Baden-Württemberg, Germany

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Hotels of Baden-Württemberg

A hotel in Baden-Württemberg is an establishment that provides lodging paid on a short-term basis. Facilities provided may range from a basic bed and storage for clothing, to luxury features like en-suite bathrooms. Larger in Baden-Württemberg hotels may provide additional guest facilities such as a swimming pool, business centre, childcare, conference facilities and social function services. Hotel rooms in Baden-Württemberg are usually numbered (or named in some smaller hotels and B&Bs) to allow guests to identify their room. Some Baden-Württemberg hotels offer meals as part of a room and board arrangement. Hotel operations vary in size, function, and cost. Most Baden-Württemberg hotels and major hospitality companies that operate hotels in Baden-Württemberg have set widely accepted industry standards to classify hotel types. General categories include the following:

Upscale luxury hotels in Baden-Württemberg
An upscale full service hotel facility in Baden-Württemberg that offers luxury amenities, full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and the highest level of personalized and professional service. Luxury Baden-Württemberg hotels are normally classified with at least a Four Diamond or Five Diamond status or a Four or Five Star rating depending on classification standards.

Full service hotels in Baden-Württemberg
Full service Baden-Württemberg hotels often contain upscale full-service facilities with a large volume of full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and a variety of on-site amenities such as swimming pools, a health club, children's activities, ballrooms, on-site conference facilities, etc.

Historic inns and boutique hotels in Baden-Württemberg
Boutique hotels of Baden-Württemberg are smaller independent non-branded hotels that often contain upscale facilities of varying size in unique or intimate settings with full service accommodations. Baden-Württemberg boutique hotels are generally 100 rooms or less. Some historic inns and boutique hotels in Baden-Württemberg may be classified as luxury hotels.

Focused or select service hotels in Baden-Württemberg
Small to medium-sized hotel establishments that offer a limited amount of on-site amenities that only cater and market to a specific demographic of Baden-Württemberg travelers, such as the single business traveler. Most Baden-Württemberg focused or select service hotels may still offer full service accommodations but may lack leisure amenities such as an on-site restaurant or a swimming pool.

Economy and limited service hotels in Baden-Württemberg
Small to medium-sized Baden-Württemberg hotel establishments that offer a very limited amount of on-site amenities and often only offer basic accommodations with little to no services, these facilities normally only cater and market to a specific demographic of travelers, such as the budget-minded Baden-Württemberg traveler seeking a "no frills" accommodation. Limited service Baden-Württemberg hotels often lack an on-site restaurant but in return may offer a limited complimentary food and beverage amenity such as on-site continental breakfast service.

Guest houses and B&Bs in Baden-Württemberg
A bed and breakfast in Baden-Württemberg is a small lodging establishment that offers overnight accommodation and inclusive breakfast. Usually, Baden-Württemberg bed and breakfasts are private homes or family homes offering accommodations. The typical Baden-Württemberg B&B has between 4 and 11 rooms, with 6 being the average. Generally, guests are accommodated in private bedrooms with private bathrooms, or in a suite of rooms including an en suite bathroom. Some homes have private bedrooms with a bathroom which is shared with other guests. Breakfast is served in the bedroom, a dining room, or the host's kitchen. Often the owners of guest house themselves prepare the breakfast and clean the rooms.

Hostels in Baden-Württemberg
Baden-Württemberg hostels provide budget-oriented, sociable accommodation where guests can rent a bed, usually a bunk bed, in a dormitory and share a bathroom, lounge, and sometimes a kitchen. Rooms can be mixed or single-sex, although private rooms may also be available. Hostels are often cheaper for both the operator and occupants; many Baden-Württemberg hostels have long-term residents whom they employ as desk agents or housekeeping staff in exchange for experience or discounted accommodation.

Apartment hotels, extended stay hotels in Baden-Württemberg
Extended stay hotels are small to medium-sized Baden-Württemberg hotels that offer longer term full service accommodations compared to a traditional hotel. Extended stay hotels may offer non-traditional pricing methods such as a weekly rate that cater towards travelers in need of short-term accommodations for an extended period of time. Similar to limited and select service hotels, on-site amenities are normally limited and most extended stay hotels in Baden-Württemberg lack an on-site restaurant.

Timeshare and destination clubs in Baden-Württemberg
Baden-Württemberg timeshare and destination clubs are a form of property ownership also referred to as a vacation ownership involving the purchase and ownership of an individual unit of accommodation for seasonal usage during a specified period of time. Timeshare resorts in Baden-Württemberg often offer amenities similar that of a Full service hotel with on-site restaurant(s), swimming pools, recreation grounds, and other leisure-oriented amenities. Destination clubs of Baden-Württemberg on the other hand may offer more exclusive private accommodations such as private houses in a neighborhood-style setting.

Motels in Baden-Württemberg
A Baden-Württemberg motel is a small-sized low-rise lodging establishment similar to that of a limited service hotel, but with direct access to individual rooms from the car park. Common during the 1950s and 1960s, motels were often located adjacent to a major road, where they were built on inexpensive land at the edge of towns or along stretches of highways. They are still useful in less populated areas of Baden-Württemberg for driving travelers, but the more populated an area becomes the more hotels fill the need. Many of Baden-Württemberg motels which remain in operation have joined national franchise chains, rebranding themselves as hotels, inns or lodges.

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Travelling and vacation in Baden-Württemberg

State of Germany
Flag of Baden-Württemberg
Coat of arms of Baden-Württemberg
Coat of arms
Deutschland Lage von Baden-Württemberg.svg
Coordinates:  / 48.53778; 9.04111
Country Germany
Capital Stuttgart
• Minister-President Winfried Kretschmann (Greens)
• Governing parties Greens / CDU
• Bundesrat votes 6 (of 69)
• Total 35,751.46 km (13,803.72 sq mi)
Population (2015-12-31)
• Total 10,879,618
• Density 300/km (790/sq mi)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
• Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
ISO 3166 code DE-BW
GDP/ Nominal €461/ $507 billion (2015)
GDP per capita €42,000/ $47,000 (2015)
NUTS Region DE1
A campaign sticker, translated, "We can [do] anything. Except [speak] Standard German." This is an allusion to Baden-Württemberg being one of the principal centres for innovation in Germany and having many inhabitants with distinctive dialects.

Baden-Württemberg (/ˈbɑːdən vɜːrtəmˌbɜːrɡ/; German pronunciation: [ˌbaːdn̩ˈvʏʁtm̩bɛʁk]) is a state in Germany located in the southwest, east of the Upper Rhine. It is Germany’s third largest state in terms of size and population, with an area of 35,751 square kilometres (13,804 sq mi) and 10.8 million inhabitants. The state capital and largest city is Stuttgart.

The sobriquet Ländle ("small land" or "dear land" in the local dialect) is sometimes used as a synonym for Baden-Württemberg.

Baden-Württemberg: History

Main article: History of Baden-Württemberg

Today's Baden-Württemberg is formed from the historical territories of Baden, Prussian Hohenzollern, and the Württemberg part of Swabia.

In 100 AD, The Roman Empire invaded and occupied Württemberg, constructing a limes (fortified boundary zone) along its northern borders. Over the course of the third century AD, the Alamanni forced the Romans to retreat beyond the Rhine and Danube rivers. In 496 AD the Alemanni themselves succumbed to a Frankish invasion led by Clovis I.

After World War II, Allied forces established three federal states in the territory of modern-day Baden-Württemberg: Württemberg-Hohenzollern, Baden, and Württemberg-Baden. Baden and Württemberg-Baden were occupied by France and the United States respectively. In 1949, each state became a founding member of the Federal Republic of Germany, with Article 118 of the German constitution providing an accession procedure. On 16 December 1951, Württemberg-Baden, Württemberg-Hohenzollern and Baden voted in favor of a joint merger via referendum. Baden-Württemberg officially became a state in Germany on 25 April 1952.

Baden-Württemberg: Geography

Baden-Württemberg shares borders with France (region of Grand Est), Switzerland (cantons of Basel-Landschaft, Basel-Stadt, Aargau, Zürich, Schaffhausen and Thurgau), and the German states of Rhineland Palatinate, Hessen, and Bavaria.

Most of the major cities of Baden-Württemberg straddle the banks of the Neckar River, which runs downstream (from southwest to the center, then northwest) through the state past Tübingen, Stuttgart, Heilbronn, Heidelberg, and Mannheim.

The Rhine (German: Rhein) forms the western border as well as large portions of the southern border. The Black Forest (Schwarzwald), the main mountain range of the state, rises east of the Upper Rhine valley. The high plateau of the Swabian Alb, between the Neckar, the Black Forest, and the Danube, is an important European watershed. Baden-Württemberg shares Lake Constance (Bodensee, also known regionally as the Swabian Sea) with Switzerland (the border is the middle of the lake) and it shares the foothills of the Alps (known as the Allgäu) with Bavaria and the Austrian Vorarlberg (but Baden-Württemberg does not border Austria over land).

The Danube (Donau) river has its source in Baden-Württemberg near the town of Donaueschingen, in a place called Furtwangen in the Black Forest. Täfelberg is a mountain located in the Northern Black Forest and is 565.2 metres above sea level.

Baden-Württemberg: Government

Baden-Württemberg: Administration


Baden-Württemberg is divided into thirty-five districts (Landkreise) and nine independent cities (Stadtkreise), both grouped into the four Administrative Districts (Regierungsbezirke) of Freiburg, Karlsruhe, Stuttgart, and Tübingen.

Cities and Districts in Baden-Wuerttemberg.svg

  1. Alb-Donau
  2. Biberach
  3. Bodensee
  4. Böblingen
  5. Breisgau-Hochschwarzwald
  6. Calw
  7. Konstanz (Constance)
  8. Emmendingen
  9. Enzkreis
  10. Esslingen
  11. Freudenstadt
  12. Göppingen
  13. Heidenheim
  14. Heilbronn
  15. Hohenlohe
  16. Karlsruhe
  17. Lörrach
  18. Ludwigsburg
  1. Main-Tauber
  2. Neckar-Odenwald-Kreis
  3. Ortenaukreis
  4. Ostalbkreis
  5. Rastatt
  6. Ravensburg
  7. Rems-Murr-Kreis
  8. Reutlingen
  9. Rhein-Neckar-Kreis
  10. Rottweil
  11. Schwäbisch Hall
  12. Schwarzwald-Baar-Kreis
  13. Sigmaringen
  14. Tübingen
  15. Tuttlingen
  16. Waldshut
  17. Zollernalbkreis

Baden-Württemberg contains nine additional independent cities not belonging to any district:

Code City
Area (km) Population
A Baden-Baden 140.18 52,672 54,853 Karlsruhe
B Freiburg
im Breisgau
153.06 200,519 219,430 Freiburg
C Heidelberg 108.83 139,941 145,311 Karlsruhe
D Heilbronn 99.88 120,987 121,627 Stuttgart
E Karlsruhe 173.46 276,571 288,917 Karlsruhe
F Mannheim 144.96 310,475 309,795 Karlsruhe
G Pforzheim 98.02 118,079 119,423 Karlsruhe
H Stuttgart 207.35 585,274 597,176 Stuttgart
I Ulm 118.69 115,628 121,434 Tübingen

Baden-Württemberg: Politics

Main article: Politics of Baden-Württemberg

The state parliament of Baden-Württemberg is the Landtag (Eng. state assembly).

The politics of Baden-Württemberg have traditionally been dominated by the conservative Christian Democratic Union of Germany (CDU), who until 2011 had led all but one government since the establishment of the state in 1952. In the Landtag elections held on 27 March 2011 voters replaced the Christian Democrats and centre-right Free Democrats coalition by a Greens-led alliance with the Social Democrats which secured a four-seat majority in the state parliament.

From 1992 to 2001, the Republicans party held seats in the Landtag.

Baden-Württemberg: 2016 state election

Main article: Baden-Württemberg state election, 2016
e • d Summary of the 13 March 2016 Landtag of Baden-Württemberg elections results
< 2011 Flag of Baden-Württemberg.svg Next >
Party Popular vote Seats
Votes % +/– Seats +/–
Alliance '90/The Greens
Bündnis 90/Die Grünen
1,622,631 30.3 Increase6.1 47 Increase11
Christian Democratic Union
Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands – CDU
1,447,249 27.0 Decrease12.0 42 Decrease18
Alternative for Germany
Alternative für Deutschland – AfD
809,311 15.1 Increase15.1 23 Increase23
Social Democratic Party
Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands – SPD
679,872 12.7 Decrease10.4 19 Decrease16
Free Democratic Party
Freie Demokratische Partei – FDP
445,430 8.3 Increase3.0 12 Increase5
Left Party
Die Linke
156,211 2.9 Increase0.1 0
Alliance for Progress and Renewal
Allianz für Fortschritt und Aufbruch – ALFA
54,764 1.0 Increase1.0 0
Ecological Democratic Party
Ökologisch-Demokratische Partei – ÖDP
38,509 0.7 Decrease0.2 0
National Democratic Party
Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands – NPD
23,605 0.4 Decrease0.6 0
Pirate Party
21,773 0.4 Decrease0.6 0
Other parties
Valid votes 5,360,351 99.0 Increase0.4
Invalid votes 51,950 1.0 Decrease0.4
Totals and voter turnout 5,412,301 70.4 Increase4.2 143 Increase5
Electorate 7,685,778 100.00 -
Source: Landeswahlleiter

Baden-Württemberg: Other state institutions

The Baden-Württemberg General Auditing Office acts as an independent body to monitor the correct use of public funds by public offices.

Baden-Württemberg: Economy

SAP headquarters in Walldorf

Although Baden-Württemberg has relatively few natural resources compared to other regions of Germany, the state is among the most prosperous and wealthiest regions in Europe with a generally low unemployment rate historically. A number of well-known enterprises are headquartered in the state, for example Daimler AG, Porsche, Robert Bosch GmbH (automobile industry), Carl Zeiss AG (optics), and SAP SE (largest software enterprise in Europe) and Heidelberger Druckmaschinen (precision mechanical engineering). In spite of this, Baden-Württemberg's economy is dominated by small and medium-sized enterprises. Although poor in workable natural resources (formerly lead, zinc, iron, silver, copper, and salts) and still rural in many areas, the region is heavily industrialised. In 2003, there were almost 8,800 manufacturing enterprises with more than 20 employees, but only 384 with more than 500. The latter category accounts for 43% of the 1.2 million persons employed in industry. The Mittelstand or mid-sized company is the backbone of the Baden-Württemberg economy. Medium-sized businesses and a tradition of branching out into different industrial sectors have ensured specialization over a wide range. A fifth of the "old" Federal Republic's industrial gross value added is generated by Baden-Württemberg. Turnover for manufacturing in 2003 exceeded 240,000 million, 43% of which came from exports. The region depends to some extent on global economic developments, though the great adaptability of the region's economy has generally helped it through crises. Half of the employees in the manufacturing industry are in mechanical and electrical engineering and automobile construction. This is also where the largest enterprises are to be found. The importance of the precision mechanics industry also extends beyond the region's borders, as does that of the optical, clock making, toy, metallurgy and electronics industries. The textile industry, which formerly dominated much of the region, has now all but disappeared from Baden-Württemberg. Research and development (R&D) is funded jointly by the State and industry. In 2001, more than a fifth of the 100,000 or so persons working in R&D in Germany were located in Baden-Württemberg, most of them in the Stuttgart area. Baden-Württemberg is also one of the Four Motors for Europe.

A study performed in 2007 by the PR campaign "Initiative for New Social Market Economy" (German: Initiative Neue Soziale Marktwirtschaft (INSM)) and the trade newspaper "Wirtschaftswoche" awarded Baden-Württemberg for being the "economically most successful and most dynamic state" among the 16 states.

Baden-Württemberg: Tourism

The Black Forest seen from the Belchen

Baden-Württemberg is a popular holiday destination. Main sights include the capital and biggest city, Stuttgart, modern and historic at the same time, with its urban architecture and atmosphere (and famously, its inner city parks and historic Wilhelma zoo), its castles (such as Castle Solitude), its (car and art) museums as well as a rich cultural programme (theatre, opera) and mineral spring baths in Stuttgart-Bad Cannstatt (also the site of a Roman Castra); it is the only major city in Germany with vineyards in an urban territory.

The residential (court) towns of Ludwigsburg and Karlsruhe, the spas and casino of luxurious Baden-Baden, the medieval architecture of Ulm (Ulm Münster is the tallest church in the world), the vibrant, young, but traditional university towns of Heidelberg and Tübingen with their old castles looking out above the river Neckar, are popular smaller towns. Sites of former monasteries such as the ones on Reichenau Island and at Maulbronn (both World Heritage Sites) as well as Bebenhausen Abbey are to be found. Baden-Württemberg also boasts rich old Free Imperial Cities such as Biberach, Esslingen am Neckar, Heilbronn, Ravensburg, Reutlingen, and Schwäbisch Hall, as well as the southernmost and sunniest city of Germany, Freiburg, close to Alsace and Switzerland, being an ideal base for exploring the heights of the nearby Black Forest (e.g., for skiing in winter or for hiking in summer) with its traditional villages and the surrounding wine country of the Rhine Valley of South Baden.

The countryside of the lush Upper Neckar valley (where Rottweil is famous for its carnival (Fastnacht)) and the pristine Danube valley Swabian Alb (with Hohenzollern Castle and Sigmaringen Castle), as well as the largely pristine Swabian Forest, the Upper Rhine Valley, and Lake Constance (German: Bodensee), where all kinds of water sports are popular, with the former Imperial, today border town of Konstanz (where the Council of Constance took place), the Neolithic and Bronze Age village at Unteruhldingen, the flower island of Mainau, and the hometown of the Zeppelin, Friedrichshafen a.o., are especially popular for outdoor activities in the summer months.

In spring and autumn (April/May and September/October), beer festivals (fun fairs) take place at the Cannstatter Wasen in Stuttgart. The Cannstatter Volksfest, in the autumn, is the second largest such festival in the world after the Munich Oktoberfest. In late November and early December Christmas markets are a tourist magnet in all major towns, with the largest being in Stuttgart during the three weeks prior to Christmas.

The Bertha Benz Memorial Route is a 194 km signposted scenic route from Mannheim via Heidelberg and Wiesloch to Pforzheim and back, which follows the route of the world's first long-distance journey by automobile which Bertha Benz undertook in August 1888.

Baden-Württemberg: Companies owned by Baden-Württemberg

Company Industry Percentage owned Source
EnBW Energy industry 45%
Badische Staatsbrauerei Rothaus Beverage industry 100%

Baden-Württemberg: Education

The University Library Freiburg was reopened in 2015.
University of Karlsruhe, since 2009: Karlsruhe Institute of Technology

Baden-Württemberg is home to some of the oldest, most renowned, and prestigious universities in Germany, such as the universities of Heidelberg (founded in 1386, the oldest university within the territory of modern Germany), Freiburg (founded in 1457), and Tübingen (founded in 1477). It also contains three of the eleven German 'excellence universities' (Heidelberg, Tübingen, and Konstanz and formerly, Freiburg and Karlsruhe).

Other university towns are Mannheim and Ulm. Furthermore, two universities are located in the state capital Stuttgart, the University of Hohenheim, and the University of Stuttgart. Ludwigsburg is home to the renowned national film school Filmakademie Baden-Württemberg (Film Academy Baden-Wuerttemberg). The private International University in Germany was situated in Bruchsal, but closed in 2009. There is still another private university, located in Friedrichshafen, Zeppelin University.

Furthermore, there are more than a dozen Fachhochschulen, i.e., universities of applied sciences, as well as Pädagogische Hochschulen, i.e., teacher training colleges, and other institutions of tertiary education in Baden-Württemberg. (a.o. in Aalen, Biberach an der Riss, Esslingen, Karlsruhe, Ludwigsburg, Nürtingen, Pforzheim, Ravensburg-Weingarten, Reutlingen, several in Stuttgart, Schwäbisch Hall). Pforzheim University is one of the oldest Fachhochschulen in Germany which is renowned and highly ranked for its Engineering and MBA programs.

The state has the highest density of academic institutions of any territorial state (i.e., excluding Berlin and Hamburg) in Germany.

Baden-Württemberg: Dialects

See also: Alemannic separatism

Two dialect groups of German are spoken in Baden-Württemberg in various variants: Alemannic and Franconian dialects. In central and southern Württemberg, the Alemannic dialect of Swabian is spoken (slightly differing even within the area, e.g., between Upper Swabia, the Swabian Alb, and the central Neckar Valley of the Stuttgart region). In South Baden, the local dialects are Low Alemannic and High Alemannic (i.e., variants of what is also Swiss German). In the northern part of Baden, i.e., the former Kurpfalz (Electorate of the Palatinate) with the former capitals of Heidelberg and Mannheim, the idiom is Rhine Franconian (i.e., Palatinate German), while in the Northeast East Franconian is spoken.

The same or similar Alemannic dialects are also spoken in the neighbouring regions, especially in Bavarian Swabia, Alsace (Alsatian), German-speaking Switzerland (Swiss German), and the Austrian Vorarlberg, while the other Franconian dialects range from the Netherlands over the Rhineland, Lorraine, and Hesse up to northern Bavaria Franconia.

A variant of the Alemannic German of Baden developed into the Colonia Tovar dialect, spoken by descendants of immigrants from Baden who went to Venezuela in 1843.

Baden-Württemberg: Demographics

The population of Baden-Württemberg is 10,486,660 (2014), of which 5,354,105 are female and 5,132,555 are male. In 2006, the birth rate of 8.61 per 1000 was almost equal to the death rate of 8.60 per 1000. 14.87 percent of the population was under the age of 15, whereas the proportion of people aged 65 and older was at 18.99 per cent (2008). The dependency ratio - the ratio of people aged under 15 and over 64 in comparison to the working age population (aged 15–64) - was 512 per 1000 (2008).

Baden-Württemberg has long been a preferred destination of immigrants. As of 2013, almost 28% of its population had a migration background as defined by the Federal Statistical Office of Germany; this number clearly surpassed the German average of 21% and was higher than in any other German state with the exception of the city states of Hamburg and Bremen. As of 2014, 9,355,239 of the population held German citizenship, whereas 1,131,421 were foreign nationals.

Largest cities or towns in Baden-Württemberg
Rank Regierungsbezirk Pop.
1 Stuttgart Stuttgart (region) 613,392 Karlsruhe
Freiburg im Breisgau
Freiburg im Breisgau
2 Mannheim Karlsruhe (region) 314,931
3 Karlsruhe Karlsruhe (region) 297,488
4 Freiburg im Breisgau Freiburg (region) 229,144
5 Heidelberg Karlsruhe (region) 149,633
6 Heilbronn Stuttgart (region) 124,257
7 Ulm Tübingen (region) 123,672
8 Pforzheim Karlsruhe (region) 120,709
9 Reutlingen Tübingen (region) 112,735
10 Esslingen am Neckar Stuttgart (region) 92,629

Baden-Württemberg: Religion

Religion in Baden-Württemberg, 2011
religion percent
Roman Catholics
EKD Protestants
Other religions or none

Northern and most of central Württemberg has been traditionally Protestant (particularly Lutheran) since the Reformation in 1534 (with its centre at the famous Tübinger Stift). The former Electorate of the Palatinate (Northwestern Baden) with its capital Heidelberg was shaped by Calvinism before being integrated into Baden. Upper Swabia, and the Upper Neckar Valley up to the bishop seat of Rottenburg, and Southern Baden (the Catholic archbishop has its seat in Freiburg) have traditionally been bastions of Roman Catholicism.

Baden-Württemberg: See also

  • Minister-President of Baden-Württemberg
  • List of places in Baden-Württemberg
  • Four Motors of Europe
  • History of Baden-Württemberg
  • Württemberg
  • Baden

Baden-Württemberg: Footnotes

  1. "The State and its people". Baden-Württemberg. Retrieved 18 December 2016.
  2. "Gemeinden in Deutschland nach Fläche, Bevölkerung und Postleitzahl am 30.09.2016". Statistisches Bundesamt (in German). 2016.
  4. "The State and its people". Baden-Württemberg. Retrieved 18 December 2016.
  5. ISBN 3-12-539683-2
  6. "Our State". Baden-Württemberg. Retrieved 18 December 2016.
  7. "man-English Dictionary: ["little country"; local nickname for the state of Baden Wuerttemberg]". Retrieved 29 January 2015.
  8. "Baden-Württemberg: Kein schöner Ländle". ZEIT MAGAZIN. Retrieved 21 January 2017.
  9. Andrea Schulte-Peevers; Anthony Haywood; Sarah Johnstone; Jeremy Gray; Daniel Robinson (2007). Germany. ISBN 978-1-74059-988-7. Retrieved 1 February 2009.
  10. The Republikaner(REP): 15 from 146 MPs in 1992 and 14 from 155 MPs in 1996. "Baden-Württemberg. Results of the election from 1964–2011.". Statistisches Landesamt Baden-Württemberg.
  11. Vorläufiges Ergebnis der Landtagswahl am 13.03.2016
  13. "Government and organs of state". Baden-Württemberg. Retrieved 30 March 2011.
  14. Cooke, p. 84
  15. "BADEN – WÜRTTEMBERG – Economy". Eurostat. June 2004. Archived from the original on 23 December 2008. Retrieved 16 January 2009.
  16. Haase, Nina (30 March 2011). "Business leaders wary of Greens' state election victory". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 30 March 2011.
  17. "Bevölkerung 2013 nach Migrationshintergrund und Ländern". Statistisches Bundesamt. Retrieved 29 July 2015.
  18. "Government and organs of state". Statistische Ämter des Bundes und der Länder. Retrieved 14 April 2014.

Baden-Württemberg: References

  • Philip Cooke, Kevin Morgan (1998). The Associational Economy: Firms, Regions, and Innovation. ISBN 978-0-19-829659-1.
  • Climate change in Baden-Württemberg: facts – impacts – perspectives / LUBW; Baden-Württemberg, Ministerium für Umwelt, Naturschutz und Verkehr. [In collab. with Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Meteorology and Climate Research; Süddeutsches Klimabüro. Transl.: InTra eG Fachübersetzergenossenschaft], Stuttgart: Baden-Württemberg Ministry of the Environment, Nature Conservation and Transport Karlsruhe: LUBW, 2010.
  • Official website
  • Baden-Württemberg at DMOZ
  • Geographic data related to Baden-Württemberg at OpenStreetMap
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