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What's important: you can compare and book not only worldwide hotels and resorts, but also villas and holiday cottages, inns and B&Bs (bed and breakfast), condo hotels and apartments, timeshare properties, guest houses and pensions, campsites (campgrounds), motels and hostels in any city of the world. If you're going to any city in the world save your money and time, don't pay for the services of the greedy travel agencies. Instead, book the best hotel in any city of the world online, buy the cheapest airline tickets to any city in the world, and rent a car in any city of the world right now, paying the lowest price! Besides, here you can buy the worldwide related books, guidebooks, souvenirs and other goods.

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In order to book an accommodation in any city of the world enter the proper dates and do the hotel search. If needed, sort the found worldwide hotels by price, star rating, property type, guest rating, hotel features, hotel theme or hotel chain. Then take a look at the found hotels on worldwide map to estimate the distance from the main worldwide attractions and sights. You can also read the guest reviews of any city in the world hotels and see their ratings.

When a hotel search in any city of the world is done, please select the room type, the included meals and the suitable booking conditions (for example, "Deluxe double room, Breakfast included, Non-Refundable"). Press the "View Deal" ("Book Now") button. Make your booking on a hotel booking website and get the hotel reservation voucher by email. That's it, a perfect hotel in any city of the world is waiting for you!

Hotels of any city in the world

A hotel in any city of the world is an establishment that provides lodging paid on a short-term basis. Facilities provided may range from a basic bed and storage for clothing, to luxury features like en-suite bathrooms. Larger in any city of the world hotels may provide additional guest facilities such as a swimming pool, business centre, childcare, conference facilities and social function services. Hotel rooms in any city of the world are usually numbered (or named in some smaller hotels and B&Bs) to allow guests to identify their room. Some worldwide hotels offer meals as part of a room and board arrangement. Hotel operations vary in size, function, and cost. Most worldwide hotels and major hospitality companies that operate hotels in any city of the world have set widely accepted industry standards to classify hotel types. General categories include the following:

Upscale luxury hotels in any city of the world
An upscale full service hotel facility in any city of the world that offers luxury amenities, full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and the highest level of personalized and professional service. Luxury worldwide hotels are normally classified with at least a Four Diamond or Five Diamond status or a Four or Five Star rating depending on classification standards.

Full service hotels in any city of the world
Full service worldwide hotels often contain upscale full-service facilities with a large volume of full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and a variety of on-site amenities such as swimming pools, a health club, children's activities, ballrooms, on-site conference facilities, etc.

Historic inns and boutique hotels in any city of the world
Boutique hotels of any city in the world are smaller independent non-branded hotels that often contain upscale facilities of varying size in unique or intimate settings with full service accommodations. worldwide boutique hotels are generally 100 rooms or less. Some historic inns and boutique hotels in any city of the world may be classified as luxury hotels.

Focused or select service hotels in any city of the world
Small to medium-sized hotel establishments that offer a limited amount of on-site amenities that only cater and market to a specific demographic of worldwide travelers, such as the single business traveler. Most worldwide focused or select service hotels may still offer full service accommodations but may lack leisure amenities such as an on-site restaurant or a swimming pool.

Economy and limited service hotels in any city of the world
Small to medium-sized worldwide hotel establishments that offer a very limited amount of on-site amenities and often only offer basic accommodations with little to no services, these facilities normally only cater and market to a specific demographic of travelers, such as the budget-minded worldwide traveler seeking a "no frills" accommodation. Limited service worldwide hotels often lack an on-site restaurant but in return may offer a limited complimentary food and beverage amenity such as on-site continental breakfast service.

Guest houses and B&Bs in any city of the world
A bed and breakfast in any city of the world is a small lodging establishment that offers overnight accommodation and inclusive breakfast. Usually, worldwide bed and breakfasts are private homes or family homes offering accommodations. The typical worldwide B&B has between 4 and 11 rooms, with 6 being the average. Generally, guests are accommodated in private bedrooms with private bathrooms, or in a suite of rooms including an en suite bathroom. Some homes have private bedrooms with a bathroom which is shared with other guests. Breakfast is served in the bedroom, a dining room, or the host's kitchen. Often the owners of guest house themselves prepare the breakfast and clean the rooms.

Hostels in any city of the world
worldwide hostels provide budget-oriented, sociable accommodation where guests can rent a bed, usually a bunk bed, in a dormitory and share a bathroom, lounge, and sometimes a kitchen. Rooms can be mixed or single-sex, although private rooms may also be available. Hostels are often cheaper for both the operator and occupants; many worldwide hostels have long-term residents whom they employ as desk agents or housekeeping staff in exchange for experience or discounted accommodation.

Apartment hotels, extended stay hotels in any city of the world
Extended stay hotels are small to medium-sized worldwide hotels that offer longer term full service accommodations compared to a traditional hotel. Extended stay hotels may offer non-traditional pricing methods such as a weekly rate that cater towards travelers in need of short-term accommodations for an extended period of time. Similar to limited and select service hotels, on-site amenities are normally limited and most extended stay hotels in any city of the world lack an on-site restaurant.

Timeshare and destination clubs in any city of the world
worldwide timeshare and destination clubs are a form of property ownership also referred to as a vacation ownership involving the purchase and ownership of an individual unit of accommodation for seasonal usage during a specified period of time. Timeshare resorts in any city of the world often offer amenities similar that of a Full service hotel with on-site restaurant(s), swimming pools, recreation grounds, and other leisure-oriented amenities. Destination clubs of any city in the world on the other hand may offer more exclusive private accommodations such as private houses in a neighborhood-style setting.

Motels in any city of the world
A worldwide motel is a small-sized low-rise lodging establishment similar to that of a limited service hotel, but with direct access to individual rooms from the car park. Common during the 1950s and 1960s, motels were often located adjacent to a major road, where they were built on inexpensive land at the edge of towns or along stretches of highways. They are still useful in less populated areas of any city in the world for driving travelers, but the more populated an area becomes the more hotels fill the need. Many of worldwide motels which remain in operation have joined national franchise chains, rebranding themselves as hotels, inns or lodges.

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HotelsCombined is the leading hotel metasearch engine founded in 2005, with headquarters in Sydney, Australia. It is widely recognized as the world's best hotel price comparison site and has won many of the most prestigious tourism industry awards. The site operates in over 40 languages, handles 120 different currencies and aggregates more than 2 million deals from hundreds of travel sites and hotel chains. The number of users counts more than 300,000 people a year with over $1,000,000,000 in estimated total cost of hotel reservations.

The main purpose of HotelsCombined hotel price comparison service is to help the travelers in finding a perfect accommodation option in any city of the world at the best price, eliminating the need to manually analyze hundreds of hotel booking sites and thousands of price offers. Through the partnership with the most popular hotel booking websites, online travel agencies and hotel chains, HotelsCombined allows its users to search for and compare the current rates on worldwide hotels in a single search. It also provides an aggregated summary of hotel reviews and ratings from external sites.

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Travelling and vacation in any city of the world

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"List of nations" and "List of countries" redirect here. For other country lists, see Lists of countries and territories. For non-sovereign dependencies, see Dependent territory.

This list of sovereign states provides an overview of sovereign states around the world, with information on their status and recognition of their sovereignty.

Membership within the United Nations system divides the 206 listed states into three categories: 193 member states, two observer states, and 11 other states. The sovereignty dispute column indicates states whose sovereignty is undisputed (190 states) and states whose sovereignty is disputed (16 states, out of which there are 6 member states, 1 observer state and 9 other states).

Compiling a list such as this can be a difficult and controversial process, as there is no definition that is binding on all the members of the community of nations concerning the criteria for statehood. For more information on the criteria used to determine the contents of this list, please see the section below. The list is intended to include entities that have been recognized to have de facto status as sovereign states, and inclusion should not be seen as an endorsement of any specific claim to statehood in legal terms.

List of states

Short and formal names Membership within the UN System Sovereignty dispute Further information on status and recognition of sovereignty
A AAA A AAA A AAA
ZZZ↓ UN member states and observer states ↓ A AAA ZZZ
ZZZAbkhazia → A UN member state A None
Afghanistan – Islamic Republic of Afghanistan A UN member state A None
Albania – Republic of Albania A UN member state A None
Algeria – People's Democratic Republic of Algeria A UN member state A None
Andorra – Principality of Andorra A UN member state A None Andorra is a co-principality in which the office of head of state is jointly held ex officio by the French president and the bishop of the Roman Catholic diocese of Urgell, who himself is appointed by the Holy See.
Angola – Republic of Angola A UN member state A None
Antigua and Barbuda A UN member state A None Antigua and Barbuda is a Commonwealth realm with 1 autonomous region, Barbuda.
Argentina – Argentine Republic A UN member state A None Argentina is a federation of 23 provinces and 1 autonomous city.
Armenia – Republic of Armenia A UN member state Not recognized by See Armenia–Pakistan relations and Nagorno-Karabakh conflict.
Australia – Commonwealth of Australia A UN member state A None Australia is a Commonwealth realm and a federation of six states and 10 territories. The external territories of Australia are:
  • Ashmore and Cartier Islands
  • Australian Antarctic Territory
  • Christmas Island
  • Cocos (Keeling) Islands
  • Coral Sea Islands Territory
  • Heard Island and McDonald Islands
  • Norfolk Island
Austria – Republic of Austria A UN member state A None Member of the European Union. Austria is a federation of nine states (Bundesländer).
Azerbaijan – Republic of Azerbaijan A UN member state A None Azerbaijan contains two autonomous regions, Nakhchivan and Nagorno-Karabakh (Dağlıq Qarabağ). The , a de facto state, has been established in the latter.
Bahamas, The – Commonwealth of the Bahamas A UN member state A None The Bahamas is a Commonwealth realm.
Bahrain – Kingdom of Bahrain A UN member state A None
Bangladesh – People's Republic of Bangladesh A UN member state A None
Barbados A UN member state A None Barbados is a Commonwealth realm.
Belarus – Republic of Belarus A UN member state A None Belarus forms the Union State jointly with Russia.
Belgium – Kingdom of Belgium A UN member state A None Member of the EU. Belgium is a federation divided into linguistic communities and regions.
Belize A UN member state A None Belize is a Commonwealth realm.
Benin – Republic of Benin A UN member state A None
Bhutan – Kingdom of Bhutan A UN member state A None
Bolivia – Plurinational State of Bolivia A UN member state A None
Bosnia and Herzegovina A UN member state A None Bosnia and Herzegovina is a federation of two constituent units:
  • Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Republika Srpska

and Brčko District, a self-governing administrative unit.

Botswana – Republic of Botswana A UN member state A None
Brazil – Federative Republic of Brazil A UN member state A None Brazil is a federation of 26 states and 1 federal district.
Brunei – Nation of Brunei, Abode of Peace A UN member state A None
Bulgaria – Republic of Bulgaria A UN member state A None Member of the EU.
Burkina Faso A UN member state A None
Burma → A UN member state A None
Burundi – Republic of Burundi A UN member state A None
Cambodia – Kingdom of Cambodia A UN member state A None
Cameroon – Republic of Cameroon A UN member state A None
Canada A UN member state A None Canada is a Commonwealth realm and a federation of 10 provinces and three territories.
Cape Verde – Republic of Cabo Verde A UN member state A None
Central African Republic A UN member state A None
Chad – Republic of Chad A UN member state A None
Chile – Republic of Chile A UN member state A None Chile has two "special territories" in the Valparaíso Region: Easter Island and Juan Fernández Islands
China – People's Republic of China A UN member state Partially unrecognized. B Claimed by Claimed by Claimed by Claimed by Claimed by the Claimed by the Claimed by Claimed by Claimed by the Disputed by Claimed by Claimed by Claimed by The People's Republic of China (PRC) contains five autonomous regions, Guangxi, Inner Mongolia, Ningxia, Xinjiang and Tibet. Additionally, it has sovereignty over the Special Administrative Regions of:
  • Hong Kong
  • Macau

China claims, but does not control, which is governed by a rival administration (the Republic of China) claiming all of China as its territory.

China is not recognised by 21 UN member states and the Holy See, which instead recognise Taiwan.

China controls part of the territory of Kashmir, which is disputed by India and Pakistan.

China, Republic of → A UN member state A None
Colombia – Republic of Colombia A UN member state A None
Comoros – Union of the Comoros A UN member state A None Comoros is a federation of 3 islands.
Congo, Democratic Republic of the A UN member state A None
Congo, Republic of the A UN member state A None
ZZZCook Islands → A UN member state A None
Costa Rica – Republic of Costa Rica A UN member state A None
Côte d'Ivoire → A UN member state A None
Croatia – Republic of Croatia A UN member state A None Member of the EU.
Cuba – Republic of Cuba A UN member state A None
Cyprus – Republic of Cyprus A UN member state Not recognized by Member of the EU. The northeastern part of the island is the de facto state of . See Foreign relations of Cyprus and Cyprus dispute. Turkey refers to the Republic of Cyprus government as "The Greek Cypriot Administration of Southern Cyprus".
Czech Republic A UN member state A None Member of the EU.
Democratic People's Republic of Korea → A UN member state A None
Democratic Republic of the Congo → A UN member state A None
Denmark – Kingdom of Denmark A UN member state A None Member of the EU. The Kingdom of Denmark includes two self-governing territories:
  • Faroe Islands (Føroyar/Færøerne)
  • Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat/Grønland)

The continental territory of Denmark, the Faroe Islands, and Greenland form the three constituent countries of the Kingdom. The designation "Denmark" can refer either to continental Denmark or to the short name for the entire Kingdom (e.g. in international organizations). The Kingdom of Denmark as a whole is a member of the EU, but EU law does not apply to the Faroe Islands and Greenland. See Greenland Treaty.

Djibouti – Republic of Djibouti A UN member state A None
Dominica – Commonwealth of Dominica A UN member state A None
Dominican Republic A UN member state A None
East Timor – Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste A UN member state A None
Ecuador – Republic of Ecuador A UN member state A None
Egypt – Arab Republic of Egypt A UN member state A None
El Salvador – Republic of El Salvador A UN member state A None
Equatorial Guinea – Republic of Equatorial Guinea A UN member state A None
Eritrea – State of Eritrea A UN member state A None
Estonia – Republic of Estonia A UN member state A None Member of the EU.
Ethiopia – Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia A UN member state A None Ethiopia is a federation of nine regions and two chartered cities.
Fiji – Republic of Fiji A UN member state A None Fiji contains 1 autonomous region, Rotuma.
Finland – Republic of Finland A UN member state A None Member of the EU.
  • Åland is a neutral and demilitarised autonomous region of Finland.
France – French Republic A UN member state A None Member of the EU. France contains five overseas regions/departments: French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte, and Réunion. France also includes the overseas territories of:
  • Clipperton Island
  • French Polynesia
  • New Caledonia
  • Saint Barthélemy
  • Saint Martin
  • Saint Pierre and Miquelon
  • Wallis and Futuna
  • French Southern and Antarctic Lands
Gabon – Gabonese Republic A UN member state A None
Gambia Gambia, The – Islamic Republic of the Gambia A UN member state A None
Georgia A UN member state A None Georgia contains two autonomous republics, Adjara and Abkhazia. In and , de facto states have been formed.
Germany – Federal Republic of Germany A UN member state A None Member of the EU. Germany is a federation of 16 federated states (Länder).
Ghana – Republic of Ghana A UN member state A None
Greece – Hellenic Republic A UN member state A None Member of the EU. Mount Athos is an autonomous part of Greece that is jointly governed by the multinational "Holy Community" on the mountain and a civil governor appointed by the Greek government.
Grenada A UN member state A None Grenada is a Commonwealth realm.
Guatemala – Republic of Guatemala A UN member state A None
Guinea – Republic of Guinea A UN member state A None
Guinea-Bissau – Republic of Guinea-Bissau A UN member state A None
Guyana – Co-operative Republic of Guyana A UN member state A None
Haiti – Republic of Haiti A UN member state A None
Holy See → A UN member state A None
Honduras – Republic of Honduras A UN member state A None
Hungary A UN member state A None Member of the EU.
Iceland A UN member state A None
India – Republic of India A UN member state A None India is a federation of 29 states and seven union territories. India claims the entire territory of Kashmir as one of its states, but only exercises control over part of it, while the rest is controlled by the People's Republic of China and Pakistan.
Indonesia – Republic of Indonesia A UN member state A None Indonesia has five provinces with official special autonomy status: Aceh, Jakarta SCR, Yogyakarta SR, Papua, and West Papua.
Iran – Islamic Republic of Iran A UN member state A None
Iraq – Republic of Iraq A UN member state A None Iraq is a federation of 18 governorates, three of which make up the autonomous Iraqi Kurdistan.
Ireland A UN member state A None Member of the EU.
Israel – State of Israel A UN member state Partially unrecognized Israel exerts strong control over the territory claimed by . Israel annexed East Jerusalem, an annexation not recognised by the international community. Israel maintains varying levels of control over the rest of the West Bank, and although Israel no longer has a permanent civilian or military presence in the Gaza Strip, following its unilateral disengagement, it is still considered by some to be the occupying power under international law. Israel is not recognised as a state by 32 UN members (including most Arab states) nor by the SADR.
Italy – Italian Republic A UN member state A None Member of the EU. Italy has five autonomous regions, Aosta Valley, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Sardinia, Sicily and Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol.
Ivory Coast – Republic of Côte d'Ivoire A UN member state A None
Jamaica A UN member state A None Jamaica is a Commonwealth realm.
Japan A UN member state A None
Jordan – Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan A UN member state A None
Kazakhstan – Republic of Kazakhstan A UN member state A None
Kenya – Republic of Kenya A UN member state A None
Kiribati – Republic of Kiribati A UN member state A None
Korea, North – Democratic People's Republic of Korea A UN member state B Claimed by Claimed by Claimed by Claimed by Claimed by the Claimed by the Claimed by Claimed by Claimed by the Disputed by Claimed by Claimed by Claimed by North Korea is not recognised by two UN members: and South Korea.
Korea, South – Republic of Korea A UN member state B Claimed by Claimed by Claimed by Claimed by Claimed by the Claimed by the Claimed by Claimed by Claimed by the Disputed by Claimed by Claimed by Claimed by South Korea contains 1 autonomous region, Jeju-do. South Korea is not recognised by one UN member: North Korea.
ZZZKosovo → A UN member state A None
Kuwait – State of Kuwait A UN member state A None
Kyrgyzstan – Kyrgyz Republic A UN member state A None
Laos – Lao People's Democratic Republic A UN member state A None
Latvia – Republic of Latvia A UN member state A None Member of the EU.
Lebanon – Lebanese Republic A UN member state A None
Lesotho – Kingdom of Lesotho A UN member state A None
Liberia – Republic of Liberia A UN member state A None
Libya – State of Libya A UN member state A None Libya has one self-declared autonomous region: Cyrenaica
Liechtenstein – Principality of Liechtenstein A UN member state A None
Lithuania – Republic of Lithuania A UN member state A None Member of the EU.
Luxembourg – Grand Duchy of Luxembourg A UN member state A None Member of the EU.
Macedonia – Republic of Macedonia A UN member state A None Because of the Macedonia naming dispute, the country is referred to by the UN and a number of states and international organizations as "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia".
Madagascar – Republic of Madagascar A UN member state A None
Malawi – Republic of Malawi A UN member state A None
Malaysia A UN member state A None Malaysia is a federation of 13 states and three federal territories.
Maldives – Republic of Maldives A UN member state A None
Mali – Republic of Mali A UN member state A None
Malta – Republic of Malta A UN member state A None Member of the EU.
Marshall Islands – Republic of the Marshall Islands A UN member state A None Under Compact of Free Association with the .
Mauritania – Islamic Republic of Mauritania A UN member state A None
Mauritius – Republic of Mauritius A UN member state A None Mauritius has an autonomous island, Rodrigues.
Mexico – United Mexican States A UN member state A None Mexico is a federation of 31 states and one autonomous city.
Micronesia – Federated States of Micronesia A UN member state A None Under Compact of Free Association with the . The Federated States of Micronesia is a federation of four states.
Moldova – Republic of Moldova A UN member state A None Moldova has the autonomous regions of Gagauzia and , the latter of which has established a de facto state.
Monaco – Principality of Monaco A UN member state A None
Mongolia A UN member state A None
Montenegro A UN member state A None
Morocco – Kingdom of Morocco A UN member state A None Morocco claims sovereignty over Western Sahara and controls most of it, which is disputed by the .
Mozambique – Republic of Mozambique A UN member state A None
Myanmar – Republic of the Union of Myanmar A UN member state A None
ZZZNagorno-Karabakh → A UN member state A None
Namibia – Republic of Namibia A UN member state A None
Nauru – Republic of Nauru A UN member state A None
Nepal – Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal A UN member state A None Nepal is a federation composed of 14 zones.
Netherlands – Kingdom of the Netherlands A UN member state A None Member of the EU. The Kingdom of the Netherlands includes four areas with substantial autonomy:
  • Aruba
  • Curaçao
  • the Netherlands
  • Sint Maarten

The continental part of the Netherlands, Aruba, Curaçao, and Sint Maarten form the four constituent countries of the Kingdom. Three other territories (Bonaire, Saba, and Sint Eustatius) are special municipalities of the continental Netherlands.

The designation "Netherlands" can refer either to the continental Netherlands or to the short name for the entire Kingdom (e.g. in international organizations). The Kingdom of the Netherlands as a whole is a member of the EU, but EU law applies only to parts within Europe.

New Zealand A UN member state A None New Zealand is a Commonwealth realm, and has the dependent territories of:
  • Ross Dependency
  • Tokelau

New Zealand has responsibilities for (but no rights of control over) two freely associated states:

  • Cook Islands
  • Niue

The Cook Islands and Niue have diplomatic relations with 41 and with 19 UN members respectively. They have full treaty-making capacity in the UN, and are members of some UN specialized agencies.

Nicaragua – Republic of Nicaragua A UN member state A None Nicaragua contains two autonomous regions, Atlántico Sur and Atlántico Norte.
Niger – Republic of Niger A UN member state A None
Nigeria – Federal Republic of Nigeria A UN member state A None Nigeria is a federation of 36 states and 1 federal territory.
ZZZNiue → A UN member state A None
ZZZNorthern Cyprus → A UN member state A None
North Korea → A UN member state A None
Norway – Kingdom of Norway A UN member state A None
  • Svalbard is an integral part of Norway, but has a special status due to the Svalbard Treaty.
  • Jan Mayen is an island that is an integral part of Norway, although unincorporated.

Norway has the dependent territories of:

  • Bouvet Island
  • Peter I Island
  • Queen Maud Land
Oman – Sultanate of Oman A UN member state A None
Pakistan – Islamic Republic of Pakistan A UN member state A None Pakistan is a federation of four provinces, 1 capital territory, and tribal regions. Pakistan disputes the entire territory of Kashmir with India, and part of it with the People's Republic of China. It exercises control over certain portions of Kashmir, but has not officially annexed any of it, instead regarding it as a disputed territory. The portions that it controls are divided into two territories, administered separately from Pakistan proper:
  • Azad Kashmir
  • Gilgit Baltistan

Azad Kashmir describes itself as a "self-governing state under Pakistani control", while Gilgit-Baltistan is described in its governance order as a group of "areas" with self-government. These territories are not usually regarded as sovereign, as they do not fulfill the criteria set out by the declarative theory of statehood (for example, their current laws do not allow them to engage independently in relations with other states). Several state functions of these territories (such as foreign affairs and defence) are performed by Pakistan.

Palau – Republic of Palau A UN member state A None Under Compact of Free Association with the .
Palestine – State of Palestine A UN observer state; member of one UN specialized agency Partially unrecognized. B Claimed by Claimed by Claimed by Claimed by Claimed by the Claimed by the Claimed by Claimed by Claimed by the Disputed by Claimed by Claimed by Claimed by The declared State of Palestine has received diplomatic recognition from 136 states. The proclaimed state has no agreed territorial borders, or effective control on much of the territory that it proclaimed. The Palestinian National Authority is an interim administrative body formed as a result of the Oslo Accords that exercises limited autonomous jurisdiction within the Palestinian territories. In foreign relations, Palestine is represented by the Palestine Liberation Organization. The State of Palestine is a member state of UNESCO, and an observer state in the UN.
Panama – Republic of Panama A UN member state A None
Papua New Guinea – Independent State of Papua New Guinea A UN member state A None Papua New Guinea is a Commonwealth realm with 1 autonomous region, Bougainville.
Paraguay – Republic of Paraguay A UN member state A None
Peru – Republic of Peru A UN member state A None
Philippines – Republic of the Philippines A UN member state A None The Philippines contains one autonomous region, Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao.
Poland – Republic of Poland A UN member state A None Member of the EU.
Portugal – Portuguese Republic A UN member state A None Member of the EU. Portugal contains two autonomous regions, Azores and Madeira.
Pridnestrovie → A UN member state A None
Qatar – State of Qatar A UN member state A None
Republic of Korea → A UN member state A None
Republic of the Congo → A UN member state A None
Romania A UN member state A None Member of the EU.
Russia – Russian Federation A UN member state A None Russia is officially a federation of 85 federal subjects (republics, oblasts, krais, autonomous okrugs, federal cities, and an autonomous oblast). Several of the federal subjects are ethnic republics. Russia also forms the Union State jointly with Belarus.
Rwanda – Republic of Rwanda A UN member state A None
ZZZSahrawi Arab Democratic Republic → A UN member state A None
Saint Kitts and Nevis – Federation of Saint Christopher and Nevis A UN member state A None Saint Kitts and Nevis is a Commonwealth realm and is a federation of two islands, St. Kitts and Nevis.
Saint Lucia A UN member state A None Saint Lucia is a Commonwealth realm.
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines A UN member state A None Saint Vincent and the Grenadines is a Commonwealth realm.
Samoa – Independent State of Samoa A UN member state A None
San Marino – Republic of San Marino A UN member state A None
São Tomé and Príncipe – Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe A UN member state A None São Tomé and Príncipe contains 1 autonomous province, Príncipe.
Saudi Arabia – Kingdom of Saudi Arabia A UN member state A None
Senegal – Republic of Senegal A UN member state A None
Serbia – Republic of Serbia A UN member state A None Serbia contains two autonomous regions, Vojvodina and Kosovo and Metohija. The latter is under the de facto control of the .
Seychelles – Republic of Seychelles A UN member state A None
Sierra Leone – Republic of Sierra Leone A UN member state A None
Singapore – Republic of Singapore A UN member state A None
Slovakia – Slovak Republic A UN member state A None Member of the EU.
Slovenia – Republic of Slovenia A UN member state A None Member of the EU.
Solomon Islands A UN member state A None The Solomon Islands is a Commonwealth realm.
Somalia – Federal Republic of Somalia A UN member state A None Somalia has two self-declared autonomous regions: Puntland and Galmudug, while the territory of has formed an unrecognised de facto state.
ZZZSomaliland → A UN member state A None
South Africa – Republic of South Africa A UN member state A None
South Korea → A UN member state A None
ZZZSouth Ossetia → A UN member state A None
South Sudan – Republic of South Sudan A UN member state A None South Sudan is a federation of 28 states.
Spain – Kingdom of Spain A UN member state A None Member of the EU. Spain is divided into 17 autonomous communities and 2 special autonomous cities.
Sri Lanka – Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka A UN member state A None Formerly known as Ceylon.
Sudan – Republic of the Sudan A UN member state A None Sudan is a federation of 18 states.
ZZZSudan, South → A UN member state A None
Suriname – Republic of Suriname A UN member state A None
Swaziland – Kingdom of Swaziland A UN member state A None
Sweden – Kingdom of Sweden A UN member state A None Member of the EU.
Switzerland – Swiss Confederation A UN member state A None Switzerland is a federation of 26 cantons.
Syria – Syrian Arab Republic A UN member state A None The Syrian National Coalition, which is recognized as the legitimate representative of the Syrian people by 20 UN members, has established an interim government to rule rebel controlled territory during the Syrian civil war.

Syria has one self-declared autonomous region: Syrian Kurdistan

ZZZTaiwan (Republic of China) → A UN member state A None
Tajikistan – Republic of Tajikistan A UN member state A None Tajikistan contains 1 autonomous region, Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province.
Tanzania – United Republic of Tanzania A UN member state A None Tanzania contains 1 autonomous region, Zanzibar.
Thailand – Kingdom of Thailand A UN member state A None
Timor-Leste → A UN member state A None
Togo – Togolese Republic A UN member state A None
Tonga – Kingdom of Tonga A UN member state A None
ZZZTransnistria → A UN member state A None
Trinidad and Tobago – Republic of Trinidad and Tobago A UN member state A None Trinidad and Tobago contains 1 autonomous region, Tobago.
Tunisia – Republic of Tunisia A UN member state A None
Turkey – Republic of Turkey A UN member state A None
Turkmenistan A UN member state A None
Tuvalu A UN member state A None Tuvalu is a Commonwealth realm.
Uganda – Republic of Uganda A UN member state A None
Ukraine A UN member state A None
United Arab Emirates A UN member state A None The United Arab Emirates is a federation of seven emirates.
United Kingdom – United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland A UN member state A None Member of the EU. The United Kingdom is a Commonwealth realm consisting of four constituent countries: England, Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales. The United Kingdom has the following overseas territories:
  • Akrotiri and Dhekelia
  • Anguilla
  • Bermuda
  • British Indian Ocean Territory
  • British Virgin Islands
  • Cayman Islands
  • Falkland Islands
  • Gibraltar
  • Montserrat
  • Pitcairn Islands
  • Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha
  • South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
  • Turks and Caicos Islands
  • British Antarctic Territory

The British monarch has direct sovereignty over three self-governing Crown dependencies:

  • Guernsey, with three dependencies:
    • Alderney
    • Herm
    • Sark
  • Isle of Man
  • Jersey
United States – United States of America A UN member state A None The United States is a federation of 50 states and 1 federal district. The United States has sovereignty over the following inhabited possessions and commonwealths:
  • American Samoa
  • Guam
  • Northern Mariana Islands
  • Puerto Rico
  • U.S. Virgin Islands

It also has sovereignty over several uninhabited territories:

  • Baker Island
  • Howland Island
  • Jarvis Island
  • Johnston Atoll
  • Kingman Reef
  • Midway Atoll
  • Navassa Island
  • Wake Island

It also has sovereignty over the following incorporated territories:

  • Palmyra Atoll

Three sovereign states have become associated states of the United States under the Compact of Free Association:

  • Marshall Islands – Republic of the Marshall Islands
  • Micronesia – Federated States of Micronesia
  • Palau – Republic of Palau

It also disputes sovereignty over the following territories:

  • Bajo Nuevo Bank
  • Serranilla Bank
Uruguay – Oriental Republic of Uruguay A UN member state A None
Uzbekistan – Republic of Uzbekistan A UN member state A None Uzbekistan contains 1 autonomous region, Karakalpakstan.
Vanuatu – Republic of Vanuatu A UN member state A None
Vatican City – Vatican City State A UN observer state under the designation of "Holy See"; member of three UN specialized agencies and the IAEA A None Administered by the Holy See, a sovereign entity with diplomatic ties to 180 states. The Holy See is a member of the IAEA, ITU, UPU, and WIPO and a permanent observer of the UN (in the category of "Non-member State") and multiple other UN System organizations. The Vatican City is governed by officials appointed by the Pope, who is the Bishop of the Diocese of Rome and ex officio sovereign of Vatican City.
Venezuela – Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela A UN member state A None Venezuela is a federation of 23 states, 1 capital district, and federal dependencies.
Vietnam – Socialist Republic of Vietnam A UN member state A None
Yemen – Republic of Yemen A UN member state A None
Zambia – Republic of Zambia A UN member state A None
Zimbabwe – Republic of Zimbabwe A UN member state A None
ZZZ↑ UN member states and observer states ↑ A ZZZ ZZZ
ZZZ AB B
ZZZ↓ Other states ↓ D AAA ZZZ
Abkhazia – Republic of Abkhazia D No membership B Claimed by Claimed by Claimed by Claimed by Claimed by the Claimed by the Claimed by Claimed by Claimed by the Disputed by Claimed by Claimed by Claimed by Recognised by Russia, Nauru, Nicaragua, Venezuela, Nagorno-Karabakh, South Ossetia and Transnistria. Claimed in whole by as the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia.
Cook Islands D Member of eight UN specialized agencies A None
(See political status)
A state in free association with , the Cook Islands maintains diplomatic relations with 44 states. The Cook Islands is a member of multiple UN agencies with full treaty making capacity. It shares a head of state with New Zealand as well as having shared citizenship.
Kosovo – Republic of Kosovo D Member of two UN specialized agencies B Claimed by Claimed by Claimed by Claimed by Claimed by the Claimed by the Claimed by Claimed by Claimed by the Disputed by Claimed by Claimed by Claimed by Pursuant to United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244, Kosovo was placed under the administration of the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo in 1999. Kosovo declared independence in 2008, and it has received diplomatic recognition from 111 UN member states and the Republic of China. Serbia continues to maintain its sovereignty claim over Kosovo. Other UN member states and non UN member states continue to recognise Serbian sovereignty or have taken no position on the question. Kosovo is a member of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank Group. The Republic of Kosovo has de facto control over most of the territory, with limited control in North Kosovo.
Nagorno-Karabakh – Republic of Artsakh D No membership B Claimed by Claimed by Claimed by Claimed by Claimed by the Claimed by the Claimed by Claimed by Claimed by the Disputed by Claimed by Claimed by Claimed by A de facto independent state, recognised only by Abkhazia, South Ossetia and Transnistria. Claimed in whole by .
Niue D Member of five UN specialized agencies A None
(See political status)
A state in free association with , Niue maintains diplomatic relations with 21 states. Niue is a member of multiple UN agencies with full treaty making capacity. It shares a head of state with New Zealand as well as having shared citizenship.
Northern Cyprus – Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus D No membership Claimed by Cyprus Recognised only by . Under the name "Turkish Cypriot State", it is an observer state of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and the Economic Cooperation Organization. Northern Cyprus is claimed in whole by the .
Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic D No membership B Claimed by Claimed by Claimed by Claimed by Claimed by the Claimed by the Claimed by Claimed by Claimed by the Disputed by Claimed by Claimed by Claimed by Recognised at some stage by 84 UN member states, 37 of which have since withdrawn or frozen their recognition. It is a founding member of the African Union and the Asian-African Strategic Partnership formed at the 2005 Asian-African Conference. The territories under its control, the so-called Free Zone, are claimed in whole by as part of its Southern Provinces. In turn, the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic claims the part of Western Sahara to the west of the Moroccan Wall controlled by Morocco. Its government resides in exile in Tindouf, .
Somaliland – Republic of Somaliland D No membership B Claimed by Claimed by Claimed by Claimed by Claimed by the Claimed by the Claimed by Claimed by Claimed by the Disputed by Claimed by Claimed by Claimed by A de facto independent state, not diplomatically recognised by any other state, claimed in whole by the .
South Ossetia – Republic of South Ossetia D No membership B Claimed by Claimed by Claimed by Claimed by Claimed by the Claimed by the Claimed by Claimed by Claimed by the Disputed by Claimed by Claimed by Claimed by A de facto independent state, recognised by Russia, Nicaragua, Nauru, Venezuela, Abkhazia, Nagorno-Karabakh, and Transnistria. Claimed in whole by as the Provisional Administrative Entity of South Ossetia.
Taiwan – Republic of China DFormer UN member (as Republic of China, 1945-1971) Observer in one UN specialized agency under the name "Chinese Taipei" B Claimed by Claimed by Claimed by Claimed by Claimed by the Claimed by the Claimed by Claimed by Claimed by the Disputed by Claimed by Claimed by Claimed by A state competing (nominally) for recognition with the People's Republic of China as the government of China since 1949. The Republic of China controls the island of Taiwan and associated islands, Quemoy, Matsu, the Pratas and parts of the Spratly Islands, and has not renounced claims over its annexed territories on the mainland. The Republic of China is recognised by 20 UN member states and the Holy See as of 21 December 2016. The territory of the Republic of China is claimed in whole by the People's Republic of China. The Republic of China participates in international organizations under a variety of pseudonyms, most commonly "Chinese Taipei" and in the WTO it has full membership. The Republic of China was a founding member of the UN and enjoyed membership from 1945 to 1971, with veto power in the security council. See China and the United Nations.
Transnistria – Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic D No membership B Claimed by Claimed by Claimed by Claimed by Claimed by the Claimed by the Claimed by Claimed by Claimed by the Disputed by Claimed by Claimed by Claimed by A de facto independent state, recognised only by Abkhazia, Nagorno-Karabakh, and South Ossetia. Claimed in whole by as the Transnistria autonomous territorial unit.
ZZZ↑ Other states ↑ D ZZZ ZZZ
ZZZZ ZZZZ ZZZZ
Legend "Membership within the UN system" column
UN Member states
UN Observer states
Member of a UN Specialized Agency
Observer in a UN Specialized Agency
No membership in the UN system
Legend "Sovereignty dispute" column
Undisputed sovereignty
Sovereignty disputed

Criteria for inclusion

The dominant customary international law standard of statehood is the declarative theory of statehood, which was codified by the Montevideo Convention of 1933. The Convention defines the state as a person of international law if it "possess[es] the following qualifications: (a) a permanent population; (b) a defined territory; (c) government; and (d) a capacity to enter into relations with the other states" so long as it was not "obtained by force whether this consists in the employment of arms, in threatening diplomatic representations, or in any other effective coercive measure".

Debate exists on the degree to which recognition should be included as a criterion of statehood. The declarative theory of statehood argues that statehood is purely objective and recognition of a state by other states is irrelevant. On the other end of the spectrum, the constitutive theory of statehood defines a state as a person under international law only if it is recognised as sovereign by other states. For the purposes of this list, included are all states that either:

  • (a) consider themselves sovereign (through a declaration of independence or some other means) and are often regarded as satisfying the declarative theory of statehood, or
  • (b) are recognised as a sovereign state by at least one UN member state

Note that in some cases, there is a divergence of opinion over the interpretation of the first point, and whether an entity satisfies it is disputed. Unique political entities which fail to meet the classification of a sovereign state are considered proto-states.

On the basis of the above criteria, this list includes the following 206 entities:

  • 203 states recognised by at least one UN member state
  • Two states that satisfy the declarative theory of statehood and are recognised only by non-UN member states: Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, Transnistria
  • One state that satisfies the declarative theory of statehood and is not recognised by any other state: Somaliland

The table includes bullets representing entities which are either not sovereign states or have a close association to another sovereign state. It also includes subnational areas where the sovereignty of the titular state is limited by an international agreement. Taken together, these include:

  • States in a free association relationship to another state
  • Two entities controlled by Pakistan which are neither sovereign states, dependent territories, or part of another state: Azad Kashmir and Gilgit Baltistan
  • Dependent territories of another state, as well as areas that exhibit many characteristics of dependent territories according to the dependent territory page
  • Subnational entities created by international agreements

See also

  • ISO 3166-1
  • Adjectivals and demonyms for countries and nations
  • Gallery of country coats of arms
  • Gallery of sovereign state flags
  • List of countries and capitals in native languages
  • List of national capitals in alphabetical order
  • List of country-name etymologies
  • List of dependent territories
  • List of international rankings
  • List of micronations
  • List of rebel groups that control territory
  • List of states with limited recognition
  • List of territorial disputes
  • Sovereign state
    • List of sovereign states and dependent territories by continent
    • List of shortest lived sovereign states
    • List of sovereign states by date of formation
      • Lists of sovereign states by year
  • Table of administrative divisions by country
  • Template:Clickable world map
  • Terra nullius

Notes

  1. This column indicates whether or not a state is a member of the United Nations. It also indicates which non-member states participate in the United Nations System through membership in the International Atomic Energy Agency or one of the specialized agencies of the United Nations. All United Nations members belong to at least one specialized agency and are parties to the statute of the International Court of Justice.
  2. This column indicates whether or not a state is the subject of a major sovereignty dispute. Only states whose entire sovereignty is disputed by another state are listed.
  3. Information is included on:
    • The extent to which a state's sovereignty is recognised internationally. More information can be found at List of states with limited recognition,
    • Membership in the European Union, where applicable,
    • Any dependencies, if applicable, which are generally not part of the territory of the sovereign state,
    • federal structure of the state, where applicable. More information can be found at Federated state,
    • Any autonomous areas inside the territory of the sovereign state,
    • Any situations where one person is the Head of State of more than one state,
    • Any governments in exile recognised by at least one state.
  4. Commonwealth realms are members of the Commonwealth of Nations in which the head of state is Queen Elizabeth II. The realms are sovereign states; see Relationship of the realms.
  5. For more information on divisions with a high degree of autonomy, see the List of autonomous areas by country.
  6. The Argentine Constitution (Art. 35) recognises the following denominations for Argentina: "United Provinces of the Río de la Plata", "Argentine Republic" and "Argentine Confederation"; furthermore, it establishes the usage of "Argentine Nation" for purposes of legislation.
  7. Formerly referred to as Dahomey, its official name until 1975.
  8. Also known as Burkina; formerly referred to as Upper Volta, its official name until 1984.
  9. The legal name for Canada is the sole word; an officially sanctioned, though disused, name is Dominion of Canada (which includes its legal title); see: Name of Canada, Dominion.
  10. The People's Republic of China (PRC) is commonly referred to as "China", while the Republic of China (ROC) is commonly referred to as "Taiwan". The ROC is also occasionally known diplomatically as Chinese Taipei, along with other names.
  11. In 1949, the Republic of China government led by the Kuomintang (KMT) lost the Chinese Civil War to the Communist Party of China (CPC) and set up a provisional capital in Taipei. The CPC established the PRC. As such, the political status of the ROC and legal status of Taiwan (alongside the territories under ROC jurisdiction) are in dispute. In 1971, the United Nations gave the China seat to the PRC and the ROC withdrew from the UN. Most states recognise the PRC to be the sole legitimate representative of all China, and the UN classifies Taiwan as "Taiwan, Province of China". The ROC has de facto relations with most sovereign states. A significant political movement within Taiwan advocates Taiwan independence.
  12. See also Dates of establishment of diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China and Foreign relations of the People's Republic of China.
  13. More information on more or less federal structures can be found at a List of federations.
  14. Also known as Congo-Kinshasa. Formerly referred to as Zaire, its official name from 1971 to 1997.
  15. Also known as Congo-Brazzaville.
  16. A simpler official short-form name has been encouraged by the Czech government: the English variant Czechia remains uncommon, but variants in Czech (Česko) and some other languages are more popular. See Name of the Czech Republic
  17. The government of East Timor uses "Timor-Leste" as the English translation.
  18. Åland was demilitarised by the Treaty of Paris in 1856, which was later affirmed by the League of Nations in 1921, and in a somewhat different context reaffirmed in the treaty on Finland's admission to the European Union in 1995.
  19. Also known as Guinea-Conakry.
  20. While sometimes referred to as the "Republic of Iceland" ([1] [2]) and sometimes its counterpart Lýðveldið Ísland in Icelandic, the official name of the country is simply Iceland. [3][4] One example of the former is the name of the Constitution of Iceland, which in Icelandic is Stjórnarskrá lýðveldisins Íslands and literally means "the Constitution of the republic of Iceland", but note that "republic" is not capitalized. The official title of the President of Iceland (Forseti Íslands) does also not include the word republic as in some other republics. See Names for Iceland.
  21. "Ireland" is the official name in English. "Republic of Ireland" (the official description in English) and "Éire" (the official name in Irish) have sometimes been used unofficially to distinguish the state from the larger island of Ireland; this is officially deprecated. See names of the Irish state.
  22. Both North Korea and South Korea claim to be the sole legitimate government of Korea. See also Foreign relations of North Korea and Foreign relations of South Korea.
  23. The government changed the state's official name in English from "Union of Myanmar" to "Republic of the Union of Myanmar" in October 2010.
  24. Sovereignty over Kashmir is disputed between and ; smaller parts are disputed by the and the . Kashmir is divided between India, Pakistan and the PRC. See the List of territorial disputes.
  25. The Constitution of the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic (Art. 1.2) recognizes "Artsakh Republic" as an alternative denomination.
  26. The sovereignty over the Spratly Islands is disputed by China, Taiwan, Vietnam, and in part by Brunei, , and the . Except for Brunei, each of these countries occupies part of the islands (see List of territorial disputes).
  27. In 1949, the Republic of China government led by the Kuomintang (KMT) lost the Chinese Civil War to the Communist Party of China (CPC) and set up a provisional capital in Taipei. The CPC established the PRC. As such, the political status of the ROC and legal status of Taiwan (alongside the territories under ROC jurisdiction) are in dispute. In 1971, the United Nations gave the China seat to the PRC and the ROC withdrew from the UN. Most states recognise the PRC to be the sole legitimate representative of all China, and the UN classifies Taiwan as "Taiwan, Province of China". The ROC has de facto relations with most sovereign states. A significant political movement within Taiwan advocates Taiwan independence.
  28. The Sovereign Military Order of Malta is not included, as despite being a sovereign entity it lacks territory and does not claim statehood. Entities considered to be micronations are not included. It is often up to debate whether a micronation truly controls its claimed territory. Also omitted from this list are all uncontacted peoples, either who live in societies that cannot be defined as states or whose statuses as such are not definitively known.
  1. The member states of the European Union have transferred part of their sovereignty in the form of legislative, executive, and judicial powers to the institutions of the EU, which is an example of supranational union. The EU has 28 member states.

References

  1. Press Release ORG/1469 (3 July 2006). "United Nations Member States". United Nations. Retrieved 28 February 2011.
  2. "Andorra country profile". BBC News. Retrieved 8 November 2011.
  3. Government of Antigua and Barbuda. "Chapter 44: The Barbuda Local Government Act" (PDF). Laws of Antigua and Barbuda. Retrieved 2010-11-10.
  4. "Pakistan Worldview, Report 21, Visit to Azerbaijan" (PDF). Senate of Pakistan Foreign Relations Committee. 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 February 2009.
  5. Nilufer Bakhtiyar: "For Azerbaijan Pakistan does not recognise Armenia as a country" 13 September 2006 [14:03] – Today.Az
  6. "Pakistan the only country not recognizing Armenia – envoy". News.Az. February 5, 2014. Retrieved February 17, 2014. We are the only country not recognizing Armenia as a state.
  7. Europa, retrieved 28 February 2011
  8. Stjepanović, Dejan (2015). "Dual Substate Citizenship as Institutional Innovation: The Case of Bosnia's Brčko District". Nationalism and Ethnic Politics. 21 (4): 382–383. doi:10.1080/13537113.2015.1095043. eISSN 1557-2986. ISSN 1353-7113. OCLC 5927465455. (subscription required (help)).
  9. Constitution of Comoros, Art. 1.
  10. Andreas S. Kakouris (July 9, 2010). "Cyprus is not at peace with Turkey". CNN. Retrieved May 17, 2014. Turkey stands alone in violation of the will of the international community. It is the only country to recognize the "TRNC" and is the only country that does not recognize the Republic of Cyprus and its government.
  11. See Republic of Turkey Ministry for European Union Affairs Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  12. "Rotuma Act". Laws of Fiji (1978 ed.). Suva, Fiji: Government of Fiji. 1927. Retrieved 2010-07-10. Archived June 21, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.
  13. Government of Fiji, Office of the Prime Minister (1978). "Chapter 122: Rotuma Act". Laws of Fiji. University of the South Pacific. Retrieved 2010-11-10.
  14. Constitution of Greece, Art. 105.
  15. Source: Iraqi constitution
  16. Daly, Mary E. (January 2007). "The Irish Free State/Éire/Republic of Ireland/Ireland: "A Country by Any Other Name"?". Journal of British Studies. Cambridge University Press on behalf of The North American Conference on British Studies. 46 (1). doi:10.1086/508399. (subscription required (help)).
  17. Knesset website, Basic Law: Jerusalem, Capital of Israel
  18. "Disputes: International". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 8 November 2011.
  19. Gold, Dore; Institute for Contemporary Affairs (26 August 2005). "Legal Acrobatics: The Palestinian Claim that Gaza is Still "Occupied" Even After Israel Withdraws". Jerusalem Issue Brief, Vol. 5, No. 3. Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. Retrieved 2010-07-16.
  20. Bell, Abraham (28 January 2008). "International Law and Gaza: The Assault on Israel's Right to Self-Defense". Jerusalem Issue Brief, Vol. 7, No. 29. Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. Retrieved 2010-07-16.
  21. "Address by Foreign Minister Livni to the 8th Herzliya Conference" (Press release). Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Israel. 22 January 2008. Retrieved 2010-07-16.
  22. Salih, Zak M. (17 November 2005). "Panelists Disagree Over Gaza's Occupation Status". University of Virginia School of Law. Retrieved 2010-07-16.
  23. "Israel: 'Disengagement' Will Not End Gaza Occupation". Human Rights Watch. 29 October 2004. Retrieved 2010-07-16.
  24. "Treaty on Basic Relations between Japan and the Republic of Korea". Retrieved 2008-10-27.
  25. Keun Min. "Greetings". Jeju Special Self-Governing Province. Retrieved 2010-11-10.
  26. "East Libya declares self-government". Al Jazeera. November 3, 2013. Retrieved November 5, 2013.
  27. "Myanmar gets new flag, official name, anthem". Reuters. 21 October 2010. Retrieved 22 October 2010.
  28. Federal Foreign Office of Germany (November 2009). "Beziehungen zu Deutschland". Government of Germany. Retrieved 2010-07-16. For more information, see Foreign relations of the Cook Islands.
  29. China Internet Information Centre (13 December 2007). "Full text of joint communique on the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and Niue". Xinhua News Agency. Retrieved 2010-07-16.
  30. Republic of Nauru Permanent Mission to the United Nations. "Foreign Affairs". United Nations. Retrieved 2010-07-16.
  31. http://untreaty.un.org/cod/repertory/art102/english/rep_supp8_vol6-art102_e_advance.pdf
  32. Constitution of Pakistan, Art. 1.
  33. Aslam, Tasnim (11 December 2006). "'Pakistan Does Not Claim Kashmir As An Integral Part...'". Outlook India. The Outlook Group.
  34. Williams, Kristen P. (2001). Despite nationalist conflicts: theory and practice of maintaining world peace. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 154–155. ISBN 978-0-275-96934-9.
  35. Pruthi, R.K. (2001). An Encyclopaedic Survey Of Global Terrorism In 21St Century. Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. pp. 120–121. ISBN 978-81-261-1091-9.
  36. http://home.ajk.gov.pk/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=72&catid=14
  37. http://gbtribune.files.wordpress.com/2012/09/self-governance-order-2009.pdf
  38. Political Handbook of the World 2014. Retrieved 5 October 2014.
  39. http://www.ajkassembly.gok.pk/AJK_Interim_Constitution_Act_1974.pdf
  40. Palestine Liberation Organization. "Road For Palestinian Statehood: Recognition and Admission". Negotiations Affairs Department. Retrieved 2011-07-28.
  41. See the following on statehood criteria:
    • Mendes, Errol (30 March 2010). "Statehood and Palestine for the purposes of Article 12 (3) of the ICC Statute" (PDF). 30 March 2010: 28, 33. Retrieved 2011-04-17: "...the Palestinian State also meets the traditional criteria under the Montevideo Convention..."; "...the fact that a majority of states have recognised Palestine as a State should easily fulfill the requisite state practice".
    • McKinney, Kathryn M. (1994). "The Legal Effects of the Israeli-PLO Declaration ofPrinciples: Steps Toward Statehood for Palestine". Seattle University Law Review. Seattle University. 18 (93): 97. Retrieved 2011-04-17: "It is possible, however, to argue for Palestinian statehood based on the constitutive theory".
    • McDonald, Avril (Spring 2009). "Operation Cast Lead: Drawing the Battle Lines of the Legal Dispute". Human Rights Brief. Washington College of Law, Center for Human Rights and Humanitarian Law. 25. Retrieved 2011-04-17: "Whether one applies the criteria of statehood set out in the Montevideo Convention or the more widely accepted constitutive theory of statehood, Palestine might be considered a state."
  42. "Non-member States and Entities". United Nations. 29 February 2008. Retrieved 30 August 2010.
  43. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. "Arab States: Palestine". United Nations. Retrieved 3 December 2011.
  44. "Bilateral relations of the Holy See". Holy See website. Retrieved 2012-06-05.
  45. "Chavez Backs Abkhazia, South Ossetia". St. Petersburg Times. Associated Press. 27 July 2010. Retrieved 5 June 2011.
  46. Абхазия, Южная Осетия и Приднестровье признали независимость друг друга и призвали всех к этому же (in Russian). newsru.com. 2006-11-17. Retrieved 2011-06-05.
  47. "United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo". UN. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
  48. Ker-Lindsay, James (2012). The Foreign Policy of Counter Secession: Preventing the Recognition of Contested States. Oxford University Press. p. 53. ...there are three other territories that have unilaterally declared independence and are generally regarded as having met the Montevideo criteria for statehood but have not been recognized by any states: Transnistria, Nagorny Karabakh, and Somaliland.
  49. Krüger, Heiko (2010). The Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict: A Legal Analysis. Springer. p. 55. ISBN 978-3-642-11787-9.
  50. Nikoghosyan, Hovhannes (August 2010). "Kosovo ruling implications for Armenia and Azerbaijan". HULIQ.com. Hareyan Publishing, LLC. Retrieved 2011-04-17.
  51. Вице-спикер парламента Абхазии: Выборы в НКР соответствуют всем международным стандартам: "Абхазия, Южная Осетия, НКР и Приднестровье уже давно признали независимость друг друга и очень тесно сотрудничают между собой", – сказал вице-спикер парламента Абхазии. ... "...Абхазия признала независимость Нагорно-Карабахской Республики..." – сказал он."
  52. "In detail: The foreign policy of Pridnestrovie". Pridnestrovie. 2010-05-26. Retrieved 2010-06-29.
  53. See Regions and territories: Nagorno-Karabakh (17 January 2006). BBC News. Retrieved January 17, 2006.
  54. See The World Factbook|Cyprus (10 January 2006). Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved January 17, 2006.
  55. "Self-Determination, Sovereignty, and the Failure of States: Somaliland and the Case for Justified Secession" (PDF). Minnesota Journal of International Law. 19:2: 380–381. 2010. Considering each of these factors, Somaliland has a colorable argument that it meets the theoretical requirements of statehood. ... On these bases, Somaliland appears to have a strong claim to statehood.
  56. International Crisis Group (23 May 2006). "Somaliland: Time for African Union leadership" (PDF). Africa Report (110): 10–13. Retrieved 2011-04-19
  57. Mesfin, Berouk (September 2009). "The political development of Somaliland and its conflict with Puntland" (PDF). ISS Paper. Institute for Security Studies (200): 8. Retrieved 2011-04-19
  58. Arieff, Alexis. "De Facto Statehood? The Strange Case of Somaliland" (PDF). Yale Journal of International Affairs (Spring/Summer 2008). Retrieved 2011-04-17
  59. See Regions and territories: Somaliland (30 December 2005). BBC News. Retrieved January 17, 2006.
  60. Jansen, Dinah (2009). "The Conflict between Self-Determination and Territorial Integrity: the South Ossetian Paradigm" (PDF). Geopolitics vs. Global Governance: Reinterpreting International Security. Centre for Foreign Policy Studies, University of Dalhousie: 222–242. ISBN 978-1-896440-61-3
  61. "Russia condemned for recognizing rebel regions". CNN.com. Cable News Network. 2008-08-26. Retrieved 2008-08-26.
  62. "Ma refers to China as ROC territory in magazine interview". Taipei Times. 2008-10-08.
  63. 'See Regions and territories: Trans-Dniester (13 December 2005). BBC News. Retrieved January 17, 2006.
  64. Hersch Lauterpacht (2012). Recognition in International Law. Cambridge University Press. p. 419. ISBN 9781107609433.
  65. Hahn, Gordon (2002). Russia's Revolution from Above, 1985-2000: Reform, Transition, and Revolution in the Fall of the Soviet Communist Regime. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers. p. 527. ISBN 978-0765800497.
  66. Griffiths, Ryan (2016). Age of Secession: The International and Domestic Determinants of State Birth. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 85, 213–242. ISBN 978-1107161627.
  67. The following bullets are grouped according to the availability of sources for the two criteria ((a) and/or (b)). This arrangement is not intended to reflect the relative importance of the two theories. Additional details are discussed in the state's individual entries.

Bibliography

  • Bissio, Roberto Remo, ed. (1995). The World: A Third World Guide: 1995/96. Montevideo: Instituto del Tercer Mundo. ISBN 978-0-85598-291-1. OCLC 476299738.
  • "Countries or areas, codes and abbreviations". Statistics Division, United Nations. 1 April 2010.
  • Davis, Tim (19 February 2009). "World Countries and States List". Timdavis.com.au.
  • "Geographic Names" (PDF). Department of Public Information, Cartographic Section, United Nations. 7 September 2000.
  • "ISO 3166-1 Country names and code elements". International Organization for Standardization. 2010.
  • "List of countries, territories and currencies". Publications Office of the European Union. 4 May 2010.
  • "The World Factbook". United States: Central Intelligence Agency. 2010.
  • World of Information (Firm), and International Chamber of Commerce (2003). Middle East Review 2003/04: The Economic and Business Report (27th ed.). London: Kogan Page. p. 161. ISBN 978-0-7494-4066-4. OCLC 51992589.
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