Views from the Vrsuta Mountains
|Location of Bar, Montenegro|
|Coordinates: / 42.10; 19.10 / 42.10; 19.10|
|Founded||6th century as Antipargal
|• Mayor||Zoran Srzentić (DPS)|
|• Total||598 km (231 sq mi)|
|Population (2011 census)|
|• Density||67.0/km (174/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|Area code||+382 30|
|ISO 3166-2 code||ME-02|
Bar (Montenegrin Cyrillic: Бар, pronounced [bâr], Italian: Antivari, Albanian: Tivar) is a coastal town and seaport in southern Montenegro. It is the capital of the Bar Municipality and a center for tourism. In 2011, its population was 40,037.
Bar is a shortened form of Antivari, which is derived from the town's location across the Adriatic Sea from Bari, Italy. Variations are in Italian, Antivari / Antibari; in Turkish, Bar; Albanian: Tivari; Greek: Θηβάριον, Thivárion, Αντιβάριον, Antivárion; in Latin, Antibarium.
Local archaeological findings date to the Neolithic era. It is assumed that Bar was mentioned as the reconstructed Roman castle, Antipargal, in the 6th century. The name Antibarium was quoted for the first time in the 10th century.
In the 6th and 7th centuries, Slavs occupied the Balkans. Duklja, a Slavic, or Serbian state, was mentioned in the 10th century. Jovan Vladimir (ruler 1000 – 1016), of Skadarska Krajina is the first ruler of Duklja whose history is known. Stefan Vojislav (ruler 1018 – 1043), the eponymous founder of the Vojislavljević dynasty, defeated the Byzantines in a battle on a hill near Bar. He made Bar his seat of power. Vojislav then expanded the area under his rule. Mihailo I of Duklja (ruler 1050 – 1081), Vojislav's son, established the Archdiocese of Antivari. He continued to fight the Byzantines in order to secure the town's independence. This led to a union of states known as the Serbian Grand Principality. From 1101 to 1166, the principality was ruled by the Vukanović dynasty. However, for much of this time, Bar was under Byzantine rule. In 1183, Stefan Nemanja conquered Bar and it stayed under Serbian control under the Nemanjić dynasty.
From 1443 to 1571, the region was ruled by the Venice. Bar (called Antivari by the Venetians, was part of the Albania Veneta. It was a city state with its own coat of arms, flag, statute and mint. In 1571, the Ottomans captured Bar and held the town until 1878. The archdiocese was preserved. One of the archbishops during this period was Andrija Zmajević. The Ottomans ceded Bar to Montenegro at the Treaty of Berlin.
Guglielmo Marconi, the Italian scientist and pioneer in wireless telegraphy, made a radio connection between Bar and Bari on 30 August 1904. In 1908, the first railroad in this part of the Balkans was put into operation. During World War I, on 16 August 1914, the Austro-Hungarian navy's light cruiser SMS Zenta and an accompanying destroyer became trapped off Bar by a very large French fleet (over twelve battleships) and in the subsequent battle of Antivari the Zenta was sunk with considerable loss of life. The destroyer escaped.
In World War II, on 13 July 1941, an uprising against the Italian occupying forces in Bar took place. In 1945, about 2,000 Albanians were killed in Bar by Yugoslav Communist Partisans. Bar was largely destroyed in World War II and rebuilt into a modern city.
In 1979, there was an earthquake that devastated Bar. It has since been rebuilt.
Bar is located on the coastal western border of Montenegro on the shore of the Adriatic Sea. It is approximately 53 kilometres (33 mi) from Podgorica, the capital of Montenegro.To the east is the largest lake in the Balkans, Lake Skadar. To the west, across the sea, is Italy.
Bar has a wind blowing from the south about 88 days a year, mostly during the winter. The southern wind is very soft and warm but raises the waves in the sea. The temperature is as in July – about 28 °C (82 °F). There are approximately 2160 sunny hours a year. In winter the temperature drops down to 10 °C (50 °F). In the Köppen climate classification, Bar has a mediterranean climate (Csa) close to a humid subtropical climate (Cfa). There is only one summer month with less than 40 millimetres (1.6 in) precipitation. Winters are cool and rainy, with an average high of 12.3 °C (54.1 °F) in January and a low of 4.3 °C (39.7 °F). Snow is very rare occurrence in Bar, it usually snows once in a few years. The highest recorded snowfall occurred during January 2000, when 9 centimetres (3.5 in) was measured. Summers are generally warmer, drier and sunnier than the winter months. During summer, the highest temperatures are around 27 to 28 °C (81 to 82 °F) and the lowest 18 °C (64 °F). Precipitation is low during the summer months, although rainfall can still occur, with July averaging 4.5 days with measurable precipitation. Spring and fall are transitional seasons that feature mild weather that can often be wet and unpredictable. There are, on average, 2523 hours of sunshine per year, ranging from a low of 111.6 hours in December to a high of 350.3 hours in July.
|Climate data for Bar, Montenegro|
|Average high °C (°F)||12.3
|Average low °C (°F)||4.3
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||156
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||12.5||12.7||12.1||11.6||8.7||7.4||4.5||4.8||6.5||9.5||13.7||13.9||117.9|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||120.9||124.3||170.5||198.0||260.4||297.0||350.3||316.2||249.0||198.4||126.0||111.6||2,522.6|
|Source: Hydrological and Meteorological Service of Montenegro|
The coastal part of Bar supports maquis shrubland with oak, holm oak, laurel, myrtle, Spanish broom, oleander, hawthorn, sloe, thorn, butcher’s broom and asparagus. To the north and the mountains, there are oak and beech forests. Citrus fruits including tangerine, orange and lemon grow in the Bar area as do pomegranates, olives, grapevines and figs. Ginkgo biloba grows in the park of King Nikola’s palace.
Skadar Lake is rich in bird life including the pelican. Game animals are found in Ostros, Rumija, Lisinj, Sutorman and Sozina and include rabbit, badger, fox, wolf and boar. At the Bar sea shore one finds various kinds of shells, snails, echinodermata, cephalopoda and crayfish.
Bar is the administrative centre of Bar Municipality, which includes the town of Sutomore and other small coastal towns. A census in 2011 recorded 42,048 people in the Bar Municipality. Bar city had 17,727 inhabitants. Bar's population has been growing from 6,742 in 1981, to 10,971 in 1991, 13,719 in 2003 and 17,727 in 2011.
The municipality of Bar is divided into 12 communes (mjesna zajednica), consisting of 83 settlements:
|Bar I||central business district|
|Bar II||Polje, Burtaisi, Čeluga, part of Rene;|
|Bar III||part of Bjeliša, Sokolana, Stara Ambulanta, Zgrade Prvoborca;|
|Bar IV||Popovići, part of Bjeliša, Ahmetov Brijeg, Vuletića Brijeg, part of Rene and Trsanj|
|Bar V||Sustaš, Zupci, Marovići, Tuđemili|
|Šušanj||Zukotrlica, Novi Pristan, Zeleni Pojas, Ilino, Šušanj, Carevići, Vitići and Paladini|
|Sutomore||Brca, Zelen, Obala Željezničke Kolonije, Mirošica I, Turke, Pobrđe, Gorelac, Miljevci, Sozina, Zankovići, Suvi Potok, Mirošica II, Zgrade, Bjelila, Papani, Haj-Nehaj, Zagrađe, Mišići, Đurmani and Čanj|
|Stari Bar (Old Bar)||Stari Bar, Baukovo, Belveder, Velembusi, Gretva, Brbot, Turčini, Menke, Mikulići, Podgrad, Bartula, Rap, Gornja Poda and Donja Poda, Tomba, Gornje Zaljevo and Donje Zaljevo|
|Mrko(je)vići||Pečurice, Dobra Voda, Grdovići, Pelinkovići, Dabezići, Velje Selo, Kunje, Velja Gorana and Mala Gorana|
|Krajina||Arbneš, Veliki Ostros, Mali Ostros, Martići, Runji, Kostanjica, Bobovište, Ckla, Tejani|
|Šestan||Livari, Gornja i Donja Briska, Gornji Murići, Donji Murići, Besa, Pinčići, Bapsulj, Šestan|
|Crmnica||Virpazar, Orahovo, Bračeni, Mikovići, Zabes, Boljevići, Sotonići, Bukovik, Mačuge, Dupilo, Popratnica, Komarno, Trnovo, Gornji Brčeli, Donji Brčeli, Brijege, Ovtočići, Tomići, Utrg, Godinje, Seoča, Krnjice, Limljani, Gluhi Do|
Ethnic composition of the municipality in 2011:
The main religion in Bar is Orthodox Christianity. However, there are churches from both the Christian Orthodox and Catholic traditions as well as mosques built by Ottomans in the Islamic tradition. Bar is the birthplace of Saint Jovan Vladimir. In 1089, the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Bar, was founded and included most of Montenegro and Serbia.
|Did not declare||1,129||2.69%|
Churches and monasteries dating to the era of the Balšić family (14th and 15th centuries) are located on the islands of Lake Skadar including Beška, Moračnik and Starčevo. This area is called the Holy Land of Montenegro.
The economy of Bar relies upon the Port of Bar, the Belgrade - Bar railway and the Sozina tunnel. The Port of Bar is the most recognizable feature of the city. It occupies 3,100 m (10,170.60 ft) of seacoast, land area of 800 ha and aquatorium of 200ha. It is capable of reloading 5 million tons of goods annually. In 1976, the Belgrade – Bar railway was opened. It made the Adriatic coast accessible to tourists, and transport to the Port of Bar. The food company, Primorka has been operating in Bar for more than 50 years. It produces olive oil and pomegranate juice. There are 95,000 olive trees, about 80,000 citrus trees (lemon, orange, tangerine and grapefruit) in the municipal area. The centre for subtropical cultures, founded in 1937, is the oldest scientific institution in Montenegro. Tourism is also a major part of Bar's economy.
Bar has a ferry line to Bari, Italy which is operated by Montenegro Lines. In season, ferries also go to Ancona, Italy. Bar is well connected with inland Montenegro, as well as with the rest of the Montenegrin coast. The Sozina tunnel, completed in 2006, shortened the road connection with Podgorica to around 50 km (31 mi). Bar is connected to other coastal towns by the Adriatic motorway, which extends from Ulcinj to Herceg Novi, and on to Croatia. Bar is also the final station of the Belgrade - Bar railway, which connects Bar with Podgorica, northern Montenegro and Serbia. Podgorica Airport is about 40 km (25 mi) from Bar. There are regular flights to Belgrade, Budapest, Zürich, Frankfurt, Ljubljana, Paris, Rome and Vienna.
Although there are some nice stony beaches in Bar itself, many tourists choose destinations in other small towns in the Bar municipality, notably Sutomore, with its beautiful long sandy beach. The natural area around Bar is mostly untouched and is rich in vegetation. The Bar municipality stretches to the southern shore of Skadar lake and encompasses Krajina region. This entire area is suitable for leisure activities and hiking. Smaller settlements near Bar, such as Dobra Voda, Sutomore and Čanj, are a favourite destination for sunbathing, as they incorporate long sandy beaches.
The Bar municipality has over 44 kilometres (27 miles) of sea coast. There are twenty beaches stretching over 9 kilometres (6 miles). In the north is Čanj, which has a 1,100-metre (3,600-foot) sandy beach. A boat takes tourists from Čanj to the Kraljičina Plaža. It lies below a natural wall of sedimentary rock. Further south is 300-metre-long (980-foot) Maljevik Beach. The beach at Sutomore, 1,200 metres (3,900 feet) long, has entertainments, activities and restaurants. Near the medieval monastery complex of Ratac is Crvena Plaža, named after the colour of its fine sand. The beach is surrounded by a pine forest and located about a hundred m from the main road to Bar. Just north of the Bar central business district is the 1,200-metre-long (3,900-foot)Žukotrlica Beach. It is a gravel beach, surrounded by a pine forest and varied Mediterranean vegetation. The Bar Gradska Plaža is located in front of King Nikola's palace. It is 750 metres (2,460 feet) long, part pebble and part sand. 10 kilometres (6 miles) south of central Bar is the 380-metre-long (1,250-foot) Veliki Pijesak. It is surrounded by numerous tourist facilities, restaurants and discothèques. On the border of the Bar and Ulcinj municipalities, in the village of Bušat, is the Val Maslina with its nearby olive groves. There are also beaches on the shore of Lake Skadar including the sandy Murici village beach and Pjesacac.
Bar has over fifty sports clubs, and associations including a chess club. There are numerous sports facilities in the Bar hotels and schools. In the centre of town, most of the facilities are in the Sports and Recreation Centre. Water sports such as diving are popular. Sports tourism is promoted because of the proximity to the sea and lake. Bar hosted the 2010 FIBA Europe Under-16 Championship and the 2010 Men's u18 European Handball Championship.
Bar is Twin towns and sister cities with:
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Bar.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bar, Montenegro.|