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Hotels of Colombia

A hotel in Colombia is an establishment that provides lodging paid on a short-term basis. Facilities provided may range from a basic bed and storage for clothing, to luxury features like en-suite bathrooms. Larger in Colombia hotels may provide additional guest facilities such as a swimming pool, business centre, childcare, conference facilities and social function services. Hotel rooms in Colombia are usually numbered (or named in some smaller hotels and B&Bs) to allow guests to identify their room. Some Colombia hotels offer meals as part of a room and board arrangement. Hotel operations vary in size, function, and cost. Most Colombia hotels and major hospitality companies that operate hotels in Colombia have set widely accepted industry standards to classify hotel types. General categories include the following:

Upscale luxury hotels in Colombia
An upscale full service hotel facility in Colombia that offers luxury amenities, full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and the highest level of personalized and professional service. Luxury Colombia hotels are normally classified with at least a Four Diamond or Five Diamond status or a Four or Five Star rating depending on classification standards.

Full service hotels in Colombia
Full service Colombia hotels often contain upscale full-service facilities with a large volume of full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and a variety of on-site amenities such as swimming pools, a health club, children's activities, ballrooms, on-site conference facilities, etc.

Historic inns and boutique hotels in Colombia
Boutique hotels of Colombia are smaller independent non-branded hotels that often contain upscale facilities of varying size in unique or intimate settings with full service accommodations. Colombia boutique hotels are generally 100 rooms or less. Some historic inns and boutique hotels in Colombia may be classified as luxury hotels.

Focused or select service hotels in Colombia
Small to medium-sized hotel establishments that offer a limited amount of on-site amenities that only cater and market to a specific demographic of Colombia travelers, such as the single business traveler. Most Colombia focused or select service hotels may still offer full service accommodations but may lack leisure amenities such as an on-site restaurant or a swimming pool.

Economy and limited service hotels in Colombia
Small to medium-sized Colombia hotel establishments that offer a very limited amount of on-site amenities and often only offer basic accommodations with little to no services, these facilities normally only cater and market to a specific demographic of travelers, such as the budget-minded Colombia traveler seeking a "no frills" accommodation. Limited service Colombia hotels often lack an on-site restaurant but in return may offer a limited complimentary food and beverage amenity such as on-site continental breakfast service.

Guest houses and B&Bs in Colombia
A bed and breakfast in Colombia is a small lodging establishment that offers overnight accommodation and inclusive breakfast. Usually, Colombia bed and breakfasts are private homes or family homes offering accommodations. The typical Colombia B&B has between 4 and 11 rooms, with 6 being the average. Generally, guests are accommodated in private bedrooms with private bathrooms, or in a suite of rooms including an en suite bathroom. Some homes have private bedrooms with a bathroom which is shared with other guests. Breakfast is served in the bedroom, a dining room, or the host's kitchen. Often the owners of guest house themselves prepare the breakfast and clean the rooms.

Hostels in Colombia
Colombia hostels provide budget-oriented, sociable accommodation where guests can rent a bed, usually a bunk bed, in a dormitory and share a bathroom, lounge, and sometimes a kitchen. Rooms can be mixed or single-sex, although private rooms may also be available. Hostels are often cheaper for both the operator and occupants; many Colombia hostels have long-term residents whom they employ as desk agents or housekeeping staff in exchange for experience or discounted accommodation.

Apartment hotels, extended stay hotels in Colombia
Extended stay hotels are small to medium-sized Colombia hotels that offer longer term full service accommodations compared to a traditional hotel. Extended stay hotels may offer non-traditional pricing methods such as a weekly rate that cater towards travelers in need of short-term accommodations for an extended period of time. Similar to limited and select service hotels, on-site amenities are normally limited and most extended stay hotels in Colombia lack an on-site restaurant.

Timeshare and destination clubs in Colombia
Colombia timeshare and destination clubs are a form of property ownership also referred to as a vacation ownership involving the purchase and ownership of an individual unit of accommodation for seasonal usage during a specified period of time. Timeshare resorts in Colombia often offer amenities similar that of a Full service hotel with on-site restaurant(s), swimming pools, recreation grounds, and other leisure-oriented amenities. Destination clubs of Colombia on the other hand may offer more exclusive private accommodations such as private houses in a neighborhood-style setting.

Motels in Colombia
A Colombia motel is a small-sized low-rise lodging establishment similar to that of a limited service hotel, but with direct access to individual rooms from the car park. Common during the 1950s and 1960s, motels were often located adjacent to a major road, where they were built on inexpensive land at the edge of towns or along stretches of highways. They are still useful in less populated areas of Colombia for driving travelers, but the more populated an area becomes the more hotels fill the need. Many of Colombia motels which remain in operation have joined national franchise chains, rebranding themselves as hotels, inns or lodges.

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Travelling and vacation in Colombia


 / 4; -72

Republic of Colombia
República de Colombia (Spanish)
Flag of Colombia
Coat of arms of Colombia
Flag Coat of arms
Motto: "Libertad y Orden" (Spanish)
"Freedom and Order"
Anthem: ¡Oh, Gloria Inmarcesible! (Spanish)
O unfading glory!
Location of Colombia
and largest city
 / 4.583; -74.067
Official languages Spanish
Recognized regional languages 68 ethnic languages and dialects. English is also official in the archipelago of San Andrés, Providencia and Santa Catalina.
Ethnic groups (2005)
  • 86% Mestizo and White;
  • 10.6% Black
  • (includes Mulatto);
  • 3.4% Amerindian;
  • 0.01% Roma
Demonym Colombian
Government Unitary presidential constitutional republic
• President
Juan Manuel Santos
• Vice President
Óscar Naranjo
• President of the Congress
Mauricio Lizcano
• President of the Supreme Court
Margarita Cabello Blanco
Legislature Congress
• Upper house
• Lower house
Chamber of Representatives
Independence from Spain
• Declared
20 July 1810
• Recognized
7 August 1819
• Last unitarisation
Current constitution
4 July 1991
• Total
1,141,748 km (440,831 sq mi) (25th)
• Water (%)
8.8 (17th)
• June 2017 estimate
49,819,638 (28th)
• 2005 census
• Density
40.74/km (105.5/sq mi) (173rd)
GDP (PPP) 2017 estimate
• Total
$720.151 billion (31st)
• Per capita
GDP (nominal) 2017 estimate
• Total
$306.439 billion (32nd)
• Per capita
Gini (2016) 51.7
HDI (2015) Increase 0.727
high · 95th
Currency Peso (COP)
Time zone COT (UTC−5)
Date format dd−mm−yyyy (CE)
Drives on the right
Calling code +57
ISO 3166 code CO
Internet TLD .co
  1. Although the Colombian Constitution specifies Spanish (Castellano) as the official language in all Colombian territory, other languages spoken in the country by ethnic groups – approximately 68 languages – each is also official in its own territory. English is also official in the archipelago of San Andrés, Providencia and Santa Catalina.
  2. The official Colombian time is controlled and coordinated by the National Institute of Metrology.

Colombia (/kəˈlʌmbiə/ kə-LUM-biə or /kəˈlɒmbiə/ kə-LOM-biə; Spanish: [koˈlombja]), officially the Republic of Colombia (Spanish: About this sound República de Colombia ), is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America. Colombia shares a border to the northwest with Panama, to the east with Venezuela and Brazil and to the south with Ecuador and Peru. It shares its maritime limits with Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, Jamaica, Haiti and the Dominican Republic. It is a unitary, constitutional republic comprising thirty-two departments. The territory of what is now Colombia was originally inhabited by indigenous peoples, with as most advanced the Muisca, Quimbaya and the Tairona.

The Spanish set foot on Colombian soil for the first time in 1499 and in the first half of the 16th century initiated a period of conquest and colonization, ultimately creating the New Kingdom of Granada, with as capital Santafé de Bogotá. Independence from Spain was acquired in 1819, but by 1830 the "Gran Colombia" Federation was dissolved. What is now Colombia and Panama emerged as the Republic of New Granada. The new nation experimented with federalism as the Granadine Confederation (1858), and then the United States of Colombia (1863), before the Republic of Colombia was finally declared in 1886. Panama seceded in 1903. Since the 1960s, the country has suffered from an asymmetric low-intensity armed conflict, which escalated in the 1990s but then decreased from 2005 onward. Colombia is one of the most ethnically and linguistically diverse countries in the world, and thereby possesses a rich cultural heritage. The urban centres are mostly located in the highlands of the Andes mountains.

Colombian territory also encompasses Amazon rainforest, tropical grassland and both Caribbean and Pacific coastlines. Ecologically, it is one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries, and the most densely biodiverse of these per square kilometer. Colombia is a middle power and a regional actor with the fourth-largest economy in Latin America, is part of the CIVETS group of six leading emerging markets and is a member of the UN, the WTO, the OAS, the Pacific Alliance, and other international organizations. Colombia has a diversified economy with macroeconomic stability and favorable growth prospects in the long run.

Colombia: Etymology

Colombia is named after Christopher Columbus

The name "Colombia" is derived from the last name of Christopher Columbus (Italian: Cristoforo Colombo, Spanish: Cristóbal Colón). It was conceived by the Venezuelan revolutionary Francisco de Miranda as a reference to all the New World, but especially to those portions under Spanish and Portuguese rule. The name was later adopted by the Republic of Colombia of 1819, formed from the territories of the old Viceroyalty of New Granada (modern-day Colombia, Panama, Venezuela, Ecuador, and northwest Brazil).

When Venezuela, Ecuador and Cundinamarca came to exist as independent states, the former Department of Cundinamarca adopted the name "Republic of New Granada". New Granada officially changed its name in 1858 to the Granadine Confederation. In 1863 the name was again changed, this time to United States of Colombia, before finally adopting its present name – the Republic of Colombia – in 1886.

To refer to this country, the Colombian government uses the terms Colombia and República de Colombia.

Colombia: History

Colombia: Pre-Columbian era

San Agustín Archaeological Park
Ciudad Perdida ("The Lost City")

Owing to its location, the present territory of Colombia was a corridor of early human migration from Mesoamerica and the Caribbean to the Andes and Amazon basin. The oldest archaeological finds are from the Pubenza and El Totumo sites in the Magdalena Valley 100 kilometres (62 mi) southwest of Bogotá. These sites date from the Paleoindian period (18,000–8000 BCE). At Puerto Hormiga and other sites, traces from the Archaic Period (~8000–2000 BCE) have been found. Vestiges indicate that there was also early occupation in the regions of El Abra and Tequendama in Cundinamarca. The oldest pottery discovered in the Americas, found at San Jacinto, dates to 5000–4000 BCE.

Muisca raft. The figure refers to the ceremony of the legend of El Dorado.

Indigenous people inhabited the territory that is now Colombia by 12,500 BCE. Nomadic hunter-gatherer tribes at the El Abra, Tibitó and Tequendama sites near present-day Bogotá traded with one another and with other cultures from the Magdalena River Valley. Between 5000 and 1000 BCE, hunter-gatherer tribes transitioned to agrarian societies; fixed settlements were established, and pottery appeared. Beginning in the 1st millennium BCE, groups of Amerindians including the Muisca, Quimbaya, and Tairona developed the political system of cacicazgos with a pyramidal structure of power headed by caciques. The Muisca inhabited mainly the area of what is now the Departments of Boyacá and Cundinamarca high plateau (Altiplano Cundiboyacense) where they formed the Muisca Confederation. They farmed maize, potato, quinoa and cotton, and traded gold, emeralds, blankets, ceramic handicrafts, coca and especially rock salt with neighboring nations. The Tairona inhabited northern Colombia in the isolated mountain range of Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta. The Quimbaya inhabited regions of the Cauca River Valley between the Western and Central Ranges of the Colombian Andes. Most of the Amerindians practiced agriculture and the social structure of each indigenous community was different. Some groups of indigenous people such as the Caribs lived in a state of permanent war, but others had less bellicose attitudes. The Incas expanded their empire onto the southwest part of the country.

Colombia: Spanish conquest

Routes of exploration and conquest.

Alonso de Ojeda (who had sailed with Columbus) reached the Guajira Peninsula in 1499. Spanish explorers, led by Rodrigo de Bastidas, made the first exploration of the Caribbean coast in 1500. Christopher Columbus navigated near the Caribbean in 1502. In 1508, Vasco Núñez de Balboa accompanied an expedition to the territory through the region of Gulf of Urabá and they founded the town of Santa María la Antigua del Darién in 1510, the first stable settlement on the continent.

Santa Marta was founded in 1525, and Cartagena in 1533. Spanish conquistador Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada led an expedition to the interior in April 1536, and christened the districts through which he passed "New Kingdom of Granada". In August 1538, he founded provisionally its capital near the Muisca cacicazgo of Bacatá, and named it "Santa Fe". The name soon acquired a suffix and was called Santa Fe de Bogotá. Two other notable journeys by early conquistadors to the interior took place in the same period. Sebastián de Belalcázar, conqueror of Quito, traveled north and founded Cali, in 1536, and Popayán, in 1537; from 1536 to 1539, German conquistador Nikolaus Federmann crossed the Llanos Orientales and went over the Cordillera Oriental in a search for El Dorado, the "city of gold". The legend and the gold would play a pivotal role in luring the Spanish and other Europeans to New Granada during the 16th and 17th centuries.

Indigenous peoples were loyal only to their own communities and therefore, the conquistadors made frequent alliances with the enemies of different indigenous communities. Indigenous allies were crucial to conquest, as well as to creating and maintaining empire. Indigenous peoples in New Granada experienced a decline in population due to conquest as well as Eurasian diseases, such as smallpox, to which they had no immunity. With the risk that the land was deserted, the Spanish Crown sold properties to all persons interested in colonise territories creating large farms and possession of mines.

In the 16th century, the nautical science in Spain reached a great development thanks to numerous scientific figures of the Casa de Contratación and nautical science was an essential pillar of the Iberian expansion.

Colombia: Colonial period

In 1542, the region of New Granada, along with all other Spanish possessions in South America, became part of the Viceroyalty of Peru, with its capital at Lima. In 1547, New Granada became the Captaincy-General of New Granada within the viceroyalty.

In 1549, the Royal Audiencia was created by a royal decree, and New Granada was ruled by the Royal Audience of Santa Fe de Bogotá, which at that time comprised the provinces of Santa Marta, Rio de San Juan, Popayán, Guayana and Cartagena. But important decisions were taken from the colony to Spain by the Council of the Indies.

Attack of the British army on Cartagena de Indias. The battle resulted in a major defeat for the British Navy and Army during the War of Jenkins' Ear, 1739–48.

In the 16th century, Europeans began to bring slaves from Africa. Spain was the only European power that could not establish factories in Africa to purchase slaves and therefore the Spanish empire relied on the asiento system, awarding merchants (mostly from Portugal, France, England and the Dutch Empire) the license to trade enslaved people to their overseas territories. Also there were people who defended human rights and freedom of oppressed peoples. The indigenous peoples could not be enslaved because they were legally subjects of the Spanish Crown and to protect the indigenous peoples, several forms of land ownership and regulation were established: resguardos, encomiendas and haciendas.

Many intellectual leaders of the independence process participated in the Royal Botanical Expedition to New Granada.

In 1717 the Viceroyalty of New Granada was originally created, and then it was temporarily removed, to finally be reestablished in 1739. The Viceroyalty had Santa Fé de Bogotá as its capital. This Viceroyalty included some other provinces of northwestern South America which had previously been under the jurisdiction of the Viceroyalties of New Spain or Peru and correspond mainly to today's Venezuela, Ecuador and Panama. So, Bogotá became one of the principal administrative centers of the Spanish possessions in the New World, along with Lima and Mexico City, though it remained somewhat backward compared to those two cities in several economic and logistical ways.

After Great Britain declared war on Spain in 1739, Cartagena quickly became the British forces' top target but an upset Spanish victory during the War of Jenkins' Ear, a war with Great Britain for economic control of the Caribbean, cemented Spanish dominance in the Caribbean until the Seven Years' War.

The 18th-century priest, botanist and mathematician José Celestino Mutis was delegated by Viceroy Antonio Caballero y Góngora to conduct an inventory of the nature of the New Granada. Started in 1783, this became known as the Royal Botanical Expedition to New Granada which classified plants, wildlife and founded the first astronomical observatory in the city of Santa Fe de Bogotá. In July 1801 the Prussian scientist Alexander von Humboldt reached Santa Fe de Bogotá where he met with Mutis. In addition, historical figures in the process of independence in New Granada emerged from the expedition as the astronomer Francisco José de Caldas, the scientist Francisco Antonio Zea, the zoologist Jorge Tadeo Lozano and the painter Salvador Rizo.

Colombia: Independence

The Battle of Boyacá was the decisive battle which would ensure the success of the liberation campaign of New Granada.

Since the beginning of the periods of conquest and colonization, there were several rebel movements against Spanish rule, but most were either crushed or remained too weak to change the overall situation. The last one that sought outright independence from Spain sprang up around 1810, following the independence of St. Domingue (present-day Haiti) in 1804, which provided some support to the eventual leaders of this rebellion: Simón Bolívar and Francisco de Paula Santander.

The Socorro Province was the site of the genesis of the independence process.

A movement was initiated by Antonio Nariño, who opposed Spanish centralism and led the opposition against the Viceroyalty. Cartagena became independent in November 1811. In 1811 the United Provinces of New Granada were proclaimed, headed by Camilo Torres Tenorio. Took place the formation of two independent governments which fought a civil war – a period known as the Foolish Fatherland. The emergence of two distinct ideological currents among the liberators (federalism and centralism) gave rise to an internal clash which contributed to the reconquest of territory by the Spanish. The viceroyalty was restored under the command of Juan Sámano, whose regime punished those who participated in the uprisings. The retribution stoked renewed rebellion, which, combined with a weakened Spain, made possible a successful rebellion led by the Venezuelan-born Simón Bolívar, who finally proclaimed independence in 1819. The pro-Spanish resistance was defeated in 1822 in the present territory of Colombia and in 1823 in Venezuela.

The territory of the Viceroyalty of New Granada became the Republic of Colombia, organized as a union of the current territories of Colombia, Panama, Ecuador, Venezuela, parts of Guyana and Brazil and north of Marañón River. The Congress of Cúcuta in 1821 adopted a constitution for the new Republic. Simón Bolívar became the first President of Colombia, and Francisco de Paula Santander was made Vice President. However, the new republic was unstable and three countries emerged from the collapse of Gran Colombia in 1830 (New Granada, Ecuador and Venezuela).

Formation of the present Colombia since the Viceroyalty of New Granada's independence from the Spanish Empire

Colombia was the first constitutional government in South America, and the Liberal and Conservative parties, founded in 1848 and 1849 respectively, are two of the oldest surviving political parties in the Americas. Slavery was abolished in the country in 1851.

Internal political and territorial divisions led to the dissolution of Gran Colombia in 1830. The so-called "Department of Cundinamarca" adopted the name "New Granada", which it kept until 1858 when it became the "Confederación Granadina" (Granadine Confederation). After a two-year civil war in 1863, the "United States of Colombia" was created, lasting until 1886, when the country finally became known as the Republic of Colombia. Internal divisions remained between the bipartisan political forces, occasionally igniting very bloody civil wars, the most significant being the Thousand Days' War (1899–1902).

Colombia: 20th century

The United States of America's intentions to influence the area (especially the Panama Canal construction and control) led to the separation of the Department of Panama in 1903 and the establishment of it as a nation. The United States paid Colombia $25,000,000 in 1921, seven years after completion of the canal, for redress of President Roosevelt's role in the creation of Panama, and Colombia recognized Panama under the terms of the Thomson–Urrutia Treaty. Colombia was engulfed in the war with Peru over a territorial dispute involving the Amazonas Department and its capital Leticia.

The Bogotazo in 1948

Soon after, Colombia achieved some degree of political stability, which was interrupted by a bloody conflict that took place between the late 1940s and the early 1950s, a period known as La Violencia ("The Violence"). Its cause was mainly mounting tensions between the two leading political parties, which subsequently ignited after the assassination of the Liberal presidential candidate Jorge Eliécer Gaitán on 9 April 1948. The ensuing riots in Bogotá, known as El Bogotazo, spread throughout the country and claimed the lives of at least 180,000 Colombians.

Colombia entered the Korean War when Laureano Gómez was elected president. It was the only Latin American country to join the war in a direct military role as an ally of the United States. Particularly important was the resistance of the Colombian troops at Old Baldy.

The violence between the two political parties decreased first when Gustavo Rojas deposed the President of Colombia in a coup d'état and negotiated with the guerrillas, and then under the military junta of General Gabriel París.

The Axis of Peace and Memory: A “memorial” in recognition of the victims of the conflict

After Rojas' deposition, the Colombian Conservative Party and Colombian Liberal Party agreed to create the "National Front", a coalition which would jointly govern the country. Under the deal, the presidency would alternate between conservatives and liberals every 4 years for 16 years; the two parties would have parity in all other elective offices. The National Front ended "La Violencia", and National Front administrations attempted to institute far-reaching social and economic reforms in cooperation with the Alliance for Progress. Despite the progress in certain sectors, many social and political problems continued, and guerrilla groups were formally created such as the FARC, the ELN and the M-19 to fight the government and political apparatus.

Since the 1960s, the country has suffered from an asymmetric low-intensity armed conflict between the government forces, left-wing guerrilla groups and right-wing paramilitaries. The conflict escalated in the 1990s, mainly in remote rural areas. Since the beginning of the armed conflict, human rights defenders have fought for the respect for human rights, despite staggering opposition. Several guerrillas' organizations decided to demobilize after peace negotiations in 1989–1994.

The United States has been heavily involved in the conflict since its beginnings, when in the early 1960s the U.S. government encouraged the Colombian military to attack leftist militias in rural Colombia. This was part of the U.S. fight against communism.

On 4 July 1991, a new Constitution was promulgated. The changes generated by the new constitution are viewed as positive by Colombian society.

Colombia: 21st century

Colombia's President Juan Manuel Santos signed a historic peace accord.

The administration of President Álvaro Uribe (2002–10), adopted the democratic security policy which included an integrated counter-terrorism and counter-insurgency campaign. The Government economic plan also promoted confidence in investors.

As part of a controversial peace process the AUC (right-wing paramilitaries) as a formal organization had ceased to function. In February 2008, millions of Colombians demonstrated against FARC and other outlawed groups.

After peace negotiations in Cuba, the Colombian government of President Juan Manuel Santos and guerrilla of FARC-EP announced consensus on a 6-point plan towards peace. The first peace accord was submitted to voters in a national referendum and was rejected with 50.2% voting against it and 49.8% voting in favor, on a 37.4% turnout. Afterward, the Colombian government and the FARC signed a revised peace deal in November 2016, which the Colombian congress approved.

The Government began a process of assistance, attention and comprehensive reparation for victims of conflict. In 2016, President Santos was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.

Colombia shows modest progress in the struggle to defend human rights, as expressed by HRW. In terms of international relations, Colombia and Venezuela have agreed to restore diplomatic relations. Colombia with a very clean electricity generation matrix reaffirms its support for the Paris Climate Agreement.

Colombia: Geography

Relief map

The geography of Colombia is characterized by its six main natural regions that present their own unique characteristics, from the Andes mountain range region shared with Ecuador and Venezuela; the Pacific coastal region shared with Panama and Ecuador; the Caribbean coastal region shared with Venezuela and Panama; the Llanos (plains) shared with Venezuela; the Amazon Rainforest region shared with Venezuela, Brazil, Peru and Ecuador; to the insular area, comprising islands in both the Atlantic and Pacific oceans.

Colombia is bordered to the northwest by Panama; to the east by Venezuela and Brazil; to the south by Ecuador and Peru; it established its maritime boundaries with neighboring countries through seven agreements on the Caribbean Sea and three on the Pacific Ocean. It lies between latitudes 12°N and 4°S, and longitudes 67° and 79°W.

Colombia map of Köppen climate classification

Part of the Ring of Fire, a region of the world subject to earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, Colombia is dominated by the Andes (which contain the majority of the country's urban centres). Beyond the Colombian Massif (in the south-western departments of Cauca and Nariño) these are divided into three branches known as cordilleras (mountain ranges): the Cordillera Occidental, running adjacent to the Pacific coast and including the city of Cali; the Cordillera Central, running between the Cauca and Magdalena River valleys (to the west and east respectively) and including the cities of Medellín, Manizales, Pereira and Armenia; and the Cordillera Oriental, extending north east to the Guajira Peninsula and including Bogotá, Bucaramanga and Cúcuta.

Peaks in the Cordillera Occidental exceed 4,700 m (15,420 ft), and in the Cordillera Central and Cordillera Oriental they reach 5,000 m (16,404 ft). At 2,600 m (8,530 ft), Bogotá is the highest city of its size in the world.

East of the Andes lies the savanna of the Llanos, part of the Orinoco River basin, and, in the far south east, the jungle of the Amazon rainforest. Together these lowlands comprise over half Colombia's territory, but they contain less than 6% of the population. To the north the Caribbean coast, home to 21.9% of the population and the location of the major port cities of Barranquilla and Cartagena, generally consists of low-lying plains, but it also contains the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta mountain range, which includes the country's tallest peaks (Pico Cristóbal Colón and Pico Simón Bolívar), and the La Guajira Desert. By contrast the narrow and discontinuous Pacific coastal lowlands, backed by the Serranía de Baudó mountains, are sparsely populated and covered in dense vegetation. The principal Pacific port is Buenaventura.

The main rivers of Colombia are Magdalena, Cauca, Guaviare, Atrato, Meta, Putumayo and Caquetá. Colombia has four main drainage systems: the Pacific drain, the Caribbean drain, the Orinoco Basin and the Amazon Basin. The Orinoco and Amazon Rivers mark limits with Colombia to Venezuela and Peru respectively.

Protected areas and the "National Park System" cover an area of about 14,268,224 hectares (142,682.24 km) and account for 12.77% of the Colombian territory. Compared to neighboring countries, rates of deforestation in Colombia are still relatively low. Colombia is the sixth country in the world by magnitude of total renewable freshwater supply, and still has large reserves of freshwater.

Colombia: Climate

The climate of Colombia is characterized for being tropical presenting variations within six natural regions and depending on the altitude, temperature, humidity, winds and rainfall. The diversity of climate zones in Colombia is characterized for having tropical rainforests, savannas, steppes, deserts and mountain climate.

Mountain climate is one of the unique features of the Andes and other high altitude reliefs where climate is determined by elevation. Below 1,000 meters (3,281 ft) in elevation is the warm altitudinal zone, where temperatures are above 24 °C (75.2 °F). About 82.5% of the country's total area lies in the warm altitudinal zone. The temperate climate altitudinal zone located between 1,001 and 2,000 meters (3,284 and 6,562 ft)) is characterized for presenting an average temperature ranging between 17 and 24 °C (62.6 and 75.2 °F). The cold climate is present between 2,001 and 3,000 meters (6,565 and 9,843 ft) and the temperatures vary between 12 and 17 °C (53.6 and 62.6 °F). Beyond the cold land lie the alpine conditions of the forested zone and then the treeless grasslands of the páramos. Above 4,000 meters (13,123 ft), where temperatures are below freezing, the climate is glacial, a zone of permanent snow and ice.

Colombia: Notes

  1. IPA transcription of "República de Colombia": [reˈpuβlika ðe koˈlombja].
  2. Balboa is best known for being the first European to see the Pacific Ocean in 1513, which he called Mar del Sur (or "Sea of the South") and would facilitate Spanish exploration and settlement of South America.
  3. A royal decree of 1713 approved the legality of Palenque de San Basilio founded by runaway slaves as a refuge in the seventeenth century. The people of San Basilio fought against slavery, thereby giving rise to the first free place in the Americas. Its main leader was Benkos Biohó, born in West Africa. The cultural space of Palenque de San Basilio was declared in 2005 as a "Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity" by UNESCO.
  4. Peter Claver was a Spanish who traveled to Cartagena in 1610. On 19 March 1616 he was ordained as a Jesuit priest. Peter cared for the African slaves for thirty-eight years, defending the life and the dignity of the slaves. After four years of sickness, Peter died in 1654. Two services were held for him: the official funeral, and a separate memorial attended by his African friends. In 1888, the Roman Catholic Church canonized Peter. He is now Known as the patron saint of African-Americans, slaves and the Republic of Colombia.
  5. Héctor Abad was a prominent medical doctor, university professor, and human rights leader whose holistic vision of healthcare led him to found the Colombian National School of Public Health. The increasing violence and human rights abuses of the 1970s and 1980s led him to fight for social justice in his community, but his political views put him at odds with those in power and Abad was killed in 1987. His son said he learned something from his father that the murderers don't know how to do: to use words to express the truth – a truth that will last longer than their lie.
  6. Javier de Nicoló was an Italian-born salesian priest who developed a program that has offered more than 40,000 young people the education and moral support they needed to become productive citizens. De Nicoló arrived in Colombia a year after the bogotazo, and he knew first-hand what war did to families. During World War II, Javier pursued his vocational training in a slaughter- house, after bombing raids destroyed his high school.

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  353. "Theater Festival". The Ibero-American Theater Festival of Bogotá. Retrieved 11 March 2017.
  354. "Main performing arts festivals – Theatre History". iti-worldwide.org. Archived from the original on 21 August 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2013.
  355. "Theater of Colombia" (in Spanish). banrepcultural.org. Retrieved 9 October 2013.
  356. Reyes, Carlos José. "El teatro en Colombia en el siglo XX" (in Spanish). Revista Credencial Historia. Retrieved 22 May 2016.
  357. "Competitive specialised film festivals". fiapf.org. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
  358. "the Film Act passed in 2003" (in Spanish). secretariasenado.gov.co. Retrieved 9 October 2013.
  359. "Ocho festivales de cine imperdibles en Colombia" (in Spanish). colombia.co. Retrieved 22 May 2016.
  360. "La Corporación Festival Internacional de Cine de Cartagena" (in Spanish). ficcifestival.com. Retrieved 22 May 2016.
  361. "Television in Colombia" (in Spanish). banrepcultural.org. Archived from the original on 13 April 2015. Retrieved 9 October 2013.
  362. "Un papel a toda prueba. 223 años de prensa diaria en Colombia" (in Spanish). banrepcultural.org. Retrieved 22 May 2016.
  363. "La prensa en Colombia" (in Spanish). banrepcultural.org. Retrieved 22 May 2016.
  364. "Radio in Colombia" (in Spanish). banrepcultural.org. Retrieved 22 May 2016.
  365. "Paseo de olla. Recetas de las cocinas regionales de Colombia – Biblioteca básica de cocinas tradicionales de Colombia" (PDF) (in Spanish). Retrieved 6 July 2016.
  366. "Food presentation" (PDF) (in Spanish). Retrieved 22 January 2017.
  367. "Gran libro de la cocina colombiana – Biblioteca básica de cocinas tradicionales de Colombia" (PDF) (in Spanish). Retrieved 6 July 2016.
  368. Singh, Gitanjali M., et al. "Global, regional, and national consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, fruit juices, and milk: a systematic assessment of beverage intake in 187 countries." PLOS one 10.8 (2015): e0124845.
  369. "Hábitos de los consumidores en la tendencia saludable" (in Spanish). nielsen.com. Retrieved 24 March 2015.
  370. "Colombian Food; A List of Traditional and Modern Colombian Recipes". southamericanfood.about.com. Retrieved 30 October 2013.
  371. "Tejo – Colombia’s national sport". thecitypaperbogota.com. Retrieved 28 August 2013.
  372. Top Team and the Best Mover of the Year. FIFA
  373. "Patinaje colombiano, el más ganador del mundo" (in Spanish). elpais.com.co. Retrieved 9 October 2013.
  374. "Historical moments of the Colombian cycling" (in Spanish). antena2.com.co.
  375. "The 2010 SF N World Series Batting Log for Edgar Renteria". Retrosheet. Retrieved 21 March 2011.
  376. "Recordando a nuestras glorias del béisbol" (in Spanish). eltiempo.com. Retrieved 9 October 2013.
  377. "History of boxing in Colombia" (in Spanish). boxeodecolombia.com. Retrieved 7 March 2014.
  378. "Boxing champions" (in Spanish). boxeodecolombia.com. Retrieved 7 March 2014.
  379. "Colombia vive esplendor deportivo inédito en su historia" (in Spanish). lafm.com.co. Retrieved 14 June 2016.
  380. "History of the Colombian Olympic Committee." (in Spanish). Colombian Olympic Committee. Retrieved 14 June 2016.
  381. "El bolo colombiano ratificó su condición de potencia continental" (in Spanish). reporterosasociados.com.co. Retrieved 14 June 2016.
  382. "21 Colombian clinics among the best 44 in Latin America". America Economia magazine. Retrieved 9 June 2017.
  383. "Ministra de Salud dice que la cobertura en este sector subió al 96%" (in Spanish). elpais.com.co. Retrieved 18 August 2013.
  384. "Colombia Medical Tourism". mymedholiday.com. Retrieved 8 March 2014.
  385. Colombian Constitution of 1991 (Title II – Concerning rights, guarantees, and duties – Chapter 2 – Concerning social, economic and cultural rights – Article 67)
  386. "Ministerio de Educación de Colombia, Estructura del sistema educativo". 29 June 2007. Archived from the original on 29 June 2007.
  387. "UNESCO-UNEVOC World TVET Database".

General information

  • Colombia at Encyclopædia Britannica
  • Colombia at UCB Libraries GovPubs
  • Colombia at DMOZ
  • "Colombia". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
  • Key Development Forecasts for Colombia from International Futures
  • Official investment portal
  • Official Colombia Tourism Website
  • Study Spanish in Colombia
  • (in Spanish) National Administrative Department of Statistics


  • (in Spanish) Colombia Online Government website


  • (in Spanish) Ministry of Culture


  • Wikimedia Atlas of Colombia
  • (in Spanish) National parks of Colombia
Source of information: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. We're not responsible for the content of this article and your use of this information. Disclaimer
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