. You take the good things from every different discipline, use what works, and you throw the rest away". A contemporary of Bruce Lee, Wing Chun practitioner Wong Shun Leung, gained prominence fighting in over 60-100 illegal beimo fights against other Chinese martial artist of various styles. In his career, Wong also fought and won against Western fighters and other combat styles such as his match against a Russian boxer named Giko, his televised fight against a fencer, and his well-documented fight against Taiwanese martial artist Wu Ming Jeet. Like Bruce Lee, Wong also combined boxing and kickboxing into his kung fu.
There were "Karate vs. Muay Thai fights" February 12, 1963. The three karate fighters from Oyama dojo (kyokushin later) went to the Lumpinee Boxing Stadium in Thailand, and fought against three Muay Thai fighters. The three kyokushin karate fighters' names are Tadashi Nakamura, Kenji Kurosaki and Akio Fujihira (also known as Noboru Osawa). The Muay Thai team were composed of only one authentic Thai fighter. Japan won by 2–1: Tadashi Nakamura and Akio Fujihira both KOed opponents by punch while Kenji Kurosaki, who fought the Thai, was KOed by elbow. This should be noted that the only Japanese loser Kenji Kurosaki was then a kyokushin instructor rather than a contender and temporarily designated as a substitute for the absent chosen fighter. On June of the same year, karateka and future kickboxer Tadashi Sawamura faced against top Thai fighter Samarn Sor Adisorn, in which Sawamura was knocked down 16 times and defeated. Sawamura would use what he learned in that fight to incorporate in the evolving kickboxing tournaments.
Muhammad Ali vs. Antonio Inoki took place in Japan in 1976. Both fighters refused to engage in the other's style and after a 15-round stalemate, it was declared a draw. Inoki flopped to his back for the duration of the bout and kicked Ali's legs. Ali had sustained a substantial amount of damage to his legs, causing him to be hospitalized for the next three days.
In 1988 Rick Roufus challenged Changpuek Kiatsongrit to a non-title Muay Thai vs. kickboxing super fight. Rick Roufus was at the time an undefeated Kickboxer and held both the KICK Super Middleweight World title and the PKC Middleweight U.S title. Changpuek Kiatsongrit was finding it increasingly difficult to get fights in Thailand as his weight (70 kg) was not typical for Thailand, where competitive bouts at tend to be at the lower weights. Roufus knocked Changpuek down twice with punches in the first round, breaking Changpuek's jaw, but lost by knockout in the fourth round due to the culmination of low kicks that he was unprepared for.
Mixed martial arts: Modern sport
The movement that led to the creation of the American and Japanese mixed martial arts scenes was rooted in two interconnected subcultures and two grappling styles, namely Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu and shoot wrestling. First were the vale tudo events in Brazil, followed by the Japanese shoot-style wrestling shows.
Vale tudo began in the 1920s and became renowned with the "Gracie challenge" issued by Carlos Gracie and Hélio Gracie and upheld later on by descendants of the Gracie family.The "Gracie Challenges" were held in the garages and gyms of the Gracie family members. When the popularity grew, these types of mixed bouts were a staple attraction at the carnivals in Brazil. Early mixed-match martial arts professional wrestling bouts in Japan (known as Ishu Kakutōgi Sen (異種格闘技戦), literally "heterogeneous combat sports bouts") became popular with Antonio Inoki in the 1970s. Inoki was a disciple of Rikidōzan, but also of Karl Gotch who trained numerous Japanese wrestlers in catch wrestling.
Regulated mixed martial arts competitions were first introduced in the United States by CV Productions, Inc.. Its first competition named Tough Guy Contest was held on March 20, 1980, New Kensington, Pennsylvania, Holiday Inn. During that year the company renamed the brand to Super Fighters and sanctioned ten regulated tournaments in Pennsylvania. In 1983 Pennsylvania State Senate passed a bill that specifically called for: "Prohibiting Tough Guy contests or Battle of the Brawlers contests", and ended the sport. In 1993 the sport got reintroduced in the United States by the Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC). The sport gained international exposure and widespread publicity when jiu-jitsu fighter Royce Gracie won the first Ultimate Fighting Championship tournament, submitting three challengers in a total of just five minutes, sparking a revolution in martial arts.
Japan had its own form of mixed martial arts discipline Shooto that evolved from shoot wrestling in 1985, as well as the shoot wrestling derivative Pancrase founded as a promotion in 1993. The first Vale Tudo Japan tournaments were held in 1994 and 1995, both were won by Rickson Gracie. Around the same time, International Vale Tudo competition started to develop through (World Vale Tudo Championship (WVC), VTJ, IVC, UVF etc.). Interest in mixed martial arts as a sport resulted in the creation of the Pride Fighting Championships (Pride) in 1997, where again Rickson participated and won.
The sport reached a new peak of popularity in North America in the December 2006 rematch between then UFC light heavyweight champion Chuck Liddell and former champion Tito Ortiz, rivaling the PPV sales of some of the biggest boxing events of all time, and helping the UFC's 2006 PPV gross surpass that of any promotion in PPV history. In 2007, Zuffa LLC, the owners of the UFC MMA promotion, bought Japanese rival MMA brand Pride FC, merging the contracted fighters under one promotion and drawing comparisons to the consolidation that occurred in other sports, such as the AFL-NFL Merger in American football.
Mixed martial arts: Origin of 'MMA'
The first documented use of the name mixed martial arts was in a review of UFC 1 by television critic Howard Rosenberg, in 1993. The term gained popularity when the website newfullcontact.com, then one of the biggest covering the sport, hosted and reprinted the article. The first use of the term by a promotion was in September 1995 by Rick Blume, president and CEO of Battlecade Extreme Fighting, just after UFC 7. UFC official Jeff Blatnick was responsible for the Ultimate Fighting Championship officially adopting the name mixed martial arts. It was previously marketed as "Ultimate Fighting" and "No Holds Barred (NHB)", until Blatnick and John McCarthy proposed the name 'MMA' at the UFC 17 rules meeting in response to increased public criticism. The question of who actually coined the name is a question still in debate.
Mixed martial arts: Regulation
The first state regulated MMA event was held in Biloxi, Mississippi on August 23, 1996 with the sanctioning of IFC's Mayhem in Mississippi show by the Mississippi Athletic Commission under William Lyons. The rules used were an adaptation of the kickboxing rules already accepted by most state athletic commissions. These modified kickboxing rules allowed for take downs and ground fighting and did away with rounds but did allow for fighters to be stood up by the referee and restarted if there was no action on the ground. These rules were the first in modern MMA to define fouls, fighting surfaces and the use of the cage.
In March 1997, the Iowa Athletic Commission officially sanctioned Battlecade Extreme Fighting under a modified form of its existing rules for Shootfighting. These rules created the 3, 5 minute round, one-minute break format, and mandated shootfighting gloves as well as weight classes for the first time. Illegal blows were listed as groin strikes, head butting, biting, eye gouging, hair pulling, striking an opponent with an elbow while the opponent is on the mat, kidney strikes, and striking the back of the head with closed fist. Holding onto the ring or cage for any reason was defined as foul. While there are minor differences between these and the final Unified Rules, notably regarding elbow-strikes, the Iowa rules allowed mixed martial arts promoters to conduct essentially modern events legally, anywhere in the state. On March 28, 1997, Extreme Fighting 4 was held under these rules, making it the first show conducted under a version of the modern rules.
In April 2000, the California State Athletic Commission voted unanimously in favor of regulations that later became the foundation for the Unified Rules of Mixed Martial Arts. However, when the legislation was sent to the California capital in Sacramento for review, it was determined that the sport fell outside the jurisdiction of the CSAC, rendering the vote superfluous.
On September 30, 2000, the New Jersey State Athletic Control Board (NJSACB) began to allow mixed martial arts promoters to conduct events in New Jersey. The first event was an IFC event titled Battleground 2000 held in Atlantic City. The intent was to allow the NJSACB to observe actual events and gather information to establish a comprehensive set of rules to effectively regulate the sport.
On April 3, 2001, the NJSACB held a meeting to discuss the regulation of mixed martial arts events. This meeting attempted to unify the myriad rules and regulations which have been utilized by the different mixed martial arts organizations. At this meeting, the proposed uniform rules were agreed upon by the NJSACB, several other regulatory bodies, numerous promoters of mixed martial arts events and other interested parties in attendance. At the conclusion of the meeting, all parties in attendance were able to agree upon a uniform set of rules to govern the sport of mixed martial arts.
The rules adopted by the NJSACB have become the de facto standard set of rules for professional mixed martial arts across North America. On July 30, 2009, a motion was made at the annual meeting of the Association of Boxing Commissions to adopt these rules as the "Unified Rules of Mixed Martial Arts". The motion passed unanimously.
In November 2005 the United States Army began to sanction mixed martial arts with the first annual Army Combatives Championships held by the US Army Combatives School.
Canada formally decriminalized mixed martial arts with a vote on Bill S-209 on June 5, 2013. The bill allows for provinces to have the power to create athletic commissions to regulate and sanction professional mixed martial arts bouts.
Mixed martial arts: MMA organizations
According to MMA portal Tapology.com listings; there are hundreds of MMA promotions around the world producing MMA events.
Since the UFC came to prominence in mainstream media in 2006, and with their 2007 merger with Pride FC and following purchase of WEC and Strikeforce, no companies have presented significant competition, and the UFC has under contract almost all of the top ranked talent. On April 30, 2011, UFC 129 set a new North American MMA attendance record, drawing 55,724 at the Rogers Centre in Toronto; the event also set a new MMA world record for the highest paid gate at $12,075,000 and is the highest gate in Toronto for any event.
In 2011, the UFC reached a multi-year deal with the Fox Sports network, a tremendous milestone in the organization, bringing the sport to mainstream media. The UFC also broadcasts their shows live to other networks around the world.
Outside of the UFC, the current secondary major MMA promotions that also have on their roster at least 3 top 15 ranked fighters are:
- Bellator MMA. Based out of Newport Beach, California, United States. Broadcasts their fights locally on Spike TV and other networks around the world.
- ONE Championship. Based out of Kallang, Singapore. Broadcasts their fights locally on ESPN Star Sports and other networks around the world.
- Invicta FC (all female MMA). Based out of Enka, North Carolina, United States. Broadcasts their fights on UFC Fight-Pass online subscription service.
Fighters usually get contracts in the above promotions including the UFC after competing successfully in other MMA organisations from around the world.
Some MMA promotions tend to exist more to build up prospects while others have a good mix of prospect/veteran. Some exist only to be feeder leagues to the bigger promotions, others exist to try and be the best in the world. Some promotions only do 4 shows a year while others are doing them monthly. The top 50 regional MMA promotions in the world, compiled on Sherdog forum, have been evaluated by how much talent the promotion currently has, has had in the past, and how notable their fighting venues are while doing so. Popularity has some influence as well. (updated November 2014):
- 1. Cage Warriors Fighting Championship (CWFC). Based out of London, England, UK. Broadcasts their fights locally on Premier Sports and other networks around the world.
- 2. M-1 Global. Based out of St. Petersburg, Russia. Broadcasts their fights locally on Russia-2 and on Fight Network internationally.
- 3. Jungle Fight. Based out of Manaus, Brazil. Broadcasts their fights locally on SporTV and ESPN Deportes in the USA.
- 4. Konfrontacja Sztuk Walki (KSW). Based out of: Warsaw, Poland. Broadcasts their fights locally on Polsat Sport and on Fight Network internationally.
- 5. Fight Nights (Russia). Based out of Moscow, Russia. Broadcasts their fights locally on Russia-2 and REN TV, and on UFC Fight-Pass online subscription service internationally.
- 6. Resurrection Fighting Alliance (RFA). Based out of Kearney, Nebraska, USA. Broadcasts their fights locally on AXS TV Fights.
- 7. Legacy Fighting Championships (LFC). Based out of Houston, Texas, USA. Broadcasts their fights locally on AXS TV Fights.
- 8. Titan Fighting Championship. Based out of Kansas City, Kansas, USA. Broadcasts their fights locally on UFC Fight-Pass online subscription service.
- 9. Shooto South America (ShootoBrazil). Based out of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Broadcasts internationally on UFC Fight-Pass online subscription service.
- 10. British Association of Mixed Martial Arts (BAMMA). Based out of London, England. Broadcasts their fights locally on Channel 5 (UK) and other networks around the world.
- 11. Full Metal Dojo (FMD). Based out of Bangkok, Thailand. Broadcasts their fights locally on True Visions and Fox Sports.
See rest of list in main article.
Mixed martial arts: Gyms
There are hundreds of MMA training facilities throughout the world.
These are the current top 10 MMA Gyms in the world based on how many top 15 ranked UFC fighters they currently train. There are 160 fighters who train at over 80 different gyms at the top 15 rankings in the UFC 10 divisions. The rankings are based on a system where a champion earns their gym a score of 25 points. A #1 contender is worth 15 points, a #2 contender is worth 10 points with a decrease in ranking equaling a decrease of 1 point until the ranking reaches #10. From there, rankings 11-15 are each worth 1 point. (updated July 2015):
- 1. Nova União located in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
- 2. Jackson-Winkeljohn MMA located in Albuquerque, New Mexico
- 3. American Kickboxing Academy (AKA) located in San Jose, California.
- 4. Team Alpha Male located in Sacramento, California.
- 5. American Top Team (ATT) located in Coconut Creek, Florida.
- 6. Kings MMA located in Huntington Beach, California.
- 7. Blackzilians located in Boca Raton, Florida.
- 8. Serra-Longo located in Long Island, New York.
- 9. Glendale Fighting Club located in Glendale, California.
- 10. Black House (Team Nogueira) based out of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Web data traffic ranking leader Alexa Internet lists 50 online media outlets under its "MMA news and media" website category. As of October 17, 2015: the top 10 most popular websites covering the sport are:
- 1. Sherdog.com
- 2. MMAFighting.com (SB Nation)
- 3. UFC.com
- 4. MMAjunkie.com
- 5. MMAMania.com (SB Nation)
- 6. Bloodyelbow.com (SB Nation)
- 7. Mixedmartialarts.com
- 8. Espn.go.com/mma
- 9. Foxsports.com/ufc
- 10. MMAWeekly.com
Mixed martial arts: Fighter development
As a result of an increased number of competitors, organized training camps, information sharing, and modern kinesiology, the understanding of the combat-effectiveness of various strategies has been greatly improved. UFC commentator Joe Rogan claimed that martial arts evolved more in the ten years following 1993 than in the preceding 700 years combined.
- describing UFC champion Frank Shamrock's early dominance
"During his reign atop the sport in the late 1990s he was the prototype - he could strike with the best strikers; he could grapple with the best grapplers; his endurance was second to none. "
The high profile of modern MMA promotions such as UFC and Pride has fostered an accelerated development of the sport. The early 1990s saw a wide variety of traditional styles competing in the sport. However, early competition saw varying levels of success among disparate styles. In the early 1990s, practitioners of grappling based styles such as Brazilian jiu-jitsu dominated competition in the United States. Practitioners of striking based arts such as boxing, kickboxing, and karate who were unfamiliar with submission grappling proved to be unprepared to deal with its submission techniques. As competitions became more and more common, those with a base in striking arts became more competitive as they cross trained in arts based around takedowns and submission holds. Likewise, those from the varying grappling styles added striking techniques to their arsenal. This increase of cross-training resulted in fighters becoming increasingly multidimensional and well-rounded in their skill-sets.
The new hybridization of fighting styles can be seen in the technique of "ground and pound" developed by wrestling-based UFC pioneers such as Dan Severn, Don Frye and Mark Coleman. These wrestlers realized the need for the incorporation of strikes on the ground as well as on the feet, and incorporated ground striking into their grappling-based styles. Mark Coleman stated at UFC 14 that his strategy was to "Ground him and pound him" which may be the first televised use of the term.
Since the late 1990s, both strikers and grapplers have been successful at MMA, though it is rare to see any fighter who is not schooled in both striking and grappling arts reach the highest levels of competition.
The greatest MMA fighter of all time is considered by experts, fighters and fans to be either heavyweight Fedor Emelianenko or middleweight Anderson Silva. UFC color commentator Joe Rogan responded to a fan's question: "Joe, is Fedor the Greatest Of All Time? It's him or Anderson, and I could see the argument going either way honestly. Both guys have had truly magical moments in competition against some of the best in the world."
Mixed martial arts: Rules
The rules for modern mixed martial arts competitions have changed significantly since the early days of vale tudo, Japanese shoot wrestling, and UFC 1, and even more from the historic style of pankration. As the knowledge of fighting techniques spread among fighters and spectators, it became clear that the original minimalist rule systems needed to be amended. The main motivations for these rule changes were protection of the health of the fighters, the desire to shed the perception of "barbarism and lawlessness", and to be recognized as a legitimate sport.
The new rules included the introduction of weight classes; as knowledge about submissions spread, differences in weight had become a significant factor. There are nine different weight classes in the Unified Rules of Mixed Martial Arts. These nine weight classes include flyweight (up to 125 lb / 56.7 kg), bantamweight (up to 135 lb / 61.2 kg), featherweight (up to 145 lb / 65.8 kg), lightweight (up to 155 lb / 70.3 kg), welterweight (up to 170 lb / 77.1 kg), middleweight (up to 185 lb / 83.9 kg), light heavyweight (up to 205 lb / 93.0 kg), heavyweight (up to 265 lb / 120.2 kg), and super heavyweight with no upper weight limit.
Small, open-fingered gloves were introduced to protect fists, reduce the occurrence of cuts (and stoppages due to cuts) and encourage fighters to use their hands for striking to allow more captivating matches. Gloves were first made mandatory in Japan's Shooto promotion and were later adopted by the UFC as it developed into a regulated sport. Most professional fights have the fighters wear 4 oz gloves, whereas some jurisdictions require amateurs to wear a slightly heavier 6 oz glove for more protection for the hands and wrists.
Time limits were established to avoid long fights with little action where competitors conserved their strength. Matches without time limits also complicated the airing of live events. The time limits in most professional fights are three 5 minute rounds, and championship fights are normally five 5 minute rounds. Similar motivations produced the "stand up" rule, where the referee can stand fighters up if it is perceived that both are resting on the ground or not advancing toward a dominant position.
In the U.S., state athletic and boxing commissions have played a crucial role in the introduction of additional rules because they oversee MMA in a similar fashion to boxing. In Japan and most of Europe, there is no regulating authority over competitions, so these organizations have greater freedom in rule development and event structure.
Previously, Japan-based organization Pride Fighting Championships held an opening 10-minute round followed by two five-minute rounds. Stomps, soccer kicks and knees to the head of a grounded opponent are legal, but elbow strikes to the head are not. This rule set is more predominant in the Asian-based organizations as opposed to European and American rules. More recently, Singapore-based organization ONE Championship allows soccer kicks and knees to the head of a grounded opponent as well as elbow strikes to the head, but does not allow head stomps.
Mixed martial arts: Victory
Victory in a match is normally gained either by the judges' decision after an allotted amount of time has elapsed, a stoppage by the referee (for example if a competitor can not defend himself intelligently) or the fight doctor (due to an injury), a submission, by a competitor's cornerman throwing in the towel, or by knockout.
Knockout (KO): as soon as a fighter is unable to continue due to legal strikes, his opponent is declared the winner. As MMA rules allow submissions and ground and pound, the fight is stopped to prevent further injury to the fighter.
Submission: a fighter may admit defeat during a match by:
- a tap on the opponent's body or mat/floor
- a verbal submission
Technical Submission: the referee stops the match when the fighter is caught in a submission hold and is in danger of being injured. Often it is when a fighter gets choked unconscious; other times it is when a bone has been broken in a submission hold (a broken arm due to a kimura, etc.)
Technical Knockout (TKO)
- Referee stoppage: The ref may stop a match in progress if:
- a fighter becomes dominant to the point where the opponent can not intelligently defend himself and is taking excessive damage as a result
- a fighter appears to be losing consciousness as he/she is being struck
- a fighter appears to have a significant injury such as a cut or a broken bone
Doctor Stoppage/Cut: the referee will call for a time out if a fighter's ability to continue is in question as a result of apparent injuries, such as a large cut. The ring doctor will inspect the fighter and stop the match if the fighter is deemed unable to continue safely, rendering the opponent the winner. However, if the match is stopped as a result of an injury from illegal actions by the opponent, either a disqualification or no contest will be issued instead.
Corner stoppage: a fighter's corner men may announce defeat on the fighter's behalf by throwing in the towel during the match in progress or between rounds. This is normally done when a fighter is being beaten to the point where it is dangerous and unnecessary to continue. In some cases, the fighter may be injured.
Retirement: a fighter is so dazed or exhausted that he/she cannot physically continue fighting. Usually occurs between rounds.
Decision: if the match goes the distance, then the outcome of the bout is determined by three judges. The judging criteria are organization-specific.
Forfeit: a fighter or his representative may forfeit a match prior to the beginning of the match, thereby losing the match.
Disqualification: a "warning" will be given when a fighter commits a foul or illegal action or does not follow the referee's instruction. Three warnings will result in a disqualification. Moreover, if a fighter is unable to continue due to a deliberate illegal technique from his opponent, the opponent will be disqualified.
No Contest: in the event that both fighters commit a violation of the rules, or a fighter is unable to continue due to an injury from an accidental illegal technique, the match will be declared a "No Contest" except in the case of a technical decision in the unified rules.
Technical decision: in the unified rules of MMA, if a fighter is unable to continue due to an accidental illegal technique late in the fight, a technical decision is rendered by the judges based on who is ahead on the judges' scorecards at that time. In a three-round fight, two rounds must be completed for a technical decision to be awarded and in a five-round fight, three rounds must be completed.
Mixed martial arts: Fighter ranking
MMA fighters get ranked according to their performance and outcome of their fights and level of competition they faced. The most popular and used, ranking portals are:
- Fight Matrix: Ranks up to 250-500 fighters worldwide for every possible division male and female.
- Sherdog: Ranks top 10 fighters worldwide only for current available UFC divisions. Also used by ESPN.
- SB Nation: Ranks top 14 fighters worldwide only for male divisions. Also used by USA Today.
- MMAjunkie.com: Ranks top 10 fighters worldwide for current UFC available divisions.
- UFC: Ranks top 15 contenders, UFC signed fighters only, as per UFC divisions. (For example: #2 means the fighter is #3 for the UFC, behind the Champion and the #1)
- Tapology: Ranks top 10 fighters worldwide for every possible division.
- Sports Illustrated: Ranks top 10 fighters worldwide for current UFC available divisions.
- MMA Rising: Ranks top 10 fighters worldwide in every possible division. Notable for their Unified Women's Mixed Martial Arts. Rankings
- MMA Weekly: Ranks top 10 male fighters worldwide in every possible division, and P4P for female fighters. Also used by Yahoo! Sports.
- Bleacher Report: Ranks top 10 UFC fighters in each division.
- Fight! Magazine: Ranks top 5 fighters and only in male divisions.
- Ranking MMA: Ranks top 20 male fighters worldwide in each division and also by promotions.
- Oddsshark.com: Ranks top 10 fighters worldwide in current UFC divisions.
- GroundandPound.de: Ranks top 10 European male fighters in all divisions.
- MMAViking: Ranks top 5 Scandinavian male fighters in all divisions and Scandinavian female pound for pound.
Mixed martial arts: Clothing
Mixed martial arts promotions typically require that male fighters wear shorts in addition to being barechested, thus precluding the use of gi or fighting kimono to inhibit or assist submission holds. Male fighters are required by most athletic commissions to wear groin protectors underneath their trunks. Female fighters wear short shorts and sports bras or other similarly snug-fitting tops. Both male and female fighters are required to wear a mouthguard.
The need for flexibility in the legs combined with durability prompted the creation of various fighting shorts brands, which then spawned a range of mixed martial arts clothing and casual wear available to the public.
Mixed martial arts: Fighting area
According to the Unified Rules of Mixed Martial Arts, an MMA competition or exhibition may be held in a ring or a fenced area. The fenced area can be round or have at least six sides. There are variations on the cage such as replacing the metal fencing with a net, or using a different shape for the area other than an octagon, as the term "the Octagon" is trademarked by the UFC (though the 8-sided shape itself is not trademarked). The fenced area is called a cage generically, or a hexagon, an octagon or an octagon cage, depending on the shape.
Mixed martial arts: Common disciplines
Most 'traditional' martial arts have a specific focus and these arts may be trained to improve in that area. Popular disciplines of each type include:
- Stand-up: Boxing, Kickboxing, Muay Thai, Karate, Taekwondo, Combat Sambo, Savate, and Sanshou are trained to improve stand-up striking.
- Clinch: Freestyle and Greco-Roman wrestling, Judo, JuJutsu, Sambo, and Sanshou are trained to improve clinching, takedowns and throws, while Muay Thai is trained to improve the striking aspect of the clinch.
- Ground: Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu, Judo, JuJutsu, Sambo, Catch wrestling, Luta Livre and submission grappling are trained to improve ground control and position, as well as to achieve submission holds, and defend against them.
Most styles have been adapted from their traditional forms, such as boxing stances which lack effective counters to leg kicks and the muay thai stance which is poor for defending against takedowns due to the static nature, or Judo and Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu, techniques which must be adapted for No Gi competition. It is common for a fighter to train with multiple coaches of different styles or an organized fight team to improve various aspects of their game at once. Cardiovascular conditioning, speed drills, strength training and flexibility are also important aspects of a fighter's training. Some schools advertise their styles as simply "mixed martial arts", which has become a style in itself, but the training will still often be split into different sections.
While mixed martial arts was initially practiced almost exclusively by competitive fighters, this is no longer the case. As the sport has become more mainstream and more widely taught, it has become accessible to wider range of practitioners of all ages. Proponents of this sort of training argue that it is safe for anyone, of any age, with varying levels of competitiveness and fitness.
Mixed martial arts: Boxing
Boxing is a combat form that is widely used in MMA and is one of the primary striking bases for many fighters. Boxing punches account for the vast majority of strikes during the stand up portion of a bout and also account for the largest number of significant strikes, knock downs and KOs in MMA matches. Several aspects of boxing are extremely valuable such as footwork, use of combinations, and defensive techniques like slips, stance (to include chin protection and keeping hands up) commonly known as Guard position, and head movement. Boxing based fighters have also been shown to throw and land a higher volume of strikes compared to other striking bases at a rate of 3.88 per minute with 9.64 per minute thrown (compared to Muay Thai at 3.46 and 7.50, respectively). Some fighters that are known for using boxing are Cain Velasquez, Nick Diaz, Junior dos Santos, B.J. Penn, Dan Hardy, Shane Carwin and Andrei Arlovski.
Mixed martial arts: Muay Thai
Muay Thai, along with boxing, is recognized as a foundation for striking in mixed martial arts and is widely practiced and taught. One of the primary benefits of training in Muay Thai for MMA is its versatility. Techniques include long, middle and short range with everything from kicks to clinch holds and throws. It originated in Thailand, and is known as the "art of eight limbs" which refers to the use of the legs, knees, elbows and fists.
Mixed martial arts: Brazilian jiu-jitsu/Grappling
Brazilian jiu-jitsu came to international prominence in the martial arts community in the early 1990s, when Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu expert Royce Gracie won the first, second and fourth Ultimate Fighting Championships, which at the time were single elimination martial arts tournaments. Royce fought against often much larger opponents who were practicing other styles, including boxing, wrestling, (including freestyle, Greco-Roman, and American folkstyle), shoot-fighting, karate and taekwondo. It has since become a staple art and key component for many MMA fighters. Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu and Grappling are largely credited for bringing widespread attention to the importance of ground fighting. They are primarily considered ground-based fighting style, with emphasis on positioning, chokes and joint locks.
Mixed martial arts: Judo
Using their knowledge of ne-waza/ground grappling and tachi-waza/standing-grappling, several judo practitioners have also competed in mixed martial arts matches. Anderson Silva, who is a top ranked fighter in the world maintains a black belt in judo, former Russian national judo championship Bronze medallist Fedor Emelianenko, famous UFC fighter Karo Parisyan, Jim Wallhead, Rick Hawn, Rameau Thierry Sokoudjou, Olympic medallists Hidehiko Yoshida (Gold, 1992), rising contender Dong Hyun Kim is a 4th degree judo black belt, and Ronda Rousey (Bronze, 2008) now Strikeforce and one time Ultimate Fighting Championship Women's Bantamweight Champion as well as Hector Lombard, who has been highly ranked in both middleweight and welterweight classes, is a fourth degree black belt in judo and former Olympic judo competitor.
Paulo Filho, a former WEC middleweight champion has credited judo for his success in an interview.
Mixed martial arts: Wrestling
Wrestling (including freestyle, Greco-Roman, and American folkstyle) gained tremendous respect due to its effectiveness in mixed martial arts competitions. It is widely studied by mixed martial artists and credited for conferring an emphasis on conditioning for explosive movement and stamina, both of which are critical in competitive mixed martial arts. It is known for excellent takedowns, particularly against the legs. Notable wrestlers in MMA include Chael Sonnen, Randy Couture, Brock Lesnar and Olympians Daniel Cormier and Dan Henderson.
Mixed martial arts: Catch
Karl Gotch was a catch wrestler and a student of Billy Riley's Snake Pit in Whelley, Wigan. In the film Catch: the hold not taken, some of those who trained with Gotch in Wigan talk of his fascination with the traditional Lancashire style of wrestling and how he was inspired to stay and train at Billy Riley's after experiencing its effects first hand during a professional show in Manchester, England. After leaving Wigan, he later went on to teach catch wrestling to Japanese professional wrestlers in the 1970s to students including Antonio Inoki, Tatsumi Fujinami, Hiro Matsuda, Osamu Kido, Satoru Sayama (Tiger Mask) and Yoshiaki Fujiwara. Starting from 1976, one of these professional wrestlers, Inoki, hosted a series of mixed martial arts bouts against the champions of other disciplines. This resulted in the popularity of the clash-of-styles bouts in Japan. His matches showcased catch wrestling moves like the sleeper hold, cross arm breaker, seated armbar, Indian deathlock and keylock.
Karl Gotch's students formed the original Universal Wrestling Federation (Japan) in 1984 which gave rise to shoot-style matches. The UWF movement was led by catch wrestlers and gave rise to the mixed martial arts boom in Japan. Wigan stand-out Billy Robinson soon thereafter began training MMA legend Kazushi Sakuraba. Catch wrestling forms the base of Japan's martial art of shoot wrestling. Japanese professional wrestling and a majority of the Japanese fighters from Pancrase, Shooto and the now defunct RINGS bear links to catch wrestling.
The term no holds barred was used originally to describe the wrestling method prevalent in catch wrestling tournaments during the late 19th century wherein no wrestling holds were banned from the competition, regardless of how dangerous they might be. The term was applied to mixed martial arts matches, especially at the advent of the Ultimate Fighting Championship.
Mixed martial arts: Karate
Karate, especially Kyokushin and other full contact styles, has proven to be effective in the sport as it is one of the core foundations of kickboxing, and specializes in striking techniques. Various styles of karate are practiced by some MMA fighters, notably Chuck Liddell, Bas Rutten, Lyoto Machida, Stephen Thompson, John Makdessi, Uriah Hall, Ryan Jimmo, Georges St-Pierre, Kyoji Horiguchi, and Louis Gaudinot. Liddell is known to have an extensive striking background in Kenpō with Fabio Martella whereas Lyoto Machida practices Shotokan Ryu, and St-Pierre practices Kyokushin.
Mixed martial arts: Taekwondo
Several accomplished MMA fighters have an extensive background in Taekwondo. Some of fighters that use TKD techniques in MMA are former UFC Lightweight Champion and WEC Lightweight Champion Anthony Pettis, who is 3rd dan black belt as well as an instructor, former UFC Middleweight Champion Anderson Silva, who is 5th dan black belt and still competes in TKD, a former UFC Lightweight Champion and WEC Lightweight Champion Benson Henderson who is a black belt, UFC fighter Yair Rodríguez, who is a black belt, former Strikeforce Middleweight Champion Cung Le, who is a blackbelt, Dan Hardy, who is a black belt, a UFC Heavyweight Champion, a three-time King of Pancrase world champion Bas Rutten, who is a 2nd dan black belt, a former 2006 Pride World Grand Prix Open-Weight Champion Mirko Filipović, who is a black belt, a UFC Hall of Famer Stephan Bonnar, who is a blackbelt, Dennis Siver, who is a black belt etc.
Anderson Silva in his instructional book admitted the influence of TKD in formation of his style in the beginning of his career. In each of my fights, I tried to utilize techniques from all the various styles I had studied. I threw Tae Kwon Do kicks. I threw Muay Thai knees and elbows, and I used my knowledge of Brazilian jiu-jitsu on the ground. Also Anthony Pettis has said that he is definitely a traditional martial artist first and a mixed martial artist second. as well as My style of attacking is different [because of] Taekwondo background.
Mixed martial arts: Sanshou/Sanda
Chinese martial arts have also been utilized in MMA by several fighters, being highly effective in competition thanks to its novel mixture of striking and stand up takedowns, achieved through a condensation of traditional Chinese Martial Arts techniques. Most prominent and chief amongst these fighters is Cung Le, who is most notable for his TKO and KO victories over former UFC champions Frank Shamrock (in Strikeforce) and Rich Franklin (at UFC Macau). Other Sanshou based fighters who have entered MMA include KJ Noons, Pat Barry, Zhang Tiequan and Muslim Salihov. Fighters in the Ranik Ultimate Fighting Champion Federation also typically come from a Wushu, hence Sanshou background.
Mixed martial arts: Strategies
The techniques utilized in mixed martial arts competition generally fall into two categories: striking techniques (such as kicks, knees, punches and elbows) and grappling techniques (such as clinch holds, pinning holds, submission holds, sweeps, takedowns and throws).
Today, mixed martial artists must cross-train in a variety of styles to counter their opponent's strengths and remain effective in all the phases of combat.
Mixed martial arts: Sprawl-and-Brawl
Sprawl-and-Brawl is a stand-up fighting tactic that consists of effective stand-up striking, while avoiding ground fighting, typically by using sprawls to defend against takedowns.
A Sprawl-and-Brawler is usually a boxer or kickboxer, Thai boxer or karate fighter who has trained in various styles of wrestling, judo, and/or sambo to avoid takedowns to keep the fight standing. This is a form which is heavily practiced in the amateur leagues.
These fighters will often study submission wrestling to avoid being forced into submission should they find themselves on the ground. This style can be deceptively different from traditional kickboxing styles, since sprawl-and-brawlers must adapt their techniques to incorporate takedown and ground fighting defense. A few notable examples are Igor Vovchanchyn, Mirko Filipović, Chuck Liddell, Mark Hunt and more recently Junior dos Santos, Andrei Arlovski. and Joanna Jedrzejczyk.
Mixed martial arts: Ground-and-pound
Ground-and-pound is a strategy consisting of taking an opponent to the ground using a takedown or throw, obtaining a top, or dominant grappling position, and then striking the opponent, primarily with fists, hammerfists, and elbows. Ground-and-pound is also used as a precursor to attempting submission holds.
The style is used by fighters well-versed in submission defense and skilled at takedowns. They take the fight to the ground, maintain a grappling position, and strike until their opponent submits or is knocked out. Although not a traditional style of striking, the effectiveness and reliability of ground-and-pound has made it a popular tactic. It was first demonstrated as an effective technique by Mark Coleman, then popularized by fighters such as Chael Sonnen, Don Frye, Frank Trigg, Jon Jones, Cheick Kongo, Mark Kerr, Frank Shamrock, Tito Ortiz, Matt Hughes, and Chris Weidman.
While most fighters utilize ground-and-pound statically, by way of holding their opponents down and mauling them with short strikes from the top position, a few fighters manage to utilize it dynamically by striking their opponents while changing positions, thus not allowing their opponents to settle once they take them down. Cain Velasquez is one of the most devastating ground strikers in MMA. He attacks his opponents on the ground while transitioning between positions. Whether he's moving from mount to back mount or from turtle to side control, he is constantly landing shots. Fedor Emelianenko, considered the greatest master of ground-and-pound in MMA history, was the first to demonstrate this dynamic style of striking in transition. He was striking his opponents on the ground while passing guard or while his opponents were attempting to recover guard.
In the year 2000, MMA play-by-play commentator Stephen Quadros coined the popular phrase lay and pray. This refers to a situation where a wrestler or grappler keeps another fighter pinned or controlled on the mat to avoid a stand up, yet exhibiting little or no urgency to finish the grounded opponent with a knockout or a submission and basically stalling a decision for the majority or entirety of the fight, basically taking the opponent down, holding on tight, referee stands them back up, and repeat again-a sort of extreme form of defensive wrestling. The implication of "lay and pray" is that after the wrestler/grappler takes the striker down and lays on him to neutralize the opponent's striking weapons, he prays that the referee does not return them to the standing position. This style is considered by many fans as the most boring style of fighting and is highly criticized for intentionally creating non-action, yet it is effective and some argue that lay-and-pray is justified and that it is the responsibility of the downed fighter to be able to protect himself from this legitimate fighting technique. Many consider Jon Fitch to be the poster boy for lay and pray. UFC Welterweight champion Georges St-Pierre has been criticized by fans for playing it safe and applying the lay and pray tactic in his fights and so has Bellator MMA Welterweight champion Ben Askren who justified applying lay and pray, explaining that champion fights are much harder because they are 5 rounds long compared to the usual 3 round fights.
Mixed martial arts: Submission-Seeking
Submission-Seeking is a reference to the strategy of taking an opponent to the ground using a takedown or throw and then applying a submission hold, forcing the opponent to submit. While grapplers will often work to attain dominant position, some may be more comfortable fighting from other positions. If a grappler finds themselves unable to force a takedown, they may resort to pulling guard, whereby they physically pull their opponent into a dominant position on the ground.
Submissions are an essential part of many disciplines, most notably Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu, catch wrestling, judo, Sambo, and shootwrestling. They were popularized in the early UFC events by Royce Gracie and Ken Shamrock.
Mixed martial arts: Score oriented fighting
Especially used by fighters with strong wrestling background facing a highly skilled BJJ opponent, or by wrestlers who prefer stand-up fights. Usually fighters who adopt this strategy use takedowns only for scoring, easily allowing the adversary to stand up and continue the fight. They also want to land clear strikes and control the octagon. In order to win the fight by decision all score oriented fighters have to master perfect MMA defense techniques and avoid takedowns.
Mixed martial arts: Clinch-Fighting
Clinch-Fighting is a tactic consisting of using a clinch hold to prevent the opponent from moving away into more distant striking range, while also attempting takedowns and striking the opponent using knees, stomps, elbows, and punches. The clinch is often utilized by wrestlers and Judokas that have added components of the striking game (typically boxing), and Muay Thai fighters.
Wrestlers and Judoka may use clinch fighting as a way to neutralize the superior striking skills of a stand-up fighter or to prevent takedowns by a superior ground fighter. Ronda Rousey, with her Judo background, is considered a master at initiating throws from the clinch to set up armbars.
The clinch or "plum" of a Muay Thai fighter is often used to improve the accuracy of knees and elbows by physically controlling the position of the opponent. Anderson Silva is well known for his devastating Muay Thai clinch. He defeated UFC middle weight champion Rich Franklin using the Muay Thai clinch and kneeing Franklin repeatedly to the body and face - breaking Franklin's nose. In their rematch Silva repeated this and won again.
Other fighters may use the clinch to push their opponent against the cage or ropes, where they can effectively control their opponent's movement and restrict mobility while striking them with punches to the body or stomps also known as dirty boxing or "Wall and Maul". Randy Couture used his Greco Roman wrestling background to popularize this style en route to six title reigns in the Ultimate Fighting Championship.
In general, fighters who cannot win fights through lightning offense, or are more suited to win fights in the later rounds or via decision are commonly known as grinders. Grinders aim to shut down their opponent's game plan and chip away at them via clinching, smothering and ground-and-pound for most of the rounds. Prominent examples of grinders are Pat Healy, Rampage Jackson, and Chael Sonnen.
Mixed martial arts: Women's mixed martial arts
Ronda Rousey; one of the top Bantamweight fighters
While mixed martial arts is primarily a male dominated sport, it does have female athletes. Female competition in Japan includes promotions such as the all-female Valkyrie, and JEWELS (formerly known as Smackgirl). However historically there has been only a select few major professional mixed martial arts organizations in the United States that invite women to compete. Among those are Strikeforce, Bellator Fighting Championships, the all female Invicta Fighting Championships, and the now defunct EliteXC.
There has been a growing awareness of women in mixed martial arts due to popular female fighters and personalities such as Megumi Fujii, Miesha Tate, Cristiane "Cyborg" Santos, Ronda Rousey, Joanna Jędrzejczyk, Holly Holm and Gina Carano among others. Carano became known as "the face of women's MMA" after appearing in a number of EliteXC events. This was furthered by her appearances on MGM Television's 2008 revival of their game show American Gladiators.
Mixed martial arts: History
In Japan, female competition has been documented since the mid-1990s. Influenced by female professional wrestling and kickboxing, the Smackgirl competition was formed in 2001 and became the only major all-female promotion in mixed martial arts. Other early successful Japanese female organizations included Ladies Legend Pro-Wrestling, ReMix (a predecessor to Smackgirl), U-Top Tournament, K-Grace, and AX.
Aside from all-female organizations, most major Japanese male dominated promotions have held select female competitions. These have included DEEP, MARS, Gladiator, HEAT, Cage Force, K-1, Sengoku, Shooto (under the name G-Shooto), and Pancrase (under the name Pancrase Athena).
In the United States, prior to the success of The Ultimate Fighter reality show that launched mixed martial arts into the mainstream media, there was no major coverage of female competitions. Some early organizations who invited women to compete included, International Fighting Championships, SuperBrawl, King of the Cage, Rage in the Cage, Ring of Combat, Bas Rutten Invitational, and HOOKnSHOOT. From the mid-2000s, more coverage came when organizations such as Strikeforce, EliteXC, Bellator Fighting Championships, and Shark Fights invited women to compete.
Outside Japan and the United States, female competition is almost exclusively found in minor local promotions. However, in Europe some major organizations have held select female competitions, including It's Showtime, Shooto Europe, Cage Warriors, and M-1 Global.
Following Zuffa's acquisition of Strikeforce in March 2011, the UFC began promoting women's fights. The notoriety of the female fights increased with Ronda Rousey's rise to fame, but the league still struggles to find its brand with women fighters. Contract problems with athletes like Gina Carano have made it difficult to secure compelling female main events for the UFC.
Controversy arose in 2013, when CFA (Championship Fighting Alliance) fighter Fallon Fox came out as a transgender woman. The case became a centerpiece of debates concerning whether it was fair to have a transsexual woman compete against one born of the female sex in a contact sport. Neither the UFC nor Invicta FC say they will allow her to fight, and then-UFC Bantamweight champion Ronda Rousey says she will not fight her.
Mixed martial arts: Amateur mixed martial arts
Amateur Mixed Martial Arts is the amateur version of the Mixed Martial Arts in which participants engage largely or entirely without remuneration. Under the International Mixed Martial Arts Federation (IMMAF) and the World Mixed Martial Arts Association (WMMAA), it is practiced within a safe and regulated environment which relies on a fair and objective scoring system and competition procedures similar to those in force in the professional Mixed Martial Arts rules. Amateur MMA is practiced with board shorts and with approved protection gear that includes shin protectors, and amateur MMA gloves.
Mixed martial arts: International Mixed Martial Arts Federation
On February 29, 2012, the International Mixed Martial Arts Federation (IMMAF) was set up to bring international structure, development and support to mixed martial arts worldwide. IMMAF launched with support of market leader, the Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC). The IMMAF is a non-profit, democratic federation organized according to international federation standards to ensure that MMA as a sport is allowed the same recognition, representation and rights as all other major sports. The IMMAF is registered under Swedish law and is founded on democratic principles, as outlined in their statutes. As of March 2015, there are 39 total members from 38 countries, which come from Austria, Bahrain, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Cameroon, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, El Salvador, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, India, Ireland (Northern Ireland), Italy, Jordan, Lebanon, Lithuania, Malaysia, Nepal, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Pakistan, Paraguay, Poland, Portugal, Romania, The Seychelles, South Africa, Sweden, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Ukraine, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America.
The IMMAF held its first Amateur World Championships in Las Vegas, USA, from June 30 to July 6, 2014.
Mixed martial arts: World Mixed Martial Arts Association
World Mixed Martial Arts Association (WMMAA) was founded in 2012 in Monaco by M-1 Global commercial promoters and is under the leadership of CEO Vadim Finkelstein and Fedor Emelianenko. The World MMA Association is an organization that manages and develops mixed martial arts, it establishes rules and procedures and hosts MMA competitions. World MMA Association includes national MMA organizations, representing the sport and registered in accordance with national laws.
As of December 2013 WMMAA has 38 member states under its umbrella: Afghanistan, Albania, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Colombia, Czech Republic, France, Guatemala, Georgia, Greece, India, Iran, Italy, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Senegal, Serbia, Slovakia, South Korea, Spain, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Trinidad and Tobago, Turkey, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Venezuela.
On October 20, 2013 the first World MMA Championship was held in Saint Petersburg, Russia.
Mixed martial arts: WMMAA Pan-American Division
On July 4, 2014 The WMMAC- The World MMA Council merged with the WMMAA and as a result the first ever Pan-American Division for the World MMA Association was created under the leadership of business magnate Tomas Yu, during the 2014 WMMAA Congress that was held in Amsterdam, Netherlands.
Mixed martial arts: Safety
A ring-side doctor attends to a fighter following a loss.
Mixed Martial Arts competitions have changed dramatically since the first Ultimate Fighting Championship in 1993, specifically with the inception of the Unified Rules of Mixed Martial Arts. A paucity of data on injuries that occur in MMA and the resulting concerns and controversy with regard to MMA's safety remain. A recent systematic review concluded that the injury incidence rate in MMA appears to be greater than in most, if not all, other popular and commonly practised combat sports.
Mixed martial arts: Injury rates
In a recent meta-analysis of the available injury data in MMA, the injury incidence rate was estimated to be 228.7 injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures (one athlete-exposure is defined as one athlete participating in a single fight). The estimated injury incidence rate in MMA is greater than in other full-contact combat sports such as judo (44.0 injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures), taekwondo (79.4 injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures), amateur boxing (77.7 injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures), and professional boxing (118.0-250.6 injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures).
Mixed martial arts: Injury pattern
In general, the injury pattern in MMA is very similar to that in professional boxing but unlike that found in other combat sports such as judo and taekwondo. The most commonly injured body region is the head (66.8% to 78.0% of reported injuries) followed by the wrist/hand (6.0% to 12.0% of reported injuries), while the most frequent types of injury were laceration (36.7% to 59.4% of reported injuries), fracture (7.4% to 43.3% of reported injuries), and concussion (3.8% to 20.4% of reported injuries).
Mixed martial arts: Mental health
In preliminary results reported in April 2012 as part of an ongoing study of a 109 professional boxers and MMA fighters being conducted by Dr. Charles Bernick and his colleagues at Cleveland Clinic's Lou Ruvo Center for Brain Health, fighters with more than six years of ring experience were observed to have reductions in size in their hippocampus and thalamus whereas fighters with more than twelve years of ring experience were observed to have both reductions in size and symptoms such as memory loss (the hippocampus and thalamus deal with memory and alertness). Dr. Bernick speculates that the cumulative damage over time from lesser blows may eventually prove an even more important topic of study than that of infrequent concussions.
Mixed martial arts: Fatalities
There have been seven known deaths in MMA to date. There were no documented cases of deaths after a sanctioned MMA event prior to 2007.
In the period of 2007 to 2010, there were two fatalities in mixed martial arts matches. The first was the death of Sam Vasquez on November 30, 2007. Vasquez collapsed shortly after being knocked out by Vince Libardi in the third round of an October 20, 2007 fight at the Toyota Center in Houston, Texas. Vasquez had two separate surgeries to remove blood clots from his brain, and shortly after the second operation suffered a devastating stroke and never regained consciousness.
The second death stemming from a sanctioned mixed martial arts contest occurred in South Carolina on June 28, 2010, when 30-year-old Michael Kirkham was knocked out and never regained consciousness. He was pronounced dead two days after the fight.
Mixed martial arts: Legality of professional competitions
Mixed martial arts: Australia
MMA in Australia is sanctioned in all States and Territories of Australia by various combat sports authorities/organizations. There is debate about the use of the cage, which was banned in Victoria in 2007 and then relegalized in 2015. The cage was banned in Western Australia in March, 2013.
Mixed martial arts: Bahrain
MMA is legalized in Bahrain. Bahrain National MMA Federation (BNMMAF) has been set up under the patronage of Sheikh Khalid bin Hamad Al Khalifa and the jurisdiction of the Sports Minister Sheikh Nasser bin Hamad Al Khalifa. The development of MMA in the nation is convened through KHK MMA, which also owns Brave Combat Federation which is the largest Mixed Martial Arts promotion in the Middle East. Bahrain will be hosting World MMA Amateurs Championship 2017 supported by International Mixed Martial Arts Federation.
Mixed martial arts: Belgium
MMA is tolerated in Belgium but not supported. In May 2012 the Belgian MMA Federation (BMMAF) was accepted by the International Mixed Martial Arts Federation as its third member, after several years of carrying out many of the tasks of a national federation under the former name of the Belgian Shooto and MMA Federation. Active in developing MMA in Belgium from 2005, the group later redefined their activities to include MMA in order to be able to use a cage. Registered as federation in Belgium in 2006, the former Belgian Shooto and MMA Federation organized more than 1500 MMA bouts (Amateur, B class and A class), and built a structure for the sport nationally that included insurance, rules and regulation, experience levels for fighters and technical seminars. The BMMAF has continued its activities as part of the wider MMA community under IMMAF.
Mixed martial arts: Brazil
January 17, 2013 saw the announcement that the Brazilian MMA Athletic Commission, or Comissao Atletica Brasileira de MMA (CABMMA), had joined the International MMA Federation. The CABMMA represents state federations across Brazil and is spearheaded by lawyers Giovanni Biscardi and Rafael Favettia, a former Executive Secretary of the Minister of Justice and Interim Minister of Justice. The CABMMA supervised its first event with "UFC on FX 7" on 19 January 2013 at Ibirapuera Gymnasium in São Paulo.
The CABMMA first hit international sports headlines when it suspended fighter Rousimar Palhares for prolonging a submission on opponent Mike Pierce, despite him tapping several times, during UFC Fight Night 29 in Barueri, Brazil on 9th Oct 2013. The CABMMA was called to preside over another controversy to involve a Brazilian competitor, when Vitor Belfort's use of Testosterone Replacement Therapy came to light over UFC on FX 8 (May 18, 2013)
Mixed martial arts: Bulgaria
Appearing on professional basis around 2008–2009, MMA is a new sport in Bulgaria and growing rapidly. With a strong wrestling and boxing culture in the region, general interest in the sport is huge. However, it remains unregulated. The Bulgarian Federation for Mixed Martial Arts was elected as the national federation representing the Republic of Bulgaria under the International Mixed Martial Arts Federation in October 2014; and like all IMMAF members, is a non-profit, democratic organization. Established in November 2013 by 10 MMA clubs, the organization is headed by UFC competitor Stanislav Nedkov. The federation's registration to the Ministry of Justice was approved in June 2014 and its application for formal recognition by the Ministry of Sport is in its advanced stages.
Mixed martial arts: Cambodia
In January 2013, the Cambodian Mixed Martial Arts Association was created under the Cambodian Martial Arts Federation. At this time there are no MMA events organized with the CMMAA approval. Television channel MYTV holds its KWC promotion under the sanctioning of the Cambodian Boxing Federation, responsible for sanctioning all boxing and Kun Khmer events in the country, in direct contrast to the situation in neighbouring Thailand.
Mixed martial arts: Canada
For many years, professional MMA competitions were illegal in Canada. Section 83(2) of the Canadian Criminal Code deemed that only boxing matches where only fists are used are considered legal. However most provinces regulated it by a provincial athletic commission (skirting S. 83(2) by classifying MMA as "mixed boxing"), such as the provinces of Manitoba, Ontario, Nova Scotia, Quebec, and Northwest Territories. The legality of MMA in the provinces of Alberta, British Columbia, and New Brunswick varies depending on the municipality. Professional MMA competitions remain illegal in the Canadian provinces of Newfoundland and Labrador, Prince Edward Island, Saskatchewan, Yukon, and Nunavut because it is not regulated by an athletic commission.
Canada formally decriminalized mixed martial arts with a vote on Bill S-209 on June 5, 2013. The bill formally gives provinces the power to create athletic commissions to regulate and sanction professional mixed martial arts bouts. Bill S-209 does not in and of itself make MMA legal across Canada; it allows provinces to make it legal on a province by province basis.
Mixed martial arts: China
In 2011, the Ranik Ultimate Fighting Federation (RUFF) hosted the first MMA event in Shanghai sanctioned by China's governing body for combat sports, the Wushu Sports Management Center of the General Administration of Sport in China. RUFF formally crowned the first Chinese national MMA champions in 2013 with each champion receiving 1,000,000 RMB in prize money. Other MMA promotions in China includes Real Fight Championship, which has produced 3 events in Henan and Beijing.
Mixed martial arts: Denmark
In Denmark, Mixed Martial Arts may be practised but is not an official or legally regulated sport. On November 11, 2012 the voluntary Danish Mixed Martial Arts Federation held its first official general assembly in Odense, Denmark. There the DMMAF was officially founded and a board was elected headed up by President Claus Larsen. The Federation was publicly launched on Friday November 24, inviting Danish MMA organizations, gyms and academies to sign up as members. The DMMAF is working towards recognition under the Danish Sports Federation, Dansk Idræts Forbund. On November 25 the DMMAF's application to the International Mixed Martial Arts Federation was approved.
Mixed martial arts: France
There remains political opposition to MMA in France and full contact MMA competition is banned. All bouts on French soil recorded as Mixed Martial Arts are in fact held under Pancrase Rules and other variants (Pankration, Kempo, Pankido). These bouts involve no striking on the ground as it is illegal in the country. The Commission National de Mixed Martial Arts (CNMMA) was founded as a non-profit organization for the development of MMA in 2009. The CNMMA had worked over four years to put an educational structure in place, including a technical system for the safe progression from grass-roots level, all the way up to the top professional level. Comprising 11 regional leagues working under regional technical advisers and teams, the CNMMA joined the International Mixed Martial Arts Federation (IMMAF) in March 2013 as The Commission Française de Mixed Martial Arts (CFMMA). In 2012, CFMMA president Bertrand Amoussou ascended to the position of President of the International Mixed Martial Arts Federation.
Mixed martial arts: India
Minister of Youth Affairs and Sports (India) have not recognized Mixed Martial Arts as a sport in India. Hence conducting Mixed Martial Arts events are not covered as sports but as unsanctioned events or street fighting. There had been allegations from MMA fighters about lack of insurance, medical facilities and financial benefits.
Mixed martial arts: Ireland
The Irish Martial Arts Commission recognised by the Irish Sports Council does not include MMA among its recognised martial arts. The Department of Transport, Tourism and Sport does not recognise MMA as a sport. UFC Fight Night 46, featuring Conor McGregor, was held in Dublin in 2014.
Mixed Martial Arts Federation Ireland (MMAFI), intended as a federation for amateur MMA clubs, gained observer status at IMMAF in June 2012. MMAFI had a meeting in March 2013 with the Northern Ireland sports minister, Carál Ní Chuilín about the prospect of getting recognition from Sport Northern Ireland.
Mixed martial arts: Japan
MMA competition has been legal in Japan since at least the mid-1980s, when Pancrase fights began to be held. There are several MMA-related organizations, including RIZIN FF, DEEP, Pancrase, Shooto and ZST.
Mixed martial arts: Malaysia
In July 2013 the Malaysia Mixed Martial Arts Association (MASMMAA) was formally announced as the official national governing body for MMA in Malaysia, ahead of its formation in December 2013. MASMMAA is registered under the Malaysian Sports Development Act 1997 and recognized by the Commissioner of Sports, under the auspices of the office of the Youth & Sports Ministry. The federation comprises representatives of ten states out of fourteen in Malaysia. MASMMAA became affiliated to the International Mixed Martial Arts Federation in April 2014.
Mixed martial arts: Norway
In Norway, sports that involve knock-outs as a means of securing victory or points are illegal, including MMA and boxing. Norwegian MMA fighters must therefore travel abroad to compete. The Norwegian MMA Federation (NMMAF) was elected as a full member of the International MMA Federation (IMMAF) on 22 April 2012, representing 49 member gyms across Norway. In 2012 the "Merkekamper" concept was introduced by the NMMAF, with government sanctioning, that enables member MMA gyms to hold events with sparring matches, but governed by strict rules concerning how hard a fighter is permitted to strike.
Mixed martial arts: Pakistan
In Pakistan, Mixed Martial Arts Pakistan organizes MMA events, the organization was founded in 2007 by veteran Pakistani MMA fighter Bashir Ahmad for promotion of MMA in Pakistan. Bashir Ahmad came to Pakistan in 2007 and that is when MMA in Pakistan was born and ever since that day Bashir gave all he got to promote Mixed Martial Arts in Pakistan
Mixed martial arts: Portugal
The FMMAP is recognized by the Portuguese government as a non-profit sports federation and oversees Amateur MMA competition and coaching nationally. Based in Vila do Conde, the Federação de Mixed Martial Arts de Portugal (FMMAP) was founded as a collaborative effort between 6 existing non-profit organizations in 2012, as Portugal's first dedicated MMA Federation. This is in line with government requirements of all sport federations in Portugal that they consist of at least 3 associated, non-profit groups. The composite FMMAP organisations are all involved in the coaching and promoting of MMA with a shared goal for the Amateur sport, but come from various martial arts that include Karate, Kickboxing, Muay Thai, Pankration Athlima, Mixed Martial Arts, Jeet Kune Do, Freestyle martial arts, Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu and Wrestling. Affiliated groups at launch were AAMU - Associação Artes Marciais, Associação de Artes Marciais e Desportos de Combate (Açores), Associação Areagon (Chaves City), Associação Mirandelense de Artes Orientais (Mirandela City), Associação Portuguesa de Ciências de Combate/JKD Unlimited Portugal (Lisbon City), KMD MMA system (Porto City), Barcelos Gym (Barcelos City). The FMMAP is affiliated to the International Mixed Martial Arts Federation (IMMAF).
Mixed martial arts: Romania
The Romanian Mixed Martial Arts Federation (RMMAF) was established in 2012 as a legal non-profit federation under the Ministry of Youth and Sport in Romania. The Federation was formed by the board of MMA organization AGON backed by a broad representation of the Romanian MMA community including around 20 pure MMA clubs and non-profit MMA organizations around the country. Based in Bucharest, Romania AGON club was founded in its present legal form in June 2012 following a long period of time of acting under different other organisations, and Gheorghe Stanciu was elected as its president. AGON's members brought long experience in the management of sports organizations, with Mr Mihail Mihailovici having previously founded the Kyolusing BudoKai organization in Romania under the IKO, organising national and international competitions over 5 years and working with the government as a recognised sports body. The RMMAF is affiliated to the International Mixed Martial Arts Federation (IMMAF).
Mixed martial arts: Russia
In September 2012, MMA was given 'National Sport' status in Russia, and on the same day fighter and M-1 Global promoter Fedor Emelianenko was appointed to the role of Russian MMA Union president.
Mixed martial arts: Singapore
The MMA program at Singapore is licensed by the Cantonment Police Division.
Mixed martial arts: Sweden
MMA competition is legal and under the purview of the Swedish Mixed Martial Arts Federation (SMMAF) which was formed in 2007 and began overseeing MMA events and governing the sport as a whole in 2008. In 2009 the SMMAF was accepted into the Association of Swedish Budo and Martial Arts Federation, thus granting MMA "national sport" status and making its approved clubs eligible for partial government subsidization. On April 30, 2011, the SMMAF sanctioned the first event under its purview to utilize the Unified Rules of Mixed Martial Arts. The Swedish Mixed Martial Arts Federation governs the sport of MMA in Sweden as a member affiliated to the International Mixed Martial Arts Federation.
The SMMAF hit the headlines when it withdrew Swedish headliner, Alexander Gustafsson, from competing at UFC on FUEL 9 in Sweden (April 6, 2013), due to a facial laceration.
Mixed martial arts: South Africa
MMA competition is legal and under the purview of the Professional Mixed Martial Arts Council or PROMMA Africa; which was formed in 2010 with its main purpose to regulate MMA at larger MMA promotions such as EFC Worldwide (Formerly known as EFC Africa). PROMMA Africa began overseeing Rise of the Warrior MMA events in 2010. In 2012 the PROMMA Africa Council was accepted into the Mixed Martial Arts Association of South Africa (MASA) thus granting MMA "national sport" status. In addition to EFC Africa, there are other leagues such as Dragon Legends MMA.
Mixed martial arts: Thailand
In 2012, the Sports Authority of Thailand banned competitions. It has been speculated that the Muay Thai industry played a factor in the Sports Authority of Thailand (SAT)'s final decision, as MMA could potentially take away business from Muay Thai, from fighters to profit. SAT Deputy Governor Sakol Wannapong has said "Organizing a MMA event here would hurt the image of Muay Thai, if you want to do this kind of business, you should do it in another country. Organizing MMA here could mislead the public into believing that Muay Thai is brutal."
Jussi Saloranta, the owner of Thailand's only MMA promotion, DARE Fight Sports, revealed that his lawyers found that the ban was actually premature, and that from a legal standpoint, there is no law banning mixed martial arts in the country, and that the SAT's ban was more of a scare tactic. Because of this DARE continue to showcase events while informing fans only at the last minute through texts on the day of the event, and presenting the videos on YouTube as The Most Dangerous Gameshow. Saloranta has also helped set up the MMA Association of Thailand, in the hopes of reaching a compromise with SAT and regulating mixed martial arts in Thailand.
On September 12, 2013, DARE Fight Sports released a statement announcing SAT had removed the ban on MMA and would henceforth sanction the sport in Thailand.
Dare Fight Sports is currently the only MMA organization in Thailand to be officially sanctioned and publicized by the tourism authority of Thailand but there is now also an ever-growing set of new MMA organizations appearing around the country
Mixed martial arts: United States
In the United States, professional MMA is overseen by the Association of Boxing Commissions. According to the Associations of Boxing Commissions, professional MMA competitions are allowed in all states. Alaska has no boxing or athletic commission. Montana has a state athletic commission although it doesn't regulate MMA. However, MMA is legal in both states. West Virginia became the 44th state to regulate mixed martial arts on March 24, 2011. On March 8, 2012, Wyoming became the 45th state to regulate MMA. On May 4, 2012, it was announced that Vermont had become the 46th state to regulate MMA. Legislation allowing MMA in Connecticut came into effect on October 1, 2013, making it the 47th state to regulate the sport. On March 22, 2016, the New York State Assembly voted to lift the State's 1997 ban on MMA and on April 14, 2016 Governor Cuomo signed the bill legalizing and regulating the sport into law.
Mixed martial arts: See also
- Hybrid martial arts
- List of current mixed martial arts champions
- List of female mixed martial artists
- List of male mixed martial artists
- List of Mixed Martial Artists with the most sanctioned fights
- Mixed martial arts clothing
- Shoot fighting
Mixed martial arts: References
- Rosenberg, Howard (November 15, 1993). "'Ultimate' Fight Lives Up to Name". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved June 22, 2016.
- "Full Contact! presents - A UFC 1 Article.". Archived from the original on 3 February 1998.
- Kirik Jenness (2012-02-04). "Did LA reporter coin the term Mixed Martial Arts?". Mixed Martial Arts News. Retrieved 2014-06-08.
- Nash, John S. (May 23, 2012) The Martial Chronicles: Before Fighting Was Ultimate It Was Super, SB Nation (bloodyelbow.com) Retrieved August 31, 2014
- Werner, Sam (June 24, 2011) MMA roots were planted in New Kensington, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette Retrieved September 1, 2014
- Sonmez, Can. "UFC 1: The Beginning". Mixed Martial Arts.com.
- Plotz, David (November 16, 1997). "Fight Clubbed". Slate. Retrieved 2006-12-26.
- McFarland, Matt (May 6, 2008). "Ultimate Fighting wants to come to NY". WNYT.com. Archived from the original on 2008-05-09. Retrieved 2008-05-06.
- Trembow, Ivan (March 1, 2007). "UFC PPV Revenue Tops $200 Million in 2006". MMA Weekly. Archived from the original on May 22, 2007. Retrieved 2007-06-18.
- Gardiner, E. Norman, 'The Pankration' in Greek Athletic Sports and Festivals, London:MacMillan, 1910, p.435
- Gardiner, E. Norman, 'The Pankration' in Greek Athletic Sports and Festivals, London:MacMillan, 1910, pp.436-437
- John R. Little, Curtis F. Wong (September 2000). Ultimate Martial Arts Encyclopedia. McGraw-Hill; 1 edition. ISBN 0-8092-2835-1.
- Green, Thomas A. Martial Arts of the World [2 volumes]: An Encyclopedia of History and Innovation. ABC-CLIO (June 11, 2010). pp. 259-260. Buy book ISBN 978-1598842432.
- Graeme Kent (1968). A Pictorial History of Wrestling. Spring Books; 1 edition.
- Noble, Graham (March 2001). "An Introduction to E. W. Barton-Wright (1860–1951) and the Eclectic Art of Bartitsu". Journal of Manly Arts. Retrieved 2007-06-14.
- "Journal of Combative Sport: Jujitsu versus Boxing". Journal of Combative Sport. Retrieved 2008-05-07.
- "Fighting Spirit: An Introductory History of Korean Boxing, 1926–1945". Journal of Combative Sport. Retrieved 2009-02-16.
- Willoughby, David P. (1970). The Super Athletes. A.S. Barnes & Co., Inc. pp. 376–380. ISBN 0-498-06651-7.
- "Judo vs. Boxing: "Judo" Gene LeBell Defeats Boxer Milo Savage in First MMA Fight". blackbeltmag.com.
- Wickert, Marc. 2004. Dana White and the future of UFC. kucklepit.com. See Wikiquotes for the text.
- Peterson, D.: Wong Shun Leung: The Legend behind the Legend; Recalling the life of Bruce Lee's teacher Retrieved on 25 June 2009.
- Lam, G., & LeBlanc, G. E.: The Wing Chun double knife training: Baat Jaam Do Retrieved on 7 July 2009.
- Longley, K.: Dave Lacey 'Lai Dai Wai': Buck Sing Choy Lay Fut's unrepentant 'Black Panther' (originally published in Impact International Martial Arts Magazine). Retrieved 7 July 2009.
- Sylvie von Duuglas-Ittu. "Origins of Japanese Kickboxing – The Karate vs Muay Thai Fight That Started It All". 8 Limbs. December 28, 2015
- Bull, Andy (2009-11-11). "The forgotten story of ... Muhammad Ali v Antonio Inoki". The Guardian. Retrieved 2014-06-08.
- Black Belt Apr 1999 (Rick Roufus interview - mentions fight). books.google.co.uk. Retrieved 2011-06-06.
- "MMA Origins: Vale Tudo and The Original MMA Rivalry". Bloody Elbow. 2012-01-01. Retrieved 2014-06-08.
- "MMA History, myths, facts, rumorsPittsburgh MMA".
- Sánchez Garcia, R.; D. Malcolm (2010). "Decivilizing, civilizing or informalizing? The international development of mixed martial arts". International Review for the Sociology of Sport. 45 (1): 39–58. doi:10.1177/1012690209352392. Retrieved 2014-03-15.
- "Fight Finder – UFC 1 The Beginning". Sherdog.com.
- Peligro, Kid (2003). The Gracie Way: An Illustrated History of the World's Greatest Martial Arts Family. Invisible Cities Press. pp. 79–84. ISBN 1-931229-28-7.
- "What is MMA (Mixed Martial Arts)?". Allout Fight Shop.
- "What is Pride?". Pride. Retrieved 2006-12-23.
- Sievert, Steve (December 29, 2006). "UFC 66 to make MMA history". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved 2007-06-18.
- Doyle, Dave (April 4, 2000). "UFC scores TKO on its business rival". Fox Sports, MSN. Archived from the original on April 6, 2007. Retrieved 2007-03-27.
- "Source: UFC buys Pride for less than $70M". Associated Press, ESPN. March 27, 2007. Retrieved 2007-06-15. "This is really going to change the face of MMA. Literally creating a sport that could be as big around the world as soccer. I liken it somewhat to when the NFC and AFC came together to create the NFL" -Lorenzo Fertitta, one of the UFC's majority owners
- Umstead, R. Thomas (September 18, 1995). "Operators struggle again with UFC time overrun. (multiple-systems operators; Ultimate Fighting Championships)". Multichannel News. Retrieved 2014-06-08 – via HighBeam Research.
- "Jeff Blatnick's funeral and how the term MMA came to be". MMA Fighting. 2012-10-27. Retrieved 2014-06-08.
- NO HOLDS BARRED:The complete history of Mixed Martial Arts in America by Clyde Gentry
- Eddie Goldman. "EXTREME FIGHTING 4 RULES MEETING GOES ON AS PLANNED". Archived from the original on 1998-02-03. Retrieved 2014-06-08.
- "Chapter 74 : Professional Shoot Fighting" (PDF). Legis.iowa.org. Retrieved 2015-06-12.
- Gross, Josh (2005-02-22). "MMA Vote Takes Place Today in California". Sherdog.com. Retrieved 2011-05-17.
- "Mixed Martial arts Unified Rules of Conduct". New Jersey State Athletic Control Board. September 5, 2002. Archived from the original on April 3, 2009. Retrieved 2006-06-18.
- "SUMMARY REPORT Discussion and Review of UNIFIED RULES OF MIXED MARTIAL ARTS". ABCBoxing.com. Archived from the original on 2012-07-05. Retrieved 2011-05-17.
- "Army Embraces MMA for Inaugural Combatives Tournament". Sherdog.com. 2005-11-03. Retrieved 2011-04-17.
- "Members of Parliament Vote to Give MMA Legal Framework in Canada!". TopMMANews.com. 2013-06-05. Retrieved 2013-06-05.
- "MMA Promotions Index". Tapology.com. Retrieved 2015-06-12.
- "UFC's Dana White Talks Competition". BloodyElbow.com. 2011-04-14. Retrieved 2011-04-16.
- "Current MMA Rankings". Fightmatrix.com. 2015-03-25. Retrieved 2015-06-12.
- "UFC 129 Officially Breaks Live Gate, Attendance Records". Sherdog.com. 2011-04-30. Retrieved 2011-05-13.
- Fagan, Mike (2011-05-06). "UFC 129 Does Big Business, Georges St. Pierre Is Huge in Canada". BloodyElbow.com. Retrieved 2011-05-13.
- "UFC Announces TV Deal with Fox". Ultimate Fighting Championship-Mobile. 2011-08-18. Retrieved 2014-06-08.
- "UFC Fight Pass adds live events from Japanese MMA pioneer promotion Pancrase". MMAjunkie.
- Press Release (June 7, 2012) Invicta FC Partners with Jewels to Create Top Female Fights. Fight Network Retrieved october 20,2014
- (Issue Date: 10/19/2014) Women's Atomweight (110.9 lbs and under) fighter ranks, Fight Matrix Retrieved October 20, 2014
- (October 1, 2014) Unified Women's Mixed Martial Arts Rankings mmarising.com Retrieved October 20, 2014
- Worldwide MMA Discussion/Sticky Threads (November 21, 2014) Top 50 best regional orgs (Fall Update), Sherdog forum, Retrieved December 1, 2015
- "MMA Gyms and Academies Directory". Tapology.com. Retrieved 2015-06-12.
- "Gyms". MMATraining.com. Retrieved 2015-06-12.
- Hutchinson, Michael (July 29, 2015) UFC Gyms fight camp rankings, SB Nation (BloodyElbow.com) retrieved September 22, 2015
- "Alexa - Top Sites by Category: Sports/Martial Arts/Submission Fighting and MMA/News and Media". alexa.com.
- UFC 40: Vendetta (PPV) (Television production). Zuffa (November 22, 2002). Event occurs at 1:00 into Chuck Liddell vs. Renato Sobral. "The evolution of martial arts since 1993, since the UFC came around, martial arts have evolved more than they have in the last 700 years. We know exactly now what works in a real live situation with two warriors fighting. For a long time that was just speculation." -Joe Rogan
- Sloan, Mike (June 22, 2007). "No Win Situation is Must Win for Shamrock". Sherdog, ESPN. Retrieved 2007-06-22.
- Rousseau, Robert. "A History and Style Guide of MMA". About.com. Retrieved 2011-04-20.
- Breen, Jordan (2009-03-11). "Art Jimmerson: Where Is He Now?". Sherdog.com. Retrieved 2011-04-20.
- Martin, Todd (2010-08-16). "Boxing vs. MMA? More Like Boxer vs. Reality". Sherdog.com. Retrieved 2011-04-20.
- Hunt, Loretta (2010-08-29). "White, Couture Soften Toney's Fall at UFC 118". Sherdog.com. Retrieved 2011-04-20.
- Rossen, Jake (2010-08-31). "Respecting James Toney". Sherdog.com. Retrieved 2011-04-20.
- Strickland, Jonathan. "UFC History". HowStuffWorks.com. Retrieved 2011-05-18.
- (February 10, 2011), Silva or Fedor? Who you prefer says lots about why you watch "You can argue the point either way, and people have, and will, and I don't have any fixed opinion on the matter other than that I would like to see the two fight at light heavyweight. What's actually interesting is that when you run down their records the two are even closer than you might think.", Sports Illustrated, Retrieved May 17, 2014
- (December 31, 2013), Anderson Silva vs Fedor Emelianenko: Debating MMA's Greatest of All Time "I think to be honest we've kind of come to the crux of why it's so difficult to choose between Anderson and Fedor as the GOAT. It really does just come down to where you put the most value.", bloodyelbow.com, Retrieved May 17, 2014
- (January 3, 2014), Fedor Emelianenko vs. Anderson Silva: Comparing and Contrasting 2 Legends, "What we can agree on is that both of these men changed the game. In a sport where everyone loses, these men beat the best of the best and held off the inevitable for the longest. Few men in any field can lay claim to such accomplishment and influence over their own sport. That is something to be applauded, examined and appreciated-not bickered over.", Bleacher report, Retrieved May 17, 2014
- (January 2, 2014), BE's Baddest MMA Greatest of All Time Tournament Winner: Fedor Emelianenko, (Fan opinion pole), bloodyelbow.com, Retrieved May 17, 2014
- (September 4, 2012), Fedor Emelianenko Voted The Greatest Fighter Of All Time By Brazilian Fans, (Fan opinion poll), bloodyelbow.com, Retrieved May 17, 2014
- "MMA's worldwide leader in UFC news, gear and events". Mixedmartialarts.com. Retrieved 2014-06-08.
- Krauss, Erich (1 December 2004). Warriors of the Ultimate Fighting Championship. U.S.: Citadel Press Inc.,. ISBN 0-8065-2657-2.
- "PRIDE Rules". PRIDE FC Official Website. Retrieved 2014-06-08.
- "RULES". ONE Official Website. Retrieved 2014-06-29.
- "The Current Best Pound-for-Pound MMA Fighters". Tapology MMA Rankings. Retrieved 2014-06-08.
- Jeff Wagenheim. "Jon Jones's suspension means Ronda Rousey is No. 1 in pound for pound rankings - MMA - SI.com". SI.com.
- "Fighter Rankings For June 1, 2014". MMARising.com. 2014-06-01. Retrieved 2014-06-08.
- McKinley Noble. "Bellator". Bleacher Report.
- "The attitude of erasure - An op-ed on WMMA rankings by Fallon Fox". Bloody Elbow.
- "MMAWeekly World Top 10 MMA Rankings". MMAWeekly.com. 2010-10-05. Retrieved 2014-06-08.
- "MMA Rankings". FIGHT! Magazine. Retrieved 2014-06-08.
- "Rankings Archives". Ranking MMA. Retrieved 2014-06-08.
- "GroundandPound . Kampfsportnews . MMA, Thaiboxen, Kickboxen, Boxen, Grappling". groundandpound.de.
- "MMA Viking's Official Nordic Rankings – March Update". Nordic MMA Everyday at MMA Viking.
- "Rules and Regulations - Unified Rules and Other MMA Regulations".
- "UFC® Martial Arts Styles - Fighters Train in Multiple Disciplines". ufc.com.
- Gree, Andrew (December 20, 2005). "Kids in MMA". Innovative Martial arts. Archived from the original on July 9, 2007. Retrieved 2006-12-13.
- Gutierrez, Luis. "JKD and Children". One Dragon Martial arts. Retrieved 2006-12-13.
- "Striking Styles and Statistics, Part 1: Volume". Bloody Elbow. Retrieved 2014-08-12.
- "FightMetric LLC :.: The World's First Comprehensive MMA Statistics Provider". Fightmetric.com. Retrieved 2014-08-12.
- "Recipe For Success: Becoming well rounded in mixed martial arts (Part Four)". MMAmania.com. Retrieved 2014-08-12.
- Patterson, Jeff. "Muay Thai Training". nwfighting.com. Northwest Fighting Arts. Retrieved 11 March 2014.
- WTBA Administrator. "History". thaiboxing.com. Archived from the original on 2015-06-30.
- "The Gentle Way: Strikeforce Champion Ronda Rousey and the Birth of a Judo Star". Bleacher Report. Retrieved 2015-01-19.
- "Judo "The Gentle Way": Why Judo Is so Underrated in MMA Today". Bleacher Report. Retrieved 2015-01-19.
- "The Gentle Way Part II: Olympians Ronda Rousey and Rick Hawn Adapt to MMA". Bleacher Report. Retrieved 2015-01-19.
- "entrevista a paulo filho (interview with Paulo Filho)" (in Portuguese). youtube.com.
- Catch: the hold not taken documentary DVD 2005 Archived July 21, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
- "Technique Talk: Stephen Thompson Retrofits Karate for MMA". MMA Fighting. Retrieved 2014-06-08.
- Schneiderman, R. M. (2009-05-23). "Contender Shores Up Karate's Reputation Among U.F.C. Fans". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-01-30.
- "Lyoto Machida and the Revenge of Karate". Sherdog. Retrieved 2010-02-13.
- "Chuck Liddell - Biography and Profile of Chuck Liddell". Martialarts.about.com. Retrieved 2012-11-25.
- Jack Slack (2014-02-14). "Lyoto Machida: Old-School Karate". Bleacher Report. Retrieved 2014-06-08.
- Wickert, Marc. "Montreal's MMA Warrior.". Knucklepit.com. Archived from the original on 13 June 2007. Retrieved 6 July 2007.
- "Taekwondo in MMA - Cage tactics - Fight! Australia magazine". Insidemma.com.au. Retrieved 2016-02-29.
- "5 Minutes With Anthony Pettis". FIGHT! Magazine.
- "Taekwondo Salto open 2010-anderson silva final -87kg(Professor Agnaldo Martins)". YouTube.
- Anderson Silva; Erich Krauss; Glen Cordoza (17 November 2008). The Mixed Martial Arts Instruction Manual: Striking. Victory Belt Publishing. ISBN 978-0-9815044-1-4.
- "Realer Sports w/ Rosenberg: UFC Champ Anthony Pettis". YouTube.
- Beacham, Greg (2010-09-29). "Zhang hoping to lead Chinese wave into MMA". USA Today. Retrieved 2010-11-25.
- Jonathan Snowden; Kendall Shields (1 November 2010). The MMA Encyclopedia. ECW Press. p. 961. ISBN 978-1-55490-844-8.
- UFC 160 Judo Chop: The Best and Worst of Junior Dos Santos "...Cigano's sprawl and brawl is a true throwback to the early days of MMA, when men like Chuck Liddell, Wanderlei Silva, Rampage Jackson, and Mirko Cro Cop...". Bloodyelbow.com. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
- Ruebusch, Connor (11 March 2015). "UFC 185 Judo Chop - Joanna Jedrzejczyk: Payback and Fighting Dirty". SB Nation (BloodyElbow.com). Retrieved 12 July 2016.
- "UFC 10: Birth of ground 'n' pound is also well known for his ground and pound, as is Fedor Emelianenko.". Yahoo. Retrieved 2010-01-19.
- Andrew Richardson. "UFC 160 complete fighter breakdown, Cain Velasquez edition". MMAmania.com.
- OBI, NEDU (December 12, 2011). UFC 140 Results: Tito Ortiz and the 5 Best Ground-and-Pound Artists Eve "..."The Emperor," fallen though he might be of late, takes the No. 1 spot as the greatest ground-and-pound artist in MMA history...". bleacher Report. Retrieved June 19, 2013.
- Slack, Jack (June 04, 2012). Analyzing Fedor: Revolutionizing Ground And Pound "...What Fedor will always be remembered for by fans who saw him compete in his prime, however, was his revolutionizing of ground and pound...". bloodyelbow.com. Retrieved June 19, 2013.
- Correspondent (2008-11-22). "The Ultimate Takedown Championship? Ways to End Lay and Pray". Bleacher Report. Retrieved 2014-08-12.
- Featured Columnist (2010-11-02). "MMA: The Falsities of Lay and Pray". Bleacher Report. Retrieved 2014-08-12.
- Analyst (2009-11-08). ""How I Mastered the Art of Lay-and-Pray" by Jake Shields". Bleacher Report. Retrieved 2014-08-12.
- "Judges need to punish lay-and-pray tactics - Hardy | UFC News". ESPN.co.uk. 2010-09-07. Retrieved 2014-08-12.
- Contributor (2011-07-22). "UFC and Jon Fitch: 5 Reasons Why the Jon Fitch Issue Is the Most Toxic in MMA". Bleacher Report. Retrieved 2014-08-12.
- "Rashad Evans Follows Georges St Pierre Down the Boring Road to Victory". Bloody Elbow. Retrieved 2014-08-12.
- I Don't Really Care Being Called Lay & Pray - Ben Askren on YouTube
- "UFC Fighting Styles". Zewkey.com. Retrieved 2014-08-12.
- "FCF - Mixed Martial Arts Council UFC Rules update 6/99". Fcfighter.com. Retrieved 2014-08-12.
- Marrocco, Steven (Feb 22, 2013). UFC 157 preview: How can Liz Carmouche beat heavy favorite Ronda Rousey? Archived 2013-07-06 at the Wayback Machine. "...While Rousey is generally a master at initiating throws from the clinch to set up armbars...". MMAjunkie.com. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
- Slack, Jack (March 29, 2013). Best of the Best: Anderson Silva's Muay Thai Clinch Work "...This is truly the difference between fighters who flail to grab a hold of their opponents head and try to knee, and someone like Silva who will set up his grips scientifically...". Bleacher Report. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
- Sllack, Jack (January 04, 2013). Randy Couture Judo Chop: Boxing into the Clinch "...The first major exponent of Greco-Roman wrestling in MMA, Randy Couture remains one of the few fighters to make full use of opportunities to clinch and the damage which can be done to the opponent from there...". bloodyelbow.com. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
- "Khabib Nurmagomedov vs. Pat Healy set for UFC 165 in Toronto". MMAmania.com. Retrieved 2014-06-08.
- Fowlkes, Ben (August 17, 2013). "UFC Fight Night: Sonnen submits Rua in first round". USA Today.
- Sherdog.com (2008-10-08). "Valkyrie Takes Flight Nov. 8". Sherdog.com. Retrieved 2009-09-12.
- "Bleacher Report". Bleacher Report. 2010-01-14. Retrieved 2012-11-25.
- Fowlkes, Ben. "Zuffa-Strikeforce Deal Could Mean Uncertain Future for Women's MMA". MMA Fighting. Retrieved 2012-11-25.
- "canada.com - Blogs". Communities.canada.com. 2012-11-20. Retrieved 2012-11-25.
- "Is This the End of Women's MMA?". Bleacher Report. 2009-08-16. Retrieved 2012-11-25.
- Tomas Rios Ronda Rousey, Bro Queen: Why Is The UFC So Stupid About Women?, Deadspin, 22 February 2013.
- "Dana White calls Gina Carano 'the hardest human being we've ever dealt with'". MMAfighting.com. Retrieved 2015-06-12.
- Sean Gregory, Should A Former Man Be Able To Fight Women?, Time magazine, 24 May 2013.
- Brynn Tannehill, Fallon Fox and the Legacy of Satchel Paige, Huffington Post, 16 December 2014.
- "worldmmacouncil.org" (PDF). Retrieved 12 June 2015.
- "Rules | IMMAF – International Mixed Martial Arts Federation". Immaf.org. Archived from the original on 2014-07-07. Retrieved 2014-08-12.
- "International MMA Federation founded". Retrieved April 12, 2010.
- "UFC Supports Creation of International MMA Federation". UFC. Retrieved 22 April 2015.
- "UFC backs creation of International Mixed Martial Arts Federation (IMMAF)". MMAmania.com. Retrieved 22 April 2015.
- "IMMAF Statutes 29 February 2012" (PDF). Immaf.org. Retrieved 2015-06-12.
- "Members". IMMAF - International Mixed Martial Arts Federation. Archived from the original on 2015-03-16.
- "IMMAF Launches World Championships". Reuters. 2013-05-24.
- "IMMAF World Championships : Las Vegas 2014". Immaf.org. Archived from the original on 2015-07-30. Retrieved 2015-06-12.
- "First Amateur MMA World Championships To Be Held in the USA". MMA Platinum Gloves.
- "Ошибка: обслуживание сайта было приостановлено". Wmmaa.org. Retrieved 2014-08-12.
- Export Strategy Dublin Ireland (2013-05-23). "Vadim Finkelstein on UFC in Sweden, Dana White, M-1 Challenge 38 & Emelianenko brothers - All about Mixed Martial Arts". Combatbear.com. Retrieved 2014-08-12.
- "Грязная политика". Mixfight.ru. Retrieved 2014-08-12.
- "M-1 Global намерена организовать поединок Емельяненко - Веласкес в Москве - Чемпионат". Championat.com. Retrieved 2014-08-12.
- Super User. "Members - World Mixed Martial Arts Association - We are the future of MMA". World Mixed Martial Arts Association - We are the future of MMA.
- "Press-release: 2013 World MMA Championship results and video". Retrieved December 16, 2013.
- "Press-release: 2014 World MMA Association Pan-American Division". Retrieved December 16, 2013.
- "Strong Results need Strong Partnerships! - World Mixed Martial Arts Association - We are the future of MMA". Wmmaa.org. 2015-06-22. Retrieved 2016-02-29.
- "Feeding the Lions - World Mixed Martial Arts Association - We are the future of MMA". Wmmaa.org. 2014-11-21. Retrieved 2016-02-29.
- "Redefining the Limits - World Mixed Martial Arts Association - We are the future of MMA". Wmmaa.org. 2015-02-04. Retrieved 2016-02-29.
- "Leadership Friday (by Tomas Yu) - World Mixed Martial Arts Association - We are the future of MMA". Wmmaa.org. 2015-10-14. Retrieved 2016-02-29.
- "A World Alliance to support Global Military Brotherhood - World Mixed Martial Arts Association - We are the future of MMA". Wmmaa.org. Retrieved 2016-02-29.
- Lystad, Reidar P.; Kobi Gregory; Juno Wilson (2014). "The epidemiology of injuries in mixed martial arts: A systematic review and meta-analysis". Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine. 2 (1): 2325967113518492. doi:10.1177/2325967113518492. Retrieved 2014-03-15.
- Frey, A.; D. Rousseau; B. Vesselle; Y. Hervouet des Forges; M. Egoumendes (2004). "Neuf saisons de surveillance médicale de compétitions de judo: une analyse nationale de la traumatologie du judo en compétition". J Traumatologie Sport. 21: 100–109. doi:10.1016/s0762-915x(04)97390-1.
- Lystad, Reidar P.; Henry Pollar; Petra L. Graham (2009). "Epidemiology of injuries in competition taekwondo: a meta-analysis of observational studies". Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 12 (6): 614–621. PMID 19054714. doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2008.09.013.
- Estwanik, J.J.; M. Boitano; N. Ari (1984). "Amateur boxing injuries at the 1981 and 1982 USA/ABF national championships". Phys Sportsmed. 11: 123–128.
- Bledsoe, G.H.; G. Li; F. Levy (2005). "Injury risk in professional boxing". South Med J. 98: 994–998. doi:10.1097/01.smj.0000182498.19288.e2.
- Zazryn, T.R.; C.F. Finch; P. McCrory (2003). "A 16 year study of injuries to professional boxers in the state of Victoria, Australia". Br J Sports Med. 37: 321–324. doi:10.1136/bjsm.37.4.321.
- Zazryn, T.R.; P. Cameron; P. McCrory (2006). "A prospective cohort study of injury in amateur and professional boxing". Br J Sports Med. 40: 670–674. doi:10.1136/bjsm.2006.025924.
- Zazryn, T.R.; P. McCrory; P. Cameron (2006). "Injury rates and risk factors in competitive professional boxing". Clin J Sports Med. 19: 20–25.
- Study of Fighters Shows Brain Changes Are Seen Before Symptoms, The New York Times, TIMOTHY PRATT, April 24, 2012. ' . . This is part of the Professional Fighters Brain Health Study, now a year old . . . . Dr. Bernick will present these findings on Wednesday in New Orleans at the American Academy of Neurology's annual meeting . . . . Though Dr. Bernick intends to continue his study of boxers for at least five years, he said the preliminary findings were worth the attention of the neurology association's annual meeting, as "nobody has the numbers we do." . . '
- "A Third Fatality for Modern Mixed Martial Arts | Martial History Magazine". Martialhistory.com. Retrieved 2012-11-25.
- Sievert, Steve (2007-11-26). "Mixed Martial Arts Notebook: Vasquez in toughest fight". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved 2007-12-02.
- "Update: Sam Vasquez Dead at 35". Sherdog.com. 2007-12-02. Retrieved 2013-02-13.
- "Fighter Dies in South Carolina After First Pro Bout". Sherdog.com. June 28, 2010. Retrieved June 28, 2010.
- "Victoria needs the 'cage' to lure UFC". 10 October 2013.
- Savage, Alison (3 March 2015). "MMA cage fighting: Victorian Government to lift ban on octagon". ABC.net.au. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
- Duane Finley (2015-08-20). "The Fighting Life: The Rise of MMA in Bahrain". Bleacher Report. Retrieved 2017-03-23.
- "Brave To Host 9 Events in Middle East in 2017; UAE to Have An Edition in March". ArabsMMA. 2014-06-20. Retrieved 2017-03-23.
- "Bahrain News Agency | Bahrain to host World MMA Amateurs Championship2017". Bna.bh. Retrieved 2017-03-23.
-  Archived November 4, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
-  Archived November 10, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.
- Application for IMMAF membership documentation
-  Archived April 30, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
- "Brazilian MMA Athletic Commission joins IMMAF regulatory group". MMAjunkie.
- "Brazil Establishes New MMA Regulatory Commission, Joins IMMAF". 411MANIA.com. 2013-01-17. Archived from the original on 2014-05-02. Retrieved 2015-06-12.
- "UFC on FX 7 - Belfort vs. Bisping". Sherdog.com. 2013-01-19. Retrieved 2015-06-12.
- "Brazilian commission suspends Rousimar Palhares for 120 days". MMA Fighting.
- "CABMMA suspends Rousimar Palhares 120 days following UFC Fight Night 29". MMAjunkie.
- "Brazil medical commissioner defends Belfort's TRT - Fighters Only".
- Paul Quigley. "Bulgaria joins the IMMAF - Fighters Only".
- "IMMAF WELCOMES THE BULGARIAN FEDERATION OF MMA". Sherdog.
- "Criminal Code". Laws-lois.justice.gc.ca. Retrieved 2012-11-25.
- Dave Deibert, Postmedia News, March 20, 2012. Bill introduced to legalize mixed martial arts in Canada Archived from the original Archived July 11, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
- Magraken, Erik. "Now That We're Done Celebrating Bill S-209, Time to Get To Work". CanadianMMALawBlog.com. Retrieved 16 July 2013.
- "Ontario joins list of provinces to allow mixed martial arts". Shaw Communications Inc. August 16, 2010. Retrieved November 16, 2010.
- "Mixed Martial Arts Regulation in North America" (PDF). January 22, 2010. Retrieved September 10, 2010.
- "States for Kickboxing or MMA". International Sport Combat Federation. July 13, 2010. Retrieved September 10, 2010.
- "RUFF new combat sport to contend with China's traditional martial arts".
-  Archived February 22, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.
- "DMMA - Danish Mixed Martial Arts Federation". Dmmaf.dk. Retrieved 2015-06-12.
- Kyle Symes. "France's Sports Ministry Says Non Merci to UFC, Upholds Ban on MMA". Bleacher Report.
- "- THE LEGALIZATION OF MMA IN FRANCE - MMAWeekly.com". MMAWeekly.com.
- "Despite UFC Lobbying Efforts, France Upholds Ban on Mixed Martial Arts - MMAWeekly.com". MMAWeekly.com.
- "Google Translate".
- "100% FIGHT". Facebook.
- "Commission nationale de Mixed Martials Arts". Website-Modern.
- "French MMA commission joins International Mixed Martial Arts Federation". MMAjunkie.
- "411MANIA - French MMA Commission Joins International Mixed Martial Arts Federation". French MMA Commission Joins International Mixed Martial Arts Federation. Archived from the original on 2014-11-10.
- 06 Jul 2014, 01:36 IST (2014-07-06). "The devil in disguise: Exposing the truth about MMA in India". Sportskeeda.com. Retrieved 2017-03-23.
- "IMAC Structure". Irish Martial Arts Commission. 15 June 2011. Retrieved 19 December 2015.
- "Martial Arts". Governing Bodies: NGB Sports Investment. Irish Sports Council. Retrieved 19 December 2015.
- "Senator backtracks on call to ban Conor McGregor's Dublin title fight after fan outcry". Independent.ie.
- "Irish federation gets full political support". IMMAF. 18 March 2013. Archived from the original on 8 July 2014. Retrieved 19 December 2015.
- "MMA Promotions and Organizations List - Pro and Small | MMA Styles, History, Strategies, and Facts". Mmawild.com. Retrieved 2012-11-25.
- "ＥＤがもっともかかりやすい生活習慣病といわれる理由". Hero-s.com. Archived from the original on 2012-12-08. Retrieved 2012-11-25.
- "IMMAF Regulation Around The World: Update". MMA Uncaged.
-  Archived July 28, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.
- "Press Release From MASMMAA". Archived from the original on 2014-11-10.
- "Knockouts Aren't Allowed in Norwegian MMA". Fightland.
- "Nordic MMA Overview". Nordic MMA Everyday at MMA Viking.
-  Archived February 2, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.
-  Archived December 6, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
- "NMMAF Merkekamper".
- NMMAF Merkekamper 6: Invasjon fra Nord: Robertsen vs Davila on YouTube
- "FMMAP - Federação de Mixed Martial Arts de Portugal".
-  Archived June 19, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
- IMMAF member application document
- "RMMAF - Zi importanta pentru comunitatea de MMA din Romania - RMMAF". RMMAF.
-  Archived February 17, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.
- IMMAF member documentation
- "RMMAF a definitivat lotul Romaniei pentru Mondialele din Las Vegas". www.natiuneamma.ro.
- "Fedor Emelianenko Now President Of Russian MMA Union". Fightline.com.
- Leidecker, Tim (May 31, 2007). "European Throwdown: Notes From Iberia to Siberia". Sherdog.com. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
- O'Leary, Ryan (February 10, 2011). "Sweden Closer to Hosting UFC". Sherdog.com. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
- O'Leary, Ryan. "Bright Lights in Sweden's Dark November". Sherdog.com. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
- O'Leary, Ryan (April 14, 2011). "Unified Rules Adopted for Superior Challenge 7". Sherdog.com. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
- "International MMA Federation launches in Sweden, expected to receive UFC backing". MMAjunkie.
- "Swedish MMA Federation rules Alexander Gustafsson medically unfit for UFC on FUEL 9 main event". MMA Fighting.
- "SMMAF rules against Alexander Gustafsson; 'Mauler' medically unfit to compete at UFC on FUEL TV 9". MMAmania.com.
- "Bleacher Report". Bleacher Report.
- "SMMAF issues statement on Alexander Gustafsson's removal from UFC on Fuel 9". Bloody Elbow.
- "UMF Muaythai & Dragon Legends MMA 'Underground' Fight Night", My City by Night, Cape Town, 10 May 2012. Retrieved on 21 October 2013.
- Kittipong Thongsombat (2012-03-31). "Thailand bans mixed martial arts". Bangkok Post. p. S6.
SAT officials met this week to discuss whether holding an MMA event was lawful or not following a request from a private company and they finally agreed that under the 1999 boxing law, it is unlawful to stage an MMA event in Thailand. "Organising a MMA event here would hurt the image of Muay Thai," Sakol Wannapong said.
- "THAILAND GOVERNMENT BANS MMA". FightersOnlyMag.com. September 27, 2012. Retrieved March 29, 2012.
- "Legal grey: DARE Championship defying Thailand's ban on MMA". mmafighting.com. September 27, 2012. Retrieved March 29, 2012.
- "Universalcombatnews.com". Retrieved 12 June 2015.
- "MMA organizations and upcoming MMA event news in Thailand". Combat 360X Muay Thai and MMA Camp Khao Lak. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
- "ABC Boxing - Association of Boxing Commissions - United States - Canada - Puerto Rico - US Virgin Islands". Archived from the original on 2014-02-02.
- "West Virginia becomes 45th state to regulate mixed martial arts". MMAJunkie.com. 2011-03-24. Archived from the original on 2011-08-23.
- "Wyoming becomes state No. 46 to regulate MMA". MMAJunkie.com. 2012-03-12. Archived from the original on 2012-03-15. Retrieved 2012-03-12.
- "Vermont becomes state No. 46 to regulate MMA". MMAJunkie.com. 2012-05-04. Archived from the original on 2012-05-08. Retrieved 2012-05-04.
- "Conn. gov signs bill legalizing mixed martial arts". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. 11 July 2013. Retrieved 12 July 2013.
- "NY clears way to allowing professional mixed martial arts - Yahoo Sports". Sports.yahoo.com. 2016-03-22. Retrieved 2016-04-02.
- Cruz, Jason (14 April 2016). "Governor Cuomo signs NY MMA Bill into law; UFC announces event at MSG November 12th". MMAPayout.com. Retrieved 14 April 2016.
Mixed martial arts
Afrikaans MMA ▪ العربية فنون القتال المختلطة ▪ Aragonés Artes marcials mixtas ▪ Asturianu Artes marciales mestes ▪ Azərbaycanca Qarışıq döyüş sənətləri ▪ বাংলা মিশ্র মার্শাল আর্টস ▪ Български Смесени бойни изкуства ▪ Català Arts marcials mixtes ▪ Čeština Mixed martial arts ▪ Dansk MMA (kampsport) ▪ Deutsch Mixed Martial Arts ▪ Eesti Sportlik vabavõitlus ▪ Ελληνικά Μεικτές πολεμικές τέχνες ▪ Español Artes marciales mixtas ▪ Esperanto Miksitaj batalartoj ▪ فارسی هنرهای رزمی ترکیبی ▪ Français Arts martiaux mixtes ▪ Frysk Mingde fjochtsporten ▪ Galego Artes marciais mixtas ▪ 한국어 종합격투기 ▪ Հայերեն Ընդհանուր մենամարտեր ▪ Hrvatski Mješovite borilačke vještine ▪ Bahasa Indonesia Seni bela diri campuran ▪ Italiano Arti marziali miste ▪ עברית Mixed martial arts ▪ Latviešu Jauktā cīņas māksla ▪ Lumbaart AMM ▪ Magyar MMA (küzdősport) ▪ Монгол Холимог тулааны урлаг ▪ Nederlands Mixed martial arts ▪ Nedersaksies Mingde gevechtskeunsten ▪ नेपाली मिश्रित मार्सल आर्ट्स ▪ 日本語 総合格闘技 ▪ Norsk bokmål Mixed martial arts ▪ Norsk nynorsk Mixed martial arts ▪ Occitan Combat liure ▪ Polski Mieszane sztuki walki ▪ Português Artes marciais mistas ▪ Русский Смешанные боевые искусства ▪ Sardu AMM ▪ සිංහල මිශ්ර සටන් ශිල්ප ▪ Simple English Mixed martial arts ▪ Slovenščina Mešane borilne veščine ▪ Српски / srpski Мешовите борилачке вештине ▪ Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски Mješovite borilačke vještine ▪ Suomi Vapaaottelu ▪ Svenska Mixed martial arts ▪ ไทย ศิลปะการต่อสู้แบบผสม ▪ Türkçe Karma dövüş sanatları ▪ Українська Мішані бойові мистецтва ▪ Tiếng Việt Mixed Martial Arts ▪ 粵語 混合格鬥 ▪ 中文 综合格斗 ▪
Source of information: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. We're not responsible for the content of this article and your use of this information. Disclaimer
Mixed martial arts: Goods
Using this page, you can quickly and easily search for the "Mixed martial arts
" related products in the best online stores. For your convenience the search term is already added to the search box. You can either make a search right now or modify the query somehow (for example, "Mixed martial arts 2017").
You can also change the category of required goods. The "Sport" category is selected right now, so the search will be done in the web stores offering today's sale of sporting goods, sportswear, sports equipment related products and services. Thus, in just one click, you can check the current prices, offers, discounts, available goods, etc. Also make sure to check the today's sales in the selected online stores listed below.
US Delivery, Shipping to the United States
The delivery of goods is carried out internationally and across the United States. The goods are shipped to all US cities and towns.
As you know, the found goods by query "Mixed martial arts" in Alabama can be sent to Birmingham, Montgomery, Mobile, Huntsville, Tuscaloosa, Hoover, Dothan, Decatur, Auburn, Madison, Florence, Gadsden, Vestavia Hills, Prattville, Phenix City, Alabaster, Bessemer, Enterprise, Opelika, Homewood, Northport, Anniston, Prichard, Athens. The delivery is also available in Daphne, Pelham, Oxford, Albertville, Selma, Mountain Brook, Trussville, Troy, Center Point, Helena, Hueytown, Talladega, Fairhope, Ozark, Alexander City, Cullman, Scottsboro, Millbrook, Foley, Hartselle, Fort Payne, Gardendale, Jasper, Saraland, Muscle Shoals, Eufaula, and other cities and towns.
Undoubtedly, any products related with "Mixed martial arts" in Alaska can be shipped to Anchorage, Fairbanks, Juneau, Sitka, Ketchikan, Wasilla, Kenai, Kodiak, Bethel, Palmer, Homer, Unalaska, Barrow, Soldotna, Valdez, Nome, Kotzebue, Seward, Wrangell, Dillingham, Cordova, North Pole, Houston, Craig, Hooper Bay, Akutan.
Undoubtedly, the goods by your query "Mixed martial arts" in Arizona can be received in Phoenix, Tucson, Mesa, Chandler, Glendale, Scottsdale, Gilbert, Tempe, Peoria, Surprise, Yuma, Avondale, Flagstaff, Goodyear, Lake Havasu City, Buckeye, Casa Grande, Sierra Vista, Maricopa, Oro Valley, Prescott, Bullhead City, Prescott Valley. It is also available for the people living in Apache Junction, Marana, El Mirage, Kingman, Queen Creek, Florence, San Luis, Sahuarita, Fountain Hills, Nogales, Douglas, Eloy, Payson, Somerton, Paradise Valley, Coolidge, Cottonwood, Camp Verde, Chino Valley, Show Low, Sedona, etc.
And the goods by request "Mixed martial arts" in Arkansas can be received in such cities as Little Rock, Fort Smith, Fayetteville, Springdale, Jonesboro, North Little Rock, Conway, Rogers, Pine Bluff, Bentonville, Hot Springs, Benton, Texarkana, Sherwood, Jacksonville, Russellville, Bella Vista, West Memphis, Paragould, Cabot. The delivery is also available in Searcy, Van Buren, El Dorado, Maumelle, Blytheville, Forrest City, Siloam Springs, Bryant, Harrison, Hot Springs Village, Mountain Home, Marion, Helena-West Helena, Camden, Magnolia, Arkadelphia, Malvern, Batesville, Hope.
It goes without saying that any things related with "Mixed martial arts" in California can be delivered to Los Angeles, San Diego, San Jose, San Francisco, Fresno, Sacramento, Long Beach, Oakland, Bakersfield, Anaheim, Santa Ana, Riverside, Stockton, Chula Vista, Fremont, Irvine, San Bernardino, Modesto, Oxnard, Fontana, Moreno Valley, Glendale, Huntington Beach, Santa Clarita, Garden Grove. It's also available for those who live in Santa Rosa, Oceanside, Rancho Cucamonga, Ontario, Lancaster, Elk Grove, Palmdale, Corona, Salinas, Pomona, Torrance, Hayward, Escondido, Sunnyvale, Pasadena, Fullerton, Orange, Thousand Oaks, Visalia, Simi Valley, Concord, Roseville, Santa Clara, Vallejo, Victorville. The delivery is also available in El Monte, Berkeley, Downey, Costa Mesa, Inglewood, Ventura, West Covina, Norwalk, Carlsbad, Fairfield, Richmond, Murrieta, Burbank, Antioch, Daly City, Temecula, Santa Maria, El Cajon, Rialto, San Mateo, Compton, Clovis, Jurupa Valley, South Gate, Vista, Mission Viejo. Delivery is also carried out in Vacaville, Carson, Hesperia, Redding, Santa Monica, Westminster, Santa Barbara, Chico, Whittier, Newport Beach, San Leandro, Hawthorne, San Marcos, Citrus Heights, Alhambra, Tracy, Livermore, Buena Park, Lakewood, Merced, Hemet, Chino, Menifee, Lake Forest, Napa. The delivery is also available in Redwood City, Bellflower, Indio, Tustin, Baldwin Park, Chino Hills, Mountain View, Alameda, Upland, Folsom, San Ramon, Pleasanton, Lynwood, Union City, Apple Valley, Redlands, Turlock, Perris, Manteca, Milpitas, Redondo Beach, Davis, Camarillo, Yuba City. Delivery is also carried out in Rancho Cordova, Palo Alto, Yorba Linda, Walnut Creek, South San Francisco, San Clemente, Pittsburg, Laguna Niguel, Pico Rivera, Montebello, Lodi, Madera, Monterey Park, La Habra, Santa Cruz, Encinitas, Tulare, Gardena, National City, Cupertino. And, of course, Huntington Park, Petaluma, San Rafael, La Mesa, Rocklin, Arcadia, Diamond Bar, Woodland, Fountain Valley, Porterville, Paramount, Hanford, Rosemead, Eastvale, Santee, Highland, Delano, Colton, Novato, Lake Elsinore, Brentwood, Yucaipa, Cathedral City, Watsonville, Placentia...
Normally, the products related to the term "Mixed martial arts" in Colorado can be bought in Denver, Colorado Springs, Aurora, Fort Collins, Lakewood, Thornton, Arvada, Westminster, Pueblo, Centennial, Boulder, Greeley, Longmont, Loveland, Broomfield, Grand Junction, Castle Rock, Commerce City, Parker, Littleton, Northglenn, Brighton, Englewood. And, of course, Wheat Ridge, Fountain, Lafayette, Windsor, Erie, Evans, Golden, Louisville, Montrose, Durango, Cañon City, Greenwood Village, Sterling, Lone Tree, Johnstown, Superior, Fruita, Steamboat Springs, Federal Heights, Firestone, Fort Morgan, Frederick, Castle Pines, etc.
As usual, the goods named "Mixed martial arts" in Connecticut can be shipped to such cities as Bridgeport, New Haven, Hartford, Stamford, Waterbury, Norwalk, Danbury, New Britain, Bristol, Meriden, Milford, West Haven, Middletown, Norwich, Shelton, Torrington, New London, Ansonia, Derby, Groton and smaller towns.
As always, the goods related with "Mixed martial arts" in Delaware can be sent to Wilmington, Dover, Newark, Middletown, Smyrna, Milford, Seaford, Georgetown, Elsmere, New Castle, Millsboro, Laurel, Harrington, Camden, Clayton, Lewes, Milton, Selbyville, Bridgeville, Townsend, and other cities.
It goes without saying that the products by request "Mixed martial arts" in Florida can be delivered to Jacksonville, Miami, Tampa, Orlando, St. Petersburg, Hialeah, Tallahassee, Fort Lauderdale, Port St. Lucie, Cape Coral, Pembroke Pines, Hollywood, Miramar, Gainesville, Coral Springs, Miami Gardens, Clearwater, Palm Bay, Pompano Beach, West Palm Beach, Lakeland, Davie, Miami Beach, Boca Raton. The shipping is also available in Deltona, Plantation, Sunrise, Palm Coast, Largo, Deerfield Beach, Melbourne, Boynton Beach, Lauderhill, Fort Myers, Weston, Kissimmee, Homestead, Delray Beach, Tamarac, Daytona Beach, Wellington, North Miami, Jupiter, North Port, Coconut Creek, Port Orange, Sanford, Margate, Ocala, Sarasota, Pensacola, and other cities and towns.
As you know, the products related to the term "Mixed martial arts" in Georgia can be bought in Atlanta, Columbus, Augusta, Macon, Savannah, Athens, Sandy Springs, Roswell, Johns Creek, Albany, Warner Robins, Alpharetta, Marietta, Valdosta, Smyrna, Dunwoody, Rome, East Point, Milton, Gainesville, Hinesville, Peachtree City, Newnan, Dalton, Douglasville, Kennesaw, LaGrange, Statesboro, Lawrenceville, Duluth, Stockbridge, Woodstock, Carrollton, Canton, Griffin, McDonough, Acworth, Pooler, Union City...
Undoubtedly, the goods by your query "Mixed martial arts" in Hawaii can be sent to Honolulu, East Honolulu, Pearl City, Hilo, Kailua, Waipahu, Kaneohe, Mililani Town, Kahului, Ewa Gentry, Mililani Mauka, Kihei, Makakilo, Wahiawa, Schofield Barracks, Wailuku, Kapolei, Ewa Beach, Royal Kunia, Halawa, Waimalu, Waianae, Nanakuli, Kailua, Lahaina, Waipio, Hawaiian Paradise Park, Kapaa.
It goes without saying that the products by request "Mixed martial arts" in Idaho can be shipped to Boise, Meridian, Nampa, Idaho Falls, Pocatello, Caldwell, Coeur d'Alene, Twin Falls, Lewiston, Post Falls, Rexburg, Moscow, Eagle, Kuna, Ammon, Chubbuck, Hayden, Mountain Home, Blackfoot, Garden City, Jerome, Burley, and so on.
As always, the products related to the term "Mixed martial arts" in Illinois can be received in such cities as Chicago, Aurora, Rockford, Joliet, Naperville, Springfield, Peoria, Elgin, Waukegan, Champaign, Bloomington, Decatur, Evanston, Des Plaines, Berwyn, Wheaton, Belleville, Elmhurst, DeKalb, Moline, Urbana, Crystal Lake, Quincy, Rock Island, Park Ridge, Calumet City, Pekin, Danville, St. Charles, North Chicago, Galesburg, Chicago Heights, Granite City, Highland Park, Burbank, O'Fallon, Oak Forest, Alton, Kankakee, West Chicago, East St. Louis, McHenry, Batavia, Carbondale, Freeport, Belvidere, Collinsville, Harvey, Lockport, Woodstock and smaller towns.
Of course, the goods named "Mixed martial arts" in Indiana can be sent to Indianapolis, Fort Wayne, Evansville, South Bend, Carmel, Fishers, Bloomington, Hammond, Gary, Lafayette, Muncie, Terre Haute, Kokomo, Noblesville, Anderson, Greenwood, Elkhart, Mishawaka, Lawrence, Jeffersonville, Columbus, Portage, New Albany, Richmond, Westfield, Valparaiso, Goshen, Michigan City, West Lafayette, Marion, East Chicago, Hobart, Crown Point, Franklin, La Porte, Greenfield, and so on.
Usually, the goods related with "Mixed martial arts" in Iowa can be received in such cities as Des Moines, Cedar Rapids, Davenport, Sioux City, Iowa City, Waterloo, Council Bluffs, Ames, West Des Moines, Dubuque, Ankeny, Urbandale, Cedar Falls, Marion, Bettendorf, Marshalltown, Mason City, Clinton, Burlington, Ottumwa, Fort Dodge, Muscatine, Coralville, Johnston, North Liberty, Altoona, Newton, Indianola.
As usual, the goods by request "Mixed martial arts" in Kansas can be shipped to such cities as Wichita, Overland Park, Kansas City, Olathe, Topeka, Lawrence, Shawnee, Manhattan, Lenexa, Salina, Hutchinson, Leavenworth, Leawood, Dodge City, Garden City, Junction City, Emporia, Derby, Prairie Village, Hays, Liberal, Gardner, Pittsburg, Newton, Great Bend, McPherson, El Dorado, Ottawa, Winfield, Arkansas City, Andover, Lansing, Merriam, Haysville, Atchison, Parsons...
As always, any products related with "Mixed martial arts" in Kentucky can be delivered to the following cities: Louisville, Lexington, Bowling Green, Owensboro, Covington, Hopkinsville, Richmond, Florence, Georgetown, Henderson, Elizabethtown, Nicholasville, Jeffersontown, Frankfort, Paducah, Independence, Radcliff, Ashland, Madisonville, Winchester, Erlanger, Murray, St. Matthews, Fort Thomas, Danville, Newport, Shively, Shelbyville, Glasgow, Berea, Bardstown, Shepherdsville, Somerset, Lyndon, Lawrenceburg, Middlesboro, Mayfield, and other cities.
Undoubtedly, the goods related with "Mixed martial arts" in Louisiana can be bought in New Orleans, Baton Rouge, Shreveport, Metairie, Lafayette, Lake Charles, Kenner, Bossier City, Monroe, Alexandria, Houma, Marrero, New Iberia, Laplace, Slidell, Prairieville, Central, Terrytown, Ruston, Sulphur, Harvey, Hammond, Bayou Cane, Shenandoah, Natchitoches, Gretna, Chalmette, Opelousas, Estelle, Zachary, etc.
Naturally, the goods by request "Mixed martial arts" in Maine can be shipped to Portland, Lewiston, Bangor, South Portland, Auburn, Biddeford, Sanford, Saco, Augusta, Westbrook, Waterville, Presque Isle, Brewer, Bath, Caribou, Ellsworth, Old Town, Rockland, Belfast, Gardiner, Calais, Hallowell, Eastport, etc.
Usually, the found goods by query "Mixed martial arts" in Maryland can be shipped to such cities as Baltimore, Frederick, Rockville, Gaithersburg, Bowie, Hagerstown, Annapolis, College Park, Salisbury, Laurel, Greenbelt, Cumberland, Westminster, Hyattsville, Takoma Park, Easton, Elkton, Aberdeen, Havre de Grace, Cambridge, New Carrollton, Bel Air, and so on.
No need to say, the goods named "Mixed martial arts" in Massachusetts can be delivered to Boston, Worcester, Springfield, Lowell, Cambridge, New Bedford, Brockton, Quincy, Lynn, Fall River, Newton, Lawrence, Somerville, Framingham, Haverhill, Waltham, Malden, Brookline, Plymouth, Medford, Taunton, Chicopee, Weymouth, Revere, Peabody, Methuen, Barnstable, Pittsfield, Attleboro, Arlington, Everett, Salem, Westfield, Leominster, Fitchburg, Billerica, Holyoke, Beverly, Marlborough, Woburn, Amherst, Braintree, Shrewsbury, Chelsea, Dartmouth, Chelmsford, Andover, Natick, Randolph, Watertown and smaller towns.
No need to say, the products related to the term "Mixed martial arts" in Michigan can be purchased if you live in Detroit, Grand Rapids, Warren, Sterling Heights, Lansing, Ann Arbor, Flint, Dearborn, Livonia, Clinton, Canton, Westland, Troy, Farmington Hills, Macomb Township, Kalamazoo, Shelby, Wyoming, Southfield, Waterford, Rochester Hills, West Bloomfield, Taylor, Saint Clair Shores, Pontiac, Dearborn Heights, Royal Oak, Novi, Ypsilanti, Battle Creek, Saginaw, Kentwood, East Lansing, Redford, Roseville, Georgetown, Portage, Chesterfield Township, Midland, Bloomfield Charter Township, Oakland County, Saginaw, Commerce, Meridian, Muskegon, Lincoln Park, Grand Blanc, Holland, Orion, Bay City, Independence Charter Township...
And today any things related with "Mixed martial arts" in Minnesota can be purchased if you live in Minneapolis, Saint Paul, Rochester, Bloomington, Duluth, Brooklyn Park, Plymouth, Maple Grove, Woodbury, St. Cloud, Eagan, Eden Prairie, Coon Rapids, Blaine, Burnsville, Lakeville, Minnetonka, Apple Valley, Edina, St. Louis Park, Moorhead, Mankato, Maplewood, Shakopee, Richfield, Cottage Grove, Roseville, Inver Grove Heights, Andover, Brooklyn Center, Savage, Oakdale, Fridley, Winona, Shoreview, Ramsey, Owatonna, Chanhassen, Prior Lake, White Bear Lake, Chaska, Austin, Elk River, Champlin, Faribault, Rosemount, Crystal, Farmington, Hastings, New Brighton, etc.
As usual, any things related with "Mixed martial arts" in Mississippi can be delivered to Jackson, Gulfport, Southaven, Hattiesburg, Biloxi, Meridian, Tupelo, Greenville, Olive Branch, Horn Lake, Clinton, Pearl, Ridgeland, Starkville, Columbus, Vicksburg, Pascagoula, Clarksdale, Oxford, Laurel, Gautier, Ocean Springs, Madison, Brandon, Greenwood, Cleveland, Natchez, Long Beach, Corinth, Hernando, Moss Point, McComb, Canton, Carriere, Grenada, Brookhaven, Indianola, Yazoo City, West Point, Picayune, Petal, and other cities.
Normally, the products related to the term "Mixed martial arts" in Missouri can be shipped to such cities as Kansas City, St. Louis, Springfield, Independence, Columbia, Lee’s Summit, O’Fallon, St. Joseph, St. Charles, Blue Springs, St. Peters, Florissant, Joplin, Chesterfield, Jefferson City, Cape Girardeau, Oakville, Wildwood, University City, Ballwin, Raytown, Liberty, Wentzville, Mehlville, Kirkwood, Maryland Heights, Hazelwood, Gladstone, Grandview, Belton, Webster Groves, Sedalia, Ferguson, Arnold, Affton and smaller towns.
As always, the goods by request "Mixed martial arts" in Montana can be received in such cities as Billings, Missoula, Great Falls, Bozeman, Butte, Helena, Kalispell, Havre, Anaconda, Miles City, Belgrade, Livingston, Laurel, Whitefish, Lewistown, Sidney and smaller towns.
And of course, the goods named "Mixed martial arts" in Nebraska can be received in such cities as Omaha, Lincoln, Bellevue, Grand Island, Kearney, Fremont, Hastings, Norfolk, North Platte, Papillion, Columbus, La Vista, Scottsbluff, South Sioux City, Beatrice, Lexington and smaller towns.
No need to say, the goods by your query "Mixed martial arts" in Nevada can be delivered to the following cities: Las Vegas, Henderson, Reno, North Las Vegas, Sparks, Carson City, Fernley, Elko, Mesquite, Boulder City, Fallon, Winnemucca, West Wendover, Ely, Yerington, Carlin, Lovelock, Wells, Caliente, and other cities and towns.
And of course, the goods named "Mixed martial arts" in New Hampshire can be shipped to such cities as Manchester, Nashua, Concord, Derry, Dover, Rochester, Salem, Merrimack, Hudson, Londonderry, Keene, Bedford, Portsmouth, Goffstown, Laconia, Hampton, Milford, Durham, Exeter, Windham, Hooksett, Claremont, Lebanon, Pelham, Somersworth, Hanover, Amherst, Raymond, Conway, Berlin, and other cities.
It goes without saying that the goods by request "Mixed martial arts" in New Jersey can be shipped to such cities as Newark, Jersey City, Paterson, Elizabeth, Edison, Woodbridge, Lakewood, Toms River, Hamilton, Trenton, Clifton, Camden, Brick, Cherry Hill, Passaic, Middletown, Union City, Old Bridge, Gloucester Township, East Orange, Bayonne, Franklin, North Bergen, Vineland, Union, Piscataway, New Brunswick, Jackson, Wayne, Irvington, Parsippany-Troy Hills, Howell, Perth Amboy, Hoboken, Plainfield, West New York, Washington Township, East Brunswick, Bloomfield, West Orange, Evesham, Bridgewater, South Brunswick, Egg Harbor, Manchester, Hackensack, Sayreville, Mount Laurel, Berkeley, North Brunswick, and other cities.
And of course, any things related with "Mixed martial arts" in New Mexico can be sent to Albuquerque, Las Cruces, Rio Rancho, Santa Fe, Roswell, Farmington, South Valley, Clovis, Hobbs, Alamogordo, Carlsbad, Gallup, Deming, Los Lunas, Chaparral, Sunland Park, Las Vegas, Portales, Los Alamos, North Valley, Artesia, Lovington, Silver City, Española, and so on.
No need to say, any products related with "Mixed martial arts" in New York can be received in such cities as New York, Buffalo, Rochester, Yonkers, Syracuse, Albany, New Rochelle, Mount Vernon, Schenectady, Utica, White Plains, Troy, Niagara Falls, Binghamton, Rome, Long Beach, Poughkeepsie, North Tonawanda, Jamestown, Ithaca, Elmira, Newburgh, Middletown, Auburn, Watertown, Glen Cove, Saratoga Springs, Kingston, Peekskill, Lockport, Plattsburgh, Cortland, Amsterdam, Oswego, Lackawanna, Cohoes, Rye, Gloversville, Beacon, Batavia, Tonawanda, Glens Falls, Olean, Oneonta, Geneva, Dunkirk, Fulton, Oneida, Corning, Ogdensburg, Canandaigua, Watervliet and smaller towns.
As you know, the goods related with "Mixed martial arts" in North Carolina can be received in such cities as Charlotte, Raleigh, Greensboro, Durham, Winston-Salem, Fayetteville, Cary, Wilmington, High Point, Greenville, Asheville, Concord, Gastonia, Jacksonville, Chapel Hill, Rocky Mount, Huntersville, Burlington, Wilson, Kannapolis, Apex, Hickory, Wake Forest, Indian Trail, Mooresville, Goldsboro, Monroe, Salisbury, Holly Springs, Matthews, New Bern, Sanford, Cornelius, Garner, Thomasville, Statesville, Asheboro, Mint Hill, Fuquay-Varina, Morrisville, Kernersville, Lumberton, Kinston, Carrboro, Havelock, Shelby, Clemmons, Lexington, Clayton, Boone, and other cities and towns.
Normally, any things related with "Mixed martial arts" in North Dakota can be received in such cities as Fargo, Bismarck, Grand Forks, Minot, West Fargo, Williston, Dickinson, Mandan, Jamestown, Wahpeton, Devils Lake, Watford City, Valley City, Grafton, Lincoln, Beulah, Rugby, Stanley, Horace, Casselton, New Town, Hazen, Bottineau, Lisbon, Carrington and smaller towns.
As always, the products related to the term "Mixed martial arts" in Ohio can be bought in Columbus, Cleveland, Cincinnati, Toledo, Akron, Dayton, Parma, Canton, Youngstown, Lorain, Hamilton, Springfield, Kettering, Elyria, Lakewood, Cuyahoga Falls, Euclid, Middletown, Mansfield, Newark, Mentor, Cleveland Heights, Beavercreek, Strongsville, Fairfield, Dublin, Warren, Findlay, Lancaster, Lima, Huber Heights, Marion, Westerville, Reynoldsburg, Grove City, Stow, Delaware, Brunswick, Upper Arlington, Gahanna, Westlake, North Olmsted, Fairborn, Massillon, Mason, North Royalton, Bowling Green, North Ridgeville, Kent, Garfield Heights, etc.
No need to say, any products related with "Mixed martial arts" in Oklahoma can be purchased if you live in Oklahoma City, Tulsa, Norman, Broken Arrow, Lawton, Edmond, Moore, Midwest City, Enid, Stillwater, Muskogee, Bartlesville, Owasso, Shawnee, Yukon, Ardmore, Ponca City, Bixby, Duncan, Del City, Jenks, Sapulpa, Mustang, Sand Springs, Bethany, Altus, Claremore, El Reno, McAlester, Ada, Durant, Tahlequah, Chickasha, Miami, Glenpool, Elk City, Woodward, Okmulgee, Choctaw, Weatherford, Guymon, Guthrie, Warr Acres.
Of course, the products related to the term "Mixed martial arts" in Oregon can be purchased if you live in Portland, Salem, Eugene, Gresham, Hillsboro, Beaverton, Bend, Medford, Springfield, Corvallis, Albany, Tigard, Lake Oswego, Keizer, Grants Pass, Oregon City, McMinnville, Redmond, Tualatin, West Linn, Woodburn, Forest Grove, Newberg, Wilsonville, Roseburg, Klamath Falls, Ashland, Milwaukie, Sherwood, Happy Valley, Central Point, Canby, Hermiston, Pendleton, Troutdale, Lebanon, Coos Bay, The Dalles, Dallas, St. Helens, La Grande, Cornelius, Gladstone, Ontario, Sandy, Newport, Monmouth, and other cities and towns.
Undoubtedly, the goods by request "Mixed martial arts" in Pennsylvania can be delivered to the following cities: Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Allentown, Erie, Reading, Scranton, Bethlehem, Lancaster, Harrisburg, Altoona, York, Wilkes-Barre, Chester, Williamsport, Easton, Lebanon, Hazleton, New Castle, Johnstown, McKeesport, Hermitage, Greensburg, Pottsville, Sharon, Butler, Washington, Meadville, New Kensington, Coatesville, St. Marys, Lower Burrell, Oil City, Nanticoke, Uniontown and smaller towns.
And today the goods by your query "Mixed martial arts" in Rhode Island can be received in such cities as Providence, Warwick, Cranston, Pawtucket, East Providence, Woonsocket, Coventry, Cumberland, North Providence, South Kingstown, West Warwick, Johnston, North Kingstown, Newport, Bristol, Westerly, Smithfield, Lincoln, Central Falls, Portsmouth, Barrington, Middletown, Burrillville, Narragansett, Tiverton, East Greenwich, North Smithfield, Warren, Scituate.
And today the goods by your query "Mixed martial arts" in South Carolina can be received in such cities as Columbia, Charleston, North Charleston, Mount Pleasant, Rock Hill, Greenville, Summerville, Sumter, Hilton Head Island, Spartanburg, Florence, Goose Creek, Aiken, Myrtle Beach, Anderson, Greer, Mauldin, Greenwood, North Augusta, Easley, Simpsonville, Hanahan, Lexington, Conway, West Columbia, North Myrtle Beach, Clemson, Orangeburg, Cayce, Bluffton, Beaufort, Gaffney, Irmo, Fort Mill, Port Royal, Forest Acres, Newberry, and other cities and towns.
And today any things related with "Mixed martial arts" in South Dakota can be received in such cities as Sioux Falls, Rapid City, Aberdeen, Brookings, Watertown, Mitchell, Yankton, Pierre, Huron, Spearfish, Vermillion, etc.
Normally, the goods related with "Mixed martial arts" in Tennessee can be shipped to such cities as Memphis, Nashville, Knoxville, Chattanooga, Clarksville, Murfreesboro, Franklin, Jackson, Johnson City, Bartlett, Hendersonville, Kingsport, Collierville, Smyrna, Cleveland, Brentwood, Germantown, Columbia, Spring Hill, La Vergne, Gallatin, Cookeville, Mount Juliet, Lebanon, Morristown, Oak Ridge, Maryville, Bristol, Farragut, Shelbyville, East Ridge, Tullahoma, and other cities.
Today the goods related with "Mixed martial arts" in Texas can be delivered to Houston, San Antonio, Dallas, Austin, Fort Worth, El Paso, Arlington, Corpus Christi, Plano, Laredo, Lubbock, Garland, Irving, Amarillo, Grand Prairie, Brownsville, McKinney, Frisco, Pasadena, Mesquite, Killeen, McAllen, Carrollton, Midland, Waco, Denton, Abilene, Odessa, Beaumont, Round Rock, The Woodlands, Richardson, Pearland, College Station, Wichita Falls, Lewisville, Tyler, San Angelo, League City, Allen, Sugar Land, Edinburg, Mission, Longview, Bryan, Pharr, Baytown, Missouri City, Temple, Flower Mound, New Braunfels, North Richland Hills, Conroe, Victoria, Cedar Park, Harlingen, Atascocita, Mansfield, Georgetown, San Marcos, Rowlett, Pflugerville, Port Arthur, Spring, Euless, DeSoto, Grapevine, Galveston, and other cities.
No need to say, any things related with "Mixed martial arts" in Utah can be bought in Salt Lake City, West Valley City, Provo, West Jordan, Orem, Sandy, Ogden, St. George, Layton, Taylorsville, South Jordan, Logan, Lehi, Murray, Bountiful, Draper, Riverton, Roy, Spanish Fork, Pleasant Grove, Cottonwood Heights, Tooele, Springville, Cedar City, Midvale. You can also buy these goods in Kaysville, Holladay, American Fork, Clearfield, Syracuse, South Salt Lake, Herriman, Eagle Mountain, Clinton, Washington, Payson, Farmington, Brigham City, Saratoga Springs, North Ogden, South Ogden, North Salt Lake, Highland, Centerville, Hurricane, Heber City, West Haven, Lindon...
Undoubtedly, the products by request "Mixed martial arts" in Vermont can be sent to Burlington, South Burlington, Rutland, Barre, Montpelier, Winooski, St. Albans, Newport, Vergennes...
And today the goods named "Mixed martial arts" in Virginia can be bought in Virginia Beach, Norfolk, Chesapeake, Richmond, Newport News, Alexandria, Hampton, Roanoke, Portsmouth, Suffolk, Lynchburg, Harrisonburg, Charlottesville, Danville, Manassas, Petersburg, Fredericksburg, Winchester, Salem, Staunton, Fairfax, Hopewell, Waynesboro, Colonial Heights, Radford, Bristol, Manassas Park, Williamsburg, Falls Church, Martinsville, Poquoson...
Normally, the products by request "Mixed martial arts" in Washington can be purchased if you live in Seattle, Spokane, Tacoma, Vancouver, Bellevue, Kent, Everett, Renton, Federal Way, Yakima, Spokane Valley, Kirkland, Bellingham, Kennewick, Auburn, Pasco, Marysville, Lakewood, Redmond, Shoreline, Richland, Sammamish, Burien, Olympia, Lacey. It is also available for the people living in Edmonds, Puyallup, Bremerton, Lynnwood, Bothell, Longview, Issaquah, Wenatchee, Mount Vernon, University Place, Walla Walla, Pullman, Des Moines, Lake Stevens, SeaTac, Maple Valley, Mercer Island, Bainbridge Island, Oak Harbor, Kenmore, Moses Lake, Camas, Mukilteo, Mountlake Terrace, Tukwila, and so on.
No need to say, the products by request "Mixed martial arts" in West Virginia can be shipped to Charleston, Huntington, Morgantown, Parkersburg, Wheeling, Weirton, Fairmont, Martinsburg, Beckley, Clarksburg, South Charleston, St. Albans, Vienna, Bluefield.
And the goods related with "Mixed martial arts" in Wisconsin can be sent to Milwaukee, Madison, Green Bay, Kenosha, Racine, Appleton, Waukesha, Oshkosh, Eau Claire, Janesville, West Allis, La Crosse, Sheboygan, Wauwatosa, Fond du Lac, New Berlin, Wausau. As well as in Brookfield, Beloit, Greenfield, Franklin, Oak Creek, Manitowoc, West Bend, Sun Prairie, Superior, Stevens Point, Neenah, Fitchburg, Muskego, Watertown, De Pere, Mequon, South Milwaukee, Marshfield...
No need to say, the goods by request "Mixed martial arts" in Wyoming can be sent to Cheyenne, Casper, Laramie, Gillette, Rock Springs, Sheridan, Green River, Evanston, Riverton, Jackson, Cody, Rawlins, Lander, Torrington, Powell, Douglas, Worland.
Canada Delivery, Shipping to Canada
Of course, the goods named "Mixed martial arts" in Canada can be received in such cities as Toronto, Montreal, Calgary, Ottawa, Edmonton, Mississauga, Winnipeg, Vancouver, Brampton, Hamilton, Quebec City, Surrey, Laval, Halifax, London, Markham, Vaughan, Gatineau, Longueuil, Burnaby, Saskatoon, Kitchener, Windsor, Regina, Richmond, Richmond Hill.
And, of course, Oakville, Burlington, Greater Sudbury, Sherbrooke, Oshawa, Saguenay, Lévis, Barrie, Abbotsford, St. Catharines, Trois-Rivières, Cambridge, Coquitlam, Kingston, Whitby, Guelph, Kelowna, Saanich, Ajax, Thunder Bay, Terrebonne, St. John's, Langley, Chatham-Kent, Delta.
Delivery is also carried out in Waterloo, Cape Breton, Brantford, Strathcona County, Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Red Deer, Pickering, Kamloops, Clarington, North Vancouver, Milton, Nanaimo, Lethbridge, Niagara Falls, Repentigny, Victoria, Newmarket, Brossard, Peterborough, Chilliwack, Maple Ridge, Sault Ste. Marie, Kawartha Lakes, Sarnia, Prince George.
It's also available for those who live in Drummondville, Saint John, Moncton, Saint-Jérôme, New Westminster, Wood Buffalo, Granby, Norfolk County, St. Albert, Medicine Hat, Caledon, Halton Hills, Port Coquitlam, Fredericton, Grande Prairie, North Bay, Blainville, Saint-Hyacinthe, Aurora, Welland, Shawinigan, Dollard-des-Ormeaux, Belleville, North Vancouver and smaller towns.
Basically, the goods by request "Mixed martial arts" can be shipped to any place in Canada, including Ontario, Quebec, British Columbia, Alberta, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, and Prince Edward Island.
UK Delivery, Shipping to the United Kingdom
Naturally, the goods related with "Mixed martial arts" in the United Kingdom can be purchased if you live in London, Birmingham, Leeds, Glasgow, Sheffield, Bradford, Edinburgh, Liverpool, Manchester, Bristol, Wakefield, Cardiff, Coventry, Nottingham, Leicester, Sunderland, Belfast, Newcastle upon Tyne, Brighton, Hull, Plymouth, Stoke-on-Trent.
And other cities and towns, such as Wolverhampton, Derby, Swansea, Southampton, Salford, Aberdeen, Westminster, Portsmouth, York, Peterborough, Dundee, Lancaster, Oxford, Newport, Preston, St Albans, Norwich, Chester, Cambridge, Salisbury, Exeter, Gloucester. As well as in Lisburn, Chichester, Winchester, Londonderry, Carlisle, Worcester, Bath, Durham, Lincoln, Hereford, Armagh, Inverness, Stirling, Canterbury, Lichfield, Newry, Ripon, Bangor, Truro, Ely, Wells, St. Davids and smaller towns.
Actually, the goods by your query "Mixed martial arts" can be shipped to any place in the UK, including England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland.
Ireland Delivery, Shipping to Ireland
Normally, any things related with "Mixed martial arts" in Ireland can be bought in Dublin, Cork, Limerick, Galway, Waterford, Drogheda, Dundalk, Swords, Bray, Navan, Ennis, Kilkenny, Tralee, Carlow, Newbridge, Naas, Athlone, Portlaoise, Mullingar, Wexford, Balbriggan, Letterkenny, Celbridge, Sligo. The shipping is also available in Clonmel, Greystones, Malahide, Leixlip, Carrigaline, Tullamore, Killarney, Arklow, Maynooth, Cobh, Castlebar, Midleton, Mallow, Ashbourne, Ballina, Laytown-Bettystown-Mornington, Enniscorthy, Wicklow, Tramore, Cavan.
In other words, the goods by request "Mixed martial arts" can be shipped to any place in Ireland, including Leinster, Ulster, Munster, and Connacht.
Australia Delivery, Shipping to Australia
And of course, the products by request "Mixed martial arts" in Australia can be received in such cities as Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth, Adelaide, Gold Coast, Tweed Heads, Newcastle, Maitland, Canberra, Queanbeyan, Sunshine Coast, Wollongong, Hobart, Geelong, Townsville, Cairns, Darwin, Toowoomba, Ballarat, Bendigo, Albury, Wodonga, Launceston, Mackay.
And other cities and towns, such as Rockhampton, Bunbury, Bundaberg, Coffs Harbour, Wagga Wagga, Hervey Bay, Mildura, Wentworth, Shepparton, Mooroopna, Gladstone, Tannum Sands, Port Macquarie, Tamworth, Traralgon, Morwell, Orange, Geraldton, Bowral, Mittagong, Dubbo, Busselton, Bathurst, Nowra, Bomaderry, Warrnambool, Albany, Warragul, Drouin, Kalgoorlie, Boulder, Devonport, and other cities.
Generally, the goods related with "Mixed martial arts" can be shipped to any place in Australia, including New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, Western Australia, South Australia, Tasmania, Australian Capital Territory, and Northern Territory.
New Zealand Delivery, Shipping to New Zealand
No doubt, the goods named "Mixed martial arts" in New Zealand can be delivered to Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch, Hamilton, Tauranga, Napier-Hastings, Dunedin, Lower Hutt, Palmerston North, Nelson, Rotorua, New Plymouth, Whangarei, Invercargill, Whanganui, Gisborne, Porirua, Invercargill, Nelson, Upper Hutt, Gisborne, Blenheim, Pukekohe, Timaru, Taupo, and so on.
Generally, the found goods by query "Mixed martial arts" can be shipped to any place in New Zealand, including North Island, South Island, Waiheke Island, and smaller islands.
No need to say,the goods by your querycan be sent toThe shipping is also available in, and other cities.
Abkhazia: Gagra, Gudauta, Lake Ritsa, New Athos, Ochamchire, Pitsunda, Sukhumi, Tsandryphsh, etc.
Afghanistan: Herat, Jalalabad, Kabul, Kandahar, Kunduz, Mazar-i-Sharif, Taloqan, etc.
Albania: Berat, Butrint, Dhërmi, Durrës, Gjirokastër, Himarë, Korçë, Pogradec, Qeparo, Sarandë, Shkodër, Tirana, Velipojë, Vlorë, etc.
Algeria: Algiers, Oran, etc.
American Virgin Islands: Charlotte Amalie, etc.
Andorra: Andorra la Vella, Arinsal, El Pas de la Casa, Encamp, Grandvalira, Ordino, Pal, Soldeu, Vallnord, etc.
Angola: Benguela, Luanda, etc.
Anguilla: The Valley, West End, etc.
Antigua and Barbuda: Saint John’s, etc.
Argentina: Buenos Aires, Colón, Córdoba, El Calafate, La Plata, Los Glaciares, Mar del Plata, Mendoza, Pinamar, Puerto Iguazú, Puerto Madryn, Rosario, Salta, San Carlos de Bariloche, San Martín de los Andes, San Miguel de Tucumán, San Rafael, Tandil, Tierra del Fuego, Ushuaia, Villa Carlos Paz, Villa Gesell, Villa La Angostura, Villa de Merlo, etc.
Armenia: Dilijan, Etchmiadzin, Goris, Gyumri, Jermuk, Sevan, Stepanavan, Tsaghkadzor, Vagharshapat, Vanadzor, Yeghegnadzor, Yerevan, etc.
Aruba: Oranjestad, etc.
Australia: Adelaide, Brisbane, Byron Bay, Cairns, Canberra, Darwin, Gold Coast, Great Barrier Reef, Hobart, Melbourne, Perth, Sydney, Tasmania, etc.
Austria: Abtenau, Alpbach, Austrian Alps, Bad Gastein, Bad Hofgastein, Bad Kleinkirchheim, Dürnstein, Flachau, Fugen, Graz, Innsbruck, Ischgl, Kaprun, Kitzbühel, Klagenfurt, Kufstein, Lech, Leogang, Lienz, Linz, Maria Alm, Mayrhofen, Neustift im Stubaital, Obergurgl, Saalbach-Hinterglemm, Saalfelden, Salzburg, Schladming, Seefeld, Serfaus, St. Anton, St. Johann im Pongau, Sölden, Tux, Tyrol, Vienna, Villach, Wachau, Wagrain, Zell am See, etc.
Azerbaijan: Baku, Ganja, Lankaran, Quba, Qusar, Shahdag, Sheki, Stepanakert, etc.
Bahamas: Andros, Eleuthera, Exuma, Freeport, Grand Bahama, Nassau, New Providence, Paradise Island, etc.
Bahrain: Manama, etc.
Bangladesh: Chittagong, Cox's Bazar, Dhaka, Khulna, Narayanganj, Rajshahi, Sylhet, etc.
Barbados: Bridgetown, etc.
Belarus: Babruysk, Białowieża Forest, Brest Belarus, Gomel, Grodno, Lahoysk, Maladzyechna, Minsk, Mogilev, Nesvizh, Pinsk, Silichi, Vitebsk, etc.
Belgium: Antwerp, Ardennes, Blankenberge, Bouillon, Bruges, Brussels, Charleroi, De Haan, De Panne, Durbuy, Flanders, Ghent, Hasselt, Kortrijk, Leuven, Liège, Namur, Nieuwpoort, Ostend, Spa, Ypres, Zeebrugge, etc.
Belize: Ambergris Caye, Belize City, Caye Caulker, Placencia, San Pedro, etc.
Benin: Cotonou, etc.
Bermuda: Hamilton, etc.
Bhutan: Paro, Thimphu, etc.
Bolivia: Cochabamba, El Alto, La Paz, Oruro, Quillacollo, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Sucre, Uyuni, etc.
Bosnia and Herzegovina: Banja Luka, Bihać, Jahorina, Medjugorje, Mostar, Neum, Sarajevo, Travnik, Trebinje, etc.
Botswana: Gaborone, Maun, etc.
Brazil: Amazon River, Amazonia, Angra dos Reis, Arraial do Cabo, Atlantic Forest, Balneário Camboriú, Belo Horizonte, Belém, Bombinhas, Brasília, Búzios, Cabo Frio, Camaçari, Campinas, Campos do Jordão, Caraguatatuba, Copacabana, Costa do Sauípe, Curitiba, Duque de Caxias, Fernando de Noronha, Florianópolis, Fortaleza, Foz do Iguaçu, Goiânia, Gramado, Guarujá, Guarulhos, Iguazu Falls, Ilha Grande, Ilhabela, Ilhéus, Ipanema, Itacaré, Maceió, Manaus, Morro de São Paulo, Natal, Niterói, Osasco, Ouro Preto, Paraty, Petrópolis, Porto Alegre, Porto Seguro, Praia do Forte, Recife, Ribeirão Preto, Rio de Janeiro, Salvador, Santos, São Gonçalo, São José dos Campos, São Luís, São Paulo, São Sebastião, Trancoso, Ubatuba, Vila do Abraão, etc.
British Virgin Islands: Tortola, etc.
Brunei: Bandar Seri Begawan, etc.
Bulgaria: Albena, Balchik, Bansko, Blagoevgrad, Borovets, Burgas, Chernomorets, Dobrinishte, Golden Sands, Kiten, Koprivshtitsa, Lozenets, Nesebar, Obzor, Pamporovo, Pirin, Pleven, Plovdiv, Pomorie, Primorsko, Ravda, Razlog, Rila, Ruse, Samokov, Sandanski, Shumen, Sofia, Sozopol, Stara Zagora, Sunny Beach, Sveti Vlas, Tsarevo, Varna, Veliko Tarnovo, etc.
Burkina Faso: Bobo-Dioulasso, Ouagadougou, etc.
Burundi: Bujumbura, etc.
Cambodia: Angkor, Battambang, Kampot, Kep, Phnom Penh, Siem Reap, Sihanoukville, etc.
Cameroon: Bafoussam, Bamenda, Douala, Garoua, Kribi, Limbe, Maroua, Yaoundé, etc.
Canada: Alberta, Banff, Brampton, British Columbia, Burnaby, Calgary, Charlottetown, Edmonton, Fort McMurray, Gatineau, Halifax, Hamilton, Jasper, Kamloops, Kelowna, Kingston, Kitchener, Laval, London, Longueuil, Manitoba, Markham, Mississauga, Moncton, Mont-Tremblant, Montreal, Nanaimo, New Brunswick, Niagara Falls, Niagara on the Lake, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Ottawa, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Regina, Richmond, Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Surrey, Toronto, Vancouver, Vaughan, Victoria, Whistler, Whitehorse, Windsor, Winnipeg, Yukon, etc.
Cape Verde: Boa Vista Cape Verde, Sal, etc.
Caribbean Netherlands:, etc.
Cayman Islands: George Town, Grand Cayman, West Bay, etc.
Chad: N'Djamena, etc.
Chile: Antofagasta, Arica, Atacama, Coquimbo, Easter Island, Hanga Roa, Iquique, La Serena, Patagonia, Pucón, Puerto Montt, Puerto Natales, Puerto Varas, Punta Arenas, San Pedro de Atacama, Santiago, Torres del Paine, Valdivia, Valparaíso, Villarrica, Viña del Mar, etc.
China: Anshun, Baishan, Baoding, Baoshan, Baotou, Beijing, Binzhou, Changchun, Changsha, Changzhi, Chengdu, Chongqing, Dali, Dalian, Datong, Dengfeng, Diqing, Dongguan, Emeishan, Foshan, Great Wall of China, Guangdong, Guangzhou, Guilin, Guiyang, Hainan, Hangzhou, Harbin, Honghe, Huashan, Huizhou, Jiangmen, Jiangxi, Jiaxing, Jilin, Jinan, Jincheng, Jingdezhen, Jinzhong, Jiujiang, Jiuzhaigou, Kunming, Langfang, Lanzhou, Laoshan, Leshan, Lhasa, Lianyungang, Lijiang, Linfen, Linyi, Luoyang, Lushan, Lüliang, Mianyang, Nanchang, Nanchong, Nanjing, Nantong, Ngawa, Ningbo, Qiandongnan, Qingdao, Qingyuan, Qinhuangdao, Qufu, Qujing, Rizhao, Sanya, Shanghai, Shangri-La, Shantou, Shanxi, Shaoguan, Shaolin, Shaoxing, Shenyang, Shenzhen, Shigatse, Shijiazhuang, Sichuan, Suzhou, Tai'an, Taiyuan, Taizhou Jiangsu, Tangshan, Tianjin, Tibet, Weifang, Weihai, Wuhan, Wulingyuan, Wutai, Wuxi, Xi'an, Xiamen, Xinzhou, Xishuangbanna, Ya'an, Yanbian, Yangtze, Yangzhou, Yantai, Yellow River, Yibin, Yinchuan, Yiwu, Yuncheng, Yunnan, Zhangjiajie, Zhanjiang, Zhejiang, Zhengzhou, Zhongshan, Zhongwei, Zhoushan, Zhuhai, Zunyi, etc.
Colombia: Barranquilla, Bogotá, Bucaramanga, Cali, Cartagena, Medellín, Pereira, San Andrés, Santa Marta, Villa de Leyva, Villavicencio, etc.
Comoros: Moroni, etc.
Costa Rica: Alajuela, Jacó, La Fortuna, Manuel Antonio, Monteverde, Puerto Viejo de Talamanca, Puntarenas, Quepos, San José, Santa Teresa, Tamarindo, Tortuguero, etc.
Croatia: Baška Voda, Baška, Bibinje, Biograd na Moru, Bol, Brač, Brela, Cavtat, Cres, Dalmatia, Fažana, Hvar, Istria, Ičići, Korčula, Krk, Lopud, Lovran, Lošinj, Makarska, Mali Lošinj, Malinska, Medulin, Mlini, Nin, Novi Vinodolski, Novigrad, Omiš, Opatija, Orebić, Pag, Podstrana, Poreč, Pula, Rab, Rabac, Rijeka, Rovinj, Split, Stari Grad, Sukošan, Supetar, Trogir, Tučepi, Umag, Vrsar, Zadar, Zagreb, Čiovo, Šibenik, etc.
Cuba: Baracoa, Camagüey, Cayo Coco, Cayo Largo, Cayo Santa María, Cienfuegos, Guantánamo, Havana, Holguín, Pinar del Río, Remedios Cuba, Sancti Spíritus, Santa Clara Cuba, Santiago de Cuba, Trinidad, Varadero, Viñales, etc.
Curaçao: Sint Michiel, Westpunt, Willemstad, etc.
Cyprus: Ayia Napa, Coral Bay Cyprus, Famagusta, Kouklia, Kyrenia, Larnaca, Limassol, Nicosia, Paphos, Paralimni, Peyia, Pissouri, Polis, Protaras, etc.
Czech Republic: Bohemia, Brno, Děčín, Frymburk, Frýdek-Místek, Harrachov, Hradec Králové, Jihlava, Karlovy Vary, Kladno, Krkonoše, Kutná Hora, Liberec, Marienbad, Mikulov, Mladá Boleslav, Mělník, Olomouc, Ostrava, Pardubice, Plzeň, Poděbrady, Prague, Teplice, Třeboň, Zlín, Znojmo, Ústí nad Labem, České Budějovice, Český Krumlov, Špindlerův Mlýn, etc.
Democratic Republic of the Congo: Kinshasa, etc.
Denmark: Aalborg, Aarhus, Billund, Copenhagen, Ebeltoft, Esbjerg, Frederikshavn, Greenland, Helsingør, Herning, Hirtshals, Hjørring, Holstebro, Jutland, Odense, Silkeborg, Skagen, Skive, Sønderborg, Vejle, Viborg, etc.
Djibouti: Djibouti City, etc.
Dominican Republic: Boca Chica, Bávaro, Cabarete, La Romana, Las Terrenas, Puerto Plata, Punta Cana, Santiago de los Caballeros, Santo Domingo, Sosúa, etc.
East Timor: Dili, etc.
Ecuador: Baños, Cuenca, Galápagos Islands, Guayaquil, Manta, Otavalo, Puerto Ayora, Puerto López, Quito, Salinas, etc.
Egypt: Abu Simbel, Al Qusair, Alexandria, Aswan, Cairo, Dahab, El Alamein, El Gouna, El Hadaba, Faiyum, Giza, Hurghada, Luxor, Marsa Alam, Mersa Matruh, Naama Bay, Nabq Bay, Nile, Nuweiba, Port Said, Red Sea, Safaga, Sahl Hasheesh, Scharm asch-Schaich, Sharks Bay, Sinai, Suez, Taba, Valley of the Kings, etc.
El Salvador: La Libertad, San Salvador, etc.
Equatorial Guinea: Malabo, etc.
Eritrea: Asmara, etc.
Estonia: Haapsalu, Kuressaare, Narva, Pärnu, Saaremaa, Tallinn, Tartu, etc.
Ethiopia: Addis Ababa, Bahir Dar, Gondar, etc.
Falkland Islands: Stanley, etc.
Faroe Islands: Sørvágur, Tórshavn, etc.
Fiji: Nadi, Suva, Viti Levu Island, etc.
Finland: Espoo, Helsinki, Imatra, Joensuu, Jyväskylä, Jämsä, Kotka, Kuopio, Kuusamo, Lahti, Lapland, Lappeenranta, Levi, Mariehamn, Mikkeli, Moomin World, Naantali, Nilsiä, Oulu, Pori, Porvoo, Pyhätunturi, Rovaniemi, Rukatunturi, Saariselkä, Saimaa, Tampere, Turku, Vaasa, Vantaa, Vuokatti, Åland Islands, etc.
France: Aix-en-Provence, Ajaccio, Alsace, Annecy, Antibes, Aquitaine, Arles, Avignon, Avoriaz, Bayonne, Beaune, Besançon, Biarritz, Bonifacio, Bordeaux, Briançon, Brittany, Burgundy, Cabourg, Cagnes-sur-Mer, Calais, Calvi, Canet-en-Roussillon, Cannes, Carcassonne, Cassis, Chambéry, Chamonix, Colmar, Corsica, Courchevel, Deauville, Dijon, Dunkirk, French Alps, French Riviera, Fréjus, Grenoble, Honfleur, La Ciotat, La Plagne, La Rochelle, Le Grau-du-Roi, Le Havre, Les Arcs, Les Gets, Les Menuires, Lille, Limoges, Lourdes, Lyon, Mandelieu-la-Napoule, Marseille, Megève, Menton, Montpellier, Morzine, Méribel, Nantes, Narbonne, Nice, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, Normandy, Nîmes, Paradiski, Paris, Pas-de-Calais, Perpignan, Portes du Soleil, Porto-Vecchio, Provence, Périgueux, Reims, Rhône-Alpes, Rouen, Saint-Gervais-les-Bains, Saint-Malo, Saint-Martin-de-Belleville, Saint-Rémy-de-Provence, Saint-Tropez, Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer, Strasbourg, The Three Valleys, Tignes, Toulouse, Trouville-sur-Mer, Val Thorens, Val-d'Isère, Versailles, Étretat, Île-de-France, etc.
French Guiana: Cayenne, Kourou, etc.
French Polynesia: Bora Bora, Mo'orea, Papeete, Tahiti, etc.
Gabon: Libreville, etc.
Gambia: Banjul, Serekunda, etc.
Georgia: Bakuriani, Batumi, Borjomi, Gori, Gudauri, Kobuleti, Kutaisi, Mestia, Mtskheta, Poti, Sighnaghi, Stepantsminda, Tbilisi, Telavi, Zugdidi, etc.
Germany: Aachen, Augsburg, Bad Birnbach, Bad Driburg, Bad Ems, Bad Füssing, Bad Godesberg, Bad Harzburg, Bad Homburg, Bad Kissingen, Bad Kreuznach, Bad Mergentheim, Bad Neuenahr-Ahrweiler, Bad Reichenhall, Bad Salzuflen, Bad Schandau, Baden-Baden, Baden-Württemberg, Bamberg, Bavaria, Berchtesgaden, Bergen auf Rügen, Berlin, Bernkastel-Kues, Bielefeld, Binz, Bochum, Bonn, Bottrop, Brandenburg, Braunlage, Braunschweig, Bremen, Bremerhaven, Brilon, Chemnitz, Cochem, Cologne, Cuxhaven, Dortmund, Dresden, Duisburg, Düsseldorf, Eisenach, Erfurt, Erlangen, Essen, Europa-Park, Flensburg, Frankfurt, Freiburg, Friedrichshafen, Fürth, Füssen, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Gelsenkirchen, Glowe, Goslar, Görlitz, Göttingen, Hamburg, Hanover, Heidelberg, Heiligendamm, Heligoland, Hesse, Ingolstadt, Inzell, Karlsruhe, Kiel, Koblenz, Krefeld, Lake Constance, Leipzig, Lindau, Lower Saxony, Lübeck, Magdeburg, Mainz, Mannheim, Marburg, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Medebach, Monschau, Munich, Mönchengladbach, Mülheim an der Ruhr, Münster, Neuschwanstein Castle, Neuss, Norddeich, Norden, Norderney, North Rhine-Westphalia, Nuremberg, Oberhausen, Oberstdorf, Oldenburg, Olsberg, Osnabrück, Paderborn, Potsdam, Putbus, Quedlinburg, Rathen, Regensburg, Rhineland-Palatinate, Rostock, Rothenburg ob der Tauber, Ruhpolding, Rust, Rügen, Saarbrücken, Saarland, Sassnitz, Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, Schleswig-Holstein, Schmallenberg, Schwerin, Schönau am Königsee, Sindelfingen, Solingen, Speyer, Stralsund, Stuttgart, Sylt, Thuringia, Travemünde, Trier, Ulm, Warnemünde, Weimar, Wernigerode, Westerland, Wiesbaden, Winterberg, Wolfsburg, Wuppertal, Würzburg, Xanten, Zingst, etc.
Ghana: Accra, Kumasi, etc.
Greece: Acharavi, Aegina, Afantou, Afytos, Agios Gordios, Andros, Arkadia, Athens, Cephalonia, Chania, Chaniotis, Chios, Corfu, Corinth, Crete, Cyclades, Dassia, Delphi, Dodecanese, Faliraki, Halkidiki, Heraklion, Hersonissos, Hydra, Ialysos, Ionian Islands, Kalamata, Kalavryta, Kalymnos, Kardamaina, Karpathos, Kassandra, Kastoria, Katerini, Kavos, Kefalos, Kokkari, Kos, Kriopigi, Laganas, Lefkada, Lemnos, Lesbos, Lindos, Loutraki, Marathokampos, Meteora, Mithymna, Monemvasia, Mount Athos, Mykonos, Mytilene, Nafplio, Naxos, Neos Marmaras, Paleokastritsa, Parga, Patmos, Patras, Pefkochori, Pefkos, Peloponnese, Polychrono, Poros, Pythagoreio, Rethymno, Rhodes, Samos, Samothrace, Santorini, Sidari, Sithonia, Sparta, Spetses, Sporades, Syros, Thasos, Thessaloniki, Tingaki, Zakynthos, etc.
Guadeloupe: Saint-François, etc.
Guam: Tamuning, Tumon, etc.
Guatemala: Antigua Guatemala, etc.
Guinea: Conakry, etc.
Guinea-Bissau: Bissau, etc.
Guyana: Georgetown, etc.
Haiti: Cap-Haitien, Port-au-Prince, etc.
Honduras: Roatán, Tegucigalpa, etc.
Hong Kong: Causeway Bay, Hong Kong Island, Kowloon, Mong Kok, New Territories, Repulse Bay, Tsim Sha Tsui, Wan Chai, etc.
Hungary: Budapest, Eger, Gyula, Hajdúszoboszló, Hévíz, Lake Balaton, Pécs, Siófok, Szeged, Zalakaros, etc.
Iceland: Akureyri, Blue Lagoon, Borgarnes, Egilsstaðir, Garðabær, Hafnarfjörður, Hveragerði, Höfn, Keflavík, Kópavogur, Reykjavik, Selfoss, Vík í Mýrdal, Ísafjörður, etc.
India: Agra, Ahmedabad, Ajmer, Allahabad, Amritsar, Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Aurangabad, Bangalore, Bhopal, Bikaner, Chandigarh, Chennai, Chhattisgarh, Darjeeling, Dehradun, Delhi, Dharamshala, Fatehpur Sikri, Gangtok, Goa, Gujarat, Gurgaon, Guwahati, Gwalior, Haridwar, Himachal Pradesh, Hyderabad, Indore, Jabalpur, Jaipur, Jaisalmer, Jalandhar, Jodhpur, Kanpur, Karnataka, Kerala, Khajuraho, Kochi, Kolhapur, Kolkata, Ladakh, Leh, Lucknow, Ludhiana, Madhya Pradesh, Madikeri, Madurai, Maharashtra, Manali, Mangalore, Mathura, Mount Abu, Mumbai, Munnar, Mussoorie, Mysore, Nagpur, Nainital, Nashik, Navi Mumbai, New Delhi, Noida, Ooty, Pachmarhi, Palakkad, Pune, Punjab, Pushkar, Raipur, Rajasthan, Ramnagar, Rishikesh, Sawai Madhopur, Shimla, Sikkim, Srinagar, Tamil Nadu, Thane, Thiruvananthapuram, Tirupati, Udaipur, Ujjain, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Varanasi, Varkala, Vijayawada, Visakhapatnam, etc.
Indonesia: Bali, Balikpapan, Bandung, Batu, Bintan, Bogor, Borobudur, Denpasar, Jakarta, Java, Jimbaran, Kalimantan, Kuta, Lombok, Makassar, Malang, Mataram, Medan, Nusa Dua, Padang, Palembang, Pekanbaru, Sanur, Semarang, Seminyak, Sumatra, Surabaya, Surakarta, Ubud, Yogyakarta, etc.
Iran: Isfahan, Mashhad, Shiraz, Tehran, etc.
Iraq: Baghdad, Basra, Duhok, Erbil, Karbala, Sulaymaniyah, etc.
Ireland: Achill Island, Bray, Bundoran, Carlow, Clifden, Connemara, Cork, Dingle, Donegal, Doolin, Drogheda, Dublin, Dundalk, Ennis, Galway, Glendalough, Kenmare, Kilkenny, Killarney, Letterkenny, Limerick, Navan, Shannon, Swords, Tralee, Waterford, Westport, etc.
Isle of Man: Douglas, etc.
Israel: Acre, Amirim, Arad, Ashdod, Ashkelon, Bat Yam, Beersheba, Caesarea, Dead Sea, Eilat, Ein Bokek, Galilee, Golan Heights, Gush Dan, Haifa, Hermon, Herzliya, Jaffa, Jerusalem, Katzrin, Metula, Mitzpe Ramon, Nahariya, Nazareth, Netanya, Petah Tikva, Ramat Gan, Ramot, Rishon LeZion, Rosh Pinna, Safed, Sea of Galilee, Tel Aviv, Tiberias, Zikhron Ya'akov, etc.
Italy: Abano Terme, Abruzzo, Agrigento, Alassio, Alberobello, Alghero, Amalfi Coast, Aosta Valley, Apulia, Arezzo, Arona, Arzachena, Asciano, Ascoli Piceno, Assisi, Asti, Bardolino, Bari, Basilicata, Baveno, Bellagio, Bellaria-Igea Marina, Benevento, Bergamo, Bologna, Bolzano, Bordighera, Bormio, Bracciano, Brescia, Breuil-Cervinia, Brindisi, Cagliari, Calabria, Campania, Canazei, Caorle, Capri, Carrara, Castelnuovo Berardenga, Castiglion Fiorentino, Castiglione d'Orcia, Castiglione del Lago, Castiglione della Pescaia, Catania, Cefalù, Cervia, Cesenatico, Chianciano Terme, Chieti, Chioggia, Cinque Terre, Città della Pieve, Civitavecchia, Cortina d'Ampezzo, Cortona, Costa Smeralda, Courmayeur, Desenzano del Garda, Dolomites, Elba, Emilia-Romagna, Ercolano, Fasano, Fassa Valley, Ferrara, Finale Ligure, Fiumicino, Florence, Forte dei Marmi, Gaeta, Gallipoli, Genoa, Golfo Aranci, Greve in Chianti, Grosseto, Gubbio, Herculaneum, Imperia, Ischia, Italian Alps, Jesolo, L'Aquila, La Spezia, Lake Como, Lake Garda, Lake Maggiore, Lampedusa, Lazio, Lazise, Lecco, Lerici, Lido di Jesolo, Lignano Sabbiadoro, Liguria, Livigno, Livorno, Lombardy, Lucca, Madonna di Campiglio, Malcesine, Manarola, Mantua, Maratea, Massa, Matera, Menaggio, Merano, Messina, Mestre, Milan, Milazzo, Monopoli, Montalcino, Montecatini Terme, Montepulciano, Monterosso al Mare, Monza, Naples, Nardò, Novara, Olbia, Ortisei, Ostuni, Otranto, Padua, Palermo, Parma, Perugia, Pescara, Peschici, Peschiera del Garda, Piacenza, Piedmont, Pienza, Pisa, Pistoia, Pitigliano, Polignano a Mare, Pompeii, Porto Cervo, Porto Cesareo, Portoferraio, Portofino, Positano, Prato, Ragusa, Rapallo, Rapolano Terme, Ravenna, Riccione, Rimini, Riomaggiore, Riva del Garda, Rome, Salerno, San Casciano dei Bagni, San Gimignano, Sanremo, Sardinia, Savona, Sestriere, Sicily, Siena, Sinalunga, Siracusa, Sirmione, Sorrento, Sottomarina, Sperlonga, Stresa, Sëlva, Taormina, Taranto, Terracina, Tivoli, Torrita di Siena, Trani, Trapani, Trentino-Alto Adige, Trento, Treviso, Trieste, Tropea, Turin, Tuscany, Umbria, Urbino, Val Gardena, Veneto, Venice, Ventimiglia, Verbania, Vernazza, Verona, Vesuvius, Viareggio, Vicenza, Vieste, Viterbo, etc.
Ivory Coast: Abidjan, Assinie-Mafia, Bouaké, San-Pédro, Yamoussoukro, etc.
Jamaica: Kingston, Montego Bay, Negril, Ocho Rios, Port Antonio, Runaway Bay, etc.
Japan: Atami, Fujisawa, Fukuoka, Furano, Hakodate, Hakone, Hakuba, Hamamatsu, Hiroshima, Hokkaido, Ishigaki, Itō, Kagoshima, Kanagawa, Kanazawa, Karuizawa, Kawasaki, Kobe, Kutchan, Kyoto, Lake Suwa, Matsumoto, Miyakojima, Nagasaki, Nagoya, Naha, Nanjō, Nikkō, Okinawa, Onna, Osaka, Sapporo, Sendai, Shizuoka, Takayama, Tokyo, Yokohama, etc.
Jordan: Amman, Aqaba, Irbid, Jerash, Madaba, Petra, Sweimeh, Wadi Musa, Wadi Rum, Zarqa, etc.
Kazakhstan: Aktau, Aktobe, Almaty, Astana, Atyrau, Burabay, Karagandy, Kokshetau, Kostanay, Lake Balkhash, Oskemen, Pavlodar, Semey, Shymbulak, Shymkent, Taraz, etc.
Kenya: Kisumu, Lake Victoria, Masai Mara, Mombasa, Nairobi, Ukunda, etc.
Kiribati: South Tarawa, etc.
Kongo: Brazzaville, Pointe-Noire, etc.
Kosovo: Pristina, Prizren, etc.
Kuwait: Hawally, Kuwait City, Salmiya, etc.
Kyrgyzstan: Bishkek, Bosteri, Cholpon-Ata, Issyk Kul, Karakol, Osh, etc.
Laos: Luang Prabang, Vang Vieng, Vientiane, etc.
Latvia: Cēsis, Daugavpils, Jelgava, Jūrmala, Liepāja, Riga, Rēzekne, Sigulda, Ventspils, etc.
Lebanon: Baalbeck, Beirut, Byblos, Faraya, Jounieh, Mzaar Kfardebian, Tripoli, etc.
Lesotho: Maseru, etc.
Liberia: Monrovia, etc.
Libya: Benghazi, Tripoli, etc.
Liechtenstein: Schaan, Vaduz, etc.
Lithuania: Druskininkai, Kaunas, Klaipėda, Nida, Palanga, Panevėžys, Trakai, Vilnius, Šiauliai, Šventoji, etc.
Luxembourg: Differdange, Dudelange, Echternach, Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg City, Vianden, etc.
Macedonia: Bitola, Mavrovo, Ohrid, Skopje, etc.
Madagascar: Antananarivo, etc.
Malawi: Blantyre, Lilongwe, etc.
Malaysia: Borneo, George Town, Ipoh, Johor Bahru, Johor, Kedah, Kota Bharu, Kota Kinabalu, Kuah, Kuala Lumpur, Kuala Terengganu, Kuantan, Kuching, Langkawi, Malacca, Penang, Putrajaya, Sabah, Sarawak, Selangor, Shah Alam, etc.
Maldives: Kaafu Atoll, Malé, etc.
Mali: Bamako, etc.
Malta: Birżebbuġa, Buġibba, Gozo, Gżira, Mellieħa, Paceville, Pembroke, Qawra, Sliema, St. Julian's, St. Paul's Bay, Valletta, etc.
Martinique: Fort-de-France, Les Trois-Îlets, Sainte-Luce, etc.
Mauritania: Mérida, Nouakchott, Puerto Escondido, Puerto Peñasco, etc.
Mauritius: Port Louis, etc.
Mexico: Acapulco, Akumal, Cabo San Lucas, Cancún, Chetumal, Chichen Itza, Chihuahua, Ciudad Juárez, Cozumel, Cuernavaca, Guadalajara, Guanajuato, Isla Mujeres, Los Cabos, Manzanillo, Mazatlán, Monterrey, Oaxaca, Playa del Carmen, Puebla, Puerto Aventuras, Puerto Morelos, Puerto Vallarta, Querétaro, Riviera Maya, San Cristóbal de las Casas, San Miguel de Allende, San Miguel de Cozumel, Tijuana, Tulum, etc.
Moldova: Bălți, Chișinău, Tiraspol, etc.
Monaco: Monte Carlo, etc.
Mongolia: Darkhan, Erdenet, Ulaanbaatar, etc.
Montenegro: Bar, Bečići, Bijela, Budva, Cetinje, Dobra Voda, Dobrota, Herceg Novi, Igalo, Kolašin, Kotor, Miločer, Nikšić, Perast, Petrovac, Podgorica, Prčanj, Sutomore, Sveti Stefan, Tivat, Ulcinj, Žabljak, etc.
Montserrat: Plymouth, etc.
Morocco: Agadir, Asilah, Casablanca, Chefchaouen, El Jadida, Essaouira, Fez, Marrakesh, Meknes, Merzouga, Mohammedia, Nador, Ouarzazate, Rabat, Tangier, Taroudant, Tinghir, Tétouan, etc.
Mozambique: Maputo, etc.
Myanmar: Mandalay, Naypyidaw, Nyaung Shwe, Yangon, etc.
Namibia: Rundu, Swakopmund, Walvis Bay, Windhoek, etc.
Nepal: Chitwan, Himalayas, Kathmandu, Lukla, Lumbini, Mount Everest, Nagarkot, Namche Bazaar, Patan, Pokhara, Tengboche, etc.
Netherlands: 's-Hertogenbosch, Alkmaar, Amersfoort, Amsterdam, Arnhem, Breda, Delft, Domburg, Dordrecht, Eindhoven, Groningen, Haarlem, Leiden, Maastricht, Nijmegen, Noordwijk, Rotterdam, Texel, The Hague, Utrecht, Valkenburg aan de Geul, Wijk aan Zee, Zandvoort, etc.
New Zealand: Auckland, Christchurch, Dunedin, Gisborne, Hamilton, Hastings, Invercargill, Kaikoura, Lower Hutt, Napier, Nelson, New Plymouth, North Island, Palmerston North, Porirua, Queenstown, Rotorua, South Island, Taupo, Tauranga, Waiheke Island, Wanaka, Wellington, Whangarei, etc.
Nicaragua: Granada, Managua, etc.
Nigeria: Abuja, Benin City, Calabar, Enugu, Ibadan, Ilorin, Jos, Kaduna, Lagos, Owerri, Port Harcourt, Uyo, etc.
North Korea: Pyongyang, etc.
Northern Mariana Islands: Saipan, etc.
Norway: Beitostølen, Bergen, Bodø, Gardermoen, Geilo, Geirangerfjord, Hardangerfjord, Hemsedal, Kirkenes, Kristiansand, Larvik, Lillehammer, Lofoten, Narvik, Nordland, Oslo, Sognefjord, Stavanger, Stryn, Svalbard, Tromsø, Trondheim, Ålesund, etc.
Oman: Muscat, Nizwa, Salalah, Seeb, etc.
Pakistan: Bhurban, Faisalabad, Islamabad, Karachi, Lahore, Peshawar, Rawalpindi, etc.
Palau: Koror, Peleliu, etc.
Palestine: Beit Sahour, Bethlehem, Hebron, Jenin, Jericho, Nablus, Ramallah, etc.
Panama: Bocas del Toro, etc.
Papua New Guinea: Port Moresby, etc.
Paraguay: Asunción, Ciudad Del Este, Encarnación, Panama City, etc.
Peru: Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Chiclayo, Cusco, Huancayo, Huanchaco, Huaraz, Ica, Iquitos, Lima, Machu Picchu, Máncora, Nazca, Ollantaytambo, Paracas, Pisco, Piura, Puerto Maldonado, Puno, Tacna, Tarapoto, Trujillo, Urubamba, etc.
Philippines: Angeles City, Antipolo, Bacolod, Bacoor, Baguio, Batangas, Bohol, Boracay, Cagayan de Oro, Calamba, Caloocan, Cebu, Coron, Dasmariñas, Davao, Dumaguete, El Nido, General Santos, Iloilo City, Kalibo, Lapu-Lapu City, Las Piñas, Luzon, Mactan, Makati, Mandaue, Manila, Marikina, Mindanao, Muntinlupa, Olongapo, Palawan, Panglao, Parañaque, Pasay, Pasig, Puerto Galera, Puerto Princesa, Quezon City, Tagaytay, Tagbilaran, Taguig, Valenzuela, Visayas, Zamboanga, etc.
Poland: Białka Tatrzańska, Białowieża Forest, Białystok, Bielsko-Biała, Bukowina Tatrzańska, Bydgoszcz, Elbląg, Gdańsk, Gdynia, Giżycko, Gorzów Wielkopolski, Katowice, Kielce, Kołobrzeg, Kraków, Krynica Morska, Krynica-Zdrój, Lublin, Malbork, Mikołajki, Mrągowo, Olsztyn, Opole, Oświęcim, Poznań, Rzeszów, Sopot, Szczecin, Słubice, Tarnów, Toruń, Tricity, Warsaw, Wrocław, Zakopane, Zielona Góra, Łódź, Świnoujście, etc.
Portugal: Albufeira, Algarve, Aljezur, Almancil, Armação de Pêra, Azores, Braga, Cabanas de Tavira, Carvoeiro, Cascais, Castro Marim, Coimbra, Estoril, Faro, Funchal, Fátima, Guimarães, Lagoa, Lagos, Lisbon, Loulé, Madeira, Monte Gordo, Nazaré, Olhão, Ponta Delgada, Portimão, Porto, Praia da Luz, Quarteira, Sesimbra, Silves, Sintra, Tavira, Vila Real de Santo António, Vila do Bispo, Vilamoura, Évora, etc.
Puerto Rico: Bayamón, Caguas, Carolina, Ponce, San Juan, Vieques, etc.
Qatar: Doha, etc.
Romania: Bran, Brașov, Bucharest, Cluj-Napoca, Constanța, Poiana Brașov, Sibiu, Sighișoara, Timișoara, Transylvania, etc.
Russia: Abakan, Abrau-Dyurso, Abzakovo, Adler, Altai Republic, Alupka, Alushta, Anadyr, Anapa, Angarsk, Arkhangelsk, Arkhipo Osipovka, Arkhyz, Armavir, Astrakhan, Bakhchysarai, Balaklava, Balakovo, Balashikha, Baltic Sea, Barnaul, Belgorod, Belokurikha, Biysk, Black Sea, Blagoveshchensk, Bolshoy Utrish, Bratsk, Bryansk, Caucasian Mineral Waters, Cheboksary, Chelyabinsk, Cherepovets, Cherkessk, Chita, Chornomorske, Crimea, Curonian Spit, Dagomys, Divnomorskoye, Dombay, Domodedovo, Dzerzhinsk, Dzhankhot, Dzhemete, Dzhubga, Elektrostal, Elista, Engels, Estosadok, Feodosia, Foros, Gaspra, Gatchina, Gelendzhik, Golden Ring, Golubitskaya, Gorky Gorod, Gornaya Karusel, Gorno-Altaysk, Goryachy Klyuch, Grozny, Gurzuf, Irkutsk, Ivanovo, Izhevsk, Kabardinka, Kaliningrad, Kaluga, Kamchatka, Kamensk-Uralsky, Karelia, Kazan, Kemerovo, Kerch, Khabarovsk, Khanty-Mansiysk, Khibiny, Khimki, Khosta, Kirov, Kirovsk, Kislovodsk, Kizhi, Koktebel, Kolomna, Komsomolsk on Amur, Konakovo, Koreiz, Korolev, Kostroma, Krasnaya Polyana, Krasnodar Krai, Krasnodar, Krasnogorsk, Krasnoyarsk, Kudepsta, Kurgan, Kursk, Kyzyl, Lake Baikal, Lake Seliger, Lazarevskoye, Lipetsk, Listvyanka, Loo, Lyubertsy, Magadan, Magnitogorsk, Makhachkala, Massandra, Matsesta, Maykop, Miass, Mineralnye Vody, Moscow, Mount Elbrus, Murmansk, Murom, Mytishchi, Naberezhnye Chelny, Nakhodka, Nalchik, Naryan-Mar, Nebug, Nizhnekamsk, Nizhnevartovsk, Nizhny Novgorod, Nizhny Tagil, Norilsk, Novokuznetsk, Novorossiysk, Novosibirsk, Novyi Svit, Novyy Urengoy, Obninsk, Odintsovo, Olginka, Omsk, Orenburg, Orsk, Oryol, Partenit, Penza, Pereslavl Zalessky, Perm, Pervouralsk, Petergof, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, Petrozavodsk, Plyos, Podolsk, Popovka, Primorsko-Akhtarsk, Pskov, Pulkovo, Pushkin, Pushkino, Pyatigorsk, Repino, Rosa Khutor, Rostov-on-Don, Ryazan, Rybachye, Rybinsk, Saint Petersburg, Sakhalin, Saky, Salekhard, Samara, Saransk, Saratov, Sea of Azov, Sergiyev Posad, Serpukhov, Sestroretsk, Sevastopol, Shakhty, Sheregesh, Sheremetyevo, Siberia, Simeiz, Simferopol, Smolensk, Sochi, Solovetsky Islands, Sortavala, Stary Oskol, Stavropol, Sterlitamak, Sudak, Sukko, Surgut, Suzdal, Svetlogorsk, Syktyvkar, Syzran, Taganrog, Taman, Tambov, Tarusa, Temryuk, Terskol, Tobolsk, Tolyatti, Tomsk, Torzhok, Tuapse, Tula, Tver, Tyumen, Ufa, Uglich, Ukhta, Ulan-Ude, Ulyanovsk, Usinsk, Ussuriysk, Utes, Valaam, Valday, Vardane, Velikiye Luki, Veliky Novgorod, Veliky Ustyug, Vityazevo, Vladikavkaz, Vladimir, Vladivostok, Vnukovo International Airport, Volga, Volgograd, Vologda, Volzhskiy, Vorkuta, Voronezh, Vyborg, Yakhroma, Yakornaya Shchel, Yakutsk, Yalta, Yaroslavl, Yekaterinburg, Yelets, Yenisei, Yessentuki, Yevpatoria, Yeysk, Yoshkar-Ola, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, Zavidovo, Zelenogradsk, Zheleznovodsk, Zhukovsky, Zvenigorod, etc.
Rwanda: Butare, Gisenyi, Kibuye, Kigali, etc.
Réunion: Saint-Denis, etc.
Saint Barthélemy: Gustavia, etc.
Saint Kitts and Nevis: Basseterre, etc.
Saint Lucia: Anse La Raye, Castries, Gros Islet, Soufrière, etc.
Saint Martin:, etc.
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines: Kingstown, etc.
Samoa: Apia, etc.
San Marino: City of San Marino, etc.
Saudi Arabia: Abha, Al Khobar, Buraydah, Dammam, Jeddah, Jizan, Jubail, Mecca, Medina, Riyadh, Ta'if, Tabuk, Yanbu, etc.
Senegal: Dakar, etc.
Serbia: Belgrade, Kopaonik, Niš, Novi Sad, Palić, Stara Planina, Subotica, Zlatibor, etc.
Seychelles: La Digue, Mahé, Praslin, etc.
Sierra Leone: Freetown, etc.
Singapore: Changi, Sentosa, etc.
Sint Maarten:, etc.
Slovakia: Bratislava, Jasná, Liptov, Tatranská Lomnica, Vysoké Tatry, Štrbské Pleso, etc.
Slovenia: Bled, Bohinj, Bovec, Kranjska Gora, Ljubljana, Maribor, Piran, Portorož, Rogaška Slatina, etc.
Solomon Islands: Honiara, etc.
Somalia: Mogadishu, etc.
Somaliland: Hargeisa, etc.
South Africa: Ballito, Benoni, Bloemfontein, Boksburg, Cape Town, Drakensberg, Durban, East London, George, Johannesburg, Kempton Park, Kimberley, Knysna, Kruger National Park, Marloth Park, Mossel Bay, Nelspruit, Pietermaritzburg, Plettenberg Bay, Polokwane, Port Elizabeth, Potchefstroom, Pretoria, Rustenburg, Sandton, Stellenbosch, Umhlanga, etc.
South Korea: Busan, Daegu, Daejeon, Gangneung, Gapyeong, Gwangju, Gwangyang, Gyeongju, Incheon, Jejudo, Jeonju, Pyeongchang, Seogwipo, Seoul, Sokcho, Suwon, Ulsan, Yangyang, Yeosu, etc.
Spain: A Coruña, Alcúdia, Algeciras, Alicante, Almería, Altea, Andalusia, Antequera, Aragon, Asturias, Ayamonte, Baiona, Balearic Islands, Barbate, Barcelona, Basque Country, Benalmádena, Benidorm, Benissa, Besalú, Bilbao, Blanes, Buñol, Cadaqués, Cala d'Or, Calella, Calonge, Calp, Calvià, Cambados, Cambrils, Canary Islands, Cangas de Onís, Cantabria, Cartagena, Castilla-La Mancha, Catalonia, Chiclana de la Frontera, Costa Blanca, Costa Brava, Costa Dorada, Costa del Maresme, Costa del Sol, Cádiz, Córdoba, Dénia, El Puerto de Santa María, Empuriabrava, Estepona, Figueres, Formentera, Fuerteventura, Galicia, Gijón, Girona, Gran Canaria, Granada, Ibiza, Jerez de la Frontera, L'Escala, L'Estartit, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, La Pineda, Lanzarote, Llançà, Lleida, Lloret de Mar, Madrid, Magaluf, Malgrat de Mar, Mallorca, Marbella, Maspalomas, Menorca, Mijas, Mojácar, Moraira, Murcia, Málaga, Navarre, Nerja, O Grove, Ourense, Oviedo, Palma Nova, Palma, Pals, Poio, Pollença, Pontevedra, PortAventura, Portonovo, Ronda, Roquetas de Mar, Roses, Salamanca, Salou, San Sebastian, Sant Antoni de Portmany, Santander, Santiago de Compostela, Santillana del Mar, Sanxenxo, Seville, Sidges, Sierra Nevada, Tarifa, Tarragona, Tenerife, Toledo, Torremolinos, Torrevieja, Torroella de Montgrí, Tossa de Mar, Valencia, Vigo, Vélez-Málaga, Xàbia, Zaragoza, etc.
Sri Lanka: Anuradhapura, Bentota, Beruwala, Colombo, Dambulla, Galle, Hikkaduwa, Jaffna, Kandy, Mirissa, Negombo, Nuwara Eliya, Sigiriya, Tangalle, Trincomalee, Unawatuna, Weligama, etc.
Sudan: Khartoum, Port Sudan, etc.
Suriname: Lelydorp, Nieuw Nickerie, Paramaribo, etc.
Swaziland: Lobamba, Mbabane, etc.
Sweden: Bohuslän, Borgholm, Borlänge, Dalarna, Falkenberg, Falun, Gothenburg, Gotland, Halmstad, Helsingborg, Jönköping, Kalmar, Karlshamn, Karlskrona, Karlstad, Kiruna, Kristianstad, Linköping, Lund, Malmö, Norrköping, Solna, Stockholm, Umeå, Uppsala, Vimmerby, Visby, Västerås, Växjö, Ystad, Ängelholm, Åre, Öland, Örebro, Östersund, etc.
Switzerland: Adelboden, Andermatt, Anzère, Arosa, Ascona, Basel, Bellinzona, Bern, Crans-Montana, Davos, Engelberg, Fribourg, Geneva, Grindelwald, Grächen, Gstaad, Haute-Nendaz, Interlaken, Jungfrau, Klosters, Lake Maggiore, Lausanne, Lauterbrunnen, Leukerbad, Locarno, Lucerne, Lugano, Matterhorn, Montreux, Nendaz, Neuchâtel, Pontresina, Portes du Soleil, Saanen, Saas-Fee, Sierre, Silvaplana, Sion, St. Gallen, St. Moritz, Swiss Alps, Ticino, Valais, Verbier, Vevey, Veysonnaz, Wengen, Zermatt, Zug, Zürich, etc.
Syria: Aleppo, Damascus, Deir ez-Zor, Latakia, Palmyra, Tartus, etc.
Taiwan: Hsinchu, Kaohsiung, Taichung, Tainan, Taipei, etc.
Tajikistan: Dushanbe, Isfara, Khujand, etc.
Tanzania: Dar es Salaam, Mount Kilimanjaro, Serengeti, Zanzibar, etc.
Thailand: Ayutthaya, Bangkok, Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai, Chonburi, Hua Hin, Kanchanaburi, Karon, Khao Sok, Ko Chang, Ko Lanta, Ko Phangan, Ko Samui, Krabi, Pai, Patong, Pattaya, Phi Phi Islands, Phuket, Prachuap Khiri Khan, Ranong, River Kwai, Udon Thani, etc.
Togo: Lomé, etc.
Tonga: Nukuʻalofa, Tunis, etc.
Trinidad and Tobago: Port of Spain, etc.
Tunisia: Djerba, Hammamet, Midoun, Monastir, Port El Kantaoui, Sousse, etc.
Turkey: Adana, Alacati, Alanya, Ankara, Antakya, Antalya, Ayvalık, Beldibi, Belek, Bodrum, Bozcaada, Bursa, Büyükada, Cappadocia, Dalyan, Datça, Denizli, Didim, Edirne, Ephesus, Erzincan, Erzurum, Eskişehir, Fethiye, Gaziantep, Göreme, Göynük, Istanbul, Kalkan, Kayseri, Kaş, Kemer, Konakli, Konya, Kuşadası, Lara, Mahmutlar, Manavgat, Marmaris, Mersin, Olympos, Palandöken, Pamukkale, Prince Islands, Samsun, Sapanca, Sarıkamış, Selçuk, Side, Tarsus, Tekirova, Trabzon, Troy, Turkish Riviera, Uludağ, Van, Çamyuva, Çanakkale, Çeşme, Çıralı, Ölüdeniz, Ürgüp, İskenderun, İzmir, İçmeler, Şanlıurfa, etc.
Turkmenistan: Ashgabat, Avaza, etc.
Turks and Caicos Islands: Cockburn Town, North Caicos, Pine Cay, Providenciales, etc.
Uganda: Kampala, etc.
Ukraine: Berdiansk, Bila Tserkva, Boryspil, Bukovel, Cherkasy, Chernihiv, Chernivtsi, Dnipropetrovsk, Donetsk, Ivano-Frankivsk, Kamianets-Podilskyi, Kharkiv, Kherson, Kiev, Koblevo, Kremenchuk, Kryvyi Rih, Luhansk, Lviv, Mariupol, Melitopol, Mykolaiv, Odessa, Poltava, Slavske, Sumy, Truskavets, Uzhgorod, Vinnytsia, Yaremche, Yasinya, Zaporizhia, Zatoka, Zhytomyr, etc.
United Arab Emirates: Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Persian Gulf, Ras Al Khaimah, Sharjah, etc.
United Kingdom: Aberdeen, Bath, Belfast, Blackpool, Bournemouth, Bradford, Brighton, Bristol, Cambridge, Canterbury, Cardiff, Channel Tunnel, Cheltenham, Chester, Cornwall, Coventry, Cumbria, Derry, Devon, Dorset, Dover, Eastbourne, Edinburgh, England, English Channel, Exeter, Folkestone, Fort William, Glasgow, Hampshire, Harrogate, Inverness, Isle of Wight, Kent, Lancashire, Leeds, Leicester, Liverpool, Llandudno, London, Manchester, Mansfield, Milton Keynes, Newcastle, Newquay, Northern Ireland, Norwich, Nottingham, Oban, Oxford, Paignton, Plymouth, Portmeirion, Portsmouth, Reading, Sandown, Scarborough, Scotland, Shanklin, Sheffield, Somerset, Southampton, St Albans, Stonehenge, Sussex, Swansea, Torquay, Wales, Whitby, Windsor, York, etc.
United States: Akron, Alabama, Alaska, Albuquerque, Amarillo, Anaheim, Anchorage, Ann Arbor, Arizona, Arkansas, Arlington, Aspen, Atlanta, Aurora, Austin, Bakersfield, Baltimore, Baton Rouge, Beaver Creek, Big Bear Lake, Billings, Biloxi, Birmingham, Boca Raton, Boise, Boston, Breckenridge, Brooklyn, Buffalo, California, Carlsbad, Carmel-by-the-Sea, Chandler, Charlotte, Chesapeake, Cheyenne, Chicago, Chula Vista, Cincinnati, Clearwater, Cleveland, Colorado Springs, Colorado, Columbus Georgia, Columbus, Connecticut, Corpus Christi, Costa Mesa, Cupertino, Dallas, Dana Point, Daytona Beach, Death Valley, Delaware, Delray Beach, Denver, Des Moines, Destin, Detroit, Durham, El Paso, Estes Park, Fargo, Fayetteville, Florida, Fontana, Fort Lauderdale, Fort Myers, Fort Walton Beach, Fort Wayne, Fort Worth, Fremont, Fresno, Galveston, Garland, Georgia, Gilbert, Glendale, Grand Canyon, Grand Rapids, Grand Teton, Great Smoky Mountains, Greensboro, Gulfport, Hawaii, Henderson, Hialeah, Hollywood, Honolulu, Hot Springs, Houston, Huntington Beach, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Indianapolis, Iowa, Irving, Jackson Mississippi, Jackson Wyoming, Jacksonville, Jersey City, Juneau, Kansas City, Kansas, Kentucky, Key Largo, Key West, La Jolla, Laguna Beach, Lahaina, Lake Tahoe, Laredo, Las Vegas, Lexington, Lincoln, Little Rock, Long Beach, Los Angeles, Louisiana, Louisville, Lubbock, Madison, Maine, Malibu, Mammoth Lakes, Manhattan, Marathon, Maryland, Massachusetts, Memphis, Mesa, Mexico City, Miami Beach, Miami, Michigan, Milwaukee, Minneapolis, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Moab, Modesto, Montana, Monterey, Montgomery, Moreno Valley, Mountain View, Myrtle Beach, Napa, Naples, Nashville, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New Orleans, New York City, New York, Newark, Newport Beach, Newport, Norfolk, North Carolina, North Dakota, North Las Vegas, Oakland, Ocean City, Oceanside, Ohio, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, Omaha, Oregon, Orlando, Oxnard, Palm Coast, Palm Desert, Palm Springs, Palo Alto, Panama City Beach, Park City, Pasadena, Pennsylvania, Pensacola, Philadelphia, Phoenix, Pittsburgh, Plano, Pompano Beach, Portland, Portland, Providence, Raleigh, Reno, Rhode Island, Richmond, Riverside, Rochester, Rocky Mountains, Sacramento, Saint Paul, Salt Lake City, San Antonio, San Bernardino, San Diego, San Francisco, San Jose, Sanibel, Santa Ana, Santa Barbara, Santa Cruz, Santa Fe, Santa Monica, Sarasota, Savannah, Scottsdale, Seattle, Shreveport, Silicon Valley, South Carolina, South Dakota, South Lake Tahoe, Spokane, Springfield, Squaw Valley, St. Augustine, St. Louis, St. Petersburg, Steamboat Springs, Stockton, Sunny Isles Beach, Sunnyvale, Tacoma, Tallahassee, Tampa, Telluride, Tennessee, Texas, Thousand Oaks, Toledo, Tucson, Tulsa, Utah, Vail, Vermont, Virginia Beach, Virginia, Waikiki, Washington D.C., Washington, West Palm Beach, West Virginia, Wichita, Winston-Salem, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Yellowstone, Yonkers, Yosemite, Zion, etc.
Uruguay: Montevideo, Punta del Este, etc.
Uzbekistan: Bukhara, Fergana, Khiva, Kokand, Navoiy, Samarkand, Tashkent, Urgench, etc.
Vanuatu: Port Vila, etc.
Venezuela: Caracas, Isla Margarita, Maracaibo, Porlamar, etc.
Vietnam: Cần Thơ, Da Lat, Da Nang, Haiphong, Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, Huế, Hạ Long, Hội An, Long Hải, Mỹ Tho, Nha Trang, Ninh Bình, Phan Thiết, Phú Quốc, Qui Nhơn, Rạch Giá, Sa Pa, Vũng Tàu, Đồng Hới, etc.
Yemen: Aden, Sana'a, etc.
Zambia: Livingstone, Lusaka, etc.
Zimbabwe: Bulawayo, Harare, Mutare, Victoria Falls, etc.