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When a hotel search in Changsha is done, please select the room type, the included meals and the suitable booking conditions (for example, "Deluxe double room, Breakfast included, Non-Refundable"). Press the "View Deal" ("Book Now") button. Make your booking on a hotel booking website and get the hotel reservation voucher by email. That's it, a perfect hotel in Changsha is waiting for you!

Hotels of Changsha

A hotel in Changsha is an establishment that provides lodging paid on a short-term basis. Facilities provided may range from a basic bed and storage for clothing, to luxury features like en-suite bathrooms. Larger in Changsha hotels may provide additional guest facilities such as a swimming pool, business centre, childcare, conference facilities and social function services. Hotel rooms in Changsha are usually numbered (or named in some smaller hotels and B&Bs) to allow guests to identify their room. Some Changsha hotels offer meals as part of a room and board arrangement. Hotel operations vary in size, function, and cost. Most Changsha hotels and major hospitality companies that operate hotels in Changsha have set widely accepted industry standards to classify hotel types. General categories include the following:

Upscale luxury hotels in Changsha
An upscale full service hotel facility in Changsha that offers luxury amenities, full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and the highest level of personalized and professional service. Luxury Changsha hotels are normally classified with at least a Four Diamond or Five Diamond status or a Four or Five Star rating depending on classification standards.

Full service hotels in Changsha
Full service Changsha hotels often contain upscale full-service facilities with a large volume of full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and a variety of on-site amenities such as swimming pools, a health club, children's activities, ballrooms, on-site conference facilities, etc.

Historic inns and boutique hotels in Changsha
Boutique hotels of Changsha are smaller independent non-branded hotels that often contain upscale facilities of varying size in unique or intimate settings with full service accommodations. Changsha boutique hotels are generally 100 rooms or less. Some historic inns and boutique hotels in Changsha may be classified as luxury hotels.

Focused or select service hotels in Changsha
Small to medium-sized hotel establishments that offer a limited amount of on-site amenities that only cater and market to a specific demographic of Changsha travelers, such as the single business traveler. Most Changsha focused or select service hotels may still offer full service accommodations but may lack leisure amenities such as an on-site restaurant or a swimming pool.

Economy and limited service hotels in Changsha
Small to medium-sized Changsha hotel establishments that offer a very limited amount of on-site amenities and often only offer basic accommodations with little to no services, these facilities normally only cater and market to a specific demographic of travelers, such as the budget-minded Changsha traveler seeking a "no frills" accommodation. Limited service Changsha hotels often lack an on-site restaurant but in return may offer a limited complimentary food and beverage amenity such as on-site continental breakfast service.

Guest houses and B&Bs in Changsha
A bed and breakfast in Changsha is a small lodging establishment that offers overnight accommodation and inclusive breakfast. Usually, Changsha bed and breakfasts are private homes or family homes offering accommodations. The typical Changsha B&B has between 4 and 11 rooms, with 6 being the average. Generally, guests are accommodated in private bedrooms with private bathrooms, or in a suite of rooms including an en suite bathroom. Some homes have private bedrooms with a bathroom which is shared with other guests. Breakfast is served in the bedroom, a dining room, or the host's kitchen. Often the owners of guest house themselves prepare the breakfast and clean the rooms.

Hostels in Changsha
Changsha hostels provide budget-oriented, sociable accommodation where guests can rent a bed, usually a bunk bed, in a dormitory and share a bathroom, lounge, and sometimes a kitchen. Rooms can be mixed or single-sex, although private rooms may also be available. Hostels are often cheaper for both the operator and occupants; many Changsha hostels have long-term residents whom they employ as desk agents or housekeeping staff in exchange for experience or discounted accommodation.

Apartment hotels, extended stay hotels in Changsha
Extended stay hotels are small to medium-sized Changsha hotels that offer longer term full service accommodations compared to a traditional hotel. Extended stay hotels may offer non-traditional pricing methods such as a weekly rate that cater towards travelers in need of short-term accommodations for an extended period of time. Similar to limited and select service hotels, on-site amenities are normally limited and most extended stay hotels in Changsha lack an on-site restaurant.

Timeshare and destination clubs in Changsha
Changsha timeshare and destination clubs are a form of property ownership also referred to as a vacation ownership involving the purchase and ownership of an individual unit of accommodation for seasonal usage during a specified period of time. Timeshare resorts in Changsha often offer amenities similar that of a Full service hotel with on-site restaurant(s), swimming pools, recreation grounds, and other leisure-oriented amenities. Destination clubs of Changsha on the other hand may offer more exclusive private accommodations such as private houses in a neighborhood-style setting.

Motels in Changsha
A Changsha motel is a small-sized low-rise lodging establishment similar to that of a limited service hotel, but with direct access to individual rooms from the car park. Common during the 1950s and 1960s, motels were often located adjacent to a major road, where they were built on inexpensive land at the edge of towns or along stretches of highways. They are still useful in less populated areas of Changsha for driving travelers, but the more populated an area becomes the more hotels fill the need. Many of Changsha motels which remain in operation have joined national franchise chains, rebranding themselves as hotels, inns or lodges.

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Travelling and vacation in Changsha

Prefecture-level city
Clockwise from top: Skyline of Changsha, Yuehu Park, Huangxing South Pedestrian Street, Aiwan Pavillion
Clockwise from top: Skyline of Changsha, Yuehu Park, Huangxing South Pedestrian Street, Aiwan Pavillion
Nickname(s): "星城" (Star City)
Motto: "心忧天下,敢为人先"
(Care About the World, Dare to Be Pioneer)
Location of Changsha City in Hunan
Location of Changsha City in Hunan
Changsha is located in Hunan
Location of Changsha City in Hunan
Coordinates:  / 28.19611; 112.97222  / 28.19611; 112.97222
Country China
Province Hunan
Municipal seat Yuelu District
Divisions 9 County-level divisions, 172 Township divisions
• Party Secretary Yi Lianhong
• Mayor Hu Henghua
• Prefecture-level city 11,819 km (4,563 sq mi)
• Urban 1,917 km (740 sq mi)
• Metro 3,914 km (1,511 sq mi)
Elevation 63 m (207 ft)
Population (2015)
• Prefecture-level city 7,431,800
• Density 630/km (1,600/sq mi)
• Urban 5,288,800
• Urban density 2,800/km (7,100/sq mi)
• Metro 4,597,134
• Metro density 1,200/km (3,000/sq mi)
• Rank in China 19th
• Han 99.22%
• Minorities 0.78%
Time zone China Standard (UTC+8)
Postal code 410000
Area code(s) 0731
GDP Total (2016) CNY 931 billion
(US$139 billion)
GDP per capita (2016) CNY 127,346
GDP growth rate Increase 10.7%
License Plate A
O (police and authorities)
ISO 3166-2 cn-43-01
City tree Camphor
City flower Azalea
Languages Mandarin, Hunanese
Website www.changsha.gov.cn

Changsha (tsã13 sɔ33 sɿ21; simplified Chinese: 长沙; traditional Chinese: 長沙; pinyin: Chángshā; literally: "Long sandbar") is the capital of Hunan province, south central China. It covers 11,819 km (4,563 sq mi) and is bordered by Yueyang and Yiyang to the north, Loudi to the west, Xiangtan and Zhuzhou to the south, Yichun and Pingxiang of Jiangxi province to the east. According to 2010 Census, Changsha has 7,044,118 residents, constituting 10.72% of the province's population.

Changsha is located in the Xiang River valley plain, bordering on Luoxiao Mountains on the east, Wuling Mountains on the west, edging in Dongting Lake on the north and bounded on the south by Hengshan Mountains. It has a moist monsoon climate of the subtropical zone. The average annual air temperature is 16.8–17.3 °C and the rainfall 1,358.6–1,552.5 mm.

Changsha is a famous historical and cultural city with a history of over 3,000 years. Changsha is famous for that it was the capital of Changsha State in the Han Dynasty (206 BC – 220 AD), and the capital of Chu State (907–951) in Ten Kingdoms period. The lacquerware and Silk Texts recovered from Mawangdui (2nd century BC) there are an indication of the richness of local craft traditions. In 1904, Changsha was opened to foreign trade, and large numbers of Europeans and Americans settled there. Changsha was the site of Mao Zedong's conversion to communism. It was also the scene of major battles in the Sino-Japanese War (1931–1945) and was briefly occupied by the Japanese. Nowadays, Changsha is an important commercial, manufacturing and transportation center in China.

Changsha: Etymology

The origins of the name "Changsha" are lost in antiquity. The name first appears in the 11th century BC, during the reign of King Cheng of the Zhou dynasty: a vassal lord from the Changsha area sent a type of softshell turtle known as "Changsha softshell turtle" (simplified Chinese: 长沙鳖; traditional Chinese: 長沙鼈; pinyin: Chángshā biē) to the Zhou king as a tribute. In the 2nd century AD, historian Ying Shao wrote that the Qin dynasty use of the name Changsha for the area was a continuance of its old name.

Changsha: History

Changsha: Pre-History

Development occurred drastically closer to 3000BC when Changsha developed with the proliferation of Longshan culture, although there is no firm evidence of such linkage. Despite this, pottery and bronze ware have been discovered.

Four-goat Square Zun

Changsha: Folklore

In the Central Plain region during the Zhou and Shang dynasties, Yandi and Huangdi in regards to their relationship between the Central Plains, paid a visit. Sima Qian writes in his Records of the Grand Historian "Huangdi, loving his (oldest son) Shaohao, gave him a parcel of land, an area amounted to Changsha and surrounding land."

Changsha: 1st-century History

Evidence exists that people lived and thrived in the area during the Bronze Age. Numerous examples of pottery and items of interest were discovered and recovered.

Changsha: Jing-Chu Culture and Culture of Central Plains

Changsha entered a time of turmoil. Eastern Zhou's collapse swept in turmoil with the Spring and Autumn Period (770-476BC). The Yue culture spread and took a stronghold through the region, especially through Changsha. During the height of the Warring States Period, the Chu Kingdom took a hardline nationalist and reform approach and took a large-scale military operations in South China. Chu Kingdom took control of Changsha and turned the city into an important part of the southern part of Chu. After years of war and occupation, Changsha slowly replaced Yue culture with Chu culture. Chu culture thrived. Nobles created tombs and got buried in tombs. In 1951-1957, archaeologists explored numerous large and medium-sized Chu tombs from the warring states era. There have been more than 3,000 tombs discovered of various people.

The coming of Chu brought a lot of tools and production experience, jump starting the economy. Massive changes quickly propelled Changsha through the Iron Age and into the feudal age of society.

The city is sometimes called Qingyang (simplified Chinese: 青阳; traditional Chinese: 青陽; pinyin: Qīngyáng) in Warring States period texts.

The slow wearing of time, turbulence, and turmoil weakened the Changsha and the region. The state of Qin send forced under Wang Jian entered and conquered Chu.

Changsha: Qin and Han dynasties

Changsha transformed into the Changsha Kingdom. It existed as a fiefdom under the tutelage of the Qin and later the Han dynasty. Under the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC), it became a staging post for Qin expeditions into Guangdong province. By 202 BC, it was already a fortified city. During the Han dynasty, it was also the capital of Changsha Kingdom, an imperial fiefdom of the Han. From Han times (206 BC – AD 220), it held the name Linxiang County and was the seat of the Changsha commandery. The county was renamed back Changsha in 589

It was during the Han dynasty that the Mawangdui tombs were constructed between 186 and 165 BC. The earliest tomb (no. 2), when excavated in the 1970s, was seen to have preserved the corpse of Lady Xin Zhui in a surprisingly good condition. Also found in the tomb were the earliest versions of the Dao De Jing, the main text of Taoism, among many other historical documents.

Silk painting depicting a man riding a dragon

Changsha: Three Kingdoms to Sui and Tang dynasty

Zoumalou Wu bamboo slips

With the collapse of the Han dynasty, China fell into turmoil amidst of the rise of the Three Kingdoms. The power base of Changsha fragmented into three factions.

Changsha: Western Jin

Changsha soon fell under control of the Jin dynasty. Emperor Wudi appointed the ruler and governor to be the sixth son of a general Sima Yi. The local government had over 100 counties at the beginning of the dynasty. Over the course of the dynasty, the local government of Changsha lost control over a few counties, leaving them to local rule.

Changsha: Sui dynasty

In 589, the Sui dynasty emerged as the sole power in China. This emergence ended the northern and Southern dynasties era and reunified China once again under one government.

With the emergence of the Sui dynasty, Changsha was renamed to the name of Tanzhou. In addition, a new form of government was reintroduced. Changsha's 3-tier division system was changed to a 2-tier state and county system, eliminating the middle canton region. This new system is a significant improvement for efficiency. The existing counties in the Hunan region, including Changsha, were either outright replaced or greatly restructured. Some of the new counties created, such as Wangcheng, Liuyang, Liling still exist to this day. Neighboring town such as Xiangtan have experienced such restructure of counties that still exist to this day.

  • Tang dynasty
Dufu Pavilion

The Tang dynasty brought new prosperity and peace to Changsha. the city became a place of trade between China and Southeast Asia. Changsha experienced violence during the Anshi Rebellion when rebels swept through the area.

Changsha: Song dynasty

  • Yuelu Academy was founded in AD 976 (during the period of the Song dynasty). It was destroyed by war in 1127 and was rebuilt in 1165 (during the Southern Song dynasty). The celebrated philosopher Zhu Xi taught at the Academy in 1165. It was again destroyed, this time by the Mongols, but was restored in the late 15th century (Ming dynasty). Early 19th century graduates of the academy formed what one historian called a "network of messianic alumni", including Zeng Guofan, architect of the Tongzhi Restoration, and Cai E, a major leader in the defense of the Republic of China. (In 1903 the academy became Hunan High School. The modern day Hunan University is a descendant of the academy. The architecture of some of the buildings of the university was restored from 1981 to 1986, presumably according to their original Song design.)

Changsha: Yuan and Ming dynasty

Changsha was fiercely defended by local Song troops during the Mongol conquest of the Song Dynasty and, after it fell into Mongol hands an event of mass suicide by the Changsha defenders took place in the city.

Under the Ming (1368–1644) and Qing (1644–1911/12) dynasties, Changsha was made a superior prefecture. Its name was also reverted to Changsha.

Changsha: Qing Dynasty

From 1664 onward, it was the capital of Hunan, prospering as one of China's chief rice markets. During the Taiping Rebellion, the city was besieged by the rebels (1854) but never fell; it then became the principal base for the suppression of the rebellion. It was opened to foreign trade in 1904. Further development followed the opening of the railway to Hankou in Hubei province in 1918, which was later extended to Guangzhou in Guangdong province in 1936. Although Changsha's population grew, the city remained primarily commercial in character and before 1937 had little industry apart from some small cotton-textile, glass, and nonferrous-metal plants and handicraft enterprises.

Historic district "Duzheng Street", the location of local government in Qing dynasty

In 1852 Taiping forces laid a siege on Changsha through 3 months, but they gave up the offensive thereafter and moved on toward Wuhan.

Then, the 1903 Treaty of Shanghai between the Qing dynasty and Japan opened the city to foreign trade. Consequently, factories, churches and schools were built. A college was started by Yale University bachelors, which later became a medical center named Xiangya and a secondary school named the Yali School.

Changsha: Modern era

Mao Zedong, the founder of the People's Republic of China, began his political career in Changsha. He was a student at the Hunan Number 1 Teachers' Training School from 1913 to 1918. He later returned as a teacher and principal from 1920 to 1922. The school was destroyed during the Chinese Civil War but has since been restored. The former office of the Hunan Communist Party Central Committee where Mao Zedong once lived is now a museum that includes Mao's living quarters, photographs and other historical items from the 1920s.

Until May 1927, communist support remained strong in Changsha before the massacre carried out by the right-wing faction of the KMT troops. The faction owed its allegiance to Chiang Kai-shek during its offensive against the KMT's left-wing faction under Wang Jingwei, who was then allied closely with the Communists. The purge of communists and suspected communists was part of Chiang's plans for consolidating his hold over the KMT, weakening Wang's control, and thereby over the entire China. In a period of twenty days, Chiang's forces killed more than ten thousand people in Changsha and its outskirts.

1938 Changsha Fire

During the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–45), the strategic location of Changsha made it the focus of four campaigns by the Japanese to capture it from the hands of the Chinese Nationalists: these campaigns were the 1st Changsha, the 2nd Changsha, the 3rd Changsha, and the 4th Changsha. The city was able to repulse the first three attacks, thanks to Xue Yue's leadership, but ultimately fell into Japanese hands in 1944 for a year until the Japanese were defeated in a counterattack and forced to surrender. Before these Japanese campaigns, the city was already virtually destroyed by the 1938 Changsha Fire, which was a deliberate fire ordered by Kuomintang commanders who mistakenly feared the city was about to fall to the Japanese; Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek had suggested that the city should be burned so that the Japanese force would gain nothing after entering it.

The city later became the territory of then-expanding Communist China when it was finally completed in 1949 after the Kuomintang were driven to Taiwan.

Tianxin Pavilion, from where Taiping Heavenly Kingdom made an attack on Changsha
Former site of Mobil Corp. on the Orange Isle
Furong Square at night

Changsha: Late 20th-century

Skyline with Xiang River

Since the late 1990s, Changsha has entered a period of rapid development, becoming one of the important cities in the central and western regions. At the end of 2007, Changsha, with Xiangtan, Zhuzhou was approved by the State Council for the Chang-Zhu-Tan " (Greater Changsha) resource-saving and environment-friendly society" comprehensive reform pilot area, an important engine of the rise of central China. In 2015, Xiangjiang New Area was approved as a national new district

Changsha: Geography

Satellite map of built-up area
Taohualing Reservoir, Meixi Lake

Changsha is located in the south-central part of China, south of the Yangtze River, north-east of Hunan Province. Is located in the southern end of the Dongting Plain to the hinterland of Hunan transition zone, and Yueyang, Yiyang, Loudi, Zhuzhou, Xiangtan and Jiangxi Pingxiang borders. The total area of 11,819 square kilometers, of which the urban area of 1,939 square kilometers, urban built-up area of 306.39 square kilometers (2011 data, including Wangcheng [10]). Located in Liuyang territory of the Dawei Mountain Qixingling 1607.9 meters above sea level, the highest point for the area; in the town of the town of Heimi peak 590.5 meters above sea level for the city to the highest point; Qiao town in Zhanhu elevation of 23.5 meters for the city's lowest point. Xiangjiang River is the most important river in Changsha, from south to north throughout the territory, the length of about 75 km. The Xiangjiang River divides the city into two major parts, Hedong and Hexi. The east part of the city is mainly commercial and the Hexi is mainly cultural and educational. On 10 October 2001, the city government resident moved from Hedong Fanzheng Street to the Hexi View of Sandy Ridge, the force in the development of Hexi economy to balance the two sides of Changsha.

Changsha's neighboring areas include: cities and counties and a district of Hunan including Tonggu County, Pingjiang County, Miluo City, Xiangyin County of Yueyang, Taojiang County, Heshan District, Anhua County of Yiyang, Lianyuan City of Loudi, Zhuzhou County, Liling City of Zhuzhou, Xiangtan County, Xiangxiang City of Xiangtan; and cities and counties of Jiangxi including Wanzai County, Yichun City, and Pingxiang City.

Changsha: Climate

Changsha experiences a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa), with annual average temperature being at 17.03 °C (62.7 °F), with a mean of 4.6 °C (40.3 °F) in January and 29.0 °C (84.2 °F) in July. Average annual precipitation is 1,331 millimetres (52.4 in), with a 275-day frost-free period. With a monthly possible-sunshine percentage ranging from 19% in March to 57% in August, the city receives 1,545 hours of bright sunshine annually. The four seasons are distinct. The summers are long and very hot, with heavy rainfall, and autumn is comfortable and is the driest season. Winter is chilly and overcast with lighter rainfall more likely than downpours; cold snaps occur with temperatures occasionally dropping below freezing. Spring is especially rainy and humid with the sun shining less than 30% of the time. The minimum temperature ever recorded since 1951 at the current Wangchengpo Weather Observing Station was −12.0 °C (10.4 °F), recorded on 9 February 1972. The maximum was 40.6 °C (105.1 °F) on 13 August 1953 and 2 August 2003 [the unofficial record of 43.0 °C (109.4 °F) was set on 10 August 1934].

Changsha: Administration

The city of Changsha has direct jurisdiction over 6 districts, 2 county-level cities, and 1 county:

Subdivision Simplified Chinese Pinyin Pop.

(2010 Census)

Area (km²) Dens. (/km²)
City Proper
Furong District 芙蓉区 Fúróng Qū 523,730 42 12,470
Tianxin District 天心区 Tiānxīn Qū 475,663 74 6,428
Yuelu District 岳麓区 Yuèlù Qū 801,861 552 1,453
Kaifu District 开福区 Kāifú Qū 567,373 187 3,034
Yuhua District 雨花区 Yǔhuā Qū 725,353 114 6,363
Suburban and rural
Wangcheng District 望城区 Wàngchéng Qū 523,489 970 540
Liuyang City 浏阳市 Liúyáng Shì 1,278,928 4,999 256
Ningxiang City 宁乡市 Níngxiāng Shì 1,168,056 2,906 402
Changsha County 长沙县 Chángshā Xiàn 979,665 1,997 491
Nianjia Lake in the city center

Changsha: Transportation

Changsha South Railway Station (high-speed rail service)

Changsha is well connected by roads, river, rail, and air transportation modes, and is a regional hub for industrial, tourist, and service sectors.

Changsha: Public transport

The city's public transportation system consists of an extensive bus network with over a hundred lines as well as taxis.

Changsha: Metro Rail

Changsha Metro is planning a 6-line network. Metro Line 2 opened on 29 April 2014 with 20 stations for Line 2 now open on 28 June 2016. A further four lines are planned for construction before the year 2025. Line 3 will run southwest–northeast and will be 33.4 kilometres (20.8 mi) long. Line 4 will run northwest-southeast and will be 29.1 kilometres (18.1 mi) long. A maglev link running 16.5 kilometres (10.3 mi) between Changsha South station and Changsha airport was opened in April 2016, with a construction cost of €400m. Connecting Changsha with Zhuzhou and Xiangtan, Changzhutan Intercity Rail has been opened to traffic operations on December 26, 2016.

Changsha Railway Station

Changsha: Roads

The G4, G4E, G4W2, G5513 and G0401 of National Expressways, G107, G106 and G319 of National Highways, S20, S21, S40, S41, S50, S60 and S71 of Hunan provincial Expressways, connect the Changsha metro area nationally. There are three main bus terminals in Changsha: the South Station, East Station and West Station, dispatching long- and short-haul trips to cities within and outside the province of Hunan.

Changsha: River

Changsha is surrounded by major rivers, including the Xiangjiang (湘江), the Liuyang River (浏阳河), the Xiangjiang River (靳江河), the Weishui (沩水), Longwanggang River (龙王港河), and the Laodao River (捞刀河). Ships transport mainly goods from Xianing port located in North Changsha domestically and internationally.

Changsha: Rail

Changsha Railway Station is located in the city center and provides express and regular services to most cities in China via the Beijing–Guangzhou and Shimen–Changsha Railways. The Changsha South Railway Station is a new high speed railway station, located in Yuhua district on the Beijing–Guangzhou High-Speed Railway (as part of the planned Beijing–Guangzhou–Shenzhen–Hong Kong High-Speed Railway). The station with 8 platforms was finally opened on 26 December 2009. Since then the passenger volume has increased greatly. The Hangzhou-Changsha-Huaihua sector of the Shanghai-Changsha-Kunming high-speed railway entered service in 2014.

Changsha: Air

Terminal of Changsha Huanghua International Airport.

Changsha Huanghua International Airport is a regional hub for China Southern Airlines. The airport serves daily flights to major cities in China, including Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou, as well as Hong Kong, Macau and Taipei. Other major airlines also provide daily service between Changsha and other domestic and international destinations.The airport provides direct flights to 45 major international cities including Los Angeles, Singapore, Seoul, Pusan, Osaka, Tokyo, Kuala Lumpur, Frankfurt as well as Sydney. As of 5 August 2016, the airport daily handled 70011 people.

Changsha: Economy

Changsha Business Quarter

Changsha's population nearly tripled between the start of its rebuilding in 1949 and the early 1980s. The city is now a major port, handling rice, cotton, timber, and livestock, and is also a collection and distribution point on the railway from Hankou to Guangzhou. It is a centre of rice milling and also has oil-extraction, tea and tobacco production, and meat-processing plants. Its textile industry produces cotton yarn and fabrics and engages in dyeing and printing. Agricultural chemicals and fertilizers, farm implements, and pumping machinery are also produced.

Changsha has a large thermal generating station linked by a power grid with the nearby industrial centres of Zhuzhou and Xiangtan; the three cities were designated in the 1970s as the nucleus of a major industrial complex. In the 1960s there was some development of heavy industry. The manufacture of machinery, especially machine tools and precision tools, became important, and Changsha became a center of China's aluminum industry. The city also has cement, rubber, ceramic, and papermaking plants and is a centre for many types of traditional handicrafts, producing Xiang embroidery, leather goods, umbrellas, and buttons. Coal is mined in the vicinity.

The Huangxing Road Pedestrian Street

Changsha is one of China's 20 most "economically advanced" cities. In 2008, Changsha's nominal GDP was ¥300.1 billion (US$43 billion), a year-on-year growth of 15.1% from the previous year. Its per capita GDP was ¥45,765 (US$6,589). Its GDP grew at an average of 14% per year from 2001 to 2005, compared to the national average of 9% in the period. As of 2005, the service sector generated roughly around 49% of Changsha's GDP, up 112% from 2001 figures, leading to a disposable income for urban residents of 12,343 RMB annually. This growth is expected to continue driving the city's economic growth. The manufacturing and construction sectors have grown relatively steadily, growing 116% during 2001-2005. The primary sector, including agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, and fishery, has grown slightly over this same period. In addition, the consumer market has grown dramatically along with income levels, with the minimum salary level at 600 RMB per month in comparison to Beijing's at 640 RMB or Shanghai's at 750 RMB per month. Urban residents in 2005 had an average income of about US$1,500, 15% higher than the national average and up 10% from 2001 figures.

Changsha has attracted a substantial level of foreign investment. In 2005, for example, nearly US$1 billion worth of foreign direct investment (FDI) poured into the city, mainly in hi-tech, manufacturing, food production, and services. This figure is up 40% from 2001. 59% of the total FDI has come from Hong Kong, South Korea, Singapore, and Japan; 28% has come from the Americas and 9% from Europe. By the end of 2008 more than 500 foreign companies had made over US$10 million worth of investments in Changsha. Changsha had total retail sales of 74 RMB billion in 2006.

But rapid economic growth has made environmental pollution a serious problem in Changsha, caused by rapidly increasing numbers of private cars, widespread construction sites, and numerous industrial facilities on the outskirts of the city.

Lugu Hi-tech Industry Development Zone

Changsha: Sky City

On 20 July 2013, the Sky City skyscraper broke ground. A groundbreaking ceremony of the building was held. At completion it will be the new world's tallest skyscraper. The planned final height is 838 meters with 220 floors. The Broad Sustainable Building company, which specializes in the rapid construction of large buildings, planned to complete construction in early 2014. However, the project was halted by the authorities on 24 July 2013 due to its having started construction without prior law permits. Some experts also questioned the safety of the 838-meter skyscraper's being built in only 7 months. On 4 September 2013, China.com.cn reported that the project had begun environmental assessment for obtaining the official planning approval for the project. By 30 October the building was already in the final approval phase.

On 8 June 2016 it was reported by the People's Daily that the project had been finally cancelled due to protests over environmental damage to the Daze Lake wetland.

Changsha: Development Zones

The Changsha ETZ was founded in 1992. It is located in Xingsha, the eastern Changsha. The total planned area is 38.6 km (14.9 sq mi) and the current area is 38.6 km (14.9 sq mi). Near the zone are National Highways 319 and 107 as well as the G4 Beijing–Hong Kong–Macau Expressway. The zone is also very close to Changsha's downtown area and the railway station, while the distance between the zone and the city's airport is a mere 8 km (5.0 mi). The major industries in the zone include the high-tech industry, the biology project technology industry, and the new material industry.

The Liuyang ETZ is a national biological industry base created on 10 January, 1998, located in Dongyang Town. Its pillar industry comprises biological pharmacy, Information technology and Health food. As of 2015, It has more than 700 registered enterprises. The total industrial output value of the zone hits 85.6 billion yuan (US$ 13.7 billion) and its business income is 100.2 billion yuan (US$ 16.1 billion). Its builtup area covers 16.5 km (6.4 sq mi).

Changsha: Population and Demographics

Changsha has an urban population of 7,044,118. A total of 12,966,836 reside in the metropolitan area.

Changsha: Ethnic Groups

The majority of people living in Changsha are Han Chinese. A sizeable population of several ethnic minority groups also make Changsha home. The three largest minorities, the Hui, Tujia, and Miao peoples, make up sizeable sub-populations in the city. The 2000 census shows that a total of 48,564 people who are members of ethnic minorities live in Changsha. The other minorities make up a significantly smaller part of the population. Twenty ethnic minorities have fewer than 1000 individuals living in the city.

Changsha: Culture

Changsha: Media

Hunan Broadcasting System is China's largest television after China Central Television (CCTV). Its headquarters is in Changsha and produces some of the most popular programs in China, including Super Girl. These programs have also brought a new entertainment industry into the city, which includes singing bars, dance clubs, theater shows, as well as related businesses including hair salons, fashion stores, and shops for hot spicy snacks at night (especially during summer). While Changsha has developed into an entertainment hub, the city has also become increasingly westernized and has attracted a growing number of foreigners.

Changsha: Cuisine

Changsha has its unique flavor of food. Spicy food is typical of the region. In addition, there are a lot of street food. In May 2008, the BBC broadcast, as part of its Storyville documentary series, the four-part The Biggest Chinese Restaurant in the World, which explored the inner workings of the 5,000-seating-capacity West Lake Restaurant (Xihu Lou Jiujia) in Changsha.

Changsha: Sports

Changsha has one of China's largest multi-purpose sports stadiums-Helong Stadium, with 55,000 seats. The stadium was named after the Communist military leader He Long. It is the home ground of local football team Hunan Billows F.C., which plays in China League One. The more modest 6,000-seat Hunan Provincial People's Stadium, also located in Changsha, is used by the team for their smaller games.

Changsha: Historical culture

Changsha hosts the Hunan Provincial Museum. 180,000 historical significant artifacts franginng from the Zhou dynasty to the recent QIng Dynasty are hosted in the 51,000 acres of space in the museum.

Mawangdui is a well-known tomb located 22 kilometers east of Changsha. It was discovered with numerous artifacts from the Han dynasty. Numerous Silk Funeral banners surround the tomb, along with a wealth of classical texts. The tomb of Lady Dai lies in Mawangdui is well-known due to its well-preserved state: scientists were able to detect blood, conduct an autopsy and determined that she died of heart disease due to a poor diet.

Changsha is a sister city with St. Paul, Minnesota. St. Paul is developing a China garden at Phalen Park, based on the design of architects from Changsha. Current plans include a pavilion replicating one in Changsha, while in return St. Paul will send the city five statues of the Peanuts characters. They will be placed in Phalen's sister park, Yanghu Wetlands.

Changsha: Education

Changsha: Colleges and universities

Hunan University

Changsha is the seat of many ancient schools and academies. It is the site of the Hunan Medical University (1914) and has several colleges and institutes of higher learning.


  • National University of Defense Technology
  • Central South University
  • Hunan University


  • Hunan Normal University
  • Hunan Agricultural University
  • Hunan First Normal University
  • Hunan University of Commerce
  • Hunan University of Traditional Chinese Medicine
  • Central South University of Forestry and Technology
  • Changsha University
  • Changsha Medical University
  • Changsha University of Science and Technology

Note: Institutions without full-time bachelor programs are not listed.

Changsha: International schools

Central South University
  • Changsha WES Academy

Changsha: Notable high schools

  • Yali High School
  • Changjun High School
  • The First High School of Changsha
  • The High School Attached to Hunan Normal University

Changsha: Notable Primary Schools

  • Yanshan Primary School
  • Yucai Primary School
  • Shazitang Primary School
  • Yuying Primary School
  • Qingshuitang Primary School

Changsha: Notable people

Changsha and its surrounding areas is the birthplace of:

  • Huang Xing – Chinese revolutionary leader and the first army commander-in-chief of the Republic of China
  • Tian Han – author of the lyrics to "March of the Volunteers", the PRC national anthem
  • Liu Shaoqi – President of the People's Republic of China (PRC), 1959–1968
  • Qi Xueqi – general in the Kuomintang (KMT)
  • Yang Kaihui – Chairman Mao Zedong's first wife
  • Hu Yaobang – General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party (1980–1987)
  • Lei Feng – People's Liberation Army soldier and cultural icon
  • Zhu Rongji – PRC Premier, 1997–2002
  • Liang Heng – writer and literary scholar
  • Tan Dun – contemporary composer (soundtracks for the films Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon and Hero)
  • Tang Sulan – writer and politician.
  • Shen Wei - dancer and the choreographer of modern dance for the 2008 Beijing Olympics
  • Xiong Ni – Olympic male diver and gold medalist
  • Li Xiaopeng – Olympic male gymnast and gold medalist
  • Liu Xuan - Olympic female gymnast and gold medalist
  • Meng Jia – singer and actress, former member of the Korean-Chinese girl group Miss A
  • Lay (entertainer) – a member of South Korean-Chinese boy band under SM entertainment, EXO
  • Tong Mingqian – disgraced Hunan provincial official convicted of dereliction of duty

Changsha: People associated with Changsha

  • Jia Yi – Han dynasty poet and statesman
  • Zhang Zhongjing – Han dynasty physician
  • Zhu Xi – Song dynasty Neo-Confucian scholar
  • Qi Baishi – painter
  • Mao Zedong – first President of the People's Republic of China
  • Yuan Longping – agricultural scientist

Changsha: Astronomy

Changsha is represented by the star Zeta Corvi in a Chinese constellation.

Changsha: See also

  • 1938 Changsha Fire
  • Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception (Changsha)
  • List of twin towns and sister cities in China

Changsha: References

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  8. Daniel McMahon, "The Yuelu Academy and Hunan's Nineteenth-Century Turn toward Statecraft," Late Imperial China 26.1 (2005): 72-109 Project MUSE.
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  10. Duxiu Chen; Gregor Benton (1998). Gregor Benton, ed. Chen Duxiu's last articles and letters, 1937-1942 (illustrated ed.). University of Hawaii Press. p. 45. ISBN 0824821122. Retrieved 2012-03-02. 24. Xi'an never fell. As for Changsha, Chinese under the Guonaindang General Xue Yue successfully defended the city three times against the Japanese; Changsha (and the vital Guangzhou-Hankou Railway) did not fall to the Japanese until early 1945.
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  • Changsha travel guide from Wikivoyage
  • Changsha Interactive Map, Information on Locations
  • Changsha Government website
  • Changsha National High-Tech Industrial Development Zone
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