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Hotels of Changchun

A hotel in Changchun is an establishment that provides lodging paid on a short-term basis. Facilities provided may range from a basic bed and storage for clothing, to luxury features like en-suite bathrooms. Larger in Changchun hotels may provide additional guest facilities such as a swimming pool, business centre, childcare, conference facilities and social function services. Hotel rooms in Changchun are usually numbered (or named in some smaller hotels and B&Bs) to allow guests to identify their room. Some Changchun hotels offer meals as part of a room and board arrangement. Hotel operations vary in size, function, and cost. Most Changchun hotels and major hospitality companies that operate hotels in Changchun have set widely accepted industry standards to classify hotel types. General categories include the following:

Upscale luxury hotels in Changchun
An upscale full service hotel facility in Changchun that offers luxury amenities, full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and the highest level of personalized and professional service. Luxury Changchun hotels are normally classified with at least a Four Diamond or Five Diamond status or a Four or Five Star rating depending on classification standards.

Full service hotels in Changchun
Full service Changchun hotels often contain upscale full-service facilities with a large volume of full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and a variety of on-site amenities such as swimming pools, a health club, children's activities, ballrooms, on-site conference facilities, etc.

Historic inns and boutique hotels in Changchun
Boutique hotels of Changchun are smaller independent non-branded hotels that often contain upscale facilities of varying size in unique or intimate settings with full service accommodations. Changchun boutique hotels are generally 100 rooms or less. Some historic inns and boutique hotels in Changchun may be classified as luxury hotels.

Focused or select service hotels in Changchun
Small to medium-sized hotel establishments that offer a limited amount of on-site amenities that only cater and market to a specific demographic of Changchun travelers, such as the single business traveler. Most Changchun focused or select service hotels may still offer full service accommodations but may lack leisure amenities such as an on-site restaurant or a swimming pool.

Economy and limited service hotels in Changchun
Small to medium-sized Changchun hotel establishments that offer a very limited amount of on-site amenities and often only offer basic accommodations with little to no services, these facilities normally only cater and market to a specific demographic of travelers, such as the budget-minded Changchun traveler seeking a "no frills" accommodation. Limited service Changchun hotels often lack an on-site restaurant but in return may offer a limited complimentary food and beverage amenity such as on-site continental breakfast service.

Guest houses and B&Bs in Changchun
A bed and breakfast in Changchun is a small lodging establishment that offers overnight accommodation and inclusive breakfast. Usually, Changchun bed and breakfasts are private homes or family homes offering accommodations. The typical Changchun B&B has between 4 and 11 rooms, with 6 being the average. Generally, guests are accommodated in private bedrooms with private bathrooms, or in a suite of rooms including an en suite bathroom. Some homes have private bedrooms with a bathroom which is shared with other guests. Breakfast is served in the bedroom, a dining room, or the host's kitchen. Often the owners of guest house themselves prepare the breakfast and clean the rooms.

Hostels in Changchun
Changchun hostels provide budget-oriented, sociable accommodation where guests can rent a bed, usually a bunk bed, in a dormitory and share a bathroom, lounge, and sometimes a kitchen. Rooms can be mixed or single-sex, although private rooms may also be available. Hostels are often cheaper for both the operator and occupants; many Changchun hostels have long-term residents whom they employ as desk agents or housekeeping staff in exchange for experience or discounted accommodation.

Apartment hotels, extended stay hotels in Changchun
Extended stay hotels are small to medium-sized Changchun hotels that offer longer term full service accommodations compared to a traditional hotel. Extended stay hotels may offer non-traditional pricing methods such as a weekly rate that cater towards travelers in need of short-term accommodations for an extended period of time. Similar to limited and select service hotels, on-site amenities are normally limited and most extended stay hotels in Changchun lack an on-site restaurant.

Timeshare and destination clubs in Changchun
Changchun timeshare and destination clubs are a form of property ownership also referred to as a vacation ownership involving the purchase and ownership of an individual unit of accommodation for seasonal usage during a specified period of time. Timeshare resorts in Changchun often offer amenities similar that of a Full service hotel with on-site restaurant(s), swimming pools, recreation grounds, and other leisure-oriented amenities. Destination clubs of Changchun on the other hand may offer more exclusive private accommodations such as private houses in a neighborhood-style setting.

Motels in Changchun
A Changchun motel is a small-sized low-rise lodging establishment similar to that of a limited service hotel, but with direct access to individual rooms from the car park. Common during the 1950s and 1960s, motels were often located adjacent to a major road, where they were built on inexpensive land at the edge of towns or along stretches of highways. They are still useful in less populated areas of Changchun for driving travelers, but the more populated an area becomes the more hotels fill the need. Many of Changchun motels which remain in operation have joined national franchise chains, rebranding themselves as hotels, inns or lodges.

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Travelling and vacation in Changchun

Sub-provincial city
Clockwise from top: panoramic view from Ji Tower, Former Manchukuo State Department, Statue on cultural square, Changchun Christian Church, Soviet martyr monument.
Clockwise from top: panoramic view from Ji Tower, Former Manchukuo State Department, Statue on cultural square, Changchun Christian Church, Soviet martyr monument.
Nickname(s): 北国春城 (Spring City of the Northern Country)
Changchun (red) in Jilin (orange)
Changchun (red) in Jilin (orange)
Changchun is located in Jilin
Location of the city centre in Jilin
Coordinates:  / 43.900; 125.200  / 43.900; 125.200
Country China
Province Jilin
County-level divisions 7 districts
2 county-level divisions
1 county
Incorporated (town) 1889
Incorporated (city) 1932
• Party Secretary Wang Junzheng
• Mayor Liu Changlong
• Sub-provincial city 20,604 km (7,955 sq mi)
• Urban 4,738 km (1,829 sq mi)
• Metro 3,061 km (1,182 sq mi)
Elevation 222 m (730 ft)
Population (2010 census)
• Sub-provincial city 7,674,439
• Density 370/km (960/sq mi)
• Urban 4,193,073
• Urban density 880/km (2,300/sq mi)
• Metro 3,815,270
• Metro density 1,200/km (3,200/sq mi)
Time zone China Standard (UTC+8)
Postal code 130000
Area code(s) 0431
License plate prefixes A
GDP (2010) CNY 332.9 billion
- per capita CNY 43,378
ISO 3166-2 cn-22-01
Website www.changchun.gov.cn
Changchun name in Chinese.svg
"Chángchūn", as written in Simplified Chinese
Chinese name
Simplified Chinese 长春
Traditional Chinese 長春
Hanyu Pinyin Chángchūn
Literal meaning Long Spring
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu Pinyin Chángchūn
Bopomofo ㄔㄤˊ ㄔㄨㄣ
Gwoyeu Romatzyh Charngchuen
Wade–Giles Chʻang-chʻun
Romanization zantshen
Yue: Cantonese
Jyutping coengceon
Southern Min
Hokkien POJ Tiông-chhun
Manchu name
Manchu script ᠴᠠᠨᡤᠴᠣᠨ
Romanization Cangcon

Changchun (simplified Chinese: 长春; traditional Chinese: 長春; pinyin: Chángchūn) is the capital and largest city of Jilin Province, and is located in the northeast of China. Lying in the center of the Songliao Plain, Changchun is administered as a sub-provincial city, comprising 7 districts, 1 county and 2 county-level cities. According to the 2010 census of China, Changchun had a total population of 7,674,439 under its jurisdiction. The city's urbanized (or metro) area, comprising 5 districts and 4 development areas, had a population of 3,815,270 in 2010 as the Shuangyang and Jiutai districts are not urbanized yet.

The name of the city means "long spring" in Chinese. Between 1932 and 1945, Changchun was renamed Hsinking (Chinese: 新京; pinyin: Xīnjīng; literally: "new capital") by the Japanese as it became the capital of the Japanese puppet state Manchukuo, occupying modern Northeast China. After the foundation of the People's Republic of China in 1949, Changchun was established as the provincial capital of Jilin in 1954.

Known locally as China's "City of Automobiles", Changchun is an important industrial base with a particular focus on the automotive sector. Because of its key role in the domestic automobile industry, Changchun was sometimes referred to as the "Detroit of China." Apart from this industrial aspect, Changchun is also one of four "National Garden Cities" awarded by the Ministry of Construction of P.R. China in 2001 due to its high urban greening rate.

Changchun: History

Changchun: Early history

Changchun was initially established on imperial decree as a small trading post and frontier village during the reign of the Jiaqing Emperor in the Qing dynasty. Trading activities mainly involved furs and other natural products during this period. In 1800, the Jiaqing Emperor selected a small village on the east bank of the Yitong River and named it "Changchun Ting".

At the end of 18th century peasants from overpopulated provinces such as Shandong and Hebei began to settle in the region. In 1889, the village was promoted into a city known as "Changchun Fu".

Changchun: Railway era

In May 1898, Changchun got its first railway station, located in Kuancheng, part of the railway from Harbin to Lüshun (the southern branch of the Chinese Eastern Railway), constructed by the Russian Empire.

The South Manchuria Railway office of Changchun

After Russia's loss of the southernmost section of this branch as a result of the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–1905, the Kuancheng station (Kuanchengtze, in contemporary spelling) became the last Russian station on this branch. The next station just a short distance to the south-the new "Japanese" Changchun station-became the first station of the South Manchuria Railway, which now owned all the tracks running farther south, to Lüshun, which they re-gauged to the standard gauge (after a short period of using the narrow Japanese 3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm) gauge during the war).

A special Russo-Japanese agreement of 1907 provided that Russian gauge tracks would continue from the "Russian" Kuancheng Station to the "Japanese" Changchun Station, and vice versa, tracks on the "gauge adapted by the South Manchuria Railway" (i.e. the standard gauge) would continue from Changchun Station to Kuancheng Station.

An epidemic of pneumonic plague occurred in surrounding Manchuria from 1910 to 1911. It was the worst-ever recorded outbreak of pneumonic plague which was spread through the Trans-Manchurian railway from the border trade port of Manzhouli. This turned out to be the beginning of the large pneumonic plague pandemic of Manchuria and Mongolia which ultimately claimed 60,000 victims.

Changchun: City planning and development from 1906–1931

City planning map of Changchun

The Treaty of Portsmouth formally ended the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–05 and saw the transfer and assignment to Japan in 1906 the railway between Changchun and Port Arthur, and all the branches.

Having realized the strategic importance of Changchun's location with respect to Japan, China and Russia, the Japanese Government sent a group of planners and engineers to Changchun to determine the best site for a new railway station.

Without the consent of Chinese Government, Japan purchased and seized land from local farmers on which the Changchun Railway Station was to be constructed as the centre of the South Manchuria Railway Affiliated Areas (SMRAA). In order to turn Changchun into the centre for extracting the agricultural and mineral resources of Manchuria, Japan developed a blueprint for Changchun and invested heavily in the construction of the city.

As the prelude and preparation of invasion and long-lasting occupation of China, Japan initiated at the beginning of 1907 the planning programme of the SMRAA which embodied distinctive colonial characteristics. The guiding ideology of the overall design was to build a high standard colonial city with sophisticated facilities, multiple functions and large scale.

The comprehensive plan was to meet the needs of:

  • Comfort demand of Japanese employees at Manchurian Railways
  • Assurances of Changchun to be a base for Japanese control of the whole Manchuria
  • Effective counterweight of Russia in this part of China.

Accordingly, nearly 7 million Yen on average was allocated on a year-to-year basis for urban planning and construction during the period of 1907–31.

Railway nexus status was thickly underlined in the planning and construction, the main design concepts of which read as follows: under conventional grid pattern terms, two geoplagiotropic boulevards were newly carved eastward and westward from the grand square of the new railway station. The two helped forming two intersections with the gridded prototypes, which led to two circles of South and West. The two sub-civic centres served as axis on which eight radial roads were blazed that took the shape of a sectoral structure.

This kind of radial circles and the design concept of urban roads were at that time quite advanced and scientific. It activated to great extend the serious urban landscapes as well as a clearly identification of the traditional gridded pattern.

With the new Changchun railway station as its centre, the urban plan divided the SMRAA into such rectangles as residential quarters of 15%, commerce of 33%, grain depot of 19%, factories of 12%, public entertainment of 9% and administrative organs(including Japanese garrison) of 12%. Each block provided the railway station with supporting and systematic services in the light of its own functions.

In the meantime, a comprehensive system of judiciary and military police was established which was totally independent of China. This accounted for the widespread domain of military facilities within the urban construction area of 3. 967k㎡,such as railway garrison, gendarmerie, police department and its 18 local police stations.

Perceiving Changchun as a tabula rasa upon which to erect new and sweeping conceptions of the built environment, Japanese used the city as a practical laboratory to create two distinct and idealized urban milieus, each appropriate to a particular era. From 1906 to 1931 Changchun served as a key railway town through which the Japanese orchestrated informal empire; between 1932 and 1945 the city became home to a grandiose, new Asian capital. Yet while the façades the town and later the capital-as well as the attitudes of the state they upheld-contrasted markedly, the shifting styles of planning and architecture consistently attempted to represent Japanese rule as progressive, beneficent, and modern.

Behind the development of Changchun, in addition to the railway trade driven, it suggested an important period of the Northeast modern architectural culture reflecting the urban design endeavours and revealing Japanese ambition of invading and occupying China. Japanese architecture and culture had been widely applied to Manchukuo to highlight the special status of the Japanese puppet. Once again, the urban planning will and should stem from a culture, be it aggressive or creative. Changchun’s planning and construction process can serve as a good example.

Changchun expanded rapidly as the junction between of the Japanese-owned South Manchurian Railway and the Russian-owned Chinese Eastern Railway, while remaining the break of gauge point between the Russian and standard gauges into the 1930s,

Changchun: Manchukuo and World War II

On March 10, 1932 the capital of Manchukuo, a Japan-controlled puppet state in Manchuria, was established in Changchun. The city was then renamed Hsinking (Chinese: 新京; pinyin: Xīnjīng; Wade–Giles: Hsin-ching; Japanese:Shinkyō; literally "New Capital") on March 13. The Emperor Puyi resided in the Imperial Palace (Chinese: 帝宮; pinyin: Dì gōng) which is now the Museum of the Manchu State Imperial Palace. During the Manchukuo period, the region experienced harsh suppression, brutal warfare on the civilian population, forced conscription and labor and other Japanese sponsored government brutalities; at the same time a rapid industrialisation and militarisation took place. Hsinking was a well-planned city with broad avenues and modern public works. The city underwent rapid expansion in both its economy and infrastructure. Many of buildings built during the Japanese colonial era still stand today, including those of the Eight Major Bureaus of Manchukuo (Chinese: 八大部; pinyin: Bādà bù) as well as the Headquarters of the Japanese Kwantung Army.

Changchun: Construction of Hsinking

Hsinking Master Plan Map (1934)

Hsinking was the only Direct-controlled municipality (特别市) in Manchukuo after Harbin was incorporated into the jurisdiction of Binjiang Province. In March 1932, the Inspection Division of South Manchuria Railway started to draw up the Metropolitan Plan of Great Hsinking (simplified Chinese: 大新京都市计画; traditional Chinese: 大新京都市計畫; pinyin: Dà xīn jīngdū shì jìhuà). The Bureau of capital construction (simplified Chinese: 国都建设局; traditional Chinese: 國都建設局; pinyin: Guódū jiànshè jú) which was directly under the control of State Council of Manchukuo was established to take complete responsibility of the formulation and the implementation of the plan. Kuniaki Koiso, the Chief of Staff of the Kwantung Army, and Yasuji Okamura, the Vice Chief-of-Staff, finalized the plan of a 200 km (77 sq mi) construction area. The Metropolitan Plan of Great Hsinking was influenced by the renovation plan of Paris in the 19th century, the garden city movement, and theories of American cities' planning and design in the 1920s. The city development plan included extensive tree planting. By 1934 Hsinking was known as the Forest Capital with Jingyuetan Park built, which is now China's largest Plantation and a AAAA-rated recreational area.

In accordance with the Metropolitan Plan of Great Hsinking, the area of publicly shared land (including the Imperial Palace, government offices, roads, parks and athletic grounds) in Hsinking was 47 km (18 sq mi), whilst the area of residential, commercial and industrial developments was planned to be 53 km (20 sq mi).。 However, Hsinking's population exceeded the prediction of 500,000 by 1940. In 1941, the Capital Construction Bureau modified the original plan, which expanded the urban area to 160 km (62 sq mi). The new plan also focused on the construction of satellite towns around the city with a planning of 200 m (2,200 sq ft) land per capita. Because the effects of war, the Metropolitan Plan of Great Hsinking remained unfinished. By 1944, the built up urban area of Hsinking reached 80 km (31 sq mi), while the area used for greening reached 70.7 km (27.3 sq mi). As Hsinking's city orientation was the administrative center and military commanding center, land for military use exceeded the originally planned figure of 9 percent, while only light manufacturing including packing industry, cigarette industry and paper-making had been developed during this period. Japanese force also controlled Hsinking's police system, instead of Manchukuo government. Major officers of Hsinking police were all ethnic Japanese.

The population of Hsinking also experienced rapid growth after being established as the capital of Manchukuo. According to the census in 1934 taken by the police agency, the city's municipal area had 141,712 inhabitants. By 1944 the city's population had risen to 863,607, with 153,614 Japanese settlers. This population amount made Hsinking the third largest metropolitan city in Manchukuo after Mukden and Harbin, as the metropolitan mainly focused on military and politics function.

Special City Government office of Hsinking
Datong Avenue in Hsinking (1939)
Manchukuo ministry building (built. 1935)
Manchukuo supreme court (built 1938)

Changchun: Japanese chemical warfare agents

In 1936, the Japanese established Unit 100 to develop plague biological weapons, although the declared purpose of Unit 100 was to conduct research about diseases originating from animals. During the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) and World War II the headquarters of Unit 100 ("Wakamatsu Unit") was located in downtown Hsinking, under command of veterinarian Yujiro Wakamatsu. This facility was involved in research of animal vaccines to protect Japanese resources, and, especially, biological-warfare. Diseases were tested for use against Soviet and Chinese horses and other livestock. In addition to these tests, Unit 100 ran a bacteria factory to produce the pathogens needed by other units. Biological sabotage testing was also handled at this facility: everything from poisons to chemical crop destruction.

Changchun: Siege of Changchun

Chinese Red Army entering Changchun.

On August 20, 1945 the city was captured by the Soviet Red Army and renamed Changchun. The Russians maintained a presence in the city during the Chinese civil war until 1946.

Kuomintang forces occupied the city in 1946, but were unable to hold the countryside against communist forces. The city fell to the communists in 1948 after the five-month Siege of Changchun by the People's Liberation Army. As many as 80 percent of the civilian population starved to death under the siege; estimates range from 150,000 to 330,000. As of 2015 the PRC government avoids all mention of the siege.

Changchun: People's Republic

Changchun Liberation Monument

Renamed Changchun by the People's Republic of China government, it became the capital of Jilin in 1954. The Changchun Film Studio is also one of the remaining film studios of the era. Changchun Film Festival has become a unique gala for film industries since 1992.

From the 1950s, Changchun was designated to become a center for China's automotive industry. Construction of the First Automobile Works (FAW) began in 1953 and production of the Jiefang CA-10 truck, based on the Soviet ZIS-150 started in 1956. Soviet Russia lent assistance during these early years, providing technical support, tooling, and production machinery. In 1958, FAW introduced the famous Hongqi (Red Flag) limousines This series of cars are billed as "the official car for minister-level officials".

Changchun hosted the 2007 Winter Asian Games.

Changchun: Geography

Changchun and vicinities, NASA World Wind screenshot, 2005-05-18

Changchun lies in the middle portion of the Northeast China Plain. Its municipality area is located at latitude 43° 05′−45° 15′ N and longitude 124° 18′−127° 02' E. The total area of Changchun municipality is 20,571 km (7,943 sq mi), including metro areas of 2,583 square kilometres (997 sq mi), and a city proper area of 159 km (61 sq mi). The city is situated at a moderate elevation, ranging from 250 to 350 metres (820 to 1,150 ft) within its administrative region. In the eastern portion of the city, there lies a small area of low mountains. The city is also situated at the crisscross point of the third east–westward "Europe-Asia Continental Bridge". Changchun prefecture is dotted with 222 rivers and lakes. The Yitong River, a small tributary of the Songhua River, runs through the city proper.

Changchun: Climate

Changchun has a four-season, monsoon-influenced, humid continental climate (Köppen Dwa). Winters are long (lasting from November to March), cold, and windy, but dry, due to the influence of the Siberian anticyclone, with a January mean temperature of −15.1 °C (4.8 °F). Spring and fall are somewhat short transitional periods, with some precipitation, but are usually dry and windy. Summers are hot and humid, with a prevailing southeasterly wind due to the East Asian monsoon; July averages 23.1 °C (73.6 °F). Snow is usually light during the winter, and annual rainfall is heavily concentrated from June to August. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 47 percent in July to 66 percent in January and February, a typical year will see around 2,617 hours of sunshine, and a frost-free period of 140 to 150 days. Extreme temperatures have ranged from −33.0 °C (−27 °F) to 35.7 °C (96 °F).

Changchun: Administrative divisions

Changchun People's Government

The sub-provincial city of Changchun has direct jurisdiction over 7 districts, 2 county-level cities and 1 County:

Name Simplified Chinese Hanyu Pinyin Population (2010 census) Area (km)
City proper
Chaoyang District 朝阳区 Cháoyáng Qū 675,270 237
Nanguan District 南关区 Nánguān Qū 533,979 81
Kuancheng District 宽城区 Kuānchéng Qū 457,959 238
Erdao District 二道区 Èrdào Qū 402,090 452
Luyuan District 绿园区 Lùyuán Qū 602,072 216
Shuangyang District 双阳区 Shuāngyáng Qū 377,933 1,677
Jiutai District 九台区 Jiǔtái Qū 738,606 3375
Satellite cities
Dehui 德惠市 Déhuì Shì 839,786 3,435
Yushu 榆树市 Yúshù Shì 1,160,969 4,712
Nong'an County 农安县 Nóng'ān Xiàn 1,029,680 5,400

Changchun: Demographics

Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1932 104,305 -
1934 160,381 +53.8%
1939 415,473 +159.1%
1944 863,607 +107.9%
1953 855,197 −1.0%
1964 4,221,445 +393.6%
1982 5,744,769 +36.1%
1990 6,421,956 +11.8%
2000 7,135,439 +11.1%
2010 7,677,089 +7.6%
Population size may be affected by changes in administrative divisions. In 1958, 5 counties were put under Changchun's jurisdiction, increasing the total population to over 4 million.

According to the Sixth China Census, the total population of the City of Changchun reached 7.677 million in 2010. The statistics in 2011 estimated the total population to be 7.59 million. The birth rate was 6.08 per thousand and the death rate was 5.51 per thousand. The urban area had a population of 3.53 million people. In 2010 the sex ratio of the city population was 102.10 males to 100 females.

Changchun: Ethnic groups

As in most of Northeastern China the ethnic makeup of Changchun is predominantly Han nationality (96.57 percent), with several other minority nationalities.

Changchun: Economy

Changchun achieved a gross domestic product (GDP) of RMB332.9 billion in 2010, representing a rise of 15.3 percent year on year. Primary industry output increased by 3.3 percent to RMB25.27 billion. Secondary industry output experienced an increase of 19.0 percent, reaching RMB171.99 billion, while the tertiary industry output increased 12.6 percent to RMB135.64 billion. The GDP per capita of Changchun was ¥58,691 in 2012, which equates to $9338. The GDP of Changchun in 2012 was RMB445.66 billion and increased 12.0 percent compared with 2011. The primary industry grew 4.3 percent to RMB31.71 billion. Secondary industry increased by RMB229.19 billion, which is a rise of 13.1 percent year on year. Tertiary industry of Changchun in 2012 grew 11.8 percent and increased by RMB184.76 billion.

A FAW-built Audi 100

The city's leading industries are production of automobiles, agricultural product processing, biopharmaceuticals, photo electronics, construction materials, and the energy industry. Changchun is the largest automobile manufacturing, research and development center in China, producing 9 percent of the country's automobiles in 2009. Changchun is home to China's biggest vehicle producer FAW (First Automotive Works) Group, which manufactured the first Chinese truck and car in 1956. The automaker's factories and associated housing and services occupies a substantial portion of the city's southwest end. Specific brands produced in Changchun includes the Red Flag luxury brand, as well as joint ventures with Audi, Volkswagen, and Toyota. In 2012, FAW sold 2.65 million units of auto. The sales revenue of FAW amounted to RMB 408.46 billion, reprensenting a rise of 10.8% on year. As cradle of the auto industry, one of Changchun’s better known nicknames is "China's Detroit".

Manufacturing of transportation facilities and machinery is also among Changchun's main industries. 50 percent of China's passenger trains, and 10 percent of tractors are produced in Changchun. Changchun Railway Vehicles, one of the main branches of China CNR Corporation, has a joint venture established with Bombardier Transportation to build Movia metro cars for the Guangzhou Metro and Shanghai Metro, and Rapid Transit Vehicle cars for the Tianjin Metro.

Foreign direct investment in the city was US$3.68 billion in 2012, up 19.6% year on year. In 2004 Coca-Cola set up a bottling plant in the city’s ETDZ with an investment of US$20 million.

Changchun hosts the yearly Changchun International Automobile Fair, Changchun Film Festival, Changchun Agricultural Fair, Education Exhibition and the Sculpture Exhibition.

CRRC manufactures most of its bullet train carriages at its factory in Changchun. In November 2016, CRCC Changchun unveiled the first bullet train carriages in the world with sleeper berths, thus extending their use for overnight passages across China. They would be capable of running in ultra low temperature environments. Nicknamed Panda, the new bullet trains are capable of running at 250 kmph, operate at -40 degrees Celsius, have wifi hubs and contain sleeper berths that fold into seats during the day.

Other large companies in Changchun include:

  • Yatai Group, established in 1993 and listed on the Shanghai Stock Exchange in 1995. It has developed into a major conglomerate involved in a wide range of industries including property development, cement manufacturing, securities, coal mining, pharmaceuticals and trading.
  • Jilin Grain Group, a major processor of grains.

Changchun: Development zones

Changchun: Changchun Automotive Economic Trade and Development Zone

A Hongqi H7 manufactured in Changchun's FAW Company on display at the 2012 Hannover-Messe

Founded in 1993, the Changchun Automotive Trade Center was re-established as the Changchun Automotive Economic Trade and Development Zone in 1996. The development zone is situated in the southwest of the city and is adjacent to the China First Automobile Works Group Corporation and the Changchun Film ThemeCity. It covers a total area of approximately 300,000 square metres (3,229,173 square feet). Within the development zone lies an exhibition center and five specially demarcated industrial centers. The Changchun Automobile Wholesale Center began operations in 1994 and is the largest auto-vehicle and spare parts wholesale center in China. The other centers include a resale center for used auto-vehicles, a specialized center for industrial/commercial vehicles, and a tire wholesale center.

Changchun: Changchun High Technology Development Zone

The zone is one of the first 27 state-level advanced technology development zones and is situated in the southern part of the city, covering a total area of 49 km (19 sq mi). There are 18 full-time universities and colleges, 39 state and provincial-level scientific research institutions, and 11 key national laboratories. The zone is mainly focusing on developing five main industries, namely bio-engineering, automobile engineering, new material fabrication, photo-electricity, and information technology.

Changchun: Changchun Economic and Technological Development Zone

Established in April 1993, the zone enjoys all the preferential policies stipulated for economic and technological development zones of coastal open cities. The total area of CETDZ is 112.72 square kilometres (43.52 square miles), of which 30 square kilometres (12 square miles) has been set aside for development and utilization. It is located 5 kilometres (3 miles) from downtown Changchun, 2 km (1.2 mi) from the freight railway station and 15 km (9 mi) from the Changchun international airport. The zone is devoted to developing five leading industries: namely automotive parts and components, photoelectric information, bio-pharmaceutical, fine processing of foods, and new building materials. In particular, high-tech and high value added projects account for over 80 percent of total output. In 2006 the zone's total fixed assets investment rose to RMB38.4 billion. Among the total of 1656 enterprises registered are 179 that are foreign-funded. The zone also witnessed a total industrial output of RMB 277 billion in 2007.

Changchun: Infrastructure

Changchun is a very compact city, planned by the Japanese with a layout of open avenues and public squares. The city is developing its city layout in a long-term bid to alleviate pressure on limited land, aid economic development and absorb a rising population. According to a draft plan up until 2020, the downtown area will expand southwards to form a new city center around Changchun World Sculpture Park, Weixing Square and their outskirts, and the new development zone.

Changchun: Railways

Changchun Railway Station

Changchun has three passenger rail stations, most trains only stop at the central Changchun Railway Station (simplified Chinese: 长春站; traditional Chinese: 長春站), where there are multiple daily departures to other northeast cities such as Jilin City, Harbin, Shenyang, and Dalian, as well as other major cities throughout the country such as Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou. The Harbin–Dalian High-Speed Railway which runs through three provinces in northeastern China, has a stop in Changchun. The new Changchun West Railway Station, situated in the western end of urbanized area, is the station for the high-speed trains of the Harbin–Dalian High-Speed Railway.

Despite once having the most complex tram system in Northern China, there is now only one remaining route open, route 54 (see Changchun Tram). However, Changchun is notable for having China's first urban light rail system, opened in 2002, which was developed from the existing tramway system. There is currently one line encompassing 14.6 km (9.1 mi) of track with plans to expand the system to an eventual 179 km (111 mi) of track.

Changchun: Road network

Changchun is linked to the national highway network through the Changchun–Harbin Expressway, the Changchun–Jilin–Hunchun Expressway and the busiest section in the province, the Changchun–Jilin North Highway. This section connects the two biggest cities in Jilin and is the trunk line for the social and economic communication of the two cities.

Changchun is served by a comprehensive bus system-most buses (and the tram) charge 1 Yuan (元) per ride. Private automobiles are becoming very common on the city's congested streets. Bicycles are relatively rare compared to other northeastern Chinese cities, but mopeds, as well as pedal are relatively common.

Changchun: Air

Changchun Longjia International Airport located 31.2 kilometres (19.4 miles) north-east of Changchun urban area. The airport's construction began in 1998, and was intended to replace the operations of the older Changchun Dafangshen Airport, which was built in 1941. The airport opened for passenger service on August 27, 2005. The operation of the airport is shared by both Changchun and nearby Jilin City. The airport has scheduled flights to major cities including Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou. There are also scheduled international flights between Changchun and overseas cities such as Bangkok, Osaka and Khabarovsk.

Changchun: Military

Changchun is headquarters of the 16th Group Army of the People's Liberation Army, one of the four group armies that comprise the Northern Theater Command responsible for defending China's northeastern borders with Russia, Mongolia and North Korea.

Changchun: Education

Changchun: Universities and colleges

PRC State key laboratory in Jilin University

Changchun has 27 regular institutions of full-time tertiary education with a total enrollment of approximate 160,000 students. Jilin University and Northeast Normal University are two key universities in China. Jilin University is also one of the largest universities in China, with more than 60,000 students.

  • Changchun Normal University
  • Changchun Taxation College
  • Changchun University
  • Changchun University of Science and Technology
  • Changchun University of Chinese Medicine
  • Jilin College of the Arts
  • Jilin Huaqiao Foreign Languages Institute, a private college offering bachelor study programs in foreign languages, international trade management and didactics
  • Jilin University
  • Northeast Normal University
  • Jilin Engineering Normal University

Changchun: Middle schools

  • High School Attached to Northeast Normal University
  • Affiliated Middle School to Jilin University
  • No.72 Middle School of Changchun

Changchun: Primary and secondary schools

International schools include:

  • Changchun American International School
  • Deutsche Internationale Schule Changchun

Changchun: Sports and stadiums

Changchun Sports Centre

As a major Chinese city, Changchun is home to many professional sports teams:

  • Jilin Northeast Tigers (Basketball), is a competitive team which has long been one of the major clubs fighting in China top level league, CBA.
  • Changchun Yatai Football Club, who have played home soccer matches at the Development Area Stadium since 2009. In 2007 they won the Chinese Super League.

There are two major multi-purpose stadiums in Changchun, including Changchun City Stadium and Development Area Stadium.

  • Changchun Wuhuan Gymnasium, the main venue of the 2007 Asian Winter Games.
  • It has an indoor speed skating arena, Jilin Provincial Speed Skating Rink, as one of five in China.

Changchun: Film

  • Changchun Film Group Corporation
  • Changchun Film Festival

Changchun: People

  • Ei-ichi Negishi (根岸 英), 2010 Nobel Prize winner in chemistry, was born in Japan Imperial-era Hsinking
  • Liu Xiaobo (劉曉波/刘晓波), 2010 Nobel Peace Prize winner, was born in Changchun

Changchun: See also

  • List of twin towns and sister cities in China
  • Tonghua
  • Category:People from Changchun

Changchun: References

Changchun: Citations

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  67. image

Changchun: Sources

  • Changchun (China)-Britannica Online Encyclopedia
Ethnicity Population Percentage
Han 6,883,310 96.47%
Manchu 142,998 2.0%
Korean 49,588 0.69%
Hui 43,692 0.61%
Mongol 11,106 0.16%
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Changchun.
  • Changchun travel guide from Wikivoyage
  • Changchun Government website
  • Changchun Foreign Affairs Information Portal
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