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Hotels of Cádiz

A hotel in Cádiz is an establishment that provides lodging paid on a short-term basis. Facilities provided may range from a basic bed and storage for clothing, to luxury features like en-suite bathrooms. Larger in Cádiz hotels may provide additional guest facilities such as a swimming pool, business centre, childcare, conference facilities and social function services. Hotel rooms in Cádiz are usually numbered (or named in some smaller hotels and B&Bs) to allow guests to identify their room. Some Cádiz hotels offer meals as part of a room and board arrangement. Hotel operations vary in size, function, and cost. Most Cádiz hotels and major hospitality companies that operate hotels in Cádiz have set widely accepted industry standards to classify hotel types. General categories include the following:

Upscale luxury hotels in Cádiz
An upscale full service hotel facility in Cádiz that offers luxury amenities, full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and the highest level of personalized and professional service. Luxury Cádiz hotels are normally classified with at least a Four Diamond or Five Diamond status or a Four or Five Star rating depending on classification standards.

Full service hotels in Cádiz
Full service Cádiz hotels often contain upscale full-service facilities with a large volume of full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and a variety of on-site amenities such as swimming pools, a health club, children's activities, ballrooms, on-site conference facilities, etc.

Historic inns and boutique hotels in Cádiz
Boutique hotels of Cádiz are smaller independent non-branded hotels that often contain upscale facilities of varying size in unique or intimate settings with full service accommodations. Cádiz boutique hotels are generally 100 rooms or less. Some historic inns and boutique hotels in Cádiz may be classified as luxury hotels.

Focused or select service hotels in Cádiz
Small to medium-sized hotel establishments that offer a limited amount of on-site amenities that only cater and market to a specific demographic of Cádiz travelers, such as the single business traveler. Most Cádiz focused or select service hotels may still offer full service accommodations but may lack leisure amenities such as an on-site restaurant or a swimming pool.

Economy and limited service hotels in Cádiz
Small to medium-sized Cádiz hotel establishments that offer a very limited amount of on-site amenities and often only offer basic accommodations with little to no services, these facilities normally only cater and market to a specific demographic of travelers, such as the budget-minded Cádiz traveler seeking a "no frills" accommodation. Limited service Cádiz hotels often lack an on-site restaurant but in return may offer a limited complimentary food and beverage amenity such as on-site continental breakfast service.

Guest houses and B&Bs in Cádiz
A bed and breakfast in Cádiz is a small lodging establishment that offers overnight accommodation and inclusive breakfast. Usually, Cádiz bed and breakfasts are private homes or family homes offering accommodations. The typical Cádiz B&B has between 4 and 11 rooms, with 6 being the average. Generally, guests are accommodated in private bedrooms with private bathrooms, or in a suite of rooms including an en suite bathroom. Some homes have private bedrooms with a bathroom which is shared with other guests. Breakfast is served in the bedroom, a dining room, or the host's kitchen. Often the owners of guest house themselves prepare the breakfast and clean the rooms.

Hostels in Cádiz
Cádiz hostels provide budget-oriented, sociable accommodation where guests can rent a bed, usually a bunk bed, in a dormitory and share a bathroom, lounge, and sometimes a kitchen. Rooms can be mixed or single-sex, although private rooms may also be available. Hostels are often cheaper for both the operator and occupants; many Cádiz hostels have long-term residents whom they employ as desk agents or housekeeping staff in exchange for experience or discounted accommodation.

Apartment hotels, extended stay hotels in Cádiz
Extended stay hotels are small to medium-sized Cádiz hotels that offer longer term full service accommodations compared to a traditional hotel. Extended stay hotels may offer non-traditional pricing methods such as a weekly rate that cater towards travelers in need of short-term accommodations for an extended period of time. Similar to limited and select service hotels, on-site amenities are normally limited and most extended stay hotels in Cádiz lack an on-site restaurant.

Timeshare and destination clubs in Cádiz
Cádiz timeshare and destination clubs are a form of property ownership also referred to as a vacation ownership involving the purchase and ownership of an individual unit of accommodation for seasonal usage during a specified period of time. Timeshare resorts in Cádiz often offer amenities similar that of a Full service hotel with on-site restaurant(s), swimming pools, recreation grounds, and other leisure-oriented amenities. Destination clubs of Cádiz on the other hand may offer more exclusive private accommodations such as private houses in a neighborhood-style setting.

Motels in Cádiz
A Cádiz motel is a small-sized low-rise lodging establishment similar to that of a limited service hotel, but with direct access to individual rooms from the car park. Common during the 1950s and 1960s, motels were often located adjacent to a major road, where they were built on inexpensive land at the edge of towns or along stretches of highways. They are still useful in less populated areas of Cádiz for driving travelers, but the more populated an area becomes the more hotels fill the need. Many of Cádiz motels which remain in operation have joined national franchise chains, rebranding themselves as hotels, inns or lodges.

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Travelling and vacation in Cádiz

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This article is about the Spanish city. For other uses, see Cadiz (disambiguation).
"Gadira" redirects here. For the genus of moths, see Gadira (moth).
Cádiz
Municipality
Cádiz
Cádiz
Flag of Cádiz
Flag
Coat of arms of Cádiz
Coat of arms
Municipal location in the Province of Cádiz
Municipal location in the Province of Cádiz
Cádiz is located in Andalusia
Cádiz
Cádiz
Cádiz is located in Spain
Cádiz
Cádiz
Location of Cádiz
Coordinates:  / 36.533; -6.283  / 36.533; -6.283
Country Spain
Region Andalusia
Province Cádiz
County Bay of Cádiz
Judicial district Cádiz
Commonwealth Municipios de la Bahía de Cádiz
Founded Phoenicians; 1104 BC
Government
• Type Mayor-council
• Body Ayuntamiento de Cádiz
• Mayor José María González (Por Cádiz Sí Se Puede)
Area
• Total 12.10 km (4.67 sq mi)
Elevation 11 m (36 ft)
Population (2012)
• Total 123,948
• Density 10,000/km (27,000/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Gaditano (m), Gaditana (f)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
• Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 11071
Dialing code (+34) 956
Patron Saints Saint Servando & Saint Germán
Our Lady of the Rosary
Website http://www.cadiz.es

Cádiz (/kəˈdɪz/, Spanish: [ˈkaðiθ]; see other pronunciations below) is a city and port in southwestern Spain. It is the capital of the province of Cádiz, one of eight which make up the autonomous community of Andalusia.

Cádiz, the oldest continuously inhabited city in Spain and one of the oldest in western Europe, was founded by the Phoenicians. Cádiz is sometimes counted as the most ancient city still standing in Western Europe. and has been a principal home port of the Spanish Navy since the accession of the Spanish Bourbons in the 18th century. The city is a member of the Most Ancient European Towns Network. It is also the site of the University of Cádiz.

Situated on a narrow slice of land surrounded by the sea‚ Cádiz is, in most respects, a typically Andalusian city with a wealth of attractive vistas and well-preserved historical landmarks. The older part of Cádiz within the remnants of the city walls is commonly referred to as the Old Town (Spanish: Casco Antiguo). It is characterized by the antiquity of its various quarters (barrios), among them El Pópulo, La Viña, and Santa María, which present a marked contrast to the newer areas of town. While the Old City's street plan consists of narrow winding alleys connecting large plazas, newer areas of Cádiz typically have wide avenues and more modern buildings. In addition, the city is dotted with numerous parks where exotic plants flourish, including giant trees supposedly brought to Spain by Columbus from the New World.

Cádiz: Toponymy

General view
Cádiz is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in Europe
Satellite view of Cádiz

Very little remains of the Phoenician language, but numismatic inscriptions record that they knew the site as a Gadir or Agadir (𐤀𐤂𐤃𐤓), meaning "The Wall", "The Compound", or (by metonymy) "The Stronghold". Borrowed by the Berber languages, this became the agadir (Tamazight: "wall"; Shilha: "fortified granary") common in North African place names. (The Israeli town Gedera shares a similar etymology.) The Carthaginians continued to use this name and all subsequent names have derived from it. The Greek cothon refers to a Carthaginian type of fortified basin that can be seen at ancient sites such as Motya.

Attic Greek sources hellenized Gadir as tà Gádeira (Ancient Greek: τὰ Γάδειρα), which is neuter plural. Herodotus, using Ionic Greek, transcribed it a little differently, as Gḗdeira (Γήδειρα). Rarely, as in Stephanus of Byzantium's notes on the writings of Eratosthenes, the name is given in the feminine singular form as hè Gadeíra (ἡ Γαδείρα).

In Latin, the city was known as Gādēs and its Roman colony as Augusta Urbs Iulia Gaditana ("The August City of Julia of Cádiz").

In Arabic, the Latin name became Qādis (Arabic: قادس‎‎). The Spanish Cádiz derived from this. (The accent mark is necessary to show that the stress is placed on the first syllable of the name.) The Spanish demonym for people and things from Cádiz is gaditano.

In English, the name is pronounced variously. When the accent is on the second syllable, it is usually pronounced /kəˈdɪz/ but, when the accent is on the first syllable, it may be pronounced as /ˈkdəz/, as /ˈkɑːdəz/, or as /ˈkædəz/. In Spanish, the accent is always on the first syllable but, while the usual pronunciation is [ˈkaðiθ], the local dialect says [ˈkaðis], [ˈkaði] or [ˈkai] instead. More recently, some English speakers hypercorrect and attempt to employ the Spanish lisp similarly to the British version of "Ibiza", leading to pronunciations of Cádiz with /s/ or /θ/ instead of /z/, but keeping the English vowels and the strong /d/.

Cádiz: Demographics

According to a 2016 census estimate, the population of the city of Cádiz was 118.919 (the second most populated of the province after Jerez de la Frontera with 212.830 inhabitants), and that of its metropolitan area was 629,054. Cádiz is the seventeenth-largest Spanish city. In recent years, the city's population has steadily declined; it is the only municipality of the Bay of Cádiz (the comarca composed of Cádiz, Chiclana, El Puerto de Santa María, Puerto Real, and San Fernando), whose population has diminished. Between 1995 and 2006, it lost more than 14,000 residents, a decrease of 9%.

Among the causes of this loss of population is the peculiar geography of Cádiz; the city lies on a narrow spit of land hemmed in by the sea. Consequently, there is a pronounced shortage of land to be developed. The city has very little vacant land, and a high proportion of its housing stock is relatively low in density. (That is to say, many buildings are only two or three stories tall, and they are only able to house a relatively small number of people within their "footprint".) The older quarters of Cádiz are full of buildings that, because of their age and historical significance, are not eligible for urban renewal.

Historical population of Cádiz
(Source: INE (Spain))
Year 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
Population 142,449 140,061 137,971 136,236 134,989 133,242 131,813 130,561

Two other physical factors tend to limit the city's population. It is impossible to increase the amount of land available for building by reclaiming land from the sea; a new national law governing coastal development thwarts this possibility. Also, because Cádiz is built on a sandspit, it is a costly proposition to sink foundations deep enough to support the high-rise buildings that would allow for a higher population density. As it stands, the city's skyline is not substantially different from in medieval times. A 17th-century watchtower, the Tavira Tower, still commands a panoramic view of the city and the bay despite its relatively modest 45 meters (148 ft) height. (See below.)

Cádiz is the provincial capital with the highest rate of unemployment in Spain. This, too, tends to depress the population level. Young Gaditanos, those between 18 and 30 years of age, have been migrating to other places in Spain (Madrid and Castellón, chiefly), as well as to other places in Europe and the Americas. The population younger than twenty years old is only 20.58% of the total, and the population older than sixty-five is 21.67%, making Cádiz one of the most aged cities in all of Spain.

Cádiz: Population density

The population distribution of the municipality is extremely uneven. In its inhabited areas, Cádiz is one of the most densely populated cities in Europe. The uninhabited Zona Franca industrial area, Bay of Cádiz Port Area, and Bay of Cádiz Natural Park occupy 63.63% of the municipal area. So the entire city population lives in the remaining 4.4 square kilometers (1.7 sq mi), at an average density close to 30,000 inhabitants per square kilometer. The city is divided for statistical purposes into 10 divisions, the most densely populated one having 39,592 inhabitants per square kilometer, the least having 20,835.

The table below lists the area, population, and population density of the ten statistical divisions of Cádiz. Divisions 1 to 7, the "stats divisions", belong to the old town; 8, 9 and 10 correspond to the "new city".

Area, population, and density of the statistical divisions of Cádiz
Statistical division 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Area 0.32 0.20 0.28 0.15 0.13 0.17 0.20 1.09 0.83 1.03
Population 6,794 6,315 6,989 5,752 5,147 4,637 4,167 29,936 28,487 32,157
Density 21,231.25 31,575.00 24,960.71 38,346.67 39,592.31 27,276.47 20,835.00 27,464.22 34,321.69 31,220.39

Area is in km and population density in inhabitants per square kilometer.

Cádiz: History

See also: Timeline of Cádiz
Phoenician sarcophagus found in Cádiz, now in the Archaeological Museum of Cádiz; the sarcophagus is thought to have been designed and paid for by a Phoenician merchant and made in Greece.
Votive statues of Melqart-Hercules from the Islote de Sancti Petri.
Defense of Cádiz against the English, by Francisco de Zurbarán, 1634 (Prado Museum, Madrid)
1813 Map of Cádiz
Map of Cádiz, 1886

Founded in around 1104 BC as Gadir or Agadir by Phoenicians from Tyre, Cádiz is sometimes counted as the most ancient city still standing in Western Europe. The expeditions of Himilco around Spain and France and of Hanno around Western Africa began here. The Phoenician settlement traded with Tartessos, a city-state whose exact location remains unknown but is thought to have been somewhere near the mouth of the Guadalquivir River.

One of the city's notable features during antiquity was the temple on the south end of its island dedicated to the Phoenician god Melqart, who was conflated with Hercules by the Greeks and Romans under the names "Tyrian Hercules" and "Hercules Gaditanus". It had an oracle and was famed for its wealth. In Greek mythology, Hercules was sometimes credited with founding Gadeira after performing his tenth labor, the slaying of Geryon, a monster with three heads and torsos joined to a single pair of legs. (A tumulus near Gadeira was associated with Geryon's final resting-place.) According to the Life of Apollonius of Tyana, the "Heracleum" (i.e., the temple of Melqart) was still standing during the 1st century. Some historians, based in part on this source, believe that the columns of this temple were the origin of the myth of the "pillars of Hercules".

The city fell under the sway of Carthage during Hamilcar's Iberian campaign after the First Punic War. Cádiz became a depot for Hannibal's conquest of southern Iberia, and he sacrificed there to Hercules/Melqart before setting off on his famous journey in 218 BC to cross the Alps and invade Italy. Later the city fell to Romans under Scipio Africanus in 206 BC. Under the Roman Republic and Empire, the city flourished as a port and naval base known as Gades. Suetonius relates how Julius Caesar, when visiting Gades as a quaestor (junior senator) saw a statue of Alexander the Great there and was saddened to think that he himself, though the same age, had still achieved nothing memorable.

The people of Gades had an alliance with Rome and Julius Caesar bestowed Roman citizenship on all its inhabitants in 49 BC. By the time of Augustus's census, Cádiz was home to more than five hundred equites (members of the wealthy upper class), a concentration rivaled only by Patavium (Padua) and Rome itself. It was the principal city of the Roman colony of Augusta Urbs Julia Gaditana. An aqueduct provided fresh water to the town (the island's supply was notoriously bad), running across open sea for its last leg. However, Roman Gades was never very large. It consisted only of the northwest corner of the present island, and most of its wealthy citizens maintained estates outside of it on the nearby island or on the mainland. The lifestyle maintained on the estates led to the Gaditan dancing girls becoming infamous throughout the ancient world.

Although it is not in fact the most westerly city in the Spanish peninsula, for the Romans Cádiz had that reputation. The poet Juvenal begins his famous tenth satire with the words: Omnibus in terris quae sunt a Gadibus usque Auroram et Gangen ('In all the lands which exist from Gades as far as Dawn and the Ganges...').

The overthrow of Roman power in Hispania Baetica by the Visigoths in 410 saw the destruction of the original city, of which there remain few remnants today. The site was later reconquered by Justinian in 551 as a part of the Byzantine province of Spania. It would remain Byzantine until Leovigild's reconquest in 572 returned it to the Visigothic Kingdom.

Under Moorish rule between 711 and 1262, the city was called Qādis, whence the modern Spanish name was derived. A famous Muslim legend developed concerning an "idol" (sanam Qādis) over 100 cubits tall on the outskirts of Cádiz whose magic blocked the strait of Gibraltar with contrary winds and currents; its destruction by Abd-al-Mumin c. 1145 supposedly permitted ships to sail through the strait once more. It also appeared (as Salamcadis) in the 12th-century Pseudo-Turpin's history of Charlemagne, where it was considered a statue of Muhammad and thought to warn the Muslims of Christian invasion. Classical sources are entirely silent on such a structure, but it has been conjectured that the origin of the legend was the ruins of a navigational aid constructed in late antiquity. Abd-al-Mumin (or Admiral Ali ibn-Isa ibn-Maymun) found that the idol was gilded bronze rather than pure gold, but coined what there was to help fund his revolt. The Moors were finally ousted by Alphonso X of Castile in 1262.

During the Age of Exploration, the city experienced a renaissance. Christopher Columbus sailed from Cádiz on his second and fourth voyages and the city later became the home port of the Spanish treasure fleet. Consequently, it became a major target of Spain's enemies. The 16th century saw a series of failed raids by Barbary corsairs; the greater part of the old town was consumed in a major fire in 1569; and in April, 1587, a raid by the Englishman Francis Drake occupied the harbor for three days, captured six ships, and destroyed 31 others (an event which became known in England as 'The Singeing of the King of Spain's Beard'). The attack delayed the sailing of the Spanish Armada by a year.

Inside view of Castillo de Santa Catalina

The city suffered a still more serious attack in 1596, when it was captured by another English fleet, this time under the Earls of Essex and Nottingham. 32 Spanish ships were destroyed and the city was captured, looted and occupied for almost a month. Finally, when the royal authorities refused to pay a ransom demanded by the English for returning the city intact, they burned much of it before leaving with their booty. A third English raid was mounted against the city in 1625 by George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham, and Edward Cecil, but the attempt was unsuccessful. During the Anglo-Spanish War, Admiral Robert Blake blockaded Cádiz from 1655 to 1657. In the 1702 Battle of Cádiz, the English attacked again under George Rooke and James Butler, 2nd Duke of Ormonde, but they were repelled after a costly siege.

In the 18th century, the sand bars of the Guadalquivir forced the Spanish government to transfer its American trade from Seville to Cádiz, which now commanded better access to the Atlantic. Although the empire itself was declining, Cádiz now experienced another golden age from its new importance. It became one of Spain's greatest and most cosmopolitan cities and home to trading communities from many countries, the richest of which were the Irishmen. Many of today's historic buildings in the Old City date from this era.

During the Napoleonic Wars, Cádiz was blockaded by the British from 1797 until the Peace of Amiens in 1802 and again from 1803 until the outbreak of the Peninsular War in 1808. In that war, it was one of the few Spanish cities to hold out against the invading French and their candidate Joseph Bonaparte. Cádiz then became the seat of Spain's military high command and Cortes (parliament) for the duration of the war. It was here that the liberal Spanish Constitution of 1812 was proclaimed. The citizens revolted in 1820 to secure a renewal of this constitution and the revolution spread successfully until Ferdinand VII was imprisoned in Cádiz. French forces secured the release of Ferdinand in the 1823 Battle of Trocadero and suppressed liberalism for a time. In 1868, Cádiz was once again the seat of a revolution, resulting in the eventual abdication and exile of Queen Isabella II. The Cádiz Cortes decided to reinstate the monarchy under King Amadeo just two years later.

In recent years, the city has undergone much reconstruction. Many monuments, cathedrals, and landmarks have been cleaned and restored.

Cádiz: Diocese

Main article: Roman Catholic Diocese of Cadiz y Ceuta
Easter in Cádiz
Allegoric figures of the Monument to the Constitution of 1812

The diocese of Cádiz and Ceuta is a suffragan of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Seville; that is, it is a diocese within the metropolitan see of Seville. It became a diocese in 1263 after its Reconquista (reconquest) from the Moors. By the Concordat of 1753, in which the Spanish crown also gained the rights to make appointments to church offices and to tax church lands, the diocese of Cádiz was merged with the diocese of Ceuta, a Spanish conclave on the northern coast of Africa, and the diocesan bishop became, by virtue of his office, the Apostolic Administrator of Ceuta.

Historically, the diocese counts among its most famous prelates Cardinal Juan de Torquemada, a Dominican theologian and expert on canon law, who took a leading part in the Councils of Basle and Florence, and defended, in his Summe de Ecclesia, the direct power of the pope in temporal matters. His nephew, Tomás de Torquemada, is most closely associated with the 15th century Spanish Inquisition.

Cádiz: Main sights

Among the many landmarks of historical and scenic interest in Cádiz, a few stand out. The city can boast of an unusual cathedral of various architectural styles, a theater, an old municipal building, an 18th-century watchtower, a vestige of the ancient city wall, an ancient Roman theater, and electrical pylons of an eye-catchingly modern design carrying cables across the Bay of Cádiz. The old town is characterized by narrow streets connecting squares (plazas), bordered by the sea and by the city walls. Most of the landmark buildings are situated in the plazas.

Cádiz: Plazas and their landmark buildings

The old town of Cádiz is one of the most densely populated urban areas in Europe and is packed with narrow streets. The old town benefits, though, from several striking plazas, which are enjoyed by citizens and tourists alike. These are the Plaza de Mina, Plaza San Antonio, Plaza de Candelaria, Plaza de San Juan de Dios, and Plaza de España.

Cádiz: Plaza de Mina

Located in the heart of the old town, Plaza de Mina was developed in the first half of the 19th century. Previously, the land occupied by the plaza was the orchard of the convent of San Francisco. The plaza was converted into a plaza in 1838 by the architect Torcuato Benjumeda and (later) Juan Daura, with its trees being planted in 1861. It was then redeveloped again in 1897, and has remained virtually unchanged since that time. It is named after General Francisco Espoz y Mina, a hero of the war of independence. Manuel de Falla y Matheu was born in Number 3 Plaza de Mina, where a plaque bears his name. The plaza also contains several statues, one of these is a bust of José Macpherson (a pioneer in the development of petrography, stratigraphy and tectonics) who was born in number 12 Plaza de Mina in 1839. The Museum of Cádiz, is to be found at number 5 Plaza de Mina, and contains many objects from Cádiz's 3000-year history as well as works by artists such as Peter Paul Rubens. The houses which face the plaza, many of which can be classified as neo-classical architecture or built in the style of Isabelline Gothic, were originally occupied by the Cádiz bourgeoisie.

Plaza de San Antonio and church
Plaza San Antonio in the 19th century
Cádiz Cathedral

The Plaza de la Catedral houses both the Cathedral and the Baroque church of Santiago, built in 1635.

Cádiz: Plaza de San Francisco and San Francisco Church and Convent

Patio of the Convent of San Francisco, 1881 painting by Salvador Viniegra

Located next to Plaza de Mina, this smaller square houses the San Francisco church and convent. Originally built in 1566, it was substantially renovated in the 17th century, when its cloisters were added. Originally, the Plaza de Mina formed the convent's orchard.

Cádiz: Plaza San Antonio

In the 19th century Plaza San Antonio was considered to be Cádiz's main square. The square is surrounded by a number of mansions built in neo-classical architecture or Isabelline Gothic style, once occupied by the Cádiz upper classes. San Antonio church, originally built in 1669, is also situated in the plaza.

The plaza was built in the 18th century, and on 19 March 1812 the Spanish Constitution of 1812 was proclaimed here, leading to the plaza to be named Plaza de la Constitución, and then later Plaza San Antonio, after the hermit San Antonio.

In 1954 the city's mayor proclaimed the location a historic site. All construction is prohibited.

Cádiz: Plaza de Candelaria

The Plaza de Candelaria is named after the Candelaria convent, situated in the square until it was demolished in 1873, when its grounds were redeveloped as a plaza. The plaza is notable for a statue in its centre of Emilio Castelar, president of the first Spanish republic, who was born in a house facing the square. A plaque situated on another house, states that Bernardo O'Higgins, an Irish-Chilean adventurer and former dictator of Chile also, lived in the square.

Cádiz: Plaza de la Catedral and the Cathedral

Main article: Cádiz Cathedral
The cupola of Cádiz Cathedral

One of Cádiz's most famous landmarks is its cathedral. It sits on the site of an older cathedral, completed in 1260, which burned down in 1596. The reconstruction, which was not started until 1776, was supervised by the architect Vicente Acero, who had also built the Granada Cathedral. Acero left the project and was succeeded by several other architects. As a result, this largely Baroque-style cathedral was built over a period of 116 years, and, due to this drawn-out period of construction, the cathedral underwent several major changes to its original design. Though the cathedral was originally intended to be a baroque edifice, it contains rococo elements, and was completed in the neoclassical style. Its chapels have many paintings and relics from the old cathedral and monasteries from throughout Spain.

Cádiz: Plaza de San Juan de Dios and the Old Town Hall

Construction of this plaza began in the 15th century on lands reclaimed from the sea. With the demolition of the City walls in 1906 the plaza increased in size and a statue of the Cádiz politician Segismundo Moret was unveiled. Overlooking the plaza, the Ayuntamiento is the town hall of Cádiz's Old City. The structure, constructed on the bases and location of the previous Consistorial Houses (1699), was built in two stages. The first stage began in 1799 under the direction of architect Torcuato Benjumeda in the neoclassical style. The second stage was completed in 1861 under the direction of García del Alamo, in the Isabelline Gothic (Spanish: Gótico Isabelino or, simply, the Isabelino) style. Here, in 1936, the flag of Andalusia was hoisted for the first time.

Cádiz: Plaza de España and the monument to the constitution of 1812

The Plaza de España is a large square close to the port. It is dominated by the Monument to the Constitution of 1812, which came into being as a consequence of the demolition of a portion of the old city wall. The plaza is an extension of the old Plazuela del Carbón.

Monument to the Constitution of 1812

The goal of this demolition was to create a grand new city square to mark the hundredth anniversary of the liberal constitution, which was proclaimed in this city in 1812, and provide a setting for a suitable memorial. The work is by the architect, Modesto Lopez Otero, and of the sculptor, Aniceto Marinas. The work began in 1912 and finished in 1929.

The lower level of the monument represents a chamber and an empty presidential armchair. The upper level has various inscriptions surmounting the chamber. On each side are bronze figures representing peace and war. In the centre, a pilaster rises to symbolize, in allegorical terms, the principals expressed in the 1812 constitution. At the foot of this pilaster, there is a female figure representing Spain, and, to either side, sculptural groupings representing agriculture and citizenship.

Cádiz: Plaza de Falla and the Gran Teatro Falla (Falla Grand Theater)

The original Gran Teatro was constructed in 1871 by the architect García del Alamo, and was destroyed by a fire in August 1881. The current theater was built between 1884 and 1905 over the remains of the previous Gran Teatro. The architect was Adolfo Morales de los Rios, and the overseer of construction was Juan Cabrera de la Torre. The outside was covered in red bricks and is of a neo-Mudéjar or Moorish revival style. Following renovations in the 1920s, the theater was renamed the Gran Teatro Falla, in honor of composer Manuel de Falla, who is buried in the crypt of the cathedral. After a period of disrepair in the 1980s, the theater has since undergone extensive renovation.

Cádiz: Other sights

Cádiz: Tavira tower

In the 18th century, Cádiz had more than 160 towers from which local merchants could look out to sea for arriving merchant ships. These towers often formed part of the merchants' houses. The Torre Tavira, named for its original owner, stands as the tallest remaining watchtower. It has a camera obscura, a room that uses the principle of the pinhole camera and a specially prepared convex lens to project panoramic views of the Old City onto a concave disc.

Cádiz: Admiral's House

Admiral's House

The Casa del Almirante is a palatial house, adjacent to the Plaza San Martín in the Barrio del Pópulo, which was constructed in 1690 with the proceeds of the lucrative trade with the Americas. It was built by the family of the admiral of the Spanish treasure fleet, the so-called Fleet of the Indies, Don Diego de Barrios. The exterior is sheathed in exquisite red and white Genoan marble, prepared in the workshops of Andreoli, and mounted by the master, García Narváez. The colonnaded portico, the grand staircase under the cupola, and the hall on the main floor are architectural features of great nobility and beauty. The shield of the Barrios family appears on the second-floor balcony.

Cádiz: Old customs house

Situated within the confines of the walls which protect the flank of the port of Cádiz are three identical adjacent buildings: the Customs House, the House of Hiring and the Consulate. Of the three, the former had been erected first, built in a sober neo-classical style and of ample and balanced proportions. The works began in 1765 under the direction of Juan Caballero at a cost of 7,717,200 reales.

Cádiz: Palacio de Congresos

Cádiz's refurbished tobacco factory offers international conference and trade-show facilities. Home to the third annual MAST Conference and trade-show (12 to 14 November 2008)

Cádiz: Roman theatre

Roman theatre
Main article: Roman Theatre (Cádiz)

The Roman theatre was discovered in 1980, in the El Pópulo district, after a fire had destroyed some old warehouses, revealing a layer of construction that was judged to be the foundations of some medieval buildings; the foundations of these buildings had been built, in turn, upon much more ancient stones, hand-hewn limestone of a Roman character. Systematic excavations have revealed a largely intact Roman theatre.

Pylons of Cádiz

The theatre, constructed by order of Lucius Cornelius Balbus (minor) during the 1st century BC, is the second-largest Roman theatre in the world, surpassed only by the theatre of Pompeii, south of Rome. Cicero, in his Epistulae ad Familiares ('Letters to his friends'), wrote of its use by Balbus for personal propaganda.

Cádiz: Pylons of Cádiz

The Pylons of Cádiz are electricity pylons of unusual design, one on either side of the Bay of Cádiz, used to support huge electric-power cables. The pylons are 158 meters (518 ft) high and designed for two circuits. The very unconventional construction consists of a narrow frustum steel framework with one crossbar at the top of each one for the insulators.

Cádiz: Carranza Bridge

Main article: José Leon de Carranza Bridge

Cádiz: La Pepa Bridge

La Pepa Bridge, officially "La Pepa" and also named the second bridge to Cádiz or new access to Cádiz. It will cross the Bay of Cádiz linking Cádiz with Puerto Real in mainland Spain. When the bridge is finished it will be the longest bridge in Spain and the longest span cable-stayed in this country.

Cádiz: City walls and fortifications

Arco de la Rosa

Las Puertas de Tierra originated in the 16th century, although much of the original work has disappeared. Once consisting of several layers of walls, only one of these remain today. By the 20th century it was necessary to remodel the entrance to the Old City to accommodate modern traffic. Today, the two side-by-side arches cut into the wall serve as one of the primary entrances to the city.

Las puertas de tierra

El Arco de los Blancos is the gate to the Populo district, built around 1300. It was the principal gate to the medieval town. The gate is named after the family of Felipe Blanco who built a chapel (now disappeared) above the gate.

El Arco de la Rosa ("Rose Arch") is a gate carved into the medieval walls next to the cathedral. It is named after captain Gaspar de la Rosa, who lived in the city during the 18th century. The gate was renovated in 1973.

The Baluarte de la Candelaria (fortress or stronghold of Candlemas) is a military fortification. Taking advantage of a natural elevation of land, it was constructed in 1672 at the initiative of the governor, Diego Caballero de Illescas. Protected by a seaward-facing wall that had previously served as a seawall, Candelaria's cannons were in a position to command the channels approaching the port of Cádiz. In more recent times, the edifice has served as a headquarters for the corps of military engineers and as the home to the army's homing pigeons, birds used to carry written messages over hostile terrain. Thoroughly renovated, it is now used as a cultural venue. There has been some discussion of using it to house a maritime museum, but, at present, it is designated for use as a permanent exposition space.

The Castle of San Sebastián is also a military fortification and is situated at the end of a road leading out from the Caleta beach. It was built in 1706. Today the castle remains unused, although its future uses remain much debated.

The Castle of Santa Catalina is also a military fortification, and is situated at the end of the Caleta beach. It was built in 1598 following the English sacking of Cádiz two years earlier. Recently renovated, today it is used for exhibitions and concerts.

Cádiz: Notable people born in Cádiz and Cádiz province

Main category: People from Cádiz
  • Rafael Alberti, writer
  • Juan Bautista Aznar (1860–1933), Prime Minister of Spain
  • Jose Manuel Caballero, novelist
  • Camarón de la Isla, flamenco singer
  • Manuel de Falla, composer
  • José Manuel Flores, football defender for Swansea City
  • Paco de Lucía, flamenco guitarist
  • Lucius Cornelius Balbus, consul
  • Lucius Cornelius Balbus the Younger, general
  • Lucius Junius Moderatus Columella, Roman agronomic writer
  • Miguel Martínez de Pinillos Sáenz, shio-owner and politician
  • George Meade, Union general of The American Civil War
  • Enrique MacDonell Spanish Vice-Admiral at Trafalgar
  • José Celestino Mutis, botanist and mathematician
  • Niña Pastori, or María Rosa García García, flamenco singer.
  • Esteban Piñero Camacho, known as Basty, member of the Spanish band D'NASH
  • Javier Ruibal musician, singer, songwriter
  • Suso, professional footballer for A.C. Milan

Cádiz: Climate

Cádiz has a hot-summer mediterranean climate (Köppen Csa) with significant maritime influences due to its position on a narrow peninsula. Although summer nights are tropical in nature, daytime temperatures are comparatively subdued compared to nearby inland areas such as Jerez de la Frontera and the very hot far inland areas in Andalucia.

Climate data for Cádiz (1981–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 22.5
(72.5)
25.3
(77.5)
29.0
(84.2)
31.4
(88.5)
36.5
(97.7)
37.6
(99.7)
40.0
(104)
43.0
(109.4)
37.8
(100)
31.5
(88.7)
27.6
(81.7)
23.6
(74.5)
43.0
(109.4)
Average high °C (°F) 16.0
(60.8)
16.8
(62.2)
18.8
(65.8)
19.9
(67.8)
22.1
(71.8)
25.3
(77.5)
27.7
(81.9)
27.9
(82.2)
26.3
(79.3)
23.4
(74.1)
19.6
(67.3)
16.9
(62.4)
21.6
(70.9)
Daily mean °C (°F) 12.7
(54.9)
13.8
(56.8)
15.5
(59.9)
16.8
(62.2)
19.1
(66.4)
22.4
(72.3)
24.6
(76.3)
25.0
(77)
23.3
(73.9)
20.3
(68.5)
16.5
(61.7)
13.9
(57)
18.6
(65.5)
Average low °C (°F) 9.4
(48.9)
10.7
(51.3)
12.3
(54.1)
13.7
(56.7)
16.2
(61.2)
19.5
(67.1)
21.4
(70.5)
22.0
(71.6)
20.3
(68.5)
17.3
(63.1)
13.4
(56.1)
10.9
(51.6)
15.4
(59.7)
Record low °C (°F) 0.2
(32.4)
−1.0
(30.2)
3.0
(37.4)
6.5
(43.7)
9.2
(48.6)
11.0
(51.8)
16.6
(61.9)
15.6
(60.1)
12.6
(54.7)
8.0
(46.4)
4.6
(40.3)
1.5
(34.7)
−1.0
(30.2)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 69.0
(2.717)
58.5
(2.303)
34.7
(1.366)
45.2
(1.78)
26.9
(1.059)
6.7
(0.264)
0.2
(0.008)
1.7
(0.067)
23.8
(0.937)
67.3
(2.65)
97.7
(3.846)
92.3
(3.634)
524
(20.631)
Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm) 7 6 5 6 3 1 0 0 3 6 7 8 52
Average relative humidity (%) 75 74 71 69 70 69 68 70 71 74 74 76 71.8
Source: Agencia Estatal de Meteorología

Cádiz: Beaches

La Caleta Beach
View of the cathedral from Playa de la Santamaría

Cádiz, situated on a peninsula, is home to some incredibly beautiful beaches.

La Playa de la Caleta is the best-loved beach of Cádiz. It has always been in Carnival songs, due to its unequalled beauty and its proximity to the Barrio de la Viña. It is the beach of the Old City, situated between two castles, San Sebastian and Santa Catalina. It is around 400 meters (1,300 ft) long and 30 meters (98 ft) wide at low tide. La Caleta and the boulevard show a lot of resemblance to parts of Havana, the capital city of Cuba, like the malecon. Therefore, it served as the set for several of the Cuban scenes in the beginning of the James Bond movie Die Another Day.

La Playa de la Victoria, in the newer part of Cádiz, is the beach most visited by tourists and natives of Cádiz. It is about three km long, and it has an average width of 50 meters (160 ft) of sand. The moderate swell and the absence of rocks allow family bathing. It is separated from the city by an avenue; on the landward side of the avenue, there are many shops and restaurants.

La Playa de Santa María del Mar or Playita de las Mujeres is a small beach in Cádiz, situated between La Playa de Victoria and La Playa de la Caleta. It features excellent views of the old district of Cádiz.

Other beaches are Torregorda, Cortadura and El Chato.

Cádiz: Carnival

Main article: Carnival of Cádiz
Poster advertising the 1926 Carnival of Cádiz

The Carnival of Cádiz is one of the best known carnivals in the world. Throughout the year, carnival-related activities are almost constant in the city; there are always rehearsals, public demonstrations, and contests of various kinds.

The Carnival of Cádiz is famous for the satirical groups called chirigotas, who perform comical musical pieces. Typically, a chirigota is composed of seven to twelve performers who sing, act and improvise accompanied by guitars, kazoos, a bass drum, and a variety of noise-makers. Other than the chirigotas, there are many other groups of performers: choruses; ensembles called comparsas, who sing in close harmony much like the barbershop quartets of African-American culture or the mariachis of Mexico; cuartetos, consisting of four (or sometimes three) performers alternating dramatic parodies and humorous songs; and romanceros, storytellers who recite tales in verse. These diverse spectacles turn the city into a colourful and popular open-air theatre for two entire weeks in February.

The Concurso Oficial de Agrupaciones Carnavalescas (the official association of carnival groups) sponsors a contest in the Gran Teatro Falla (see above) each year where chirigotas and other performers compete for prizes. This is the climactic event of the Cádiz carnival.

Cádiz: Gastronomy

The gastronomy of Cádiz includes stews and sweets typical of comarca and the city.

Tortillita de camarones
  • Atún encebollado
  • Caballa asada
  • Caballa con babetas
  • Cazón en adobo
  • Cazón en amarillo
  • Chocos con papas
  • Garum
  • Huevas aliñás
  • Morena en adobo
  • Pan de Cádiz
  • Panizas
  • Papas aliñás (patatas aliñadas)
  • Pescado en sobrehúsa
  • Pestiños
  • Piñonate
  • Piriñaca
  • Poleá
  • Ropa vieja
  • Tocino de cielo
  • Tortillitas de camarones

Cádiz: Transportation

Cádiz is connected to European route E5 which connects it with Sevilla, Cordoba and Madrid to the North and Algeciras to the South East, continuing as E15 northbound along the Spanish mediterranean coast.

The city does not have its own airport. The region is served by Jerez Airport, which is approximately 40km (25mi) north of the city centre. The airport offers regular domestic flights to Madrid and Barcelona as well as scheduled and seasonal charter flights to the UK, Germany and other European destinations. Local train line C1 connects the airport to Cádiz main train station in 1hr.

The main line train station is located just outside the old town. It offers regional and national services. The connection to the Madrid-Seville high-speed rail line was finished in 2015 after 14 years of construction, which extends the high speed Alvia trains to the city. Local services make the outskirts and regional destinations accessible along the line to Jerez and Seville.

The port opposite the train station provides weekly ferry services to the Canary Islands (2-3 days travel time) as well as providing a stop for seasonal cruise ships.

Cádiz: Twin towns-sister cities

Cádiz is twinned with:

  • France Brest, Brittany, France
  • Argentina Buenos Aires, Argentina
  • Cuba Havana, Cuba
  • England Medway, England
  • Uruguay Montevideo, Uruguay
  • Morocco Tangier, Morocco
  • Puerto Rico San Juan, Puerto Rico, USA
  • Philippines Intramuros, Manila, Philippines
  • Brazil Santos, Brazil
  • Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Dakhla, Western Sahara
  • United States Indio, California, USA
  • Lebanon Byblos, Lebanon
  • Spain Spain: La Coruña, Ceuta, Huelva, Móstoles, Las Palmas, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Torrevieja
  • Colombia Colombia: Cartagena de Indias, La Dorada, Santa Fe de Antioquia, Guaduas, Honda, Ambalema, San Sebastián de Mariquita & Bogotá
  • Mexico Mexico: México DF, Puebla, San Pedro Cholula, & Veracruz

Cádiz: Other relations

  • Most Ancient European Towns Network

Cádiz: See also

  • Battle of Cádiz (disambiguation)
  • Cádiz CF, football team
  • Costa de la Luz
  • List of mayors of Cadiz
  • List of streets and squares in Cadiz
  • Tribe of Gad
  • Atlantic history
  • Triangular trade
  • History of slavery

Cádiz: References

  1. "Cádiz". Collins Dictionary. n.d. Retrieved 26 September 2014.
  2. Espinosa, Pedro (2007). EL PAIS. Hallado en Cádiz un muro de 3.000 años
  3. Nash, Elizabeth (9 October 2007). "'Europe's oldest city' is found - Europe, World - The Independent". The Independent. London: INM. ISSN 0951-9467. OCLC 185201487. Retrieved 19 May 2011.
  4. Strabo, Geographica 3.5.5
  5. MAETN (1999). "diktyo". classic-web.archive.org. Archived from the original on 22 October 2005. Retrieved 19 May 2011.
  6. "Phoenician and Punic Inscriptions", p. 141. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Accessed 24 July 2013.
  7. Lipiński, Edward (2002). Semitic Languages: Outline of a Comparative Grammar. Orientalia Lovaniensia analecta. 80. Belgium: Peeters Leeuven (published 2001). p. 575. ISBN 978-90-429-0815-4.
  8. Merriam-Webster. "Cádiz". Accessed 22 July 2013.
  9. Data provided by Cádiz Municipal Authority
  10. Strabo, Geographica 3.5.5
  11. Smith, William. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography: "Gades".
  12. Life of Apollonius of Tyana, v.5.
  13. From the Life of Apollonius of Tyana: " ... the pillars in the temple were made of gold and silver smelted together so as to be of one color, and they were over a cubit high, of square form, resembling anvils; and their capitals were inscribed with letters which were neither Egyptian nor Indian nor of any kind which he could decipher. But Apollonius, since the priests would tell him nothing, remarked: 'Heracles of Egypt does not permit me not to tell all I know. These pillars are ties between earth and ocean, and they were inscribed by Heracles in the house of the Fates, to prevent any discord arising between the elements, and to save their mutual affection for one another from violation.'"
  14. Livy, 21.21.
  15. Livy (epitome) 33.
  16. Suetonius, Divi Iuli, Vita Divi Iuli 7.
  17. Strabo. Geography.
  18. Juvenal, Satires, 10.1-2.
  19. Evans, J. A. S. (2003). New Catholic Encyclopedia (2nd ed.). Justinian I, Byzantine Emperor: Gale. pp. 95–102. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  20. Turpin. Thomas Rodd, trans. History of Charles the Great and Orlando, p. 6. James Compton (London), 1812. Accessed 23 July 2013.
  21. Fear, A.T. "The Tower of Cádiz". Faventia: Revista de Filologia Clàssica, #12-13, Vol. 1-2 (1990-1991), p. 199-211. Accessed 23 Jul 2013.
  22. Ahmed ibn Mohammed al-Makkari. Pascual De Gauangos, ed. & trans. The History of the Mohammadan Dynasties in Spain, Vol. I, p. 78. Routledge, 2002. Accessed 23 July 2013.
  23. Wes Ulm. "The Defeat of the English Armada and the 16th-Century Spanish Naval Resurgence". Harvard University personal website. Archived from the original on 7 February 2004. Retrieved 30 December 2016.
  24. "Turismo - Ayuntamiento de Cádiz | Monastery and Church of San Francisco". turismo.cadiz.es. Retrieved 19 November 2015.
  25. "Plan your stay in Cádiz". España Fascinante. 2012. Archived from the original on 13 August 2016. Retrieved 13 August 2016.
  26. "The palace | Cadiz´s Conference Centre". palaciocongresos-Cádiz.com. Retrieved 19 November 2015.
  27. Pardillo (6 June 2009). "Puente de La Pepa, 3D View in Google Earth". Sketchup.google.com. Retrieved 27 November 2011.
  28. "Guía resumida del clima en España (1981-2010)". Archived from the original on 18 November 2012.
  29. "Google Maps". Maps.google.com. 1 January 1970. Retrieved 5 May 2009.
  30. "Public transport - Jerez Airport - Aena.es". www.aena.es. Retrieved 2016-12-04.
  31. "Cadiz ferry, compare prices, times and book tickets". www.directferries.co.uk. Retrieved 2016-12-04.
  32. "Port of Cadiz Bay". www.puertocadiz.com. Retrieved 2016-12-04.
  33. "Les jumelages de Brest". Mairie-brest.fr. Archived from the original on 3 April 2009. Retrieved 7 July 2009.
  • This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Cadiz". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton.
  • Cádiz travel guide from Wikivoyage
  • Official website
  • Cádiz Province Official Tourism Homepage
  • Cádiz at DMOZ
  • Google Earth view of Cádiz
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