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Hotels of Cape Verde

A hotel in Cape Verde is an establishment that provides lodging paid on a short-term basis. Facilities provided may range from a basic bed and storage for clothing, to luxury features like en-suite bathrooms. Larger in Cape Verde hotels may provide additional guest facilities such as a swimming pool, business centre, childcare, conference facilities and social function services. Hotel rooms in Cape Verde are usually numbered (or named in some smaller hotels and B&Bs) to allow guests to identify their room. Some Cape Verde hotels offer meals as part of a room and board arrangement. Hotel operations vary in size, function, and cost. Most Cape Verde hotels and major hospitality companies that operate hotels in Cape Verde have set widely accepted industry standards to classify hotel types. General categories include the following:

Upscale luxury hotels in Cape Verde
An upscale full service hotel facility in Cape Verde that offers luxury amenities, full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and the highest level of personalized and professional service. Luxury Cape Verde hotels are normally classified with at least a Four Diamond or Five Diamond status or a Four or Five Star rating depending on classification standards.

Full service hotels in Cape Verde
Full service Cape Verde hotels often contain upscale full-service facilities with a large volume of full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and a variety of on-site amenities such as swimming pools, a health club, children's activities, ballrooms, on-site conference facilities, etc.

Historic inns and boutique hotels in Cape Verde
Boutique hotels of Cape Verde are smaller independent non-branded hotels that often contain upscale facilities of varying size in unique or intimate settings with full service accommodations. Cape Verde boutique hotels are generally 100 rooms or less. Some historic inns and boutique hotels in Cape Verde may be classified as luxury hotels.

Focused or select service hotels in Cape Verde
Small to medium-sized hotel establishments that offer a limited amount of on-site amenities that only cater and market to a specific demographic of Cape Verde travelers, such as the single business traveler. Most Cape Verde focused or select service hotels may still offer full service accommodations but may lack leisure amenities such as an on-site restaurant or a swimming pool.

Economy and limited service hotels in Cape Verde
Small to medium-sized Cape Verde hotel establishments that offer a very limited amount of on-site amenities and often only offer basic accommodations with little to no services, these facilities normally only cater and market to a specific demographic of travelers, such as the budget-minded Cape Verde traveler seeking a "no frills" accommodation. Limited service Cape Verde hotels often lack an on-site restaurant but in return may offer a limited complimentary food and beverage amenity such as on-site continental breakfast service.

Guest houses and B&Bs in Cape Verde
A bed and breakfast in Cape Verde is a small lodging establishment that offers overnight accommodation and inclusive breakfast. Usually, Cape Verde bed and breakfasts are private homes or family homes offering accommodations. The typical Cape Verde B&B has between 4 and 11 rooms, with 6 being the average. Generally, guests are accommodated in private bedrooms with private bathrooms, or in a suite of rooms including an en suite bathroom. Some homes have private bedrooms with a bathroom which is shared with other guests. Breakfast is served in the bedroom, a dining room, or the host's kitchen. Often the owners of guest house themselves prepare the breakfast and clean the rooms.

Hostels in Cape Verde
Cape Verde hostels provide budget-oriented, sociable accommodation where guests can rent a bed, usually a bunk bed, in a dormitory and share a bathroom, lounge, and sometimes a kitchen. Rooms can be mixed or single-sex, although private rooms may also be available. Hostels are often cheaper for both the operator and occupants; many Cape Verde hostels have long-term residents whom they employ as desk agents or housekeeping staff in exchange for experience or discounted accommodation.

Apartment hotels, extended stay hotels in Cape Verde
Extended stay hotels are small to medium-sized Cape Verde hotels that offer longer term full service accommodations compared to a traditional hotel. Extended stay hotels may offer non-traditional pricing methods such as a weekly rate that cater towards travelers in need of short-term accommodations for an extended period of time. Similar to limited and select service hotels, on-site amenities are normally limited and most extended stay hotels in Cape Verde lack an on-site restaurant.

Timeshare and destination clubs in Cape Verde
Cape Verde timeshare and destination clubs are a form of property ownership also referred to as a vacation ownership involving the purchase and ownership of an individual unit of accommodation for seasonal usage during a specified period of time. Timeshare resorts in Cape Verde often offer amenities similar that of a Full service hotel with on-site restaurant(s), swimming pools, recreation grounds, and other leisure-oriented amenities. Destination clubs of Cape Verde on the other hand may offer more exclusive private accommodations such as private houses in a neighborhood-style setting.

Motels in Cape Verde
A Cape Verde motel is a small-sized low-rise lodging establishment similar to that of a limited service hotel, but with direct access to individual rooms from the car park. Common during the 1950s and 1960s, motels were often located adjacent to a major road, where they were built on inexpensive land at the edge of towns or along stretches of highways. They are still useful in less populated areas of Cape Verde for driving travelers, but the more populated an area becomes the more hotels fill the need. Many of Cape Verde motels which remain in operation have joined national franchise chains, rebranding themselves as hotels, inns or lodges.

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Travelling and vacation in Cape Verde

For other uses, see Cabo Verde (disambiguation) and Cape Verde (disambiguation).
Republic of Cabo Verde
República de Cabo Verde (Portuguese)
Flag of Cape Verde
National emblem of Cape Verde
Flag National emblem
Anthem: Cântico da Liberdade (Portuguese)
Chant of Freedom
Location of  Cape Verde  (dark blue)– in Africa  (light blue & dark grey)– in the African Union  (light blue)
Location of Cape Verde (dark blue)

– in Africa (light blue & dark grey)
– in the African Union (light blue)

and largest city
 / 14.917; -23.517
Official languages Portuguese
Recognised national languages Cape Verdean Creole
Ethnic groups Mixed-race 80%
Black ~17%
White ~3%
Demonym Cape Verdean or Cabo Verdean
Government Unitary semi-presidential republic
• President
Jorge Carlos Fonseca
• Prime Minister
Ulisses Correia e Silva
Legislature National Assembly
• from Portugal
5 July 1975
• Total
4,033 km (1,557 sq mi) (172nd)
• Water (%)
• 2015 estimate
525,000 (167th)
• Density
123.7/km (320.4/sq mi) (89th)
GDP (PPP) 2016 estimate
• Total
$3.649 billion
• Per capita
GDP (nominal) 2016 estimate
• Total
$1.747 billion
• Per capita
Gini (2008) 47.2
HDI (2015) Increase 0.648
medium · 122nd
Currency Cape Verdean escudo (CVE)
Time zone CVT (UTC-1)
• Summer (DST)
not observed (UTC-1)
Drives on the right
Calling code +238
ISO 3166 code CV
Internet TLD .cv

Cape Verde /ˌkp ˈvɜːrd/ or Cabo Verde /kɑːb ˈvɜːrd/, /kæ-/ (Portuguese: Cabo Verde, pronounced: [ˈkabu ˈveɾdɨ]), officially the Republic of Cabo Verde, is an island country spanning an archipelago of 10 volcanic islands in the central Atlantic Ocean. Located 570 kilometres (350 mi) off the coast of West Africa, the islands cover a combined area of slightly over 4,000 square kilometres (1,500 sq mi).

The Cape Verde archipelago was uninhabited until the 15th century, when Portuguese explorers discovered and colonized the islands, establishing the first European settlement in the tropics. Ideally located for the Atlantic slave trade, the islands grew prosperous throughout the 16th and 17th centuries, attracting merchants, privateers, and pirates. The end of slavery in the 19th century led to economic decline and emigration. Cape Verde gradually recovered as an important commercial center and stopover for shipping routes. Incorporated as an overseas department of Portugal in 1951, the islands continued to agitate for independence, which was peacefully achieved in 1975.

Since the early 1990s, Cape Verde has been a stable representative democracy, and remains one of the most developed and democratic countries in Africa. Lacking natural resources, its developing economy is mostly service-oriented, with a growing focus on tourism and foreign investment. Its population of around 512,000 is mostly of mixed European and sub-Saharan African heritage, and predominantly Roman Catholic, reflecting the legacy of Portuguese rule. A sizeable diaspora community exists across the world, slightly outnumbering inhabitants on the islands.

Historically, the name "Cape Verde" has been used in English for the archipelago and, since independence in 1975, for the country. In 2013, the Cape Verdean government determined that the Portuguese designation Cabo Verde would henceforth be used for official purposes, such as at the United Nations, even in English contexts. Cape Verde is a member of the African Union.

Cape Verde: Etymology

The name of the country stems from the nearby Cap-Vert, on the Senegalese coast. In 1444 Portuguese explorers had named that landmark as Cabo Verde, a few years before they discovered the islands. (Verde is Portuguese for "green").

On 24 October 2013, the country's delegation announced at the United Nations that the official name should no longer be translated into other languages. Instead of "Cape Verde", the designation "Republic of Cabo Verde" is to be used.

Cape Verde: History

Main article: History of Cape Verde
Insulae Capitis Viridis (1598), showing Cape Verde.
A view of Monte Cara from Mindelo.
Grain Ship "Garthpool". In 1928 wrecked at Boavista, Cape Verde.

Before the arrival of Europeans, the Cape Verde Islands were uninhabited. The islands of the Cape Verde archipelago were discovered by Genoese and Portuguese navigators around 1456. According to Portuguese official records, the first discoveries were made by Genoa-born António de Noli, who was afterwards appointed governor of Cape Verde by Portuguese King Afonso V. Other navigators mentioned as contributing to discoveries in the Cape Verde archipelago are Diogo Gomes (who was with António de Noli and claimed to have been the first to land on and name Santiago island), Diogo Dias, Diogo Afonso and the Italian (Venice-born) Alvise Cadamosto.

In 1462, Portuguese settlers arrived at Santiago and founded a settlement they called Ribeira Grande (now called Cidade Velha, to avoid being confused with the town of Ribeira Grande on the Santo Antão island). Ribeira Grande was the first permanent European settlement in the tropics.

In the 16th century, the archipelago prospered from the Atlantic slave trade. Pirates occasionally attacked the Portuguese settlements. Sir Francis Drake, an English corsair privateering under a letter of marque granted by the English crown, twice sacked the (then) capital Ribeira Grande in 1585 when it was a part of the Iberian Union. After a French attack in 1712, the town declined in importance relative to nearby Praia, which became the capital in 1770.

Decline in the slave trade in the 19th century resulted in an economic crisis. Cape Verde's early prosperity slowly vanished. However, the islands' position astride mid-Atlantic shipping lanes made Cape Verde an ideal location for re-supplying ships. Because of its excellent harbour, Mindelo (on the island of São Vicente) became an important commercial centre during the 19th century. Diplomat Edmund Roberts visited Cape Verde in 1832.

With few natural resources and inadequate sustainable investment from the Portuguese, the citizens grew increasingly discontented with the colonial masters, who nevertheless refused to provide the local authorities with more autonomy. In 1951, Portugal changed Cape Verde's status from a colony to an overseas province in an attempt to blunt growing nationalism. In 1956, Amílcar Cabral and a group of fellow Cape Verdeans and Guineans organised (in Portuguese Guinea) the clandestine African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde (PAIGC).

It demanded improvement in economic, social and political conditions in Cape Verde and Portuguese Guinea and formed the basis of the two nations' independence movement. Moving its headquarters to Conakry, Guinea in 1960, the PAIGC began an armed rebellion against Portugal in 1961. Acts of sabotage eventually grew into a war in Portuguese Guinea that pitted 10,000 Soviet Bloc-supported PAIGC soldiers against 35,000 Portuguese and African troops.

The first national flag of Cape Verde.

By 1972, the PAIGC controlled much of Portuguese Guinea despite the presence of the Portuguese troops, but the organization did not attempt to disrupt Portuguese control in Cape Verde. Portuguese Guinea declared independence in 1973 and was granted de jure independence in 1974. A budding independence movement - originally led by Amílcar Cabral, assassinated in 1973 - passed on to his half-brother Luís Cabral and culminated in independence for the archipelago in 1975.

Cape Verde: Independence (1975)

Following the April 1974 revolution in Portugal, the PAIGC became an active political movement in Cape Verde. In December 1974, the PAIGC and Portugal signed an agreement providing for a transitional government composed of Portuguese and Cape Verdeans. On 30 June 1975, Cape Verdeans elected a National Assembly which received the instruments of independence from Portugal on 5 July 1975. In the late 1970s and 1980s, most African countries prohibited South African Airways from overflights but Cape Verde allowed them and became a centre of activity for the airline's flights to Europe and the United States.

Immediately following the November 1980 coup in Guinea-Bissau, relations between Cape Verde and Guinea-Bissau became strained. Cape Verde abandoned its hope for unity with Guinea-Bissau and formed the African Party for the Independence of Cape Verde (PAICV). Problems have since been resolved and relations between the countries are good. The PAICV and its predecessor established a one-party system and ruled Cape Verde from independence until 1990.

Responding to growing pressure for pluralistic democracy, the PAICV called an emergency congress in February 1990 to discuss proposed constitutional changes to end one-party rule. Opposition groups came together to form the Movement for Democracy (MPD) in Praia in April 1990. Together, they campaigned for the right to contest the presidential election scheduled for December 1990.

The one-party state was abolished 28 September 1990, and the first multi-party elections were held in January 1991. The MPD won a majority of the seats in the National Assembly, and MPD presidential candidate António Mascarenhas Monteiro defeated the PAICV's candidate with 73.5% of the votes. Legislative elections in December 1995 increased the MPD majority in the National Assembly. The party won 50 of the National Assembly's 72 seats.

A February 1996 presidential election returned President Monteiro to office. Legislative elections in January 2001 returned power to the PAICV, with the PAICV holding 40 of the National Assembly seats, MPD 30, and Party for Democratic Convergence (PCD) and Labour and Solidarity Party (PTS) 1 each. In February 2001, the PAICV-supported presidential candidate Pedro Pires defeated former MPD leader Carlos Veiga by only 13 votes.

Cape Verde: Politics

Main article: Politics of Cape Verde
Cape Verdean Prime Minister José Maria Neves meets with the US Secretary of Defense Chuck Hagel, in 2013.

Cape Verde is a stable semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is among the most democratic nations in the world, ranking 23rd position in the world, according to the 2016 Democracy Index. The constitution - adopted in 1980 and revised in 1992, 1995 and 1999 - defines the basic principles of its government. The president is the head of state and is elected by popular vote for a 5-year term.

The prime minister is the head of government and proposes other ministers and secretaries of state. The prime minister is nominated by the National Assembly and appointed by the president. Members of the National Assembly are elected by popular vote for 5-year terms. Three parties now hold seats in the National Assembly - MPD (36), PAICV (25) and the Cape Verdean Independent Democratic Union (UCID) (3).

The judicial system consists of a Supreme Court of Justice - whose members are appointed by the president, the National Assembly, and the Board of the Judiciary - and regional courts. Separate courts hear civil, constitutional, and criminal cases. Appeal is to the Supreme Court.

The two main political parties are PAICV and MPD.

Cape Verde: Foreign relations

Further information: Foreign relations of Cape Verde

Cape Verde follows a policy of nonalignment and seeks cooperative relations with all friendly states. Angola, Brazil, the People's Republic of China, Libya, Cuba, France, Germany, Portugal, Spain, Senegal, Russia, Luxembourg, and the United States maintain embassies in Praia. Cape Verde is actively interested in foreign affairs, especially in Africa.

Cape Verde has bilateral relations with some Lusophone nations and holds membership in a number of international organisations. It also participates in most international conferences on economic and political issues. Since 2007, Cape Verde has a special partnership status with the EU, under the Cotonou Agreement, and might apply for special membership. In 2011 Cape Verde ratified the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court.

Cape Verde: Military

Main article: Cape Verdean Armed Forces

The military of Cape Verde consists of a coast guard and an army; 0.7% of the country's GDP was spent on the military in 2005.

Cape Verde: International recognition

Cape Verde is often praised as an example among African nations for its stability and developmental growth despite its lack of natural resources. Among other achievements, it has been recognised with the following assessments:

Index Score PALOP rank CPLP rank African rank World rank Year
Human Development Index 0.648 1 (top 17%) 3 (top 38%) 10 (top 19%) 122 (top 60%) 2016
Ibrahim Index of African Governance 73.0 1 (top 17%) N/A 3 (top 6%) N/A 2015
Freedom of the Press 27 (Free) 1 (top 17%) 2 (top 25%) 1 (top 2%) 48 (top 24%) 2014
Freedom in the World 1/1 1 (top 17%) 1 (top 13%) 1 (top 2%) 1 (top 1%) 2016
Press Freedom Index 21.69 1 (top 17%) 2 (top 25%) 3 (top 6%) 32 (top 16%) 2016
Democracy Index 7.94 (Flawed democracy) 1 (top 17%) 1 (top 13%) 2 (top 4%) 23 (top 12%) 2016
Corruption Perceptions Index 59 1 (top 17%) 2 (top 25%) 2 (top 4%) 38 (top 19%) 2016
Index of Economic Freedom 66.5 1 (top 17%) 1 (top 13%) 3 (top 6%) 57 (top 28%) 2016
e-Government Readiness Index 0.3551 1 (top 17%) 3 (top 38%) 14 (top 26%) 127 (top 63%) 2014
Failed States Index 74.1 1 (top 17%) 3 (top 38%) 8 (top 15%) 93 (top 46%) 2014
Networked Readiness Index 3.8 1 (top 17%) 3 (top 38%) 7 (top 13%) 87 (top 43%) 2015
See List of countries by Human Development Index#Africa
1/1 is the highest possible rating.
With the maximum score, Cape Verde shares the first place with Portugal.
Cape Verde was the only African country to reach the maximum rating.
With the maximum score, Cape Verde shares the first place with 48 other countries.
The rank on this list is expressed in reverse order. To be comparable with the other rankings on this table, the actual rank of 88 was inverted, by subtracting it from the number of countries on the list, currently 177.

Cape Verde: Geography

Main article: Geography of Cape Verde
A topographic map of Cape Verde.
The beach of Calhau, with Monte Verde in the background, on the island of São Vicente.
The summit of Pico do Fogo, the highest peak in the Cape Verde archipelago, located on the island of Fogo.
The valley at Paul, on the island of Santo Antão.

The Cape Verde archipelago is in the Atlantic Ocean, approximately 570 kilometres (350 mi) off the western coast of the African continent, near Senegal, The Gambia, and Mauritania, and is part of the Macaronesia ecoregion. It lies between latitudes 14° and 18°N, and longitudes 22° and 26°W.

The country is a horseshoe-shaped cluster of ten islands (nine inhabited) and eight islets, that constitute an area of 4033 km.

The islands are spatially divided into two groups:

  • The Barlavento Islands (windward islands): Santo Antão, São Vicente, Santa Luzia, São Nicolau, Sal, Boa Vista; and
  • The Sotavento Islands (leeward): Maio, Santiago, Fogo, Brava.

The largest island, both in size and population, is Santiago, which hosts the nation's capital, Praia, the principal urban agglomeration in the archipelago.

Three (Sal, Boa Vista and Maio) are fairly flat, sandy, and dry; the others are generally rockier with more vegetation.

Cape Verde: Physical geography and geology

Geologically, the islands, covering a combined area of slightly over 4,033 square kilometres (1,557 square miles), are principally composed of igneous rocks, with volcanic structures and pyroclastic debris comprising the majority of the archipelago's total volume. The volcanic and plutonic rocks are distinctly basic; the archipelago is a soda-alkaline petrographic province, with a petrologic succession similar to that found in other Macaronesian islands.

Magnetic anomalies identified in the vicinity of the archipelago indicate that the structures forming the islands date back 125–150 million years: the islands themselves date from 8 million (in the west) to 20 million years (in the east). The oldest exposed rocks occurred on Maio and northern peninsula of Santiago and are 128–131 million year old pillow lavas. The first stage of volcanism in the islands began in the early Miocene, and reached its peak at the end of this period, when the islands reached their maximum sizes. Historical volcanism (within human settlement) has been restricted to the island of Fogo.

The origin of the islands' volcanism has been attributed to a hotspot, associated with bathymetric swell that formed the Cape Verde Rise. The Rise is one of the largest protuberances in the world's oceans, rising 2.2 kilometres (1.4 miles) in a semi-circular region of 1200 km, associated with a rise of the geoid and elevated surface heat flow.

Most recently erupting in 2014, Pico do Fogo is the largest active volcano in the region. It has a 8 kilometres (5 miles) diameter caldera, whose rim is 1,600 metres (5,249 feet) altitude and an interior cone that rises to 2,829 metres (9,281 feet) above sea level. The caldera resulted from subsidence, following the partial evacuation (eruption) of the magma chamber, along a cylindrical column from within magma chamber (at a depth of 8 kilometres (5 miles)).

Extensive salt flats are found on Sal and Maio. On Santiago, Santo Antão, and São Nicolau, arid slopes give way in places to sugarcane fields or banana plantations spread along the base of towering mountains. Ocean cliffs have been formed by catastrophic debris landslides.

According to the president of Nauru, Cape Verde has been ranked the eighth most endangered nation due to flooding from climate change.

Cape Verde: Climate

Further information: Geography of Cape Verde § Climate

Cape Verde's climate is milder than that of the African mainland, because the surrounding sea moderates temperatures on the islands and cold Atlantic currents produce an arid atmosphere around the archipelago. Conversely, the islands do not receive the upwellings (cold streams) that affect the West African coast, so the air temperature is cooler than in Senegal, but the sea is warmer, because the orographic relief of some islands, such as Santiago with steep mountains, cover it with rich woods and luxuriant vegetation where the humid air condenses and soak the plants, rocks, soil, logs, moss, etc. On the higher islands and somewhat wetter islands, exclusively in mountainous areas, like Santo Antão island, the climate is suitable for the development of dry monsoon forest, and laurel forest as this vegetation Average daily high temperatures range from 26 °C (79 °F) in February to 31 °C (87.8 °F) in September. Cape Verde is part of the Sahelian arid belt, with nothing like the rainfall levels of nearby West Africa. It rains irregularly between August and October, with frequent brief heavy downpours. A desert is usually defined as terrain that receives less than 250 mm (9.8 in) of annual rainfall. Sal's total of (145 mm (5.7 in)) confirms this classification. Most of the year's rain falls in September.

Climate data for Cape Verde: Sal and Praia
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 33.0
Average high °C (°F) 26.1
Daily mean °C (°F) 22
Average low °C (°F) 19.7
Record low °C (°F) 10.0
Average precipitation mm (inches) 3
Average relative humidity (%) 61 58 57 56 57 61 67 50 47 67 64 63 59
Mean monthly sunshine hours 310.0 214.5 280.0 330.0 341.0 300.0 279.0 250.0 295.0 279.0 300.0 279.0 3,457.5
Source #1: (humidity, sun and mean temperature), Met Office for precipitation
Source #2: Voodoo Skies for the rest
A satellite photo of the Cape Verde islands, 2010.

Sal, Boa Vista and Maio have a flat landscape and arid climate, the remaining ones are generally rockier and have more vegetation. Because of the infrequent occurrence of rainfall the landscape is arid. The archipelago can be divided into four broad ecological zones - arid, semiarid, subhumid and humid, according to altitude and average annual rainfall ranging from 200 millimetres (7.9 inches) in the arid areas of the coast to more than 1,000 millimetres (39 inches) in the humid mountain. Most rainfall precipitation is due to condensation of the ocean mist.

A highway on Santiago Island
Assomada, city center

In some islands, as Santiago, the wetter climate of the interior and the eastern coast contrasts with the dryer one in the south/southwest coast. Praia, on the southeast coast, is the largest city of the island and the largest city and capital of the country.

Because of their proximity to the Sahara, most of the Cape Verde islands are dry, but on islands with high mountains and farther away from the coast, by orography, the humidity is much higher, providing a rainforest habitat, although much affected by the human presence. Northeastern slopes of high mountains often receive a lot of rain while southwest slopes do not. These umbria areas are identified with cool and moisture.

Western Hemisphere-bound hurricanes often have their early beginnings near the Cape Verde Islands. These are referred to as Cape Verde-type hurricanes. These hurricanes can become very intense as they cross warm Atlantic waters away from Cape Verde. The average hurricane season has about two Cape Verde-type hurricanes, which are usually the largest and most intense storms of the season because they often have plenty of warm open ocean over which to develop before encountering land. The five largest Atlantic tropical cyclones on record have been Cape Verde-type hurricanes. Most of the longest-lived tropical cyclones in the Atlantic basin are Cape Verde hurricanes.

The islands themselves have only been struck by hurricanes twice in recorded history (since 1851): once in 1892, and again in 2015 by Hurricane Fred, the easternmost hurricane ever to form in the Atlantic.

Cape Verde: Biome

Main article: Wildlife of Cape Verde

Cape Verde's isolation has resulted in the islands having a number of endemic species, particularly bird and reptiles, many of which are endangered by human development. Endemic birds include Alexander's swift (Apus alexandri), Bourne's heron (Ardea purpurea bournei), the Raso lark (Alauda razae), the Cape Verde warbler (Acrocephalus brevipennis), and the Iago sparrow (Passer iagoensis). The islands are also an important breeding area for seabirds including the Cape Verde shearwater. Reptiles include the Cape Verde giant gecko (Tarentola gigas).

Cape Verde: Administrative divisions

Main article: Administrative divisions of Cabo Verde
Aerial view of the capital of the archipelago, Praia, on the island of Santiago
Vista of Nova Sintra, the municipal seat of Brava

Cape Verde is divided into 22 municipalities (concelhos) and subdivided into 32 parishes (freguesias), based on the religious parishes that existed during the colonial period:

Barlavento Islands
Island Municipality Census 2013 Parish
Santo Antão Ribeira Grande 18,890 Nossa Senhora do Rosário
Nossa Senhora do Livramento
Santo Crucifixo
São Pedro Apóstolo
Paúl 6,997 Santo António das Pombas
Porto Novo 18,028 São João Baptista
Santo André
São Vicente São Vicente 79,374 Nossa Senhora da Luz
Santa Luzia
São Nicolau Ribeira Brava 7,580 Nossa Senhora da Lapa
Nossa Senhora do Rosário
Tarrafal de São Nicolau 5,237 São Francisco
Sal Sal 30,879 Nossa Senhora das Dores
Boa Vista Boa Vista 9,162 Santa Isabel
São João Baptista
View of downtown Mindelo en Baía do Porto Grande, São Vicente
The uninhabited islets Ilhéus Secos or Ilhéus do Rombo as seen from off the coast, with the town of Nova Sintra in the foreground
Sotavento Islands
Island Municipality Census 2010 Parish
Maio Maio 6,952 Nossa Senhora da Luz
Santiago Praia 131,719 Nossa Senhora da Graça
São Domingos 13,808 Nossa Senhora da Luz
São Nicolau Tolentino
Santa Catarina 44,388 Santa Catarina
São Salvador do Mundo 8,677 São Salvador do Mundo
Santa Cruz 26,617 Santiago Maior
São Lourenço dos Órgãos 7,388 São Lourenço dos Órgãos
Ribeira Grande de Santiago 8,325 Santíssimo Nome de Jesus
São João Baptista
São Miguel 15,648 São Miguel Arcanjo
Tarrafal 18,565 Santo Amaro Abade
Fogo São Filipe 22,248 São Lourenço
Nossa Senhora da Conceição
Santa Catarina do Fogo 5,299 Santa Catarina do Fogo
Mosteiros 9,524 Nossa Senhora da Ajuda
Brava Brava 6,952 São João Baptista
Nossa Senhora do Monte

Cape Verde: Largest cities

Cape Verde: Economy

Main article: Economy of Cape Verde
A proportional representation of Cape Verde's export products.
A market in the capital Praia.
A resort in Sal.

Cape Verde's notable economic growth and improvement in living conditions despite a lack of natural resources has garnered , with other countries and international organizations often providing development aid. Since 2007, the UN has classified it as a developing nation rather than a least developed country.

Cape Verde has few natural resources. Only five of the ten main islands (Santiago, Santo Antão, São Nicolau, Fogo, and Brava) normally support significant agricultural production, and over 90% of all food consumed in Cape Verde is imported. Mineral resources include salt, pozzolana (a volcanic rock used in cement production), and limestone. Its small number of wineries making Portuguese-style wines have traditionally focused on the domestic market, but have recently met with some international acclaim. A number of wine tours of Cape Verde's various microclimates began to be offered in spring 2010 and can be arranged through the tourism office.

The economy of Cape Verde is service-oriented, with commerce, transport, and public services accounting for more than 70% of GDP. Although nearly 35% of the population lives in rural areas, agriculture and fishing contribute only about 9% of GDP. Light manufacturing accounts for most of the remainder. Fish and shellfish are plentiful, and small quantities are exported. Cape Verde has cold storage and freezing facilities and fish processing plants in Mindelo, Praia, and on Sal. Expatriate Cape Verdeans contribute an amount estimated at about 20% of GDP to the domestic economy through remittances. In spite of having few natural resources and being semi-desert, the country boasts the highest living standards in the region, and has attracted thousands of immigrants of different nationalities.

Since 1991, the government has pursued market-oriented economic policies, including an open welcome to foreign investors and a far-reaching privatization programme. It established as top development priorities the promotion of a market economy and of the private sector; the development of tourism, light manufacturing industries, and fisheries; and the development of transport, communications, and energy facilities. From 1994 to 2000 about $407 million in foreign investments were made or planned, of which 58% were in tourism, 17% in industry, 4% in infrastructure, and 21% in fisheries and services.

In 2011, on four islands a wind farm was built that supplies about 30% of the electricity of the country. It is one of the top countries for renewable energy.

Between 2000 and 2009, real GDP increased on average by over 7 percent a year, well above the average for Sub-Saharan countries and faster than most small island economies in the region. Strong economic performance was bolstered by one of the fastest growing tourism industries in the world, as well as by substantial capital inflows that allowed Cape Verde to build up national currency reserves to the current 3.5 months of imports. Unemployment has been falling rapidly, and the country is on track to achieve most of the UN Millennium Development Goals – including halving its 1990 poverty level.

In 2007, Cape Verde joined the World Trade Organization (WTO) and in 2008 the country graduated from Least Developed Country (LDC) to Middle Income Country (MIC) status.

Cape Verde has significant cooperation with Portugal at every level of the economy, which has led it to link its currency first to the Portuguese escudo and, in 1999, to the euro. On 23 June 2008 Cape Verde became the 153rd member of the WTO.

The minimum wage has been set at 11,000.00 Cape Verde escudos (CVE) monthly (equivalent to US$110 or 101 Euros) for the first time in Cape Verdean history, in August 2013. The national minimum wage went into full effect on 1 January 2014.

Cape Verde: Development

The European Commission's total allocation for the period of 2008–2013 foreseen for Cape Verde to address "poverty reduction, in particular in rural and periurban areas where women are heading the households, as well as good governance" amounts to €54.1 million.

Cape Verde: Tourism

Main article: Tourism in Cape Verde
Yachts in Porto Grande, Mindelo on the island of São Vicente. Tourism is a growing source of income on the islands.

Cape Verde's strategic location at the crossroads of mid-Atlantic air and sea lanes has been enhanced by significant improvements at Mindelo's harbour (Porto Grande) and at Sal's and Praia's international airports. A new international airport was opened in Boa Vista in December 2007, and on the island of São Vicente, the newest international airport (Cesária Évora Airport) in Cape Verde, was opened in late 2009. Ship repair facilities at Mindelo were opened in 1983.

The major ports are Mindelo and Praia, but all other islands have smaller port facilities. In addition to the international airport on Sal, airports have been built on all of the inhabited islands. All but the airports on Brava and Santo Antão enjoy scheduled air service. The archipelago has 3,050 km (1,895 mi) of roads, of which 1,010 km (628 mi) are paved, most using cobblestone.

The country's future economic prospects depend heavily on the maintenance of aid flows, the encouragement of tourism, remittances, outsourcing labour to neighbouring African countries, and the momentum of the government's development programme.

Cape Verde: Society

Cape Verde: Demographics

Main articles: Cape Verdeans and Demographics of Cape Verde
Cape Verde's population, (1961–2003).
Cape Verde's population pyramid, 2005.

The official Census recorded that Cape Verde had a population of 512,096 in 2013. A large proportion (236,000) of Cape Verdeans live on the main island, Santiago.

Cape Verde: Ethnic groups

Local women on the island of Santiago.

The Cape Verde archipelago was uninhabited when the Portuguese discovered it in 1456. African slaves were brought to the islands to work on Portuguese plantations. Many Cape Verdeans are mulattos (mestiços in Portuguese), who have mixed African and European origins; another term is creole meaning mixed black and white descent. A lot of these Cape Verdeans have emigrated elsewhere, mainly to the United States and Europe.

European ancestors include Spanish and Italian seamen who were granted land by the Portuguese Empire, followed by Portuguese settlers, exiles, Portuguese Muslims and Portuguese Jews who were both victims of the Inquisition. Many foreigners from other parts of the world settled in Cape Verde as their permanent country. These people came from places such as the Netherlands, France, Britain, Arab countries(Lebanon and Morocco), China (especially from Macau), India, Indonesia, South America, North America and Brazil (including people of Portuguese and African descent) and were absorbed into the mestiço population. Cape Verde's population in the 21st century is mostly creole; the capital city Praia accounts for a quarter of the country's population. Over 65% of the population in the archipelago live in urban centers, and the literacy rate is around 87% (i.e., 91% among men aged 15 and above and 83% among women aged 15 and above) according to the 2013 Cape Verdean census.

A genetic study revealed that the ancestry of the population in Cape Verde is predominantly European in the male line and West African in the female line; counted together the percentage is 56% African and 44% European. The high degree of genetic and ethnic mixture of individuals is a result of centuries of migration.

Cape Verde: Languages

Cape Verde's official language is Portuguese. It is the language of instruction and government. It is also used in such media as newspapers, television, and radio.

Cape Verdean Creole is used colloquially and is the mother tongue of virtually all Cape Verdeans. The national constitution calls for the measures to give it parity with Portuguese. Cape Verdean Creole or Kriolu is a dialect continuum of a Portuguese-based creole. There is a substantial body of literature in Creole, especially in the Santiago Creole and the São Vicente Creole. Creole has been gaining prestige since the nation's independence from Portugal.

The differences between the forms of the language within the islands have been a major obstacle in the way of standardization of the language. Some people have advocated the development of two standards: a North (Barlavento) standard, centered on the São Vicente Creole, and a South (Sotavento) standard, centered on the Santiago Creole. Manuel Veiga, PhD, a linguist and Minister of Culture of Cape Verde, is the premier proponent of Kriolu's officialization and standardization.

Cape Verde: Religion

Further information: Religion in Cape Verde
Circle frame.svg

Religion in Cape Verde (2010)

Catholic Church (78.7%)
Other Christian (10.4%)
Other or Non Religious (10.9%)

Around 95% of the population are Christian. More than 85% of the population was nominally Roman Catholic in 2007. For a minority of the population, Catholicism is syncretized with African influences.

The largest Protestant denomination is the Church of the Nazarene; other groups include the Seventh-day Adventist Church, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, the Assemblies of God, the Universal Church of the Kingdom of God, and other Pentecostal and evangelical groups. There is a small Muslim community. There were Jewish settlements on several islands. The number of atheists is estimated at less than 1% of the population.

Cape Verde: Emigration and immigration

Main article: Cape Verdean diaspora

Today, more Cape Verdeans live abroad than in Cape Verde itself, with significant emigrant Cape Verdean communities in the United States (500,000 Cape Verdeans descent, with a major concentration on the New England coast from Providence, Rhode Island, to New Bedford, Massachusetts).

There are significant Cape Verde populations in Portugal (150,000), Angola (45,000), São Tomé and Príncipe (25,000), Senegal (25,000), the Netherlands (20,000, of which 15,000 are concentrated in Rotterdam), France (25,000), Spain (12,500), Italy (10,000) Luxembourg (7,000) and Scandinavia (7,000). There is a Cape Verdean community in Argentina numbering 8,000. A large number of Cape Verdeans and people of Cape Verdean descent who emigrated before 1975 are not included in these statistics, because Cape Verdeans had Portuguese passports before 1975.

The Chinese make up a sizable and important segment of the immigrant population in Cape Verde. The immigrants from the nearby West African coast make up the majority of foreigners in the country. Over the last several years, a few thousand Europeans and Latin Americans have settled in the country. On the islands, there are over 22,000 foreigners/naturalized Cape Verdeans living and working on a permanent basis.

Over the years, Cape Verde has increasingly become a net immigration country due to its relative high per capita income, political and social stability, and freedom.

In the United States, the children and grandchildren of the first immigrant waves became involved in the United States Army for centuries: in the Revolutionary War, Civil War, the First and Second World Wars, as well as the Korean and Vietnam Wars. Cape Verdeans moved to places all over the world, from Macau to Haiti to Argentina to northern Europe.

Cape Verde: Health

Main article: Health in Cape Verde
A health clinic in a residential area of Praia.

The infant mortality rate among Cape Verdean children between 0 and 5 years old is 17.5 per 1,000 live births according to the latest (2016) data from the National Statistics Bureau [2], while the maternal mortality rate is 42 deaths per 100,000 live births. The HIV-AIDS prevalence rate among Cape Verdeans between 15 and 49 years old is approximately 1.09%.

According to the latest data (2015) from the National Statistics Bureau [3], life expectancy at birth in Cape Verde is 71.5 years for males and 79.9 years for females. There are six hospitals in the Cape Verde archipelago; that is, two central hospitals (i.e., one in the capital city of Praia and one in Mindelo, São Vicente), and four regional hospitals; that is, one in Santa Catarina (northern Santiago region), one on São Antão, one on Fogo, and one on Sal. In addition, there are 28 health centers, 35 sanitation centers and a variety of private clinics located throughout the archipelago.

Cape Verde's population is among the healthiest in Africa. Since its independence, it has greatly improved its health indicators. Besides having been promoted to the group of "medium development" countries in 2007, leaving the least developed countries category (which is only the second time it has happened to a country), is currently the 10th best ranked country in Africa in its Human Development Index.

The total expenditure for health was 7.1% of GDP (2015).

Cape Verde: Education

Main article: Education in Cape Verde
A kindergarten graduation on Santiago island.

Although The Cape Verdean educational system is similar to the Portuguese system, over the years the local universities have been increasingly adopting the American educational system; for instance, all 10 existing universities in the country offer 4-year bachelor's degree programs as opposed to 5-year bachelor's degree programs that existed before 2010. Cape Verde has the second best educational system in Africa, after South Africa. Primary school education in Cape Verde is mandatory and free for children between the ages of 6 and 14 years.

In 2011, the net enrollment ratio for primary school was 85%. Approximately 90% of the total population over 15 years of age is literate, and roughly 25% of the population holds a college degree; 250 of these college graduates hold doctorate degrees in different academic fields. Textbooks have been made available to 90 percent of school children, and 98 percent of the teachers have attended in-service teacher training. Although most children have access to education, some problems remain. For example, there is insufficient spending on school materials, lunches, and books.

As of October 2016, there were 69 secondary schools throughout the archipelago (including 19 private secondary schools) and at least 10 universities in the country which are based on the two islands of Santiago and São Vicente. In 2015, 23% of the Cape Verdean population had either attended or graduated from secondary schools. When it came to higher education, 9% of Cape Verdean men and 8% of Cape Verdean women held a bachelor's degree or had attended universities. The overall college education rate (i.e., college graduates and undergraduate students) in Cape Verde is about 24%, in relation to the local college age population [4].

The total expenditure on education was 5.6% of GDP (2010). The mean years of schooling of adults over 25 years is 12.

Cape Verde: Crime

Further information: Crime in Cape Verde

Theft and burglary are common in Cape Verde especially in crowds, such as market places, festivals, and celebrations. Often the perpetrators of these crimes are gangs of street children. Murders are concentrated in the major population centres of Praia and Mindelo.

Cape Verde: Culture

Main article: Culture of Cape Verde
A group playing morna
Musicians from Chã das Caldeiras
Mayra Andrade, Cape Verdean singer who lives in Paris

Cape Verdean social and cultural patterns are similar to those of rural Portugal . Football (Futebol) games and church activities are typical sources of social interaction and entertainment. The traditional walk around the praça (town square) to meet friends is practised regularly in Cape Verde towns.

Cape Verde: Media

Further information: Media of Cape Verde

In towns with electricity, television is available on two channels (Cape Verdean and Portuguese). As of early 2017, about 119% of the Cape Verdean population own an active cellular phone, 70% have access to the internet, 11% own a landline telephone, and 2% of the population are signed up with a local cable TV company.

Cape Verde: Music

Further information: Music of Cape Verde

Cape Verde music incorporates "African, Portuguese and Brazilian influences." Cape Verde's quintessential national music is the morna, a melancholy and lyrical song form typically sung in Cape Verdean Creole. The most popular music genre after morna is the coladeira, followed by funaná and batuque music. Amongst the best known Cape Verdean singers worldwide are Ildo Lobo and Cesária Évora whose songs became a hallmark of the country and its culture.

There are also well known artists born to Cape Verdean parents who excelled themselves in the international music scene. Amongst these artists are jazz pianist Horace Silver, Duke Ellington's saxophonist Paul Gonsalves, Teófilo Chantre, Paul Pena, the Tavares brothers and singer Lura.

Cape Verde: Dance

Dance forms include the soft dance morna, the extreme sensuality of coladeira, the Cape Verdean version of the zouk from Guadeloupe called Cabo love, the Funaná (a sensual mixed Portuguese and African dance), and the Batuque dance.

Cape Verde: Literature

Cape Verdean literature is one of the richest of Lusophone Africa. Famous poets include Paulino Vieira, Manuel de Novas, Sergio Frusoni, Eugénio Tavares, and B. Léza, and famous authors include Baltasar Lopes da Silva, António Aurélio Gonçalves, Manuel Lopes, Orlanda Amarílis, Henrique Teixeira de Sousa, Arménio Vieira, Kaubverdianu Dambará, Dr. Azágua, and Germano Almeida.

Cape Verde: Cinema

The Carnival and the island of São Vicente is portrayed in the awarded feature documentary Tchindas, nominated at the African Oscars 2016, the 12th Africa Movie Academy Awards

Cape Verde: Cuisine


The Cape Verde diet is mostly based on fish and staple foods like corn and rice. Vegetables available during most of the year are potatoes, onions, tomatoes, manioc, cabbage, kale, and dried beans. Fruits such as bananas and papayas are available year-round, while others like mangoes and avocados are seasonal.

A popular dish served in Cape Verde is Cachupa, a slow cooked stew of corn (hominy), beans, and fish or meat. A common appetizer is the pastel which is a pastry shell filled with fish or meat that is then fried.

Cape Verde: Sports

The country's most successful sports team is the Cape Verde national basketball team, which won the bronze medal at the FIBA Africa Championship 2007, after beating Egypt in its last game. The country's most well-known player is Walter Tavares, who plays for the Cleveland Cavaliers of the NBA.

Cape Verde is famous for wave sailing (a type of windsurfing) and kiteboarding. Josh Angulo, a Hawaiian and 2009 PWA Wave World Champion, has done much to promote the archipelago as a windsurfing destination. Cape Verde is now his adopted country. Mitu Monteiro, a local kitesurfer, was the 2008 Kite Surfing World Champion in the wave discipline.

The Cape Verde national football team, nicknamed either the Tubarões Azuis (Blue Sharks) or Crioulos (Creoles), is the national team of Cape Verde and is controlled by the Federação Caboverdiana de Futebol. The team has played at two Africa Cup of Nations, in 2013 and 2015.

The country has competed at every Summer Olympics since 1996.

Cape Verde: Transport

Main article: Transport in Cape Verde
A newly built traffic tunnel in the countryside
An alternative route in São Domingos, Cape Verde

Cape Verde: Ports

There are four international ports: Mindelo, São Vicente; Praia, Santiago; Palmeira, Sal; and Sal Rei, Boa Vista. Mindelo on São Vicente is the main port for cruise liners and the terminus for the ferry service to Santo Antão. Praia on Santiago is a main hub for local ferry services to other islands. Palmeira on Sal supplies fuel for the main airport on the island, Amílcar Cabral International Airport, and is important for the hotel construction taking place on the island. Porto Novo on Santo Antão is the only source for imports and exports of produce from the island as well as passenger traffic since the closure of the airstrip at Ponta do Sol. There are smaller harbors, essentially single jetties at Tarrafal on São Nicolau, Sal Rei on Boa Vista, Vila do Maio (Porto Inglês) on Maio, São Filipe on Fogo and Furna on Brava. These act as terminals for the inter-island ferry services, which carry both freight and passengers. The pier at Santa Maria on Sal used by both fishing and dive boats has been rehabilitated.

Cape Verde: Airports

Seven operational in 2014 - 4 international and 3 domestic.
Two non-operational, one on Brava and the other on Santo Antão, closed for safety reasons.

Cape Verde: International airports

  • Amílcar Cabral International Airport, Sal Island
  • Nelson Mandela International Airport, Santiago Island
  • Aristides Pereira International Airport, Boa Vista Island
  • Cesária Évora Airport, São Vicente Island
  • Joao Dos Santos Airport

Cape Verde: See also

  • Outline of Cape Verde
  • Index of Cape Verde-related articles
  • List of Cape Verdeans
  • Cape Verdean American
  • Cape Verdeans in the Netherlands
  • List of island countries

Cape Verde: References

  1. "Constituição da República de Cabo Verde" (PDF). Article 9. Retrieved 11 March 2017.
  2. John Kerry (8 July 2014). "On the Occasion of the Republic of Cabo Verde's National Day". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 11 July 2014. On behalf of President Obama and the people of the United States, I send best wishes to Cabo Verdeans as you celebrate 39 years of independence on July 5.
  3. Neto, Octávio Amorim; Lobo, Marina Costa (2010). "Between Constitutional Diffusion and Local Politics: Semi-Presidentialism in Portuguese-Speaking Countries". Social Science Research Network. SSRN 1644026Freely accessible.
  4. "Burundi". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 13 January 2015.
  5. "GINI index". World Bank. Retrieved 26 July 2013.
  6. "2016 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2016. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
  7. Tanya Basu (12 December 2013). "Cape Verde Gets New Name: 5 Things to Know About How Maps Change". National Geographic. Retrieved 12 December 2013.
  8. Lobban, p. 4.
  9. "Cabo Verde põe fim à tradução da sua designação oficial" [Cabo Verde puts an end to translation of its official designation] (in Portuguese). Panapress. 31 October 2013. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
  10. Carta regia (royal letter) of 19 September 1462
  11. Cape Verde background note. United States Department of State (July 2008).
  12. Roberts, Edmund (1837). Embassy to the Eastern Courts of Cochin-China, Siam, and Muscat. New York: Harper & Brothers. p. 17.
  13. "Constitution of Cape Verde" (PDF). 1992. Retrieved 20 March 2011.
  14. "Democracy index 2012" (PDF). The Economist. Economist Intelligence Unit. 2013. p. 4. Retrieved 24 June 2014.
  15. "Opposition returns to power in Cape Verde after 15 years". Retrieved 2016-04-01.
  16. Percival, Debra (25 May 2008). "Cape Verde-EU 'Special Partnership' takes shape". The Courier. Archived from the original on 11 May 2011. Retrieved 30 May 2014.
  17. "Cape Verde could seek EU membership this year". Retrieved 26 June 2010.
  18. [1] Archived October 17, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
  19. "2013 Ibrahim Index of African Governance" (PDF). Mo Ibrahim Foundation. October 2013. p. 3. Retrieved 6 August 2014.
  20. "Cape Verde | 2010 Index of Economic Freedom". Retrieved 31 January 2011.
  21. "World Economic Forum : The Global Information Technology Report 2010-2011" (PDF). Retrieved 1 August 2014.
  22. The Peace Corps Welcomes You to Cape Verde. Peace Corps (April 2006). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  23. Pim et al., 2008, p.422
  24. R. Ramalho et al., 2010
  25. Le Bas, T.P. (2007), "Slope Failures on the Flanks of Southern Cape Verde Islands", in Lykousis, Vasilios, Submarine mass movements and their consequences: 3rd international symposium, Springer, ISBN 978-1-4020-6511-8
  26. "A sinking feeling: why is the president of the tiny Pacific island nation of Nauru so concerned about climate change?". New York Times Upfront. 14 November 2011. Retrieved 9 February 2015.
  27. "Voodoo Skies - Praia Monthly Temperature weather history".
  28. "Cape Verde weather". Met Office.
  29. "Praia, Cape Verde Travel Weather Averages". Weatherbase.
  30. "Endemic Bird Areas: Cape Verde Islands". Retrieved 26 June 2010.
  31. 2013 Census - source: Instituto Nacional de Estatistica.
  32. See Carlos Ferreira Couto, Incerteza, adaptabilidade e inovação na sociedade rural da Ilha de Santiago de Cabo Verde, Lisbon: Fundação Galouste Gulbenkian, 2010
  33. See now Brígida Rocha Brito and others, Turismo em Meio Insular Africano: Potencialidades, constrangimentos e impactos, Lisbon: Gerpress, 2010
  34. "Turbines arrive for ground breaking wind farm in Africa - InfraCo Limited". Archived from the original on 11 June 2012. Retrieved 15 June 2012.
  35. "MFW4A". MFW4A. Retrieved 31 January 2011.
  36. "Cabo Verde - Data". World Bank.
  37. "Cape Verde to join WTO on 23 July 2008". WTO News.
  38. "Cape Verde's first minimum wage set at 100 euros". macauhub. 1 July 2013. Retrieved 2016-08-23.
  39. "European Commission". 21 December 2012. Archived from the original on 30 April 2013. Retrieved 28 March 2013.
  40. Instituto Nacional de Estatistica, Praia
  41. "Cape Verde: Population".
  42. "Actualidade". Retrieved 31 January 2013.
  43. Amado, A.D. (2015), The Illegible State in Cape Verde: Language Policy and the Quality of Democracy.
  44. (CABO VERDE). Retrieved 2012-06-10.
  45. "". 14 September 2007. Retrieved 26 June 2010.
  46. "Background Note: Cape Verde". 15 June 2010. Retrieved 26 June 2010.
  47. "Jews in Cape Verde", by Louise Werlin
  48. Jorgen Carling, 2004, p.113-132
  49. "Cape Verdeans: Cape Verdean Veterans". Archived from the original on 14 November 2012. Retrieved 26 June 2010.
  50. "Cape Verdean Americans - History, Modern era, The first cape verdeans in america". Retrieved 26 June 2010.
  51. "The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency". Retrieved 2017-03-14.
  52. "UN advocate salutes Cape Verde's graduation from category of poorest States", UN News Centre, 14 June 2007.
  53. "Cape Verde". Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor (2001). Bureau of International Labor Affairs, United States Department of Labor (2002). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain. Archived 28 August 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
  54. "World Development Indicators | Data". Retrieved 31 January 2011.
  55. "Cape Verde". United States Bureau of Consular Affairs (5 May 2008). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  56. Peter Manuel (1988). Popular Musics of the Non-Western World. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 95–97. Retrieved 19 November 2014.
  57. "Africa Cup of Nations: Cape Verde and Ethiopia qualify". BBC Sport. Retrieved 24 September 2014.

Cape Verde: Bibliography

  • Pim, J.; Pierce, C.; Watts, A. B.; Grevemeyer, I.; Krabbenhoeft, A. (5 May 2008). "Crustal structure and origin of the Cape Verde Rise" (PDF). Earth and Planetary Science Letters. Elesiever. 272: 422–428. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2008.05.012.
  • Carling, Jorgen (2004). "Emigration, Return and Development in Cape Verde: The Impact of Closing Borders". Population, Space and Place. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 55 (10): 113–132. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-4679(199901)55:1<117::AID-JCLP12>3.0.CO;2-A. PMID 10100838.
  • Ramalho, R.; Helffrich, G.; Schmidt, D.; Vance, D. (2010). "Tracers of Uplift and Subsidence in the Cape Verde Archipelago". Journal of the Geological Society. London: Geological Society of London. 167 (3): 519–538. doi:10.1144/0016-76492009-056.
  • Cape Verde travel guide from Wikivoyage
  • Wikimedia Atlas of Cape Verde
  • Wikinews-logo.svg News related to Category:Cape Verde at Wikinews
  • Official website of the Government of Cape Verde
  • Cape Verde at DMOZ
  • "Cape Verde". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
  • Cape Verde from
  • Country Profile from BBC News
  • Cape Verde entry on Encyclopædia Britannic/a
  • Cape Verde from UCB Libraries GovPubs
  • Key Development Forecasts for Cape Verde from International Futures
  • Cape Verde 2012

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