Xing Yi Quan
Sun Lu-t'ang standing in San Ti Shi
|Also known as
||Hsing I Ch'üan
||Internal mechanics (neijia), Striking, Takedowns
||Both hard and soft, depending on application
|Country of origin
||Yue Fei, circa 12th century (attributed as the legendary founder). Li Luoneng, 19th century (founder of modern Xing Yi Quan).
||See under Famous Practitioners
||The historical origins of this martial art are disputed (see under Lineage chart) and remain unclear. Modern Xing Yi originated from Dai Clan's Liu He Xin Yi Quan, was heavily influenced by military spear techniques, and was possibly also affected and shaped by other styles as well.
Xing Yi Quan (Chinese: 形意拳; pinyin: Xíng Yì Quán; Wade–Giles: Hsing I Ch'üan) is classified as one of the Wudang styles of Chinese martial arts. The name of the art translates approximately to "Form-Intention Fist", or "Shape-Will Fist".
Xing Yi is characterized by aggressive, seemingly linear movements and explosive power that's most often applied from a short range. A practitioner of Xing Yi uses coordinated movements to generate bursts of power intended to overwhelm the opponent, simultaneously attacking and defending. Methods vary from school to school, but always include bare-handed fighting training (mostly in single movements/combinations and sometimes in forms) and the training of weapons usage with similar or identical body mechanics to that used for bare-handed fighting. The most basic notions of movement and body mechanics in the art were heavily influenced by the practice of staffs and spears. Historically and technically related martial arts include Dai Xin Yi Liu He Quan, Liu He Xin Yi Quan or Yi Quan.
The "Four Generals of Zhongxing" painted by Liu Songnian during the Southern Song Dynasty
. Yue Fei
is the second person from the left. This portrait is believed to be the "truest portrait of Yue in all extant materials."
The earliest written records of Xing Yi can be traced to the 18th century, and are attributed to Ma Xueli of Henan Province and Dai Long Bang of Shanxi Province. Legend credits the creation of Xing Yi to renowned Song Dynasty (960-1279 AD) general Yue Fei, but this is disputed.
According to the book Henan Orthodox Xingyi Quan written by Pei Xirong (Chinese: 裴锡荣) and Li Ying’ang (Chinese: 李英昂), Xing Yi Dai Long Bang"...wrote the Preface to Six Harmonies Boxing in the 15th reign year of the Qianlong Emperor . Inside it says, '...when Yue Fei was a child, he received special instructions from Zhou Tong. Extremely skilled in spearfighting, he used the spear to create fist techniques and established a skill called Yi Quan (意拳). Meticulous and unfathomable, this technique far outstripped ancient ones."
According to legend, throughout the Jin, Yuan and Ming Dynasties few individuals had studied this art, one of them being Ji Gong (also known as Ji Longfeng and Ji Jike) of Shanxi Province. After Yue Fei's death, the art was 'lost' for half a millennium. Then, during the Ming and Qing Dynasties in Shaanxi Province's Zhongnan Mountains, Yue Fei's boxing manual was said to have been discovered by Ji Gong. It is more likely though that Ji Jike had created the art based on prior martial arts experience, or passed on an art that had already existed.
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Jackie Chan(成龍; b. 1954)
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Vincent Zhao (趙文卓 b. 1972)
Zhang Jin (張晉 b. 1974)
Hong Kong action cinema
Kung fu film
Xingyiquan: General history (ancient times - 20th century)
Yang Jwing-Ming (who is not a practitioner of the art) argues that aspects of Xing Yi Quan (particularly the animal styles) are identifiable as far back as the Liang Dynasty at the Shaolin Temple. According to Jwing-Ming, Yue Fei therefore did not strictly invent Xing Yi Quan, but synthesized and perfected existing Shaolin principles into his own style of gongfu which he popularized during his military service. Nonetheless, according to Jwing-Ming, Yue Fei is usually identified as the creator because of his considerable understanding of the art (as shown in the work The Ten Theses of Xingyiquan, credited to Yue) and his cultural status as a Chinese war hero. It ought be noted that in Chinese culture, it is common to attribute the creation of great traditions to legendary individuals. In such a way, the art of Tai Ji Quan is attributed to the legendary Zhang Sanfeng, and Daoism to Laozi, even though as in the case with Yue Fei, there exists no proof for such claim.
Other martial artists and Chinese martial art historians, such as Dan Miller, Cartmell, and Brian Kennedy, hold that this story is largely legendary; while Xing Yi Quan may well have evolved from military spear techniques, there is no evidence to support that Yue Fei was involved or that the art dates to the Song dynasty. These authors point out that the works attributed to Yue Fei's role long postdate his life, some being as recent as the Republican era, and that it was common practice in China to attribute new works to a famous or legendary person, rather than take credit for oneself. One source claims that the author of the "preface" is unknown, since no name is written on the manuscript. Most practitioners just assume it was written by Dai Long Bang. Some researchers of martial arts believe that it was actually written in Shanxi during the final years of the 19th century. In addition, historical memoirs and scholarly research papers only mention Zhou Tong teaching Yue archery and not spear play. Yue historically learned spear play from Chen Guang (陈广), who was hired by the boy’s paternal grandfather, Yao Daweng (姚大翁).
Beginning in the late Ming era and Ji Longfeng's time, evidence for the art's history grows firmer. Ji Longfeng, also known as Ji Jike, is the first person which all agree had both existed and practiced the art. Ji Longfeng's contributions to the art are described in the Ji Clan Chronicles (姬氏族谱; pinyin: Ji Shi Jiapu). Like the Preface, the Chronicles describes Xing Yi Quan as a martial art based on the combat principles of the spear. The Chronicles, however, attributes this stylistic influence to Ji himself, who was known as the "Divine Spear" (神槍; pinyin: Shén Qiāng) for his extraordinary skill with the weapon. Nowadays, many believe that the style Ji Longfeng was taught had been Shaolin Xin Yi Ba (a style which still exists today, and bears minute resemblance to XinYi LiuHe Quan). Ji Longfeng referred to his art as Liu He, The Six Harmonies, a reference to the most highly developed spear style practiced in the late Ming military.
Some speculate that during that period in the development of the art, either Ji Longfeng or some of his students had a connection with monks at the famous Shaolin Temple on Song Mountain. There exists a martial art called 'Xin Yi Ba', which is still taught at the general location of the temple, and bears a few similarities to Xing Yi related styles. Some claim that Shaolin Xin Yi Ba had been taught to the Shaolin monks by Ji Longfeng's line, while others hold the view that Ji Longfeng was taught martial arts by the monks.
From Ji Longfeng, the art was passed down to Cao Jiwu. From Cao Jiwu, the art split into its two biggest branches. One branch came down from Cao's student Ma Xueli, and became Xin Yi Liu He Quan - an art still widely practiced today, which compared to other lineages, have not undergone many changes over the generations. The other branch that came down from Cao Jiwu was through his other student, Dai Longbang. The latter passed the art into the Dai clan, which had made many changes to it, mixing it with several arts and skills that had already existed in the Dai family. The art remains in the Dai clan to this day, but has also spread elsewhere in China and around the world.
The art remained fairly obscure until Li Luoneng (also known as Li Nengran) learned the art from the Dai family in the 19th century. It was Li Luoneng and his successors - which include Guo Yunshen, Song Shirong, Che Yizhai, Liu Qilan and Li Taihe (who would popularize Xing Yi Quan across Northern China).
It is known that Li Luoneng was proficient in other martial arts before studying Dai clan's Xin Yi. Some claim his original art was Qimen Quan (奇门拳), perhaps his family's style, while others believe he actually studied Tongbei Quan and Gongli Quan. Li came to study under the Dai family either because he heard of their fame in the martial arts and business, or maybe as suggested by others, after having fought and lost to a practitioner of their art. It is generally agreed he then settled in the area of their village, and grew and sold vegetables, which earned him the nickname 'Li Lao Nong' 李老农 (Old Farmer Li, but also 'Respectable Farmer Li'). Initially, members of the Dai clan refused to teach him, but he eventually won over their trust, and he was taught by Dai Wenxiong, Guo Weihan, or both. After learning Dai Xin Yi for a number of years, perhaps over a decade, Li left the Dai territories and traveled across Shanxi and Hebei provinces, teaching for many years his own elaboration on the art, now called 'Xing Yi Quan'. No reasons were ever recorded for the many changes Li made to the art, but there are those who claim that Li wished to compete with the Dai clan's fame, perhaps because of some grudge. Li and many of his students and grand-students were famous for offering bodyguard and caravan escort services.
Xingyiquan: Recent history (20th and 21st centuries)
A condensed version of Xing Yi Quan was taught to Chinese officers at the Military Academy at Nanjing during the Second Sino-Japanese War for close quarters combat. This included armed techniques such as bayonet and sabre drills alongside unarmed techniques.
Sun Lutang, a later exponent of the art, became famous in the early 20th century for his skills (chiefly in the Beijing and Tianjin areas), and for the martial books he had written about the Internal arts. During Sun Lutang's lifetime and martial 'career', he and several of his contemporaries began to classify Xing Yi, together with Taiji Quan and Bagua Zhang, as 'Wudang Martial Arts' style. Sun also exchanged knowledge with his friend and colleague Fu Zhensong, who subsequently took this branch of the art to southern China (after it had been mostly practiced in the northern parts of the country for centuries). Later, many others have spread the art across China and the world. Yi Quan, which had been evolved from Xing Yi Quan by Wang Xiangzhai, became especially widespread during the 20th century, in China and across the world.
Following the Cultural Revolution in China, some Xing Yi forms have been adapted to fit the needs of modern practitioners of the competitive sport of Wushu. This meant that various movement forms from the art were adapted to a competitive format, in which the emphasis was put on aesthetics and flowery movements, rather than on fighting. The style is nonetheless relatively rare in wushu competitions because all wushu practitioners must compete in several mandatory events, which make Xing Yi, a non-mandatory art, a secondary priority in wushu competitive circles.
As there had never been a single organizational body governing the teaching of the art, several variant styles and sub-styles developed. Although there are classical texts which include specific encoded instructions and general guidelines for practice, many of these are ignored by most modern practitioners, and interpreted in different ways by those who follow their instruction (this is depicted in the lineage chart further down this page). As a result, over the decades and especially over the last few dozen years, branches of the art have considerably differentiated and diverged. This trend was strengthened by cross influences various Xing Yi teachers had from other martial arts and martial artists, and the spread of Xing Yi to the Western World.
The art began to be taught in the West somewhere along the 1960s-1970s. However, it only rose to prominence among martial arts communities worldwide during the first decade of the 21st century. Currently, it is still not well known among the general public. One explanation for this situation is that unlike other traditional oriental martial arts, Xing Yi was not a notable style in movies which became popular in the West (and though a modified 'wushu' version of it appeared in The One, starring Jet Li, this was not told or hinted to the viewers as part of that film's script).
Arguably, the most common Xing Yi Quan lineage in the West today is of the Yi Zong branch, which came down from Zhang Junfeng. Many of Zhang's students and grand-students, such as Kenneth Fish (martial artist), Hung I-Hsiang, Su Dongchen, Luo Dexiu, Xu Hongji and others have been teaching his Xing Yi to Westerners since the 1980s - especially Americans. This branch became the most popular because Taiwan was open to Westerners during the 20th century, while throughout most of that century, the Communist regime on mainland China did not allow Westerners to visit regularly, and thus people were not exposed to branches of the art from the mainland. Contrary to popular belief, spread by some Taiwanese teachers, the art had not 'died out' on the mainland, but was simply inaccessible to outsiders for several decades (proof of this is that many lineages of the art discussed and referenced on this page had survived The Great Leap Forward and The Cultural Revolution). Another popular Taiwanese branch in the West is Wang Shujin's lineage, which was chiefly transmitted by his student Wang Fulai.
There are also several lineages from Tianjin which are nowadays taught in the West, namely in Canada and Israel. Lines of Dai XinYi and XinYi LiuHe are still rare in the West, and can be said to even be relatively rare in China, though they are not at risk of becoming 'extinct'. In the United States, Dai XinYi is taught by Li Tailiang and several of his students. Yi Quan, on the other hand, has become exceedingly popular in the West, being taught in many schools, especially in Europe. There are no statistics as to the number of practitioners in any of these arts in either China or other countries.
Xingyiquan: Disputed history
Ancient Chinese texts, like those which make up the 'Xing Yi Classics', often contain characters whose meanings are obscure or have disappeared completely from the Chinese language. Specialized terms which describe historically specific concepts (names of ancient weapons for example) are commonly interpreted with regards for their closest, modern linguistic equivalent. The results can be problematic, producing translations which are linguistically correct but inconsistent within a fighting or martial context.
The recognized founder of Bagua Zhang, Dong Hai Chuan, was reputed to have fought Guo Yunshen with neither able to defeat the other - though it is possible that they were training together. It would have been controversial at the time for Dong Hai Chuan to have studied under Guo Yunshen, since Dong was the older of the two. The most neutral viewpoint would be to say that they trained together, which may explain the stylistic similarities between Bagua Zhang and the Xing Yi Quan monkey shape. Frantzis argues that this encounter never took place and that Guo and Dong had little contact with each other. Frantzis argues that a Xing Yi - Bagua exchange was more likely to have occurred in Tianjin c. 1900 where xingyi masters Li Cunyi and Zhang Zhaodong, Bagua master Cheng Tinghua, and four other xingyi and bagua teachers lived together (Frantzis, 1998, p. 179). Sun Lutang states in his autobiography that the legendary fight between Guo Yunshen and Dong Hai Chuan never happened. The book states that the truth of the matter is that Guo Yunshen actually fought one of his older xingyi brothers and lost. Sun Lutang was a student of both Guo Yunshen and Cheng Tinghua so this stance on the subject seems to be one of the most accurate. Treating the story of Dong Hai Chuan and Guo Yunshen as allegory, however, reveals a common training protocol among Xing Yi Quan and Bagua Zhang practitioners. Often, because Bagua Zhang requires significantly more time for a practitioner's skill to mature, it is acceptable to learn Xing Yi Quan first or simultaneously. Such a practitioner develops a tactical vocabulary that is more readily apparent than the core Bagua Zhang movements.
For controversies concerning the teaching of one person by another, read under lineage chart further down this article.
Xingyiquan: Branches of Xing Yi Quan
From Cao Jiwu, the art split into two branches:
- Ma family's Xin Yi Liu He Quan.
- Dai family's Liu He Xin Yi Quan.
These two branches survive to this day. Later, Li Luoneng developed Xing Yi Quan out of the Dai family branch. From Li Luoneng's time onward, the art has been said to have three main developmental branches:
- Shanxi (including the Song-family sub-branch)
- Hebei (Most commonly practiced Xing Yi Quan, and the branch Yi Quan evolved from).
- Henan (an alternative name for Ma family's Xin Yi Liu He Quan).
However, the identification of three separate branches is tenuous because of the extensive cross-training that occurred across their lineages. This suggests that the branches did not evolve in isolation, thus diluting any major differences between them.
Master Yang Fansheng (1949-2014) demonstrating the technique 'Ying Zhua' (Eagle Grasp) from the Si Ba Chui form. The style being demonstrated is Dai Xin Yi Liu He Quan, the precursor to modern Xing Yi. Shot at the International Xinyi-Dao Federation headquarters, Taigu County
, Shanxi province
. Year 2004. Student being demonstrate upon is late master Yang's disciple, Sudan Jeffers.
Schools of the Shanxi branch have a narrower stance, lighter footwork and tend to be more evasive. They emphasize the development of relaxation before the practice of intention (Yi). Schools of the Hebei branch emphasize Xing and Yi before developing a higher level of relaxed structure, and have a slightly different evasive footwork. Schools of the Henan branch are typically the most aggressive of the three.
The Henan branch is known as the Muslim branch because it was handed down within the Muslim community in Luoyang to which its founder, Ma Xueli, belonged. Henan branch is sometimes referred to by practitioners as XinYi LiuHe Quan instead of simply Xing Yi Quan. This may be attributed to the fact that the Muslim community of China was historically a very closed culture in order to protect themselves as a minority, thus retaining the older addition to the name of Xingyi. Liuhe means "Six Harmonies" and refers to the six harmonies of the body (three external harmonies: wrists-ankles, elbows-knees, shoulders-hips; three internal harmonies: xin-yi, yi-qi, qi-li i.e. spirit or "emotional mind" (xin) harmonises with your intention (yi), intention harmonises with your breath and physical momentum (qi), breath and physical momentum harmonise with your physical strength (li) that contribute to correct posture.) This is not to be confused with the separate internal art Liuhebafa.
Both the Shanxi and Hebei branches use a twelve animal system with five elements while the Henan branch uses ten animals. Depending on the lineage, it may or may not use five elements. Due to the historical complexity and vagueness of the lineages, it is uncertain which branch would constitute the "authentic" Xing Yi Quan.
In all of the following sections under this paragraph is chiefly discussed the art of Xing Yi Quan that had come down from Li Luoneng. These sections are not representative of Dai XinYi Quan or LiuHe XinYi Quan.
Xingyiquan: Characteristics and principles
Xing Yi Quan features aggressive shocking attacks and direct footwork. Most of the training and footwork are practiced on straight lines. The linear nature of the art hints at both the military origins and the influence of spear technique alluded to in its mythology. The goal of the Xing Yi exponent is to reach the opponent quickly and drive power through them in a single burst. The analogy with spear fighting is useful here. This is achieved by coordinating one's body as a single unit, and the intense focusing of one's Intent (Yi 意) and coordinated power (Jin 劲) utilizing tight circles (usually in a forward direction). Issuing explosive power in Xing Yi is referred to as 'Fa Jin' (发劲), the same term used in many other traditional Chinese Martial Arts.
Despite its hard, angular appearance, cultivating "soft" internal strength is essential to achieving power in Xing Yi Quan. Also, the advanced practitioner always contains tight spirals within his movements, so even the seemingly direct and linear ones are circular on a very small scale. Such circles and spirals also exist in other martial arts, but Xing Yi (like Southern Praying Mantis) likes to keep them smaller than others.
Efficiency and economy of movement are the qualities of a Xing Yi stylist, and its direct fighting philosophy advocates simultaneous attack and defense. There are few kicks except for extremely low foot kicks (which avoids the hazards of balance involved with higher kicks) and some mid-level kicks, and techniques are prized for their working within key principles rather than aesthetic value.
Xing Yi Quan favours a fighting stance called Sān Tǐ Shì (三體勢 / 三体势), literally "three bodies power," referring to how the stance holds the head, torso and feet along the same vertical plane (As a Zhan Zhuang method, this stance is trained lower). Though usually held shorter and higher in actual fighting, in training San Ti is more often trained at middle-low heights.
Like other Internal Arts, much of the training in Xing Yi Quan is done in slow-motion. This is true for almost all the movements in the art, though the majority of them can and are also trained explosively.
Xingyiquan: Overview of the art and its training methods
Xingyiquan: Zhan Zhuang (站桩)
This is a general name given to postures which one holds in place for prolonged periods of time - anywhere between 2 minutes and 2 hours. These postures are related to postures used in actual fighting, and are sometimes identical to them. Initially, these postures are taught as static training stances. After a short amount of time though, the practitioner would be taught how to move the muscles and connective tissues on a minute level from the inside of the body, making these stances very dynamic internally, and more challenging to train. The most common Zhan Zhuang among all Xing Yi schools is San Ti Shi (it is the stance demonstrated by Sun Lutang in the picture at the beginning of the article). Other common stances are: Hun Yuan Zhuang, Wu Ji Zhuang, Fu Hu Zhuang, Xiang Long Zhuang and their many variants. There are many reasons for training Zhan Zhuang. Among them are, in general:
Shifu Nitzan Oren, demonstrating a Zhan Zhuang posture which combines the San Ti stance and a Hun Yuan hand variation
- It is the simplest method to work on the training of one's Intent (Yi).
- They are used to develop one's martial structure.
- One can learn the bodily alignments of the art and perfect them in a more relaxed state.
- Correct breathing can be trained more methodically while holding Zhan Zhuang.
- There are certain health benefits involved in such training.
Some teachers consider Zhan Zhuang to be the most important practice in Xing Yi, while others neglect to train and teach them altogether. The use of the Santi Shi (三体势) Zhan Zhuang as the main training method in Xing Yi dates back to Li Luoneng - the founder of modern version of the art. In Dai XinYi, the central and most important training method is called 'Squatting Monkey' - a dynamic movement exercise rather than a dynamic posture held in place. In the Geng Jishan/Deng Yunfeng/Rose Li tradition, the phrase Santi is sometimes replaced by "central equilibrium stance".
Since the 1980s, Zhan Zhuang had become more and more popular in other martial arts; many of whom, such as some schools of Chen style Taiji, borrowed these methods from Xing Yi schools. Other martial arts sometimes had their own Zhan Zhuang methods beforehand. Today, the posture Hun Yuan Zhuang in particular has become a mainstay of many styles; its spread probably owing to the growing popularity of Yi Quan.
Xingyiquan: Plow Stepping
Also called 'Friction Stepping' (Mo Ca Bu; 摩擦步), This exercise is meant to ingrain in the practitioner the correct forward-stepping habits and methods of Xing Yi, which are different from those of other arts (though similar to those found in some styles of Bagua Zhang). Plow stepping is a precursor to Xing Yi's 'Chicken Stepping', which is the faster and more explosive stepping method in the art. In Yi Quan, Plow Stepping had been replaced with 'Mud Stepping'.
Xingyiquan: Shi Li (試力) / Mo Jin
In many lineages, there is an intermittent stage between the stationary Zhan Zhuang and the more complex Five Elements (though this stage might also be taught following the Five Elements). The two names above are interchangeable for a few exercises developed to fulfill that purpose. Shi Li movements are basically simplified versions of the more advanced body mechanics and circles found in the Five Elements and the Animals. Their focus is on training one's structure and Yi, and can be thought of as 'Zhan Zhuang in movement'. They are usually trained very slowly, one movement at a time, repeating the same movement for many minutes on end. The more advanced practitioner many also spontaneously link up and flow between different Shi Li movements, or train them more explosively with Fa Jin (发劲). In Yi Quan, the original Five Elements and 12 Animals have all been 'condensed' and 'refined' into forms of Shi Li, which replace them as the core exercises in the art (together with Zhan Zhuang).
There also exists in certain lineages a type of Shi Li drill called Si Bu Pan Gen. It originated from Bagua Zhang, and is a form of tight Circle Walking - encircling a small square rather than a circle. The main purposes of it is to train evasive stepping and stretch the hip and groin regions (the Kua).
Xingyiquan: Five Element Shapes (Wǔ Xíng 五行)
Xing Yi uses movements called the five classical Chinese elements to metaphorically represent five different states of combat. Also called the "Five Fists" or "Five Phases," the Five Elements are related to Taoist cosmology although the names do not literally correspond to the cosmological terms. These five movements make the 'base' of the art, upon which all further combative knowledge and skill is built upon. Most schools will teach the five elements before the twelve animals because they are easier and shorter to learn (though eventually more difficult to master). The Five Elements do not appear in Henan XinYi LiuHe Quan, though similar movements and methods exist in that art's curriculum.
The Five Elements of Xing Yi Quan
||Like an axe chopping down and over.
||Drilling forward diagonally. Like two waves crashing into each other.
||Like an arrow shot directly forward.
||Exploding outward like a cannonball, while covering at the same time.
||Crossing across the line of attack while turning over.
Master Yang Hai of Montreal
(originally from Tianjin
), demonstrating a variation of Beng Quan (崩拳) - one of the Five Fists (Wu Xing) of Xing Yi Quan.
Each of the Five Element movements has many vectors of movement contained within it. Together, they are used to explore all the useful ways through which one could advance on a straight line. Each of the Elements may be used as a Zhan Zhuang in-itself, and in some schools this is encouraged.
A common saying originating from the Xing Yi classics is: "The hands do not leave the heart and the elbows do not leave the ribs". This is most evident in the Five Elements.
Some Xing Yi practitioners also use the five elements as an interpretative framework for reacting and responding to attacks. This follows the five element theory, a general combat formula which assumes at least three outcomes of a fight; the constructive, the neutral, and the destructive. Practitioners abiding by these concepts train to react to and execute specific techniques in such a way that a desirable cycle will form based on the constructive, neutral and destructive interactions of five element theory. Where to aim, where to hit and with what technique-and how those motions should work defensively, is determined by what point of which cycle they see themselves in. Each of the elements has many variant applications that allow it to be used to defend against all of the elements (including itself), so any set sequences are entirely arbitrary, though the destructive cycle is often taught to beginners as it is easier to visualize and consists of easier applications.
Xingyiquan: Animal Shapes (Shí'èr Xíng 十二形)
Xing Yi Quan is based on twelve distinct Animal Shapes (of which, ten animals are more common - see table below). Present in all regional and family styles, these animal movements emulate the techniques and tactics of the corresponding animal rather than just their physical movements. Many schools of Xing Yi Quan have only small number of movements for each animal, though some teach extended sequences of movements.
The ten common animals
||In Xing Yi, "the Bear and Eagle combine", meaning that the Bear and Eagle techniques are often used in conjunction with each other. There is a bird called the "bear eagle", which covers the characteristics of both forms. The Eagle is a Pi Quan variation. It mimics the downward clawing action of this bird.
||Includes both Constrictor and Viper movements.
||Features lunging with open-handed clawing attacks mimicking the pounce of a tiger.
||The only "mythical" animal taught (except in those family systems where the phoenix is one of the 12 animals). In some lineages it is practiced separately from tiger because they are said to clash (this is a minority opinion).
||Mimics the pecking movement of a chicken and the flapping of its wings. This form also mimics the quick and aggressive combat style of the rooster.
||Combination of Pi and Heng movements that mimics the action of a rearing a horse.
||Follows the swift and random movements of the swallow by rotating position and circling the enemy with strong but quick foot movement. May refer to the purple swamphen.
||This can mean 'Sparrowhawk,' though the more common word for "Sparrowhawk" used to be Zhān (鸇), which has fallen from use over the years. The Chinese word for "goshawk" covers both the goshawk and the sparrowhawk. Note - in some lineages this animal is translated to mean the grouse or small pheasant, as well as the phoenix. Among other things, trains the ability to penetrate between the opponent's limbs and body with strikes or takedowns.
||Performed with light, agile and simple striking combined with parrying and deception of distance.
Other animals that may be present in a particular lineage
||The animal it is meant to represent is the Yangtze River alligator. Sometimes referred to as a water-skimming insect, or water lizard. In other lineages, this animal represents the Chinese ostrich, which some sources speculate could actually be the source of the Chinese Phoenix
||A flycatcher bird native to Asia. Due to its rarity, the two characters may be translated as ostrich, dove, hawk or even phoenix. The correct Chinese character for this animal is 𩿡, not two. This character is not in the earlier versions of the Unicode standard, so not all computers are capable of displaying it. For further information, check the Unihan database for complete data on this character.
||Represents the snapping turtle which uses quick head snapping motions to catch fish. Some schools will teach this in combination with Tuó (crocodile), considering them to be the same animal.
Xingyiquan: Ba Zi Gong
These are 8 fighting combinations that exist in some lineages of the art. They emphasize direct combat applicability, and elaborate further on the movements vectors and powers explored and trained with the Five Elements. Sometimes, there exist two variations for the Ba Zi Gong - one for gongfu development, and another for actual fighting usage. There might also exist in a lineage a linking form for all 8 combinations. The eight Ba Zi Gong are: Zhǎn 斩 (Cutting Down/Severing), Jié 截 (Intercepting), Guǒ 裹 (Wrapping), Kuà 挎 (Carrying), Tiāo 挑 (Lifting/Raising), Dǐng 顶 (Pushing Upwards), Lìng 令 (Leading) and Yún 云 (Cloud).
Xingyiquan: Linking forms
Master Di Guoyong of Beijing demonstrating a Zuan Quan application as part of a partner practice form (dui lian). Shot in Beijing, September 2014.
Additionally to the Five Fists and animal shapes, many lineages employ the training of several additional movement forms - from a handful to a few dozen. Some of the more common forms are partner forms, which simulate combat scenarios. Once the individual animal shapes are taught, a student is often taught an animal linking form (shi'er xing lianhuan) which connects all the taught animals together in a sequence. Some styles have longer, or multiple forms for individual animals, such Eight Tiger Forms Huxing bashi. Other forms often link movements from the Five Fists, the different animal shapes, or both, and commonly include additional movements and techniques not found elsewhere. There also exist a Ba Zi Gong linking form and many weapons forms.
Xing Yi Quan emphasizes a close relationship between the movements of armed/unarmed techniques. This technical overlap aims to produce greater learning efficiency.
Traditionally Xing Yi was an armed art. Students would train initially with the spear, progressing to shorter weapons and eventually empty-handed fighting. This gradually changed throughout the 20th century, as the emphasis in most traditional Chinese Martial Arts shifted from the use of weapons to fighting empty-handed. Weapon diversity is great in many lineages, with the idea being that an experienced Xing Yi fighter would be able to pick up almost any weapon available (or an object to use as such) irrespective of its exact length, weight and shape.
Common weapons in the art:
- Spear. This is the most synonymous weapon with the art. Spears are usually 1.8–5 meters in length, though those over 3 meters long are meant solely for increasing training intensity and challenge, and historically people would not commonly fight with spears that large. The Five Fists of Xing Yi have variations which are trained with the spear.
- Chinese Straight sword
- Chinese Sabre
Less common weapons:
- Large Sabre (used by infantry against mounted opponents)
- Long Staff
- Short Staff (at maximum length you could hold between the palms of your hands at each end - techniques with this weapon may have been used with a spear that had been broken)
- Needles (much like a double ended rondel gripped in the centre - on the battlefield this would mostly have been used like its western equivalent to finish a fallen opponent through weak points in the armour)
- Fuyue (halberds of various types)
- Chicken-Sabre Sickle. This weapon was supposedly created by Ji Longfeng and became the special weapon of the style. Its alternate name is "Binding Flower Waist Carry".
Xingyiquan: The Xing Yi Classics
A variety of Important texts have survived throughout the years, often called "Classics", "Songs" or "Theories". These texts use intentionally vague language to describe the principles and methods of practice in LiuHe XinYi Quan, Dai XinYi Quan and Xing Yi Quan. They are less relevant to more modern interpretations of these arts, such as Yi Quan. In the past, these text were copied by hand, and were kept secret.
The following is a list of the most commonly referred-to classical texts:
- Classic of Unification
- Classic of Fighting
- Classic of Stepping
- Classic of Six Harmonies
Much of these texts can be read in English.
Below is a picture of one book containing the classics, which belongs to Li Bo (李博) from Shijiazhuang, a teacher who claims to be a descendant of Li Luoneng, the founder of the art. This book is titled Wu Mu Quan Pu (武穆拳谱）.
Xingyiquan: The three stages of training power (Jin 劲) in Xing Yi
Generally speaking, it is accepted that in Xing Yi (at least in Hebei-derived lineages), there are three stages to a practitioner's development of power and overall skill. These three stages develop and change in parallel to all other training methods, and dictate the quality of one's training methods. The following is a description of these three stages (a translation of classic texts by Devlin G. Horrinek):
- Ming Jin 明劲 ('Clear-to-see Jin') - The strength and form must be strong, precise, and clear. Extend outward with force. When putting out force it must pass through, penetrate, pierce, connect, be pliant, ferocious, round, firm, have a shaking-cutting strength, and deliver explosive force. Practice and drill the hand techniques to develop the external 5-Elements and the elbows to develop the internal 5-Elements. Advancing and retreating with bent legs as if wading through mud (tang ni; refers to the practice and intent of Plow/Mud Stepping) like "walking while plowing through mud". This is the stage of Ming Jin.
- An Jin 暗劲 ('Hidden Jin') - One must have already grasped and have a strong foundation in the Ming Jin stage. Then you can start on the second stage. Now when using strength you contain it and don't reveal it on the outside. Store up (xu) but don't emit (fa). Deliberately store up your Jin. The power to 'fa' emit is held back but not released, to the opponent this feels very powerful and strange and then you can emit. This is called "Treading on thin Ice" [And the feeling is like when walking on an iced-over lake and never knowing when, or if, you're going to break through the ice.]. This is the stage of An Jin.
- Hua Jin 化劲 ('Transforming Jin') - This is considered the highest stage of practice. You must have already grasped the stages of Ming Jin and An Jin and have a very strong foundation in them. You should have a lot of experience in fighting as you must know that this stage is 'Sheji Cong Ren' (same as in Taijiquan). Give up yourself and comply with the opponent. Use 'Zhan, Lian, Nian, and Sui' (sticky, link, adhering, and complying). Everywhere you need to be empty and not exerting strength. The whole body must be blending and smooth (hun yuan - smooth roundness) and not starting and stopping. This is the skill of 'The opponent does not know me, I alone know the opponent.' At any time, place, or moment you can emit (fa), but only emitting force at the precise moment. This is the Hua Jing stage.
Xingyiquan: Famous practitioners of Xing Yi Quan
Since the validity of lineages are often controversial, this list is not intended to represent any lineage. Names are presented in alphabetical order using pinyin romanization.
||Famous disciple of Che Yizhai.
||Reported to have won first place in the Imperial Martial Examinations sometime in the 17th or 18th century. Student of Ji Jike and teacher of the Dai family. From him, the art split into the two lines of Dai XinYi and Liu He Xin Yi Quan.
||Che Yizhai 车毅斋
||First disciple (kaimen) of Li Luoneng.
||Disciple of Li Cunyi. He mastered Xing Yi, Bagua and Taiji.
|Dai Long Bang
||First student of the art from the Dai family. Was taught by Cao Jiwu.
|Fu Chen Sung
||Chief instructor of Bagua Zhang at the Nanjing Central Goushu Institute. Was good friends with Sun Lutang and exchanged martial arts skills with him.
||A famous student of Li Luoneng. A legendary tale reports him as having been incarcerated for killing a man with his Beng Quan, and when confined to a prison cell only being able to practice the Tiger shape movements due to his hands being tied by chains.
||Student of Zhang Zhaodong. Famous Northern practitioner who traveled south to train in Shanxi as well. Great patriot and national hero who defeated a well-known Russian wrestler and strongman in a duel that has since been fictionalized on television and film. Nicknamed Bei Fang Da Xia 北方大侠 (Great Northern Hero). Founder of Han Pai Wushu. Teacher of Ma Jie.
||Student of Zhang Junfeng. Founder of the Tang Shou Tao school in 1960s Taiwan. Teacher of Xu Hongji, Luo Dexiu and Su Dongchen.
||Older brother of Hong Yixiang and Student of Zhang Junfeng. Teacher of Allen Pittman.
||Ji Jike (姬際可)
||The first person to have historically been shown to practice the style that later diverged into Dai XinYi, XinYi LiueHe Quan and Xing Yi Quan. Taught Cao Jiwu.
||Famous disciple of Che Yizhai.
||Li Nengran (李能然)
||Nicknamed "Divine Fist Li"; The founder of modern Xing Yi Quan.
||Li LongFei (李龙飞)
||Author of "The Skill of Xingyiquan". Was the first Chairman of the Chinese Wushu Administration under Communist China. Helped to preserve the art during the Cultural Revolution.
||Li Kui Yuan (李魁元)
||Famous boxer. Disciple of Liu Qilan and Guo Yunshen (1847-1921). Was the owner of an armed protection services company in which many Xing Yi practitioners worked, including some of his own students.
||Founder of the Henan or Muslim branch of XinYi LiuHe Quan.
||Founder of the Shang or "New Style" of the Hebei branch. Was a disciple of Li Cunyi.
||Founder of the Song Family Style - a sub-style of the Shanxi Xing Yi branch.
||Sun Fuquan (孫福全)
||Author of several books on internal arts, also known for developing Sun-style taijiquan and Sun-style Bagua Zhang. Disciple of Guo Yunshen and Li Cunyi.
||Born 1891 in Shanxi,Yuci. ꝉ 1991 in Beijing. Important master of 20th century. Disciple of Wang Fuyuan 王福元.
He also got Dai family style Xin Yi Liu He Quan true legacy through his gong fu brother Peng Tingjun(彭廷隽), who also studied from Dai Kui(戴奎). He taught high skilled disciples as Zhang Baoyang (张宝杨), Li Zhongyin(李忠荫), Pan Zhiyuan(潘志远), He Shouqi(何守岐),Wang Lianyi(son 王连义) etc... His only one living disciple now is Zhang Baoyang (张宝杨).
||Born 1922 in Hebei - 2016. Disciple of Wang Jiwu 王继武 and uncle Zhang Xiangzhai 张祥斋. Also studied Qigong and bone-setting/acupuncture with XYQ brother Hu Yaozhen 胡耀贞. Founder and honorary president of the Beijing Xingyi Research Association. Author of the book "Xing Yi Nei Gong", written with Wang Jinyu. Still has a few highly skilled disciples in Beijing. One of his top disciples Du Fukun teaches small group of disciples in Prague, Czech republic.
||Founded a major school in Taiwan in the 1950s. Later, via the lineage of his student, Hong Yixiang, his branch became one of the most popular lines of Xing Yi in the West. Hong Yimien, one of his most Senior students.
||Zhang Zhankui (張占魁)
||Famous boxer. Disciple of Liu Qilan. Founder of the Xingyi-Bagua-Palm system. Taught many people in the Tianjin area who later became masters in their own right.
Xingyiquan: Lineage chart
The following chart, created by Shifu Jonathan Bluestein and Shifu Nitzan Oren, demonstrates the historical connections between most known lineages of Xing Yi Quan, and related martial arts. The chart is a collaborative project between Mr. Bluestein, who created the bulk of it, and several dozen Xing Yi Quan teachers from the West, who contributed information on their lineages and those of others. The chart project is well known in the Xing Yi Quan community, and the information contained in it has never been disputed (further contributions, suggestions and objections may be made by directly contacting Mr. Bluestein, at: jonathan.bluesteingmail.com). An attempt was made to include as many notable teachers as possible, but due to the obvious constraints of space, not all could have been included. Disciples are marked by a direct, full, downward-flowing line. Regular students are marked with a broken line.
Herein is a list of references to sources specifying various lineages of Xing Yi Quan, supporting the content presented on the chart.
Please note that a few minor details on the chart concerning people who had lived and taught prior to the 20th century are still somewhat controversial. This is due to a lack of profound historical documentation.
One of the more debated questions in this regard is who had been the teacher of Li Luoneng, the founder of modern Xing Yi Quan. It is known that Li studied with the Dai clan, but remains unclear who taught him. Some people and lineages have traditionally claimed that he was taught by master Dai Longbang. However, many others point to the fact that Longbang had died before Luoneng was born, or when Luoneng was quite young. Combined with the fact that Luoneng only arrived at Dai territory as a traveling adult, others argue that it would have been impossible for him to have studied under Longbang, and suggest his teacher was actually Longbang's student, Guo Weihan.
Another historical controversy relates to who had been the teacher of the founder of Yi Quan, late master Wang Xiangzhai (~1886-1963). Most Yi Quan oral traditions have it that Guo Yunshen, a student of the founder of modern Xing Yi (Li Luoneng), had been Wang Xiangzhai's teacher. However, since Wang was not yet alive (or been a young child) by the time of Guo Yunshen's death, others suggest he must have learnt from Guo's other disciples (Li Bao 李豹 is thought to have been his true main teacher). The chart lists Li Bao as Wang's teacher, and Guo Yunshen as an indirect teacher due to the controversy surrounding the matter (until further historical evidence surfaces).
Xingyiquan: Cross influences with other martial arts
During the course of the late 19th century and 20th century, there had been a lot of cross-fertilization between notable masters of Xing Yi, and those of Bagua Zhang and Taiji Quan. This has yielded many mutual influences.
Chen Panling's Taiji Quan (originating from Taiwan) has been influenced by Xing Yi and Bagua.
Shanxi style Xing Yi in the line of Song Shirong has incorporated Bagua's Circle Walking practice, in either a circle, or tight squares or triangles (the latter practice referred to as 'Si Bu Pan Gen' - Four Step Base Encirclement).
Cheng Tinghua, a famous student of Bagua founder Dong Hai Chuan, is said to have taught his Bagua to many Xing Yi masters (including Gao Yisheng, Geng Jishan and Sun Lutang, of whom is written in the paragraphs below).
Gao Yisheng's Gao Style Bagua Zhang has incorporated a lot of material from Xing Yi Quan, and his lineage, known as 'Yi Zong', includes the teaching of both arts.
Sun Lutang, one of the most famous practitioner of Xing Yi in the 20th century, had learnt Cheng style Bagua Zhang and Wu/Hao style Taiji Quan after many decades of practicing Xing Yi. He then later went to develop his own unique forms of Bagua and Taiji, which were heavily influenced by his former experience training in Xing Yi.
Many martial arts lines, notably that of Chen style Taiji Quan from Chen village, have begun to practice the Zhan Zhuang posture known as Hun Yuan Zhuang (or Cheng Bao Zhuang) in recent decades. The origin of that posture in modern times is probably either Xing Yi Quan or Yi Quan, as it is basic in the arts' practices.
Contrary to some modern hypothesis proposed by Karate practitioners, Xing Yi was not "created based on Baji Quan and did not "influence greatly the development of Okinawan Karate". Rather, Okinawan Karate was most heavily influenced by southern-Chinese arts. This is well substantiated in historical Karate literature, such as in the works of Patrick McCarthy sensei.
Xingyiquan: Cultural aspects of Xing Yi
Xingyiquan: Relationship with Chinese culture
Like all traditional Chinese martial arts, Xing Yi too features a strong bond to the military, religious, philosophical and cultural traditions of China.
Xing Yi's weapons are mostly ones which were used on Chinese battlefields throughout the centuries, with the dao and spear being the most prominent members of that group. Many consider the style to have originally been a 'military art' (as opposed to a sport like boxing, or an urban self-defense system like Wing Chun).
Xing Yi's Five Shapes ('Five Elements') are a borrowed concept from Traditional Chinese Medicine (which is turn had borrowed them from Daoism).
The 12 Animal shapes were influenced, in part, by the Chinese zodiac. The Dragon, being the Chinese mythical animal, begets its supposed physical description and attributes from Chinese lore.
Like all Nei Jia arts, Xing Yi is heavily influenced by Daoism. Its combat meditation methods (Zhan Zhuang) existed in similar forms in Daoism before being integrated into martial arts in later centuries. The whole theory behind "using softness to overcome hardness" and similar ideas have their origins in the Dao De Jing. Daoist concepts are readily implemented into actual training in the practice of Xing Yi. This can be discerned in the following paragraph by Sun Lutang: “Before training, there is no thought or intention, no figure or image, no self or others, only Qi exists in the chaos of the body. The state is called WuJi in Xing Yi. Without knowing the principle of “inverse motion,” people always rigidly adhered to the principle of the “direct motion nature.” Hence the internal Qi is restrained and things cannot be properly realized due to an obscure mind that causes the body to be weak. They do not know the principle of health that extreme Yang leads to Yin and extreme Yin leads to death. However, sages can be versed in the way of inverse motion, and control the relation between Yin and Yang, manage the principal of creation, direct Liang Yi (another name for Yin and Yang), grasp the key points, and go back to the pre-natal from the post-natal realm to settle at the original position as the body becomes an integral unit. Its way is nothing more than the principle of stretching and contracting as in post-natal Wu Xing and Bagua boxing. This is called the generation of Qi from WuJi.”
Xingyiquan: Popular culture appearances in modern times
Xing Yi Quan has been featured in various media through the years.
In the Dead or Alive series of video games, Gen Fu and Eliot employ the style while in the Tekken series, Wang Jinrei uses Xing Yi Quan, while Michelle Chang and her daughter, Julia Chang, use Xing Yi mixed with wrestling and other Chinese martial arts. In the Mortal Kombat series, Shao Kahn employs Xing Yi Quan as well as Tai Tsu Chang Quan.
Jet Li performed a Modern Wushu adaptation of Xing Yi in the action movie The One (seen used by the hero's evil alternate dimensional self in a multiverse).
In the manga series Negima!, the title character studies Xing Yi as part of his Chinese martial arts training. Xing Yi, as well as XinYi LiuHe Quan, are also featured in another manga series called Kenji.
Xingyiquan: See also
- Bagua Zhang
- "Blogger". Daixinyi.blogspot.se. Retrieved 2016-04-22.
- Sun Lu Tang (2000). Xing Yi Quan Xue. Unique Publications. p. 3. ISBN 0-86568-185-6.
- The name is pronounced 'Sheeng E Chwen?' in English (the word Quan has a tone that sounds like one is asking a question)
- Shao Xiaoyi. "Yue Fei's facelift sparks debate" (in Chinese). China Daily. Archived from the original on 2007-09-29. Retrieved 2007-08-09.
- "InYo: hsingi training: Kennedy". Ejmas.com. Retrieved 2016-04-22.
- Pei, Xirong and Li, Yang’an. Henan Orthodox Xingyi Quan. Trans. Joseph Candrall. Pinole: Smiling Tiger Press, 1994.
- "中国武术协会". Wushu.sport.org.cn. 2004-09-02. Retrieved 2016-04-22.
- Yang,, Jwing-Ming & Liang Shou-Yu (2003). Xingyiquan : Theory, Applications, Fighting Tactics and Spirit. YMAA Pubn. ISBN 0-940871-41-6.
- Kennedy, Brian; Elizabeth Guo (2005). Chinese Martial Arts Training Manuals: A Historical Survey. Berkeley, California: North Atlantic Books. ISBN 1-55643-557-6.
- Miller, Dan; Tim Cartmell (1999). Xing Yi Nei Gong. Burbank, California: Unique Publications. ISBN 0-86568-174-0.
- Jarek Szymanski. "Dai Family Xinyiquan - The Origins and Development". China From Inside. Retrieved 2007-08-09.
- Toktoghan (脫脫). Song Shi-Yue Fei Zhuan (宋史•岳飞传 – "History of the Song: Yue Fei Biography") (Volume 365), 1345. A rewritten version of Yue Ke's memoir. (See also, 岳飞子云 (in Chinese). Retrieved 2007-07-17.)
- Kaplan, Edward Harold. Yueh Fei and the founding of the Southern Sung. Thesis (Ph. D.) -- University of Iowa, 1970. Ann Arbor: University Microfilms International, 1970., pg. 10.
- Yue, Ke (岳柯). Jin Tuo Xu Pian (金佗续编), 1234 - Chapter 28, pg. 16.
- Kaplan: pg. 13.
- "Be not Defeated by the Rain: Xinyi Quan 心意拳 and Xingyi Quan 形意拳". Benotdefeatedbytherain.blogspot.co.il. Retrieved 2016-04-22.
- Some historians believe Ma Xueli was taught by Ji Longfeng himself. However, the traditions of the Ma family itself say only that Xueli learned from a wandering master whose name is unknown.
- Ma Xueli was of the Chinese Muslim Hui minority, and to this day, most of the practitioners of this art are of that minority
- The Preface identifies Cao Ji Wu as a student of Ji Longfeng and the master who taught Xing Yi Quan to Dai Long Bang. However, other sources identify Dai's teacher variously as Li Zheng or Niu Xixian.
- "Li Laonong". Smilingtiger.net. Retrieved 2016-04-22.
- "Cook Ding's Kitchen: The History of Xingyiquan and Yiquan". Cookdingskitchen.blogspot.co.il. Retrieved 2016-04-22.
- Rovere, Dennis (2008). The Xingyi Quan of the Chinese Army: Huang Bo Nien's Xingyi Fist and Weapon Instruction. Berkeley, California: Blue Snake Books. ISBN 978-1-58394-257-4.
- "Yizong school 易宗八卦門 Luo Dexiu - Nei Jia Quan - Bagua, Hsing Yi, Tai Chi, Chi Gong, Internal Martial Arts". Yizong.org. Retrieved 2016-04-22.
- "Resume". Essenceofevolution.com. Retrieved 2016-04-22.
- Super User. "Xing Yi - Master Yang's Internal Training System". Internalstyle.com. Retrieved 2016-04-22.
- "Shang Wu Zhai שאנג וו ג'אי - ביס לאמנויות לחימה". Shang Wu Zhai שאנג וו ג'אי - ביס לאמנויות לחימה.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on October 16, 2008. Retrieved May 21, 2013.
- Andrzej Kalisz. "Yiquan Academy International Network". Yiquan.info. Retrieved 2016-04-22.
- Frantzis, Bruce Kumar (1998). The Power of Internal Martial Arts. Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic Books. ISBN 1-55643-253-4.
- Sun Lu Tang (tran, Albert Liu) (2000). Xing Yi Quan Xue: The Study of Form-Mind Boxing. Unique Publications. ISBN 0-86568-185-6.
- "ChinaFromInside.com presents... XINYI & XINGYI - Xinyi Liuhe Quan". Chinafrominside.com. Retrieved 2016-04-22.
- "ChinaFromInside.com presents... XINYI & XINGYI -Dai Family Xinyiquan - The Origins and Development". Chinafrominside.com. Retrieved 2016-04-22.
- "Fundamental Moving Patterns of Xingyiquan". Ymaa.com. Retrieved 2016-04-22.
- Video with explanation of stance
- "Pangen". Smilingtiger.net. Retrieved 2016-04-22.
- "ChinaFromInside.com presents... XINYI & XINGYI - Five Elements Essentials of Yue's Intention Boxing". Chinafrominside.com. Retrieved 2016-04-22.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on March 19, 2014. Retrieved April 3, 2014.
- "chiflow Nei Jia Kungfu Taiji, Xingyquan, Baguazhang Qigung and Liangong". Chiflow.com. Retrieved 2016-04-22.
- "Eaglbear". Smilingtiger.net. Retrieved 2016-04-22.
- "Snake". Smilingtiger.net. Retrieved 2016-04-22.
- "Tiger". Smilingtiger.net. Retrieved 2016-04-22.
- "Dragon". Smilingtiger.net. Retrieved 2016-04-22.
- "Chicken". Smilingtiger.net. Retrieved 2016-04-22.
- "Horse". Smilingtiger.net. Retrieved 2016-04-22.
- "Swallow". Smilingtiger.net. Retrieved 2016-04-22.
- "Hawk". Smilingtiger.net. Retrieved 2016-04-22.
- "Monkey". Smilingtiger.net. Retrieved 2016-04-22.
- "Alligator". Smilingtiger.net. Retrieved 2016-04-22.
- "Taibird". Smilingtiger.net. Retrieved 2016-04-22.
- Liu Xiaoling. "Xingyi Quan Ba Zi Gong : Xingyi Quan Eight Characters Skills" (PDF). Smilingtiger.net. Retrieved 2016-04-22.
- "Xingyiquan 形意拳 - International Wudang Internal Martial Arts Academy". Wudangdanpai.com. Retrieved 2016-04-22.
- Yang,, Jwing-Ming (1999). Ancient Chinese Weapons: A Martial Artist’s Guide. Boston, MA: YMAA. ISBN 1-886969-67-1.
- Joseph Crandall. "Xingyi". Smilingtiger.net. Retrieved 2016-04-22.
- "ChinaFromInside.com presents... XINYI & XINGYI - BAGUAZHANG - Interview with Mr. Di Guoyong (Part 2)". Chinafrominside.com. Retrieved 2016-04-22.
- "HuangST". Smilingtiger.net. Retrieved 2016-04-22.
- "É½Î÷Áùºïðäòâè". Liuhexinyi.com. Retrieved 2016-04-18.
- "百度--您的访问出错了". Hi.baidu.com. Retrieved 2016-04-22.
- Sun Lu Tang (2000). Xing Yi Quan Xue. Unique Publications. p. 12. ISBN 0-86568-185-6.
- "Xing Yi Info". Plumpub.com. Retrieved 2016-04-22.
- "About Li Gui Chang & Song Zhi Yong - Internal Arts International". Internal Arts International.
- "Xingyi (Twelve Animals) class description at the Aiping TaiChi & Qigong Center, Orange, CT". Aiping-taichi.com. Retrieved 2016-04-22.
- "Master Di Guoyong :: Master Scrima's Instructors :: Master Nick Scrima's Traditional Chinese Martial Arts Center". Clearwaterkungfu.com. Retrieved 2016-04-22.
- "The Lineage of Yin Cheng Gong Fa". Ycgf.org. Retrieved 2016-04-22.
- "Lineage" (PNG). Internalarts.weebly.com. Retrieved 2016-04-22.
- "Xingyi Lineage" (JPG). Watertradition.net. Retrieved 2016-04-22.
- "Toronto Tai Chi & Meditation Centre". Torontotaichimeditationcentre.com. Retrieved 2016-04-22.
- The Xingyi Boxing Manual: Hebei Style's Five Principles and Seven Words, p. 8, at Google Books
- "Lineage Hsing Yi Chuan". Chinahand.com. Retrieved 2016-04-22.
- "Welcome to Little Nine Heaven UK Kung Fu School - Masters Lineage". Littlenineheavenuk.com. Retrieved 2016-04-22.
- "chiflow teacher charts". Chiflow.com. Retrieved 2016-04-22.
- "International Wu Tao Federation - The New Zealand Wu Tao Federation welcomes you!". Tai-chi.co.nz. Retrieved 2016-04-22.
- Chen Maxi; Jarek Szymanski. "Xinyi Quan Master Li Zunsi of Shanghai" (PDF). Smilingtiger.net. Retrieved 2016-04-22.
- "ChinaFromInside.com presents... XINYIQUAN & XINGYIQUAN - Guo Weihan's Xinyiquan". Chinafrominside.com. Retrieved 2016-04-22.
- "Xingyi’s Pangen walking". Masters of the IMA.
- "Cheng Ting Hua, Baguazhang Master". Bagua.freehostia.com. Retrieved 2016-04-22.
- "Lives of Chinese Martial Artists (4): Sun Lutang and the Invention of the "Traditional" Chinese Martial Arts (Part I).". Kung Fu Tea.
- "An open letter of reply concerning a thorough article on the history of Karate". Facebook.com. Retrieved 2016-04-22.
- "International Ryukyu Karate Research Society/琉球唐手術国際研究會: Siamese Boxing - The original source of Okinawa-te [Ti'gwa/手小]?". Irkrs.blogspot.com.au. Retrieved 2016-04-22.
- Sun Lu Tang (tran, Albert Liu) (2000). Xing Yi Quan Xue: The Study of Form-Mind Boxing. Unique Publications. p. 68. ISBN 0-86568-185-6.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on November 5, 2013. Retrieved November 5, 2013.
Xingyiquan: Further reading
- Li Tian-Ji (tran, Andrea Falk) (2000). The Skill of Xingyiquan. TGL Books. ISBN 0-9687517-1-7.
- Xing Yi Lianhuan Quan, Li Cun Yi (Translated by Joseph Crandall)
- Damon Smith (2004). Xing Yi Bear Eagle. Jeremy Mills Publishing. ISBN 0-9546484-4-7.
- Smith, Robert W. (1974). HSING-I Chinese Mind-Body Boxing. Kodansha International Ltd. ISBN 0-87011-230-9.
- Robert Smith & Allan Pittman (1990). Hsing-I: Chinese Internal Boxing. Tuttle Publishing. ISBN 0-8048-1617-4.
- Smith, Robert W. (1999). Martial Musings (See chapter on Rose Li). Via Media. ISBN 1-893765-00-8.
- Sun Lu Tang (tran, Albert Liu) (2000). Xing Yi Quan Xue: The Study of Form-Mind Boxing. Unique Publications. ISBN 0-86568-185-6. (Translated)
- Jin Yunting (tran. John Groschwitz) (2003). The Xingyi Boxing Manual. Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic Books. ISBN 1-55643-473-1.
- Jonathan Bluestein (2014). Research of Martial Arts. Amazon CreateSpace. ISBN 978-1499122510.
Xingyiquan: External links
- A translation of chapters from Li Zhongxuan's book on Xing Yi Quan practice and history
- Xinyi Liuhe Quan - the secret art of Chinese Muslims: Part One - Brief History
العربية شن يين تشوان ▪ Asturianu Xingyiquan ▪ বাংলা চিং ইয়ি চুয়ান ▪ Čeština Sing i čchüan ▪ Deutsch Xingyiquan ▪ Français Xingyi quan ▪ 한국어 형의권 ▪ Hrvatski Xing Yi Quan ▪ Bahasa Indonesia Xingyiquan ▪ Italiano Xingyiquan ▪ עברית שינג אי צ'ואן ▪ Basa Jawa Xingyiquan ▪ Magyar Hszingjicsüan ▪ Nederlands Xing Yi Quan ▪ 日本語 形意拳 ▪ Polski Xingyiquan ▪ Português Hsing-i chuan ▪ Română Xingyiquan ▪ Русский Синъицюань ▪ Suomi Xing yi quan ▪ Svenska Xingyiquan ▪ ไทย สิงอี้เฉวียน ▪ Tiếng Việt Hình ý quyền (võ Thiếu Lâm) ▪ 文言 形意拳 ▪ 中文 形意拳 ▪
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Today the goods named "Xingyiquan" in Vermont can be delivered to Burlington, South Burlington, Rutland, Barre, Montpelier, Winooski, St. Albans, Newport, Vergennes.
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And today any things related with "Xingyiquan" in Washington can be received in such cities as Seattle, Spokane, Tacoma, Vancouver, Bellevue, Kent, Everett, Renton, Federal Way, Yakima, Spokane Valley, Kirkland, Bellingham, Kennewick, Auburn, Pasco, Marysville, Lakewood, Redmond, Shoreline, Richland, Sammamish, Burien, Olympia, Lacey. The delivery is also available in Edmonds, Puyallup, Bremerton, Lynnwood, Bothell, Longview, Issaquah, Wenatchee, Mount Vernon, University Place, Walla Walla, Pullman, Des Moines, Lake Stevens, SeaTac, Maple Valley, Mercer Island, Bainbridge Island, Oak Harbor, Kenmore, Moses Lake, Camas, Mukilteo, Mountlake Terrace, Tukwila, etc.
Naturally, the products related to the term "Xingyiquan" in West Virginia can be delivered to Charleston, Huntington, Morgantown, Parkersburg, Wheeling, Weirton, Fairmont, Martinsburg, Beckley, Clarksburg, South Charleston, St. Albans, Vienna, Bluefield...
No doubt, any things related with "Xingyiquan" in Wisconsin can be delivered to Milwaukee, Madison, Green Bay, Kenosha, Racine, Appleton, Waukesha, Oshkosh, Eau Claire, Janesville, West Allis, La Crosse, Sheboygan, Wauwatosa, Fond du Lac, New Berlin, Wausau. And other cities and towns, such as Brookfield, Beloit, Greenfield, Franklin, Oak Creek, Manitowoc, West Bend, Sun Prairie, Superior, Stevens Point, Neenah, Fitchburg, Muskego, Watertown, De Pere, Mequon, South Milwaukee, Marshfield, and so on.
Usually, the goods named "Xingyiquan" in Wyoming can be purchased if you live in Cheyenne, Casper, Laramie, Gillette, Rock Springs, Sheridan, Green River, Evanston, Riverton, Jackson, Cody, Rawlins, Lander, Torrington, Powell, Douglas, Worland, and so on.
Canada Delivery, Shipping to Canada
And of course, any things related with "Xingyiquan" in Canada can be received in Toronto, Montreal, Calgary, Ottawa, Edmonton, Mississauga, Winnipeg, Vancouver, Brampton, Hamilton, Quebec City, Surrey, Laval, Halifax, London, Markham, Vaughan, Gatineau, Longueuil, Burnaby, Saskatoon, Kitchener, Windsor, Regina, Richmond, Richmond Hill.
Delivery is also carried out in Oakville, Burlington, Greater Sudbury, Sherbrooke, Oshawa, Saguenay, Lévis, Barrie, Abbotsford, St. Catharines, Trois-Rivières, Cambridge, Coquitlam, Kingston, Whitby, Guelph, Kelowna, Saanich, Ajax, Thunder Bay, Terrebonne, St. John's, Langley, Chatham-Kent, Delta.
And, of course, Waterloo, Cape Breton, Brantford, Strathcona County, Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Red Deer, Pickering, Kamloops, Clarington, North Vancouver, Milton, Nanaimo, Lethbridge, Niagara Falls, Repentigny, Victoria, Newmarket, Brossard, Peterborough, Chilliwack, Maple Ridge, Sault Ste. Marie, Kawartha Lakes, Sarnia, Prince George.
The shipping is also available in Drummondville, Saint John, Moncton, Saint-Jérôme, New Westminster, Wood Buffalo, Granby, Norfolk County, St. Albert, Medicine Hat, Caledon, Halton Hills, Port Coquitlam, Fredericton, Grande Prairie, North Bay, Blainville, Saint-Hyacinthe, Aurora, Welland, Shawinigan, Dollard-des-Ormeaux, Belleville, North Vancouver, etc.
Actually, the products by request "Xingyiquan" can be shipped to any place in Canada, including Ontario, Quebec, British Columbia, Alberta, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, and Prince Edward Island.
UK Delivery, Shipping to the United Kingdom
As always, the found goods by query "Xingyiquan" in the United Kingdom can be purchased if you live in London, Birmingham, Leeds, Glasgow, Sheffield, Bradford, Edinburgh, Liverpool, Manchester, Bristol, Wakefield, Cardiff, Coventry, Nottingham, Leicester, Sunderland, Belfast, Newcastle upon Tyne, Brighton, Hull, Plymouth, Stoke-on-Trent.
It's also available for those who live in Wolverhampton, Derby, Swansea, Southampton, Salford, Aberdeen, Westminster, Portsmouth, York, Peterborough, Dundee, Lancaster, Oxford, Newport, Preston, St Albans, Norwich, Chester, Cambridge, Salisbury, Exeter, Gloucester. And also in Lisburn, Chichester, Winchester, Londonderry, Carlisle, Worcester, Bath, Durham, Lincoln, Hereford, Armagh, Inverness, Stirling, Canterbury, Lichfield, Newry, Ripon, Bangor, Truro, Ely, Wells, St. Davids, and so on.
Generally, the goods related with "Xingyiquan" can be shipped to any place in the UK, including England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland.
Ireland Delivery, Shipping to Ireland
It goes without saying that any products related with "Xingyiquan" in Ireland can be shipped to Dublin, Cork, Limerick, Galway, Waterford, Drogheda, Dundalk, Swords, Bray, Navan, Ennis, Kilkenny, Tralee, Carlow, Newbridge, Naas, Athlone, Portlaoise, Mullingar, Wexford, Balbriggan, Letterkenny, Celbridge, Sligo. Delivery is also carried out in Clonmel, Greystones, Malahide, Leixlip, Carrigaline, Tullamore, Killarney, Arklow, Maynooth, Cobh, Castlebar, Midleton, Mallow, Ashbourne, Ballina, Laytown-Bettystown-Mornington, Enniscorthy, Wicklow, Tramore, Cavan, and so on.
Generally, the goods related with "Xingyiquan" can be shipped to any place in Ireland, including Leinster, Ulster, Munster, and Connacht.
Australia Delivery, Shipping to Australia
And of course, the products by request "Xingyiquan" in Australia can be purchased if you live in Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth, Adelaide, Gold Coast, Tweed Heads, Newcastle, Maitland, Canberra, Queanbeyan, Sunshine Coast, Wollongong, Hobart, Geelong, Townsville, Cairns, Darwin, Toowoomba, Ballarat, Bendigo, Albury, Wodonga, Launceston, Mackay.
The shipping is also available in Rockhampton, Bunbury, Bundaberg, Coffs Harbour, Wagga Wagga, Hervey Bay, Mildura, Wentworth, Shepparton, Mooroopna, Gladstone, Tannum Sands, Port Macquarie, Tamworth, Traralgon, Morwell, Orange, Geraldton, Bowral, Mittagong, Dubbo, Busselton, Bathurst, Nowra, Bomaderry, Warrnambool, Albany, Warragul, Drouin, Kalgoorlie, Boulder, Devonport.
In other words, any things related with "Xingyiquan" can be shipped to any place in Australia, including New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, Western Australia, South Australia, Tasmania, Australian Capital Territory, and Northern Territory.
New Zealand Delivery, Shipping to New Zealand
As usual, the goods by your query "Xingyiquan" in New Zealand can be delivered to Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch, Hamilton, Tauranga, Napier-Hastings, Dunedin, Lower Hutt, Palmerston North, Nelson, Rotorua, New Plymouth, Whangarei, Invercargill, Whanganui, Gisborne, Porirua, Invercargill, Nelson, Upper Hutt, Gisborne, Blenheim, Pukekohe, Timaru, Taupo, and so on.
Actually, any things related with "Xingyiquan" can be shipped to any place in New Zealand, including North Island, South Island, Waiheke Island, and smaller islands.
Usually,any things related withcan be received inThe shipping is also available in.
Abkhazia: Gagra, Gudauta, Lake Ritsa, New Athos, Ochamchire, Pitsunda, Sukhumi, Tsandryphsh, etc.
Afghanistan: Herat, Jalalabad, Kabul, Kandahar, Kunduz, Mazar-i-Sharif, Taloqan, etc.
Albania: Berat, Butrint, Dhërmi, Durrës, Gjirokastër, Himarë, Korçë, Pogradec, Qeparo, Sarandë, Shkodër, Tirana, Velipojë, Vlorë, etc.
Algeria: Algiers, Oran, etc.
American Virgin Islands: Charlotte Amalie, etc.
Andorra: Andorra la Vella, Arinsal, El Pas de la Casa, Encamp, Grandvalira, Ordino, Pal, Soldeu, Vallnord, etc.
Angola: Benguela, Luanda, etc.
Anguilla: The Valley, West End, etc.
Antigua and Barbuda: Saint John’s, etc.
Argentina: Buenos Aires, Colón, Córdoba, El Calafate, La Plata, Los Glaciares, Mar del Plata, Mendoza, Pinamar, Puerto Iguazú, Puerto Madryn, Rosario, Salta, San Carlos de Bariloche, San Martín de los Andes, San Miguel de Tucumán, San Rafael, Tandil, Tierra del Fuego, Ushuaia, Villa Carlos Paz, Villa Gesell, Villa La Angostura, Villa de Merlo, etc.
Armenia: Dilijan, Etchmiadzin, Goris, Gyumri, Jermuk, Sevan, Stepanavan, Tsaghkadzor, Vagharshapat, Vanadzor, Yeghegnadzor, Yerevan, etc.
Aruba: Oranjestad, etc.
Australia: Adelaide, Brisbane, Byron Bay, Cairns, Canberra, Darwin, Gold Coast, Great Barrier Reef, Hobart, Melbourne, Perth, Sydney, Tasmania, etc.
Austria: Abtenau, Alpbach, Austrian Alps, Bad Gastein, Bad Hofgastein, Bad Kleinkirchheim, Dürnstein, Flachau, Fugen, Graz, Innsbruck, Ischgl, Kaprun, Kitzbühel, Klagenfurt, Kufstein, Lech, Leogang, Lienz, Linz, Maria Alm, Mayrhofen, Neustift im Stubaital, Obergurgl, Saalbach-Hinterglemm, Saalfelden, Salzburg, Schladming, Seefeld, Serfaus, St. Anton, St. Johann im Pongau, Sölden, Tux, Tyrol, Vienna, Villach, Wachau, Wagrain, Zell am See, etc.
Azerbaijan: Baku, Ganja, Lankaran, Quba, Qusar, Shahdag, Sheki, Stepanakert, etc.
Bahamas: Andros, Eleuthera, Exuma, Freeport, Grand Bahama, Nassau, New Providence, Paradise Island, etc.
Bahrain: Manama, etc.
Bangladesh: Chittagong, Cox's Bazar, Dhaka, Khulna, Narayanganj, Rajshahi, Sylhet, etc.
Barbados: Bridgetown, etc.
Belarus: Babruysk, Białowieża Forest, Brest Belarus, Gomel, Grodno, Lahoysk, Maladzyechna, Minsk, Mogilev, Nesvizh, Pinsk, Silichi, Vitebsk, etc.
Belgium: Antwerp, Ardennes, Blankenberge, Bouillon, Bruges, Brussels, Charleroi, De Haan, De Panne, Durbuy, Flanders, Ghent, Hasselt, Kortrijk, Leuven, Liège, Namur, Nieuwpoort, Ostend, Spa, Ypres, Zeebrugge, etc.
Belize: Ambergris Caye, Belize City, Caye Caulker, Placencia, San Pedro, etc.
Benin: Cotonou, etc.
Bermuda: Hamilton, etc.
Bhutan: Paro, Thimphu, etc.
Bolivia: Cochabamba, El Alto, La Paz, Oruro, Quillacollo, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Sucre, Uyuni, etc.
Bosnia and Herzegovina: Banja Luka, Bihać, Jahorina, Medjugorje, Mostar, Neum, Sarajevo, Travnik, Trebinje, etc.
Botswana: Gaborone, Maun, etc.
Brazil: Amazon River, Amazonia, Angra dos Reis, Arraial do Cabo, Atlantic Forest, Balneário Camboriú, Belo Horizonte, Belém, Bombinhas, Brasília, Búzios, Cabo Frio, Camaçari, Campinas, Campos do Jordão, Caraguatatuba, Copacabana, Costa do Sauípe, Curitiba, Duque de Caxias, Fernando de Noronha, Florianópolis, Fortaleza, Foz do Iguaçu, Goiânia, Gramado, Guarujá, Guarulhos, Iguazu Falls, Ilha Grande, Ilhabela, Ilhéus, Ipanema, Itacaré, Maceió, Manaus, Morro de São Paulo, Natal, Niterói, Osasco, Ouro Preto, Paraty, Petrópolis, Porto Alegre, Porto Seguro, Praia do Forte, Recife, Ribeirão Preto, Rio de Janeiro, Salvador, Santos, São Gonçalo, São José dos Campos, São Luís, São Paulo, São Sebastião, Trancoso, Ubatuba, Vila do Abraão, etc.
British Virgin Islands: Tortola, etc.
Brunei: Bandar Seri Begawan, etc.
Bulgaria: Albena, Balchik, Bansko, Blagoevgrad, Borovets, Burgas, Chernomorets, Dobrinishte, Golden Sands, Kiten, Koprivshtitsa, Lozenets, Nesebar, Obzor, Pamporovo, Pirin, Pleven, Plovdiv, Pomorie, Primorsko, Ravda, Razlog, Rila, Ruse, Samokov, Sandanski, Shumen, Sofia, Sozopol, Stara Zagora, Sunny Beach, Sveti Vlas, Tsarevo, Varna, Veliko Tarnovo, etc.
Burkina Faso: Bobo-Dioulasso, Ouagadougou, etc.
Burundi: Bujumbura, etc.
Cambodia: Angkor, Battambang, Kampot, Kep, Phnom Penh, Siem Reap, Sihanoukville, etc.
Cameroon: Bafoussam, Bamenda, Douala, Garoua, Kribi, Limbe, Maroua, Yaoundé, etc.
Canada: Alberta, Banff, Brampton, British Columbia, Burnaby, Calgary, Charlottetown, Edmonton, Fort McMurray, Gatineau, Halifax, Hamilton, Jasper, Kamloops, Kelowna, Kingston, Kitchener, Laval, London, Longueuil, Manitoba, Markham, Mississauga, Moncton, Mont-Tremblant, Montreal, Nanaimo, New Brunswick, Niagara Falls, Niagara on the Lake, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Ottawa, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Regina, Richmond, Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Surrey, Toronto, Vancouver, Vaughan, Victoria, Whistler, Whitehorse, Windsor, Winnipeg, Yukon, etc.
Cape Verde: Boa Vista Cape Verde, Sal, etc.
Caribbean Netherlands:, etc.
Cayman Islands: George Town, Grand Cayman, West Bay, etc.
Chad: N'Djamena, etc.
Chile: Antofagasta, Arica, Atacama, Coquimbo, Easter Island, Hanga Roa, Iquique, La Serena, Patagonia, Pucón, Puerto Montt, Puerto Natales, Puerto Varas, Punta Arenas, San Pedro de Atacama, Santiago, Torres del Paine, Valdivia, Valparaíso, Villarrica, Viña del Mar, etc.
China: Anshun, Baishan, Baoding, Baoshan, Baotou, Beijing, Binzhou, Changchun, Changsha, Changzhi, Chengdu, Chongqing, Dali, Dalian, Datong, Dengfeng, Diqing, Dongguan, Emeishan, Foshan, Great Wall of China, Guangdong, Guangzhou, Guilin, Guiyang, Hainan, Hangzhou, Harbin, Honghe, Huashan, Huizhou, Jiangmen, Jiangxi, Jiaxing, Jilin, Jinan, Jincheng, Jingdezhen, Jinzhong, Jiujiang, Jiuzhaigou, Kunming, Langfang, Lanzhou, Laoshan, Leshan, Lhasa, Lianyungang, Lijiang, Linfen, Linyi, Luoyang, Lushan, Lüliang, Mianyang, Nanchang, Nanchong, Nanjing, Nantong, Ngawa, Ningbo, Qiandongnan, Qingdao, Qingyuan, Qinhuangdao, Qufu, Qujing, Rizhao, Sanya, Shanghai, Shangri-La, Shantou, Shanxi, Shaoguan, Shaolin, Shaoxing, Shenyang, Shenzhen, Shigatse, Shijiazhuang, Sichuan, Suzhou, Tai'an, Taiyuan, Taizhou Jiangsu, Tangshan, Tianjin, Tibet, Weifang, Weihai, Wuhan, Wulingyuan, Wutai, Wuxi, Xi'an, Xiamen, Xinzhou, Xishuangbanna, Ya'an, Yanbian, Yangtze, Yangzhou, Yantai, Yellow River, Yibin, Yinchuan, Yiwu, Yuncheng, Yunnan, Zhangjiajie, Zhanjiang, Zhejiang, Zhengzhou, Zhongshan, Zhongwei, Zhoushan, Zhuhai, Zunyi, etc.
Colombia: Barranquilla, Bogotá, Bucaramanga, Cali, Cartagena, Medellín, Pereira, San Andrés, Santa Marta, Villa de Leyva, Villavicencio, etc.
Comoros: Moroni, etc.
Costa Rica: Alajuela, Jacó, La Fortuna, Manuel Antonio, Monteverde, Puerto Viejo de Talamanca, Puntarenas, Quepos, San José, Santa Teresa, Tamarindo, Tortuguero, etc.
Croatia: Baška Voda, Baška, Bibinje, Biograd na Moru, Bol, Brač, Brela, Cavtat, Cres, Dalmatia, Fažana, Hvar, Istria, Ičići, Korčula, Krk, Lopud, Lovran, Lošinj, Makarska, Mali Lošinj, Malinska, Medulin, Mlini, Nin, Novi Vinodolski, Novigrad, Omiš, Opatija, Orebić, Pag, Podstrana, Poreč, Pula, Rab, Rabac, Rijeka, Rovinj, Split, Stari Grad, Sukošan, Supetar, Trogir, Tučepi, Umag, Vrsar, Zadar, Zagreb, Čiovo, Šibenik, etc.
Cuba: Baracoa, Camagüey, Cayo Coco, Cayo Largo, Cayo Santa María, Cienfuegos, Guantánamo, Havana, Holguín, Pinar del Río, Remedios Cuba, Sancti Spíritus, Santa Clara Cuba, Santiago de Cuba, Trinidad, Varadero, Viñales, etc.
Curaçao: Sint Michiel, Westpunt, Willemstad, etc.
Cyprus: Ayia Napa, Coral Bay Cyprus, Famagusta, Kouklia, Kyrenia, Larnaca, Limassol, Nicosia, Paphos, Paralimni, Peyia, Pissouri, Polis, Protaras, etc.
Czech Republic: Bohemia, Brno, Děčín, Frymburk, Frýdek-Místek, Harrachov, Hradec Králové, Jihlava, Karlovy Vary, Kladno, Krkonoše, Kutná Hora, Liberec, Marienbad, Mikulov, Mladá Boleslav, Mělník, Olomouc, Ostrava, Pardubice, Plzeň, Poděbrady, Prague, Teplice, Třeboň, Zlín, Znojmo, Ústí nad Labem, České Budějovice, Český Krumlov, Špindlerův Mlýn, etc.
Democratic Republic of the Congo: Kinshasa, etc.
Denmark: Aalborg, Aarhus, Billund, Copenhagen, Ebeltoft, Esbjerg, Frederikshavn, Greenland, Helsingør, Herning, Hirtshals, Hjørring, Holstebro, Jutland, Odense, Silkeborg, Skagen, Skive, Sønderborg, Vejle, Viborg, etc.
Djibouti: Djibouti City, etc.
Dominican Republic: Boca Chica, Bávaro, Cabarete, La Romana, Las Terrenas, Puerto Plata, Punta Cana, Santiago de los Caballeros, Santo Domingo, Sosúa, etc.
East Timor: Dili, etc.
Ecuador: Baños, Cuenca, Galápagos Islands, Guayaquil, Manta, Otavalo, Puerto Ayora, Puerto López, Quito, Salinas, etc.
Egypt: Abu Simbel, Al Qusair, Alexandria, Aswan, Cairo, Dahab, El Alamein, El Gouna, El Hadaba, Faiyum, Giza, Hurghada, Luxor, Marsa Alam, Mersa Matruh, Naama Bay, Nabq Bay, Nile, Nuweiba, Port Said, Red Sea, Safaga, Sahl Hasheesh, Scharm asch-Schaich, Sharks Bay, Sinai, Suez, Taba, Valley of the Kings, etc.
El Salvador: La Libertad, San Salvador, etc.
Equatorial Guinea: Malabo, etc.
Eritrea: Asmara, etc.
Estonia: Haapsalu, Kuressaare, Narva, Pärnu, Saaremaa, Tallinn, Tartu, etc.
Ethiopia: Addis Ababa, Bahir Dar, Gondar, etc.
Falkland Islands: Stanley, etc.
Faroe Islands: Sørvágur, Tórshavn, etc.
Fiji: Nadi, Suva, Viti Levu Island, etc.
Finland: Espoo, Helsinki, Imatra, Joensuu, Jyväskylä, Jämsä, Kotka, Kuopio, Kuusamo, Lahti, Lapland, Lappeenranta, Levi, Mariehamn, Mikkeli, Moomin World, Naantali, Nilsiä, Oulu, Pori, Porvoo, Pyhätunturi, Rovaniemi, Rukatunturi, Saariselkä, Saimaa, Tampere, Turku, Vaasa, Vantaa, Vuokatti, Åland Islands, etc.
France: Aix-en-Provence, Ajaccio, Alsace, Annecy, Antibes, Aquitaine, Arles, Avignon, Avoriaz, Bayonne, Beaune, Besançon, Biarritz, Bonifacio, Bordeaux, Briançon, Brittany, Burgundy, Cabourg, Cagnes-sur-Mer, Calais, Calvi, Canet-en-Roussillon, Cannes, Carcassonne, Cassis, Chambéry, Chamonix, Colmar, Corsica, Courchevel, Deauville, Dijon, Dunkirk, French Alps, French Riviera, Fréjus, Grenoble, Honfleur, La Ciotat, La Plagne, La Rochelle, Le Grau-du-Roi, Le Havre, Les Arcs, Les Gets, Les Menuires, Lille, Limoges, Lourdes, Lyon, Mandelieu-la-Napoule, Marseille, Megève, Menton, Montpellier, Morzine, Méribel, Nantes, Narbonne, Nice, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, Normandy, Nîmes, Paradiski, Paris, Pas-de-Calais, Perpignan, Portes du Soleil, Porto-Vecchio, Provence, Périgueux, Reims, Rhône-Alpes, Rouen, Saint-Gervais-les-Bains, Saint-Malo, Saint-Martin-de-Belleville, Saint-Rémy-de-Provence, Saint-Tropez, Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer, Strasbourg, The Three Valleys, Tignes, Toulouse, Trouville-sur-Mer, Val Thorens, Val-d'Isère, Versailles, Étretat, Île-de-France, etc.
French Guiana: Cayenne, Kourou, etc.
French Polynesia: Bora Bora, Mo'orea, Papeete, Tahiti, etc.
Gabon: Libreville, etc.
Gambia: Banjul, Serekunda, etc.
Georgia: Bakuriani, Batumi, Borjomi, Gori, Gudauri, Kobuleti, Kutaisi, Mestia, Mtskheta, Poti, Sighnaghi, Stepantsminda, Tbilisi, Telavi, Zugdidi, etc.
Germany: Aachen, Augsburg, Bad Birnbach, Bad Driburg, Bad Ems, Bad Füssing, Bad Godesberg, Bad Harzburg, Bad Homburg, Bad Kissingen, Bad Kreuznach, Bad Mergentheim, Bad Neuenahr-Ahrweiler, Bad Reichenhall, Bad Salzuflen, Bad Schandau, Baden-Baden, Baden-Württemberg, Bamberg, Bavaria, Berchtesgaden, Bergen auf Rügen, Berlin, Bernkastel-Kues, Bielefeld, Binz, Bochum, Bonn, Bottrop, Brandenburg, Braunlage, Braunschweig, Bremen, Bremerhaven, Brilon, Chemnitz, Cochem, Cologne, Cuxhaven, Dortmund, Dresden, Duisburg, Düsseldorf, Eisenach, Erfurt, Erlangen, Essen, Europa-Park, Flensburg, Frankfurt, Freiburg, Friedrichshafen, Fürth, Füssen, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Gelsenkirchen, Glowe, Goslar, Görlitz, Göttingen, Hamburg, Hanover, Heidelberg, Heiligendamm, Heligoland, Hesse, Ingolstadt, Inzell, Karlsruhe, Kiel, Koblenz, Krefeld, Lake Constance, Leipzig, Lindau, Lower Saxony, Lübeck, Magdeburg, Mainz, Mannheim, Marburg, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Medebach, Monschau, Munich, Mönchengladbach, Mülheim an der Ruhr, Münster, Neuschwanstein Castle, Neuss, Norddeich, Norden, Norderney, North Rhine-Westphalia, Nuremberg, Oberhausen, Oberstdorf, Oldenburg, Olsberg, Osnabrück, Paderborn, Potsdam, Putbus, Quedlinburg, Rathen, Regensburg, Rhineland-Palatinate, Rostock, Rothenburg ob der Tauber, Ruhpolding, Rust, Rügen, Saarbrücken, Saarland, Sassnitz, Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, Schleswig-Holstein, Schmallenberg, Schwerin, Schönau am Königsee, Sindelfingen, Solingen, Speyer, Stralsund, Stuttgart, Sylt, Thuringia, Travemünde, Trier, Ulm, Warnemünde, Weimar, Wernigerode, Westerland, Wiesbaden, Winterberg, Wolfsburg, Wuppertal, Würzburg, Xanten, Zingst, etc.
Ghana: Accra, Kumasi, etc.
Greece: Acharavi, Aegina, Afantou, Afytos, Agios Gordios, Andros, Arkadia, Athens, Cephalonia, Chania, Chaniotis, Chios, Corfu, Corinth, Crete, Cyclades, Dassia, Delphi, Dodecanese, Faliraki, Halkidiki, Heraklion, Hersonissos, Hydra, Ialysos, Ionian Islands, Kalamata, Kalavryta, Kalymnos, Kardamaina, Karpathos, Kassandra, Kastoria, Katerini, Kavos, Kefalos, Kokkari, Kos, Kriopigi, Laganas, Lefkada, Lemnos, Lesbos, Lindos, Loutraki, Marathokampos, Meteora, Mithymna, Monemvasia, Mount Athos, Mykonos, Mytilene, Nafplio, Naxos, Neos Marmaras, Paleokastritsa, Parga, Patmos, Patras, Pefkochori, Pefkos, Peloponnese, Polychrono, Poros, Pythagoreio, Rethymno, Rhodes, Samos, Samothrace, Santorini, Sidari, Sithonia, Sparta, Spetses, Sporades, Syros, Thasos, Thessaloniki, Tingaki, Zakynthos, etc.
Guadeloupe: Saint-François, etc.
Guam: Tamuning, Tumon, etc.
Guatemala: Antigua Guatemala, etc.
Guinea: Conakry, etc.
Guinea-Bissau: Bissau, etc.
Guyana: Georgetown, etc.
Haiti: Cap-Haitien, Port-au-Prince, etc.
Honduras: Roatán, Tegucigalpa, etc.
Hong Kong: Causeway Bay, Hong Kong Island, Kowloon, Mong Kok, New Territories, Repulse Bay, Tsim Sha Tsui, Wan Chai, etc.
Hungary: Budapest, Eger, Gyula, Hajdúszoboszló, Hévíz, Lake Balaton, Pécs, Siófok, Szeged, Zalakaros, etc.
Iceland: Akureyri, Blue Lagoon, Borgarnes, Egilsstaðir, Garðabær, Hafnarfjörður, Hveragerði, Höfn, Keflavík, Kópavogur, Reykjavik, Selfoss, Vík í Mýrdal, Ísafjörður, etc.
India: Agra, Ahmedabad, Ajmer, Allahabad, Amritsar, Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Aurangabad, Bangalore, Bhopal, Bikaner, Chandigarh, Chennai, Chhattisgarh, Darjeeling, Dehradun, Delhi, Dharamshala, Fatehpur Sikri, Gangtok, Goa, Gujarat, Gurgaon, Guwahati, Gwalior, Haridwar, Himachal Pradesh, Hyderabad, Indore, Jabalpur, Jaipur, Jaisalmer, Jalandhar, Jodhpur, Kanpur, Karnataka, Kerala, Khajuraho, Kochi, Kolhapur, Kolkata, Ladakh, Leh, Lucknow, Ludhiana, Madhya Pradesh, Madikeri, Madurai, Maharashtra, Manali, Mangalore, Mathura, Mount Abu, Mumbai, Munnar, Mussoorie, Mysore, Nagpur, Nainital, Nashik, Navi Mumbai, New Delhi, Noida, Ooty, Pachmarhi, Palakkad, Pune, Punjab, Pushkar, Raipur, Rajasthan, Ramnagar, Rishikesh, Sawai Madhopur, Shimla, Sikkim, Srinagar, Tamil Nadu, Thane, Thiruvananthapuram, Tirupati, Udaipur, Ujjain, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Varanasi, Varkala, Vijayawada, Visakhapatnam, etc.
Indonesia: Bali, Balikpapan, Bandung, Batu, Bintan, Bogor, Borobudur, Denpasar, Jakarta, Java, Jimbaran, Kalimantan, Kuta, Lombok, Makassar, Malang, Mataram, Medan, Nusa Dua, Padang, Palembang, Pekanbaru, Sanur, Semarang, Seminyak, Sumatra, Surabaya, Surakarta, Ubud, Yogyakarta, etc.
Iran: Isfahan, Mashhad, Shiraz, Tehran, etc.
Iraq: Baghdad, Basra, Duhok, Erbil, Karbala, Sulaymaniyah, etc.
Ireland: Achill Island, Bray, Bundoran, Carlow, Clifden, Connemara, Cork, Dingle, Donegal, Doolin, Drogheda, Dublin, Dundalk, Ennis, Galway, Glendalough, Kenmare, Kilkenny, Killarney, Letterkenny, Limerick, Navan, Shannon, Swords, Tralee, Waterford, Westport, etc.
Isle of Man: Douglas, etc.
Israel: Acre, Amirim, Arad, Ashdod, Ashkelon, Bat Yam, Beersheba, Caesarea, Dead Sea, Eilat, Ein Bokek, Galilee, Golan Heights, Gush Dan, Haifa, Hermon, Herzliya, Jaffa, Jerusalem, Katzrin, Metula, Mitzpe Ramon, Nahariya, Nazareth, Netanya, Petah Tikva, Ramat Gan, Ramot, Rishon LeZion, Rosh Pinna, Safed, Sea of Galilee, Tel Aviv, Tiberias, Zikhron Ya'akov, etc.
Italy: Abano Terme, Abruzzo, Agrigento, Alassio, Alberobello, Alghero, Amalfi Coast, Aosta Valley, Apulia, Arezzo, Arona, Arzachena, Asciano, Ascoli Piceno, Assisi, Asti, Bardolino, Bari, Basilicata, Baveno, Bellagio, Bellaria-Igea Marina, Benevento, Bergamo, Bologna, Bolzano, Bordighera, Bormio, Bracciano, Brescia, Breuil-Cervinia, Brindisi, Cagliari, Calabria, Campania, Canazei, Caorle, Capri, Carrara, Castelnuovo Berardenga, Castiglion Fiorentino, Castiglione d'Orcia, Castiglione del Lago, Castiglione della Pescaia, Catania, Cefalù, Cervia, Cesenatico, Chianciano Terme, Chieti, Chioggia, Cinque Terre, Città della Pieve, Civitavecchia, Cortina d'Ampezzo, Cortona, Costa Smeralda, Courmayeur, Desenzano del Garda, Dolomites, Elba, Emilia-Romagna, Ercolano, Fasano, Fassa Valley, Ferrara, Finale Ligure, Fiumicino, Florence, Forte dei Marmi, Gaeta, Gallipoli, Genoa, Golfo Aranci, Greve in Chianti, Grosseto, Gubbio, Herculaneum, Imperia, Ischia, Italian Alps, Jesolo, L'Aquila, La Spezia, Lake Como, Lake Garda, Lake Maggiore, Lampedusa, Lazio, Lazise, Lecco, Lerici, Lido di Jesolo, Lignano Sabbiadoro, Liguria, Livigno, Livorno, Lombardy, Lucca, Madonna di Campiglio, Malcesine, Manarola, Mantua, Maratea, Massa, Matera, Menaggio, Merano, Messina, Mestre, Milan, Milazzo, Monopoli, Montalcino, Montecatini Terme, Montepulciano, Monterosso al Mare, Monza, Naples, Nardò, Novara, Olbia, Ortisei, Ostuni, Otranto, Padua, Palermo, Parma, Perugia, Pescara, Peschici, Peschiera del Garda, Piacenza, Piedmont, Pienza, Pisa, Pistoia, Pitigliano, Polignano a Mare, Pompeii, Porto Cervo, Porto Cesareo, Portoferraio, Portofino, Positano, Prato, Ragusa, Rapallo, Rapolano Terme, Ravenna, Riccione, Rimini, Riomaggiore, Riva del Garda, Rome, Salerno, San Casciano dei Bagni, San Gimignano, Sanremo, Sardinia, Savona, Sestriere, Sicily, Siena, Sinalunga, Siracusa, Sirmione, Sorrento, Sottomarina, Sperlonga, Stresa, Sëlva, Taormina, Taranto, Terracina, Tivoli, Torrita di Siena, Trani, Trapani, Trentino-Alto Adige, Trento, Treviso, Trieste, Tropea, Turin, Tuscany, Umbria, Urbino, Val Gardena, Veneto, Venice, Ventimiglia, Verbania, Vernazza, Verona, Vesuvius, Viareggio, Vicenza, Vieste, Viterbo, etc.
Ivory Coast: Abidjan, Assinie-Mafia, Bouaké, San-Pédro, Yamoussoukro, etc.
Jamaica: Kingston, Montego Bay, Negril, Ocho Rios, Port Antonio, Runaway Bay, etc.
Japan: Atami, Fujisawa, Fukuoka, Furano, Hakodate, Hakone, Hakuba, Hamamatsu, Hiroshima, Hokkaido, Ishigaki, Itō, Kagoshima, Kanagawa, Kanazawa, Karuizawa, Kawasaki, Kitakyushu, Kobe, Kutchan, Kyoto, Lake Suwa, Matsumoto, Miyakojima, Nagasaki, Nagoya, Naha, Nanjō, Nikkō, Okinawa, Onna, Osaka, Sapporo, Sendai, Shizuoka, Takayama, Tokyo, Yokohama, etc.
Jordan: Amman, Aqaba, Irbid, Jerash, Madaba, Petra, Sweimeh, Wadi Musa, Wadi Rum, Zarqa, etc.
Kazakhstan: Aktau, Aktobe, Almaty, Astana, Atyrau, Burabay, Karagandy, Kokshetau, Kostanay, Lake Balkhash, Oskemen, Pavlodar, Semey, Shymbulak, Shymkent, Taraz, etc.
Kenya: Kisumu, Lake Victoria, Masai Mara, Mombasa, Nairobi, Ukunda, etc.
Kiribati: South Tarawa, etc.
Kongo: Brazzaville, Pointe-Noire, etc.
Kosovo: Pristina, Prizren, etc.
Kuwait: Hawally, Kuwait City, Salmiya, etc.
Kyrgyzstan: Bishkek, Bosteri, Cholpon-Ata, Issyk Kul, Karakol, Osh, etc.
Laos: Luang Prabang, Vang Vieng, Vientiane, etc.
Latvia: Cēsis, Daugavpils, Jelgava, Jūrmala, Liepāja, Riga, Rēzekne, Sigulda, Ventspils, etc.
Lebanon: Baalbeck, Beirut, Byblos, Faraya, Jounieh, Mzaar Kfardebian, Tripoli, etc.
Lesotho: Maseru, etc.
Liberia: Monrovia, etc.
Libya: Benghazi, Tripoli, etc.
Liechtenstein: Schaan, Vaduz, etc.
Lithuania: Druskininkai, Kaunas, Klaipėda, Nida, Palanga, Panevėžys, Trakai, Vilnius, Šiauliai, Šventoji, etc.
Luxembourg: Differdange, Dudelange, Echternach, Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg City, Vianden, etc.
Macedonia: Bitola, Mavrovo, Ohrid, Skopje, etc.
Madagascar: Antananarivo, etc.
Malawi: Blantyre, Lilongwe, etc.
Malaysia: Borneo, George Town, Ipoh, Johor Bahru, Johor, Kedah, Kota Bharu, Kota Kinabalu, Kuah, Kuala Lumpur, Kuala Terengganu, Kuantan, Kuching, Langkawi, Malacca, Penang, Putrajaya, Sabah, Sarawak, Selangor, Shah Alam, etc.
Maldives: Kaafu Atoll, Malé, etc.
Mali: Bamako, etc.
Malta: Birżebbuġa, Buġibba, Gozo, Gżira, Mellieħa, Paceville, Pembroke, Qawra, Sliema, St. Julian's, St. Paul's Bay, Valletta, etc.
Martinique: Fort-de-France, Les Trois-Îlets, Sainte-Luce, etc.
Mauritania: Mérida, Nouakchott, Puerto Escondido, Puerto Peñasco, etc.
Mauritius: Port Louis, etc.
Mexico: Acapulco, Akumal, Cabo San Lucas, Cancún, Chetumal, Chichen Itza, Chihuahua, Ciudad Juárez, Cozumel, Cuernavaca, Guadalajara, Guanajuato, Isla Mujeres, Los Cabos, Manzanillo, Mazatlán, Monterrey, Oaxaca, Playa del Carmen, Puebla, Puerto Aventuras, Puerto Morelos, Puerto Vallarta, Querétaro, Riviera Maya, San Cristóbal de las Casas, San Miguel de Allende, San Miguel de Cozumel, Tijuana, Tulum, etc.
Moldova: Bălți, Chișinău, Tiraspol, etc.
Monaco: Monte Carlo, etc.
Mongolia: Darkhan, Erdenet, Ulaanbaatar, etc.
Montenegro: Bar, Bečići, Bijela, Budva, Cetinje, Dobra Voda, Dobrota, Herceg Novi, Igalo, Kolašin, Kotor, Miločer, Nikšić, Perast, Petrovac, Podgorica, Prčanj, Sutomore, Sveti Stefan, Tivat, Ulcinj, Žabljak, etc.
Montserrat: Plymouth, etc.
Morocco: Agadir, Asilah, Casablanca, Chefchaouen, El Jadida, Essaouira, Fez, Marrakesh, Meknes, Merzouga, Mohammedia, Nador, Ouarzazate, Rabat, Tangier, Taroudant, Tinghir, Tétouan, etc.
Mozambique: Maputo, etc.
Myanmar: Mandalay, Naypyidaw, Nyaung Shwe, Yangon, etc.
Namibia: Rundu, Swakopmund, Walvis Bay, Windhoek, etc.
Nepal: Chitwan, Himalayas, Kathmandu, Lukla, Lumbini, Mount Everest, Nagarkot, Namche Bazaar, Patan, Pokhara, Tengboche, etc.
Netherlands: 's-Hertogenbosch, Alkmaar, Amersfoort, Amsterdam, Arnhem, Breda, Delft, Domburg, Dordrecht, Eindhoven, Groningen, Haarlem, Leiden, Maastricht, Nijmegen, Noordwijk, Rotterdam, Texel, The Hague, Utrecht, Valkenburg aan de Geul, Wijk aan Zee, Zandvoort, etc.
New Zealand: Auckland, Christchurch, Dunedin, Gisborne, Hamilton, Hastings, Invercargill, Kaikoura, Lower Hutt, Napier, Nelson, New Plymouth, North Island, Palmerston North, Porirua, Queenstown, Rotorua, South Island, Taupo, Tauranga, Waiheke Island, Wanaka, Wellington, Whangarei, etc.
Nicaragua: Granada, Managua, etc.
Nigeria: Abuja, Benin City, Calabar, Enugu, Ibadan, Ilorin, Jos, Kaduna, Lagos, Owerri, Port Harcourt, Uyo, etc.
North Korea: Pyongyang, etc.
Northern Mariana Islands: Saipan, etc.
Norway: Beitostølen, Bergen, Bodø, Gardermoen, Geilo, Geirangerfjord, Hardangerfjord, Hemsedal, Kirkenes, Kristiansand, Larvik, Lillehammer, Lofoten, Narvik, Nordland, Oslo, Sognefjord, Stavanger, Stryn, Svalbard, Tromsø, Trondheim, Ålesund, etc.
Oman: Muscat, Nizwa, Salalah, Seeb, etc.
Pakistan: Bhurban, Faisalabad, Islamabad, Karachi, Lahore, Peshawar, Rawalpindi, etc.
Palau: Koror, Peleliu, etc.
Palestine: Beit Sahour, Bethlehem, Hebron, Jenin, Jericho, Nablus, Ramallah, etc.
Panama: Bocas del Toro, etc.
Papua New Guinea: Port Moresby, etc.
Paraguay: Asunción, Ciudad Del Este, Encarnación, Panama City, etc.
Peru: Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Chiclayo, Cusco, Huancayo, Huanchaco, Huaraz, Ica, Iquitos, Lima, Machu Picchu, Máncora, Nazca, Ollantaytambo, Paracas, Pisco, Piura, Puerto Maldonado, Puno, Tacna, Tarapoto, Trujillo, Urubamba, etc.
Philippines: Angeles City, Antipolo, Bacolod, Bacoor, Baguio, Batangas, Bohol, Boracay, Cagayan de Oro, Calamba, Caloocan, Cebu, Coron, Dasmariñas, Davao, Dumaguete, El Nido, General Santos, Iloilo City, Kalibo, Lapu-Lapu City, Las Piñas, Luzon, Mactan, Makati, Mandaue, Manila, Marikina, Mindanao, Muntinlupa, Olongapo, Palawan, Panglao, Parañaque, Pasay, Pasig, Puerto Galera, Puerto Princesa, Quezon City, Tagaytay, Tagbilaran, Taguig, Valenzuela, Visayas, Zamboanga, etc.
Poland: Białka Tatrzańska, Białowieża Forest, Białystok, Bielsko-Biała, Bukowina Tatrzańska, Bydgoszcz, Elbląg, Gdańsk, Gdynia, Giżycko, Gorzów Wielkopolski, Katowice, Kielce, Kołobrzeg, Kraków, Krynica Morska, Krynica-Zdrój, Lublin, Malbork, Mikołajki, Mrągowo, Olsztyn, Opole, Oświęcim, Poznań, Rzeszów, Sopot, Szczecin, Słubice, Tarnów, Toruń, Tricity, Warsaw, Wrocław, Zakopane, Zielona Góra, Łódź, Świnoujście, etc.
Portugal: Albufeira, Algarve, Aljezur, Almancil, Armação de Pêra, Azores, Braga, Cabanas de Tavira, Carvoeiro, Cascais, Castro Marim, Coimbra, Estoril, Faro, Funchal, Fátima, Guimarães, Lagoa, Lagos, Lisbon, Loulé, Madeira, Monte Gordo, Nazaré, Olhão, Ponta Delgada, Portimão, Porto, Praia da Luz, Quarteira, Sesimbra, Silves, Sintra, Tavira, Vila Real de Santo António, Vila do Bispo, Vilamoura, Évora, etc.
Puerto Rico: Bayamón, Caguas, Carolina, Ponce, San Juan, Vieques, etc.
Qatar: Doha, etc.
Romania: Bran, Brașov, Bucharest, Cluj-Napoca, Constanța, Poiana Brașov, Sibiu, Sighișoara, Timișoara, Transylvania, etc.
Russia: Abakan, Abrau-Dyurso, Abzakovo, Adler, Altai Republic, Alupka, Alushta, Anadyr, Anapa, Angarsk, Arkhangelsk, Arkhipo Osipovka, Arkhyz, Armavir, Astrakhan, Bakhchysarai, Balaklava, Balakovo, Balashikha, Baltic Sea, Barnaul, Belgorod, Belokurikha, Biysk, Black Sea, Blagoveshchensk, Bolshoy Utrish, Bratsk, Bryansk, Caucasian Mineral Waters, Cheboksary, Chelyabinsk, Cherepovets, Cherkessk, Chita, Chornomorske, Crimea, Curonian Spit, Dagomys, Divnomorskoye, Dombay, Domodedovo, Dzerzhinsk, Dzhankhot, Dzhemete, Dzhubga, Elektrostal, Elista, Engels, Estosadok, Feodosia, Foros, Gaspra, Gatchina, Gelendzhik, Golden Ring, Golubitskaya, Gorky Gorod, Gornaya Karusel, Gorno-Altaysk, Goryachy Klyuch, Grozny, Gurzuf, Irkutsk, Ivanovo, Izhevsk, Kabardinka, Kaliningrad, Kaluga, Kamchatka, Kamensk-Uralsky, Karelia, Kazan, Kemerovo, Kerch, Khabarovsk, Khanty-Mansiysk, Khibiny, Khimki, Khosta, Kirov, Kirovsk, Kislovodsk, Kizhi, Koktebel, Kolomna, Komsomolsk on Amur, Konakovo, Koreiz, Korolev, Kostroma, Krasnaya Polyana, Krasnodar Krai, Krasnodar, Krasnogorsk, Krasnoyarsk, Kudepsta, Kurgan, Kursk, Kyzyl, Lake Baikal, Lake Seliger, Lazarevskoye, Lipetsk, Listvyanka, Loo, Lyubertsy, Magadan, Magnitogorsk, Makhachkala, Massandra, Matsesta, Maykop, Miass, Mineralnye Vody, Moscow, Mount Elbrus, Murmansk, Murom, Mytishchi, Naberezhnye Chelny, Nakhodka, Nalchik, Naryan-Mar, Nebug, Nizhnekamsk, Nizhnevartovsk, Nizhny Novgorod, Nizhny Tagil, Norilsk, Novokuznetsk, Novorossiysk, Novosibirsk, Novyi Svit, Novyy Urengoy, Obninsk, Odintsovo, Olginka, Omsk, Orenburg, Orsk, Oryol, Partenit, Penza, Pereslavl Zalessky, Perm, Pervouralsk, Petergof, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, Petrozavodsk, Plyos, Podolsk, Popovka, Primorsko-Akhtarsk, Pskov, Pulkovo, Pushkin, Pushkino, Pyatigorsk, Repino, Rosa Khutor, Rostov-on-Don, Ryazan, Rybachye, Rybinsk, Saint Petersburg, Sakhalin, Saky, Salekhard, Samara, Saransk, Saratov, Sea of Azov, Sergiyev Posad, Serpukhov, Sestroretsk, Sevastopol, Shakhty, Sheregesh, Sheremetyevo, Siberia, Simeiz, Simferopol, Smolensk, Sochi, Solovetsky Islands, Sortavala, Stary Oskol, Stavropol, Sterlitamak, Sudak, Sukko, Surgut, Suzdal, Svetlogorsk, Syktyvkar, Syzran, Taganrog, Taman, Tambov, Tarusa, Temryuk, Terskol, Tobolsk, Tolyatti, Tomsk, Torzhok, Tuapse, Tula, Tver, Tyumen, Ufa, Uglich, Ukhta, Ulan-Ude, Ulyanovsk, Usinsk, Ussuriysk, Utes, Valaam, Valday, Vardane, Velikiye Luki, Veliky Novgorod, Veliky Ustyug, Vityazevo, Vladikavkaz, Vladimir, Vladivostok, Vnukovo International Airport, Volga, Volgograd, Vologda, Volzhskiy, Vorkuta, Voronezh, Vyborg, Yakhroma, Yakornaya Shchel, Yakutsk, Yalta, Yaroslavl, Yekaterinburg, Yelets, Yenisei, Yessentuki, Yevpatoria, Yeysk, Yoshkar-Ola, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, Zavidovo, Zelenogradsk, Zheleznovodsk, Zhukovsky, Zvenigorod, etc.
Rwanda: Butare, Gisenyi, Kibuye, Kigali, etc.
Réunion: Saint-Denis, etc.
Saint Barthélemy: Gustavia, etc.
Saint Kitts and Nevis: Basseterre, etc.
Saint Lucia: Anse La Raye, Castries, Gros Islet, Soufrière, etc.
Saint Martin:, etc.
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines: Kingstown, etc.
Samoa: Apia, etc.
San Marino: City of San Marino, etc.
Saudi Arabia: Abha, Al Khobar, Buraydah, Dammam, Jeddah, Jizan, Jubail, Mecca, Medina, Riyadh, Ta'if, Tabuk, Yanbu, etc.
Senegal: Dakar, etc.
Serbia: Belgrade, Kopaonik, Niš, Novi Sad, Palić, Stara Planina, Subotica, Zlatibor, etc.
Seychelles: La Digue, Mahé, Praslin, etc.
Sierra Leone: Freetown, etc.
Singapore: Changi, Sentosa, etc.
Sint Maarten:, etc.
Slovakia: Bratislava, Jasná, Liptov, Tatranská Lomnica, Vysoké Tatry, Štrbské Pleso, etc.
Slovenia: Bled, Bohinj, Bovec, Kranjska Gora, Ljubljana, Maribor, Piran, Portorož, Rogaška Slatina, etc.
Solomon Islands: Honiara, etc.
Somalia: Mogadishu, etc.
Somaliland: Hargeisa, etc.
South Africa: Ballito, Benoni, Bloemfontein, Boksburg, Cape Town, Drakensberg, Durban, East London, George, Johannesburg, Kempton Park, Kimberley, Knysna, Kruger National Park, Marloth Park, Mossel Bay, Nelspruit, Pietermaritzburg, Plettenberg Bay, Polokwane, Port Elizabeth, Potchefstroom, Pretoria, Rustenburg, Sandton, Stellenbosch, Umhlanga, etc.
South Korea: Busan, Daegu, Daejeon, Gangneung, Gapyeong, Gwangju, Gwangyang, Gyeongju, Incheon, Jejudo, Jeonju, Pyeongchang, Seogwipo, Seoul, Sokcho, Suwon, Ulsan, Yangyang, Yeosu, etc.
Spain: A Coruña, Alcúdia, Algeciras, Alicante, Almería, Altea, Andalusia, Antequera, Aragon, Asturias, Ayamonte, Baiona, Balearic Islands, Barbate, Barcelona, Basque Country, Benalmádena, Benidorm, Benissa, Besalú, Bilbao, Blanes, Buñol, Cadaqués, Cala d'Or, Calella, Calonge, Calp, Calvià, Cambados, Cambrils, Canary Islands, Cangas de Onís, Cantabria, Cartagena, Castilla-La Mancha, Catalonia, Chiclana de la Frontera, Costa Blanca, Costa Brava, Costa Dorada, Costa del Maresme, Costa del Sol, Cádiz, Córdoba, Dénia, El Puerto de Santa María, Empuriabrava, Estepona, Figueres, Formentera, Fuerteventura, Galicia, Gijón, Girona, Gran Canaria, Granada, Ibiza, Jerez de la Frontera, L'Escala, L'Estartit, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, La Pineda, Lanzarote, Llançà, Lleida, Lloret de Mar, Madrid, Magaluf, Malgrat de Mar, Mallorca, Marbella, Maspalomas, Menorca, Mijas, Mojácar, Moraira, Murcia, Málaga, Navarre, Nerja, O Grove, Ourense, Oviedo, Palma Nova, Palma, Pals, Poio, Pollença, Pontevedra, PortAventura, Portonovo, Ronda, Roquetas de Mar, Roses, Salamanca, Salou, San Sebastian, Sant Antoni de Portmany, Santander, Santiago de Compostela, Santillana del Mar, Sanxenxo, Seville, Sidges, Sierra Nevada, Tarifa, Tarragona, Tenerife, Toledo, Torremolinos, Torrevieja, Torroella de Montgrí, Tossa de Mar, Valencia, Vigo, Vélez-Málaga, Xàbia, Zaragoza, etc.
Sri Lanka: Anuradhapura, Bentota, Beruwala, Colombo, Dambulla, Galle, Hikkaduwa, Jaffna, Kandy, Mirissa, Negombo, Nuwara Eliya, Sigiriya, Tangalle, Trincomalee, Unawatuna, Weligama, etc.
Sudan: Khartoum, Port Sudan, etc.
Suriname: Lelydorp, Nieuw Nickerie, Paramaribo, etc.
Swaziland: Lobamba, Mbabane, etc.
Sweden: Bohuslän, Borgholm, Borlänge, Dalarna, Falkenberg, Falun, Gothenburg, Gotland, Halmstad, Helsingborg, Jönköping, Kalmar, Karlshamn, Karlskrona, Karlstad, Kiruna, Kristianstad, Linköping, Lund, Malmö, Norrköping, Solna, Stockholm, Umeå, Uppsala, Vimmerby, Visby, Västerås, Växjö, Ystad, Ängelholm, Åre, Öland, Örebro, Östersund, etc.
Switzerland: Adelboden, Andermatt, Anzère, Arosa, Ascona, Basel, Bellinzona, Bern, Crans-Montana, Davos, Engelberg, Fribourg, Geneva, Grindelwald, Grächen, Gstaad, Haute-Nendaz, Interlaken, Jungfrau, Klosters, Lake Maggiore, Lausanne, Lauterbrunnen, Leukerbad, Locarno, Lucerne, Lugano, Matterhorn, Montreux, Nendaz, Neuchâtel, Pontresina, Portes du Soleil, Saanen, Saas-Fee, Sierre, Silvaplana, Sion, St. Gallen, St. Moritz, Swiss Alps, Ticino, Valais, Verbier, Vevey, Veysonnaz, Wengen, Zermatt, Zug, Zürich, etc.
Syria: Aleppo, Damascus, Deir ez-Zor, Latakia, Palmyra, Tartus, etc.
Taiwan: Hsinchu, Kaohsiung, Taichung, Tainan, Taipei, etc.
Tajikistan: Dushanbe, Isfara, Khujand, etc.
Tanzania: Dar es Salaam, Mount Kilimanjaro, Serengeti, Zanzibar, etc.
Thailand: Ayutthaya, Bangkok, Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai, Chonburi, Hua Hin, Kanchanaburi, Karon, Khao Sok, Ko Chang, Ko Lanta, Ko Phangan, Ko Samui, Krabi, Pai, Patong, Pattaya, Phi Phi Islands, Phuket, Prachuap Khiri Khan, Ranong, River Kwai, Udon Thani, etc.
Togo: Lomé, etc.
Tonga: Nukuʻalofa, Tunis, etc.
Trinidad and Tobago: Port of Spain, etc.
Tunisia: Djerba, Hammamet, Midoun, Monastir, Port El Kantaoui, Sousse, etc.
Turkey: Adana, Alacati, Alanya, Ankara, Antakya, Antalya, Ayvalık, Beldibi, Belek, Bodrum, Bozcaada, Bursa, Büyükada, Cappadocia, Dalyan, Datça, Denizli, Didim, Edirne, Ephesus, Erzincan, Erzurum, Eskişehir, Fethiye, Gaziantep, Göreme, Göynük, Istanbul, Kalkan, Kayseri, Kaş, Kemer, Konakli, Konya, Kuşadası, Lara, Mahmutlar, Manavgat, Marmaris, Mersin, Olympos, Palandöken, Pamukkale, Prince Islands, Samsun, Sapanca, Sarıkamış, Selçuk, Side, Tarsus, Tekirova, Trabzon, Troy, Turkish Riviera, Uludağ, Van, Çamyuva, Çanakkale, Çeşme, Çıralı, Ölüdeniz, Ürgüp, İskenderun, İzmir, İçmeler, Şanlıurfa, etc.
Turkmenistan: Ashgabat, Avaza, etc.
Turks and Caicos Islands: Cockburn Town, North Caicos, Pine Cay, Providenciales, etc.
Uganda: Kampala, etc.
Ukraine: Berdiansk, Bila Tserkva, Boryspil, Bukovel, Cherkasy, Chernihiv, Chernivtsi, Dnipropetrovsk, Donetsk, Ivano-Frankivsk, Kamianets-Podilskyi, Kharkiv, Kherson, Kiev, Koblevo, Kremenchuk, Kryvyi Rih, Luhansk, Lviv, Mariupol, Melitopol, Mykolaiv, Odessa, Poltava, Rivne, Slavske, Sumy, Truskavets, Uzhgorod, Vinnytsia, Yaremche, Yasinya, Zaporizhia, Zatoka, Zhytomyr, etc.
United Arab Emirates: Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Persian Gulf, Ras Al Khaimah, Sharjah, etc.
United Kingdom: Aberdeen, Bath, Belfast, Blackpool, Bournemouth, Bradford, Brighton, Bristol, Cambridge, Canterbury, Cardiff, Channel Tunnel, Cheltenham, Chester, Cornwall, Coventry, Cumbria, Derry, Devon, Dorset, Dover, Eastbourne, Edinburgh, England, English Channel, Exeter, Folkestone, Fort William, Glasgow, Hampshire, Harrogate, Inverness, Isle of Wight, Kent, Lancashire, Leeds, Leicester, Liverpool, Llandudno, London, Manchester, Mansfield, Milton Keynes, Newcastle, Newquay, Northern Ireland, Norwich, Nottingham, Oban, Oxford, Paignton, Plymouth, Portmeirion, Portsmouth, Reading, Sandown, Scarborough, Scotland, Shanklin, Sheffield, Somerset, Southampton, St Albans, Stonehenge, Sussex, Swansea, Torquay, Wales, Whitby, Windsor, York, etc.
United States: Akron, Alabama, Alaska, Albuquerque, Amarillo, Anaheim, Anchorage, Ann Arbor, Arizona, Arkansas, Arlington, Aspen, Atlanta, Aurora, Austin, Bakersfield, Baltimore, Baton Rouge, Beaver Creek, Berkeley, Big Bear Lake, Billings, Biloxi, Birmingham, Boca Raton, Boise, Boston, Breckenridge, Brooklyn, Buffalo, California, Carlsbad, Carmel-by-the-Sea, Chandler, Charlotte, Chesapeake, Cheyenne, Chicago, Chula Vista, Cincinnati, Clearwater, Cleveland, Colorado Springs, Colorado, Columbus Georgia, Columbus, Connecticut, Corpus Christi, Costa Mesa, Cupertino, Dallas, Dana Point, Daytona Beach, Death Valley, Delaware, Delray Beach, Denver, Des Moines, Destin, Detroit, Durham, El Paso, Estes Park, Fargo, Fayetteville, Florida, Fontana, Fort Lauderdale, Fort Myers, Fort Walton Beach, Fort Wayne, Fort Worth, Fremont, Fresno, Galveston, Garland, Georgia, Gilbert, Glendale, Grand Canyon, Grand Rapids, Grand Teton, Great Smoky Mountains, Greensboro, Gulfport, Hawaii, Henderson, Hialeah, Hollywood, Honolulu, Hot Springs, Houston, Huntington Beach, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Indianapolis, Iowa, Irving, Jackson Mississippi, Jackson Wyoming, Jacksonville, Jersey City, Juneau, Kansas City, Kansas, Kentucky, Key Largo, Key West, La Jolla, Laguna Beach, Lahaina, Lake Tahoe, Laredo, Las Vegas, Lexington, Lincoln, Little Rock, Long Beach, Los Angeles, Louisiana, Louisville, Lubbock, Madison, Maine, Malibu, Mammoth Lakes, Manhattan, Marathon, Maryland, Massachusetts, Memphis, Mesa, Mexico City, Miami Beach, Miami, Michigan, Milwaukee, Minneapolis, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Moab, Modesto, Montana, Monterey, Montgomery, Moreno Valley, Mountain View, Myrtle Beach, Napa, Naples, Nashville, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New Orleans, New York City, New York, Newark, Newport Beach, Newport, Norfolk, North Carolina, North Dakota, North Las Vegas, Oakland, Ocean City, Oceanside, Ohio, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, Omaha, Oregon, Orlando, Oxnard, Palm Coast, Palm Desert, Palm Springs, Palo Alto, Panama City Beach, Park City, Pasadena, Pennsylvania, Pensacola, Philadelphia, Phoenix, Pittsburgh, Plano, Pompano Beach, Portland, Portland, Providence, Raleigh, Reno, Rhode Island, Richmond, Riverside, Rochester, Rocky Mountains, Sacramento, Saint Paul, Salt Lake City, San Antonio, San Bernardino, San Diego, San Francisco, San Jose, Sanibel, Santa Ana, Santa Barbara, Santa Cruz, Santa Fe, Santa Monica, Sarasota, Savannah, Scottsdale, Seattle, Shreveport, Silicon Valley, South Carolina, South Dakota, South Lake Tahoe, Spokane, Springfield, Squaw Valley, St. Augustine, St. Louis, St. Petersburg, Steamboat Springs, Stockton, Sunny Isles Beach, Sunnyvale, Tacoma, Tallahassee, Tampa, Telluride, Tennessee, Texas, Thousand Oaks, Toledo, Tucson, Tulsa, Utah, Vail, Vermont, Virginia Beach, Virginia, Waikiki, Washington D.C., Washington, West Palm Beach, West Virginia, Wichita, Winston-Salem, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Yellowstone, Yonkers, Yosemite, Zion, etc.
Uruguay: Montevideo, Punta del Este, etc.
Uzbekistan: Bukhara, Fergana, Khiva, Kokand, Navoiy, Samarkand, Tashkent, Urgench, etc.
Vanuatu: Port Vila, etc.
Venezuela: Caracas, Isla Margarita, Maracaibo, Porlamar, etc.
Vietnam: Cần Thơ, Da Lat, Da Nang, Haiphong, Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, Huế, Hạ Long, Hội An, Long Hải, Mỹ Tho, Nha Trang, Ninh Bình, Phan Thiết, Phú Quốc, Qui Nhơn, Rạch Giá, Sa Pa, Vũng Tàu, Đồng Hới, etc.
Yemen: Aden, Sana'a, etc.
Zambia: Livingstone, Lusaka, etc.
Zimbabwe: Bulawayo, Harare, Mutare, Victoria Falls, etc.