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What's important: you can compare and book not only Erbil hotels and resorts, but also villas and holiday cottages, inns and B&Bs (bed and breakfast), condo hotels and apartments, timeshare properties, guest houses and pensions, campsites (campgrounds), motels and hostels in Erbil. If you're going to Erbil save your money and time, don't pay for the services of the greedy travel agencies. Instead, book the best hotel in Erbil online, buy the cheapest airline tickets to Erbil, and rent a car in Erbil right now, paying the lowest price! Besides, here you can buy the Erbil related books, guidebooks, souvenirs and other goods.

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In order to book an accommodation in Erbil enter the proper dates and do the hotel search. If needed, sort the found Erbil hotels by price, star rating, property type, guest rating, hotel features, hotel theme or hotel chain. Then take a look at the found hotels on Erbil map to estimate the distance from the main Erbil attractions and sights. You can also read the guest reviews of Erbil hotels and see their ratings.

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Hotels of Erbil

A hotel in Erbil is an establishment that provides lodging paid on a short-term basis. Facilities provided may range from a basic bed and storage for clothing, to luxury features like en-suite bathrooms. Larger in Erbil hotels may provide additional guest facilities such as a swimming pool, business centre, childcare, conference facilities and social function services. Hotel rooms in Erbil are usually numbered (or named in some smaller hotels and B&Bs) to allow guests to identify their room. Some Erbil hotels offer meals as part of a room and board arrangement. Hotel operations vary in size, function, and cost. Most Erbil hotels and major hospitality companies that operate hotels in Erbil have set widely accepted industry standards to classify hotel types. General categories include the following:

Upscale luxury hotels in Erbil
An upscale full service hotel facility in Erbil that offers luxury amenities, full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and the highest level of personalized and professional service. Luxury Erbil hotels are normally classified with at least a Four Diamond or Five Diamond status or a Four or Five Star rating depending on classification standards.

Full service hotels in Erbil
Full service Erbil hotels often contain upscale full-service facilities with a large volume of full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and a variety of on-site amenities such as swimming pools, a health club, children's activities, ballrooms, on-site conference facilities, etc.

Historic inns and boutique hotels in Erbil
Boutique hotels of Erbil are smaller independent non-branded hotels that often contain upscale facilities of varying size in unique or intimate settings with full service accommodations. Erbil boutique hotels are generally 100 rooms or less. Some historic inns and boutique hotels in Erbil may be classified as luxury hotels.

Focused or select service hotels in Erbil
Small to medium-sized hotel establishments that offer a limited amount of on-site amenities that only cater and market to a specific demographic of Erbil travelers, such as the single business traveler. Most Erbil focused or select service hotels may still offer full service accommodations but may lack leisure amenities such as an on-site restaurant or a swimming pool.

Economy and limited service hotels in Erbil
Small to medium-sized Erbil hotel establishments that offer a very limited amount of on-site amenities and often only offer basic accommodations with little to no services, these facilities normally only cater and market to a specific demographic of travelers, such as the budget-minded Erbil traveler seeking a "no frills" accommodation. Limited service Erbil hotels often lack an on-site restaurant but in return may offer a limited complimentary food and beverage amenity such as on-site continental breakfast service.

Guest houses and B&Bs in Erbil
A bed and breakfast in Erbil is a small lodging establishment that offers overnight accommodation and inclusive breakfast. Usually, Erbil bed and breakfasts are private homes or family homes offering accommodations. The typical Erbil B&B has between 4 and 11 rooms, with 6 being the average. Generally, guests are accommodated in private bedrooms with private bathrooms, or in a suite of rooms including an en suite bathroom. Some homes have private bedrooms with a bathroom which is shared with other guests. Breakfast is served in the bedroom, a dining room, or the host's kitchen. Often the owners of guest house themselves prepare the breakfast and clean the rooms.

Hostels in Erbil
Erbil hostels provide budget-oriented, sociable accommodation where guests can rent a bed, usually a bunk bed, in a dormitory and share a bathroom, lounge, and sometimes a kitchen. Rooms can be mixed or single-sex, although private rooms may also be available. Hostels are often cheaper for both the operator and occupants; many Erbil hostels have long-term residents whom they employ as desk agents or housekeeping staff in exchange for experience or discounted accommodation.

Apartment hotels, extended stay hotels in Erbil
Extended stay hotels are small to medium-sized Erbil hotels that offer longer term full service accommodations compared to a traditional hotel. Extended stay hotels may offer non-traditional pricing methods such as a weekly rate that cater towards travelers in need of short-term accommodations for an extended period of time. Similar to limited and select service hotels, on-site amenities are normally limited and most extended stay hotels in Erbil lack an on-site restaurant.

Timeshare and destination clubs in Erbil
Erbil timeshare and destination clubs are a form of property ownership also referred to as a vacation ownership involving the purchase and ownership of an individual unit of accommodation for seasonal usage during a specified period of time. Timeshare resorts in Erbil often offer amenities similar that of a Full service hotel with on-site restaurant(s), swimming pools, recreation grounds, and other leisure-oriented amenities. Destination clubs of Erbil on the other hand may offer more exclusive private accommodations such as private houses in a neighborhood-style setting.

Motels in Erbil
A Erbil motel is a small-sized low-rise lodging establishment similar to that of a limited service hotel, but with direct access to individual rooms from the car park. Common during the 1950s and 1960s, motels were often located adjacent to a major road, where they were built on inexpensive land at the edge of towns or along stretches of highways. They are still useful in less populated areas of Erbil for driving travelers, but the more populated an area becomes the more hotels fill the need. Many of Erbil motels which remain in operation have joined national franchise chains, rebranding themselves as hotels, inns or lodges.

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Travelling and vacation in Erbil

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Erbil
ܐܲܪܒܝ̣ܠ
ھەولێر
أربيل

Arbelā, Hawler, Arbīl
Clockwise, from top: Downtown, Mudhafaria Minaret, Statue of Ibn al-Mustawfi, and Citadel of Erbil
Clockwise, from top: Downtown, Mudhafaria Minaret, Statue of Ibn al-Mustawfi, and Citadel of Erbil
Erbil is located in Iraq
Erbil
Erbil
Erbil in Iraq
Coordinates:  / 36.19111; 44.00917  / 36.19111; 44.00917
Country Iraq
Autonomous region Iraqi Kurdistan
Province Erbil Governorate
Government
• Type Governorate (1921)
• Governor Nawzad Hadi
• Mayor Nihad Qoja
Area
• Total 197 km (76 sq mi)
Elevation 390 m (1,280 ft)
Population (2011)
• Total 1,750,000
Time zone GMT+3 (UTC+3)
• Summer (DST) not observed (UTC)
Postal code 44001
Area code(s) 066
Website http://hawlergov.org/ku/index.php

Erbil, also spelt Arbil or Irbil, and also known as Hewler (Central Kurdish: ھەولێر Hawler‎, Syriac: ܐܪܒܝܠ‎ Arbel, Arabic: أربيل‎‎ Arbīl), is the capital city of Erbil Governorate and of Iraqi Kurdistan. It is located approximately 350 kilometres (220 miles) north of Baghdad. Its governorate has a permanent population of approximately 1.61 million as of 2011.

Human settlement at Erbil can be dated back to possibly 5000 BC, and it is one of the oldest continuously inhabited areas in the world. At the heart of the city is the ancient Citadel of Arbil. The earliest historical reference to the region dates to the Ur III dynasty of Sumer, when king Shulgi mentioned the city of Urbilum, the ancient Assyrian name of modern-day Arbil.

Erbil became an integral part of the kingdom of Assyria by at least the 21st century BC through to the end of the 7th century BC, and it was known in Assyrian annals variously as Urbilim, Arbela and Arba-ilu. After this it was part of the geopolitical province of Assyria under several empires in turn, including the Median Empire, the Achaemenid Empire (Achaemenid Assyria), Macedonian Empire, Seleucid Syria, Parthian Empire (Athura), Assyria (Roman province) and Sassanid Empire (Assuristan), as well as being the capital of the Neo-Assyrian state of Adiabene between the mid 2nd century BC and early 2nd century AD. Following the Arab conquest of Persia, Assyria as a geo-political entity (then known as Assuristan/Athura) slowly dissolved, and during medieval times the city came to be ruled by the Seljuk and Ottoman Turks.

Erbil's archaeological museum houses a large collection of pre-Islamic artefacts (particularly Sumerian and Assyrian) and is a centre for archaeological projects in the area. The city was designated as Arab Tourism Capital 2014 by the Arab Council of Tourism. In July 2014, Erbil Citadel was inscribed as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO.

The city has an ethnically diverse population of Kurds, the still extant Assyrians, Arabs, Armenians, Turcomans, Yezidis, Shabakis and Mandeans. It is equally religiously diverse, with believers of Sunni Islam, Sufi Islam, Shia Islam, Christianity (mainly followed by Assyrians and Armenians), Yezidism, Yarsan, Shabakism and Mandeanism extant in and around Erbil.

Erbil: Etymology

The name Erbil was mentioned in Sumerian holy writings of third millennium BC as Urbilum, Urbelum or Urbillum, which appears to originate from Arbilum in the language of the Hurrians who inhabited the area. Later, the Akkadians and Assyrians by a folk etymology rendered the name as arba'ū ilū to mean four gods. The city became a centre for the worship of the Assyro-Babylonian goddess Ishtar. In classical times the city became known as Arbela (Ἄρβηλα), from the Syriac language and Assyrian Neo-Aramaic form of the name. In Old Persian the city was called Arbairā.

Today, the modern Kurdish name of the city, Hewlêr, appears to be a corruption of the name Arbel by a series of metatheses of consonants.

Erbil: History

Siege of Erbil by the Ilkhanid Mongols in 1258–59 depicted in the Jami' al-tawarikh by Rashid-al-Din Hamadani Bibliothèque Nationale de France, Département des Manuscrits, Division Orientale.
Citadel of Arbil, Iraqi Kurdistan
Chaldean Catholic Cathedral of Saint Joseph in Ankawa, a suburb of Erbil.

Erbil: Ancient history

Erbil is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in history.

The region in which Erbil lies was largely under Sumerian domination from c.3000 BC, and from perhaps the 25th century BC, under the control of pastoralist Akkadian speaking Assyrian kings, until the rise of the Akkadian Empire (2335–2154 BC) which united all of the Akkadian Semites and Sumerians of Mesopotamia under one rule. Today the indigenous Assyrian people endure as a minority in northern Iraq, north east Syria, south east Turkey and north west Iran, their population is estimated to be 1.5million.

The first mention of Erbil in literary sources' comes from the archives of the east Semitic speaking kingdom of Ebla. They record two journeys to Erbil (Irbilum) by a messenger from Ebla around 2300 BC. Later, Erridupizir, king of the language isolate speaking kingdom of Gutium, captured the city in 2150 BC.

The Neo-Sumerian ruler of Ur, Amar-Sin, sacked Urbilum in his second year, c. 1975 BC

Erbil was an integral part of Assyria from around 2050 BC, becoming a relatively important city during the Old Assyrian Empire (1975–1750 BC), Middle Assyrian Empire (1365–1050 BC) and the Neo Assyrian Empire (935–605 BC), until the last of these empires fell between 612–599 BC, however it remained part of Assyria under Persian, Greek, Parthian, Roman and Sassanid rule until the first half of the 7th century AD.

Under the Median Empire, Cyaxares might have settled a number of people from the Ancient Iranian tribe of Sagartians in the Assyrian cities of Arbela and Arrapha (modern Kirkuk), probably as a reward for their help in the capture of Nineveh. The Persian emperor Cyrus the Great occupied Assyria in 547 BC, and established it as an Achaemenid satrapy called in Old Persian Aθurā (Athura), with Arbela as the capital.

The Battle of Gaugamela, in which Alexander the Great defeated Darius III of Persia in 331 BC, took place approximately 100 kilometres (62 mi) west of Erbil. After the battle, Darius managed to flee to the city, and, somewhat inaccurately, the confrontation is sometimes known as the "Battle of Arbela". Subsequently, Arbela was part of Alexander's Empire.

After the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BCE, Arbela became part of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire.

Erbil became part of the region disputed between Rome and Persia under the Sasanids. The ancient Assyrian kingdom of Adiabene (the Greek form of the Assyrian Ḥadyab) had its centre at Erbil, and the town and kingdom are known in Jewish Middle Eastern history for the conversion of the royal family to Judaism. During the Parthian era to early Sassanid era, Erbil became the capital of the Assyrian state of Adiabene.

Its populace then gradually converted from the Mesopotamian Religion between the 1st and 4th centuries to the Assyrian Church of the East Christianity (and to a lesser degree to the Syriac Orthodox Church), with Pkidha traditionally becoming its first bishop around 104 AD, although the ancient Assyrian religion did not die out entirely in the region until the 10th century AD. The metropolitanate of Ḥadyab in Arbela (Syriac: ܐܪܒܝܠ Arbel) became a centre of eastern Syriac Christianity until late in the Middle Ages.

Erbil: Medieval history

As many of the Eastern Aramaic-speaking Assyrians who had converted to Christianity adopted Biblical (including Jewish) names, most of the early bishops had Eastern Aramaic or Jewish/Biblical names, which does not suggest that many of the early Christians in this city were converts from Judaism. It served as the seat of a Metropolitan of the Assyrian Church of the East. From the city's Christian period come many church fathers and well-known authors in Syriac.

Following the Muslim conquest of Persia, the Sasanid province of Assuristan, of which Erbil made part of, was dissolved, and from the mid 7th century AD the region saw a gradual influx of Muslim peoples, predominantly Arabs, Kurds and Turkic peoples.

When the Mongols invaded the Near East in the 13th century, they attacked Arbil for the first time in 1237. They plundered the lower town but had to retreat before an approaching Caliphate army and had to put off the capture of the citadel. After the fall of Baghdad to Hülegü and the Mongols in 1258, they returned to Arbil and were able to capture the citadel after a siege lasting six months. Hülegü then appointed an Assyrian Christian governor to the town, and the Syriac Orthodox Church was allowed to build a church.

As time passed, sustained persecutions of Christians, Jews and Buddhists throughout the Ilkhanate began in earnest in 1295 under the rule of Oïrat amir Nauruz, which affected the indigenous Assyrian Christians greatly. This manifested early on in the reign of the Ilkhan Ghazan. In 1297, after Ghazan had felt strong enough to overcome Nauruz's influence, he put a stop to the persecutions.

During the reign of the Ilkhan Öljeitü the Assyrian Christian inhabitants retreated to the citadel to escape persecution. In the Spring of 1310, the Malek (governor) of the region attempted to seize it from them with the help of the Kurds. Despite the Turkic bishop Mar Yahballaha's best efforts to avert the impending doom, the citadel was at last taken after a siege by Ilkhanate troops and Kurdish tribesmen on 1 July 1310, and all the defenders were massacred, including many of the Assyrian inhabitants of the lower town.

However, the city's Eastern Aramaic-speaking Assyrian population remained numerically significant until the destruction of the city by the forces of Timur in 1397.

In the Middle Ages, Erbil was ruled successively by the Umayyads, the Abbasids, the Buwayhids, the Seljuks and then the Atabegs of Erbil (1131–1232), under whom it was a Turkmen state; they were in turn followed by the Ilkhanids, the Jalayirids, the Kara Koyunlu, the Timurids, and the Ak Koyunlu. Erbil was the birthplace of the famous 12th and 13th century Kurdish historians and writers Ibn Khallikan and Ibn al-Mustawfi. Erbil and all of Iraq passed into the hands of the Ottoman Turks in the 16th century. Erbil was part of the Musul Vilayet in Ottoman Empire for 400 years until World War I, when the Ottomans and their Kurdish and Turcoman allies were defeated by the British Empire with the aid of the Assyrians and Armenians, and the Ottoman Turks ejected.

Erbil: Modern history

A postcard showing the city of Erbil in 1900
A postcard showing the city of Erbil in 1900

The modern town of Erbil stands on a tell topped by an Ottoman fort. During the Middle Ages, Erbil became a major trading centre on the route between Baghdad and Mosul, a role which it still plays today with important road links to the outside world.

Erbil Mail Square

Today, Erbil is both multi-ethnic and multi-religious, with the Kurds forming the largest ethnic group in the city, with smaller numbers of Arabs, Assyrians, Turcoman, Armenians, Yazidis, Shabaks, Circassians, Kawliya, Iranians and Mandeans also extant.

The parliament of the Kurdistan Autonomous Region was established in Erbil in 1970 after negotiations between the Iraqi government and the Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP) led by Mustafa Barzani, but was effectively controlled by Saddam Hussein until the Kurdish uprising at the end of the 1991 Gulf War. The legislature ceased to function effectively in the mid-1990s when fighting broke out between the two main Kurdish factions, the Kurdistan Democratic Party and the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK). The city was captured by the KDP in 1996 with the assistance of the Iraqi government of Saddam Hussein. The PUK then established an alternative Kurdish government in Sulaimaniyah. KDP claimed that on March 1996 PUK asked for Iran's help to fight KDP. Considering this as a foreign attack on Iraq's soil, the KDP asked the Iraqi government for help.

The Kurdish Parliament in Erbil reconvened after a peace agreement was signed between the Kurdish parties in 1997, but had no real power. The Kurdish government in Erbil had control only in the western and northern parts of the autonomous region. During the 2003 Invasion of Iraq, a United States special forces task force was headquartered just outside Erbil. The city was the scene of celebrations on 10 April 2003 after the fall of the Ba'ath regime.

Erbil Castle Tower Clock

During the US occupation of Iraq, sporadic attacks hit Erbil. Parallel bomb attacks against Eid celebrations killed 109 people on 1 February 2004. Responsibility was claimed by the Ansar al-Sunnah, and stated to be in solidarity with Ansar al-Islam. A suicide bombing on 4 May 2005 killed 60 civilians and injured 150 more outside a police recruiting centre.

The Erbil International Airport opened in the city in 2005.

Erbil: Projects

Erbil: Downtown Erbil

Downtown Erbil was a project for a large-scale mixed-use complex in Erbil. The project would have been coordinated by Emaar Properties, the GCC's largest real estate developer. Emaar is well known for international big projects like Downtown Dubai and Burj Khalifa. The project was launched in 2013 and will cover an area of 541,000 square metres (5,823,276 square feet). This area will be used for residential apartments, hotels and a shopping mall. The project was cancelled in 2014 due to the civil war in Iraq.

Erbil: Aura Erbil

Aura Erbil is another new project with a high standard of living, which is coordinated by Zardman.

Erbil: Transportation

Erbil International Airport is one of Iraq's busiest airports and is near the city. Services includes direct flights to many domestic destinations as well as flights to international destinations in the Middle East, North Africa and Europe.

Erbil: Climate

Erbil's climate is hot-summer Mediterranean (Csa) according to Köppen climate classification, with extremely hot summers and mild wet winters. January is the wettest month.

Climate data for Erbil
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 20
(68)
27
(81)
30
(86)
34
(93)
42
(108)
44
(111)
48
(118)
49
(120)
45
(113)
39
(102)
31
(88)
24
(75)
49
(120)
Average high °C (°F) 12.4
(54.3)
14.2
(57.6)
18.1
(64.6)
24.0
(75.2)
31.5
(88.7)
38.1
(100.6)
42.0
(107.6)
41.9
(107.4)
37.9
(100.2)
30.7
(87.3)
21.2
(70.2)
14.4
(57.9)
27.2
(80.97)
Daily mean °C (°F) 7.4
(45.3)
8.9
(48)
12.4
(54.3)
17.5
(63.5)
24.1
(75.4)
29.7
(85.5)
33.4
(92.1)
33.1
(91.6)
29.0
(84.2)
22.6
(72.7)
15.0
(59)
9.1
(48.4)
20.18
(68.33)
Average low °C (°F) 2.4
(36.3)
3.6
(38.5)
6.7
(44.1)
11.1
(52)
16.7
(62.1)
21.4
(70.5)
24.9
(76.8)
24.4
(75.9)
20.1
(68.2)
14.5
(58.1)
8.9
(48)
3.9
(39)
13.22
(55.79)
Record low °C (°F) −4
(25)
−6
(21)
−1
(30)
3
(37)
6
(43)
10
(50)
13
(55)
17
(63)
11
(52)
4
(39)
−2
(28)
−2
(28)
−6
(21)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 111
(4.37)
97
(3.82)
89
(3.5)
69
(2.72)
26
(1.02)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
12
(0.47)
56
(2.2)
80
(3.15)
540
(21.25)
Average rainy days 9 9 10 9 4 1 0 0 1 3 6 10 62
Average snowy days 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Average relative humidity (%) 74.5 70 65 58.5 41.5 28.5 25 27.5 30.5 43.5 60.5 75.5 50.04
Source #1: Climate-Data.org, My Forecast for records, humidity, snow and precipitation days
Source #2: What's the Weather Like.org, Erbilia

Erbil: Main sights

Erbil: Citadel of Erbil

The Citadel of Arbil is a tell or occupied mound in the historical heart of Erbil, rising between 25 and 32 metres (82 and 105 ft) from the surrounding plain. The buildings on top of the tell stretch over a roughly oval area of 430 by 340 metres (1,410 ft × 1,120 ft) occupying 102,000 square metres (1,100,000 sq ft). It has been claimed that the site is the oldest continuously inhabited town in the world. The earliest evidence for occupation of the citadel mound dates to the 5th millennium BC, and possibly earlier. It appears for the first time in historical sources during the Ur III period, and gained particular importance during the Neo-Assyrian Empire (10th to 7th centuries BC) period. West of the citadel at Ary Kon quarter, a chamber tomb dating to the Neo-Assyrian Empire period has been excavated. During the Sassanian period and the Abbasid Caliphate, Erbil was an important centre for Assyrian Christianity and the Assyrians. After the Mongols captured the citadel in 1258, Erbil's importance began to decline.

During the 20th century, the urban structure was significantly modified, as a result of which a number of houses and public buildings were destroyed. In 2007, the High Commission for Erbil Citadel Revitalization (HCECR) was established to oversee the restoration of the citadel. In the same year, all inhabitants, except one family, were evicted from the citadel as part of a large restoration project. Since then, archaeological research and restoration works have been carried out at and around the tell by various international teams and in co-operation with local specialists, and many areas remain off-limits to visitors due to the danger of unstable walls and infrastructure. The government plans to have 50 families live in the citadel once it is renovated.

The only religious structure that currently survives in the citadel is the Mulla Afandi Mosque. When it was fully occupied, the citadel was divided in three districts or mahallas: from east to west the Serai, the Takya and the Topkhana. The Serai was occupied by notable families; the Takya district was named after the homes of dervishes, which are called takyas; and the Topkhana district housed craftsmen and farmers. Other sights to visit in the citadel include the bathing rooms (hammam) built in 1775 located near the mosque and the Textile Museum. Erbil citadel has been inscribed on the World Heritage List on 21 June 2014 .

Erbil: Other sights

  • The covered Erbil Qaysari Bazaars, lying below the main entrance to the citadel and stocking mainly household goods and tools.
  • The 36-metre-high (118-foot) Mudhafaria Minaret, situated in Minaret Park several blocks from the citadel, dates back to the late 12th century AD and the Governor of Erbil, in the reign of Saladin, Muzaffar Al-Din Abu Sa’eed Al-Kawkaboori (Gökböri), who had entered in the obedience of Salahuddin without war and married his sister. It has an octagonal base decorated with two tiers of niches, which is separated from the main shaft by a small balcony, also decorated. Another historical minaret with turquoise glazed tiles is nearby.
  • Sami Rahman Park
  • Franso Hariri Stadium
  • The Mound of Qalich Agha lies within the grounds of the Museum of Civilization, 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) from the citadel. An excavation in 1996 found tools from the Halaf, Ubaid and Uruk periods.
  • Kurdish Textile Museum

Erbil: Sports

Franso Hariri Stadium

The local major football team is Erbil SC which plays its football matches at Franso Hariri Stadium (named after the assassinated Assyrian politician Franso Hariri) which is based in the south part of central Erbil. Erbil SC were the first Kurdish team to make it to the AFC Champions league.

Erbil: Media

  • Babylon FM
  • Ishtar TV
  • Kanal4
  • Kurdsat
  • Kurdistan TV
  • Kurdmax Pepûle
  • Kurdistan 24
  • Rudaw Media Network

Erbil: Notable people from Erbil

  • Sinan Erbil (Turkmen singer)
  • Mehmet Ali Erbil (Turkish comedian, actor and talk show host)

Erbil: See also

  • Ankawa – a suburb
  • Cities of the Ancient Near East
  • Category:Ancient Assyrian cities

Erbil: References

  1. "Iraq". CITY POPULATION. Retrieved 20 June 2016.
  2. "Ministry of Planning".
  3. Novácek, Karel (2008). "Research of the Arbil Citadel, Iraq, First Season". Památky Archeologické (XCIX): 259–302.
  4. ISBN 0-415-25589-9.
  5. Georges Roux – Ancient Iraq
  6. 'Directorate Antiquities of Erbil's Guide' Brochure produced by General Directorate of Antiquities, KRG, Ministry of Tourism
  7. Erbil named 2014 Arab Tourism Capital. Retrieved 30 January 2014
  8. "Erbil: Kurdish City, Arab Capital", Rudaw. Retrieved 30 January 2014
  9. ISBN 978-90-04-11510-1.
  10. I. Gershevitc, The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 2, Cambridge University Press, 1985 – 964 pages, s p. 37
  11. "Iranica: Arbela". Iranicaonline.org. Retrieved 21 May 2012.
  12. Erbil: World's oldest, and continously [sic] inhabited city – 8,000 Years, Allvoices.com
  13. Timeline Archived 14 August 2014 at the Wayback Machine. ErbilCitadel.orq
  14. electricpulp.com. "ASAGARTA (Sagartia) – Encyclopaedia Iranica". iranicaonline.org.
  15. E. Herzfeld, The Persian Empire, ed. G. Walser, Wiesbaden, 1968, pp. 304–07
  16. Adiabene, Jewish Kingdom of Mesopotamia, Jonah Gabriel Lissner
  17. MŠIHA-ZKHA. "HISTORY OF THE CHURCH OF ADIABENE UNDER THE PARTHIANS AND THE SASSANIDS". Tertullian.org.
  18. Neusner, Jacob (1969). A history of the Jews in Babylonia, Volume 2. Brill Archive. p. 354.
  19. British Institute of Persian Studies (1981). Iran , Volumes 19–21. the University of Michigan. pp. 15, 17.
  20. Gillman, Ian and Hans-Joachim Klimkeit. Christians in Asia before 1500. (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, 1999) p. 33
  21. , pp. 49–50
  22. , p. 261
  23. Grousset, p. 379
  24. Grousset, p. 383
  25. Edwin Munsell Bliss, Turkey and the Armenian Atrocities, (Chicago 1896) p. 153
  26. Al-Nahr, Naseer (2 February 2004). "Twin Bombings Kill 56 in Irbil". Arabnews.com. Retrieved 11 May 2015.
  27. Jaff, Warzer; Oppel Jr., Richard A. (5 May 2005). "60 Kurds Killed by Suicide Bomb in Northern Iraq". The New York Times. Retrieved 11 May 2015.
  28. "Downtown Erbil – Facebook". facebook.com.
  29. – businessnews.com.lb, website. Retrieved 2014 – 03 – 27
  30. "Climate: Arbil – Climate graph, Temperature graph, Climate table". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved 13 August 2013.
  31. "Irbil, Iraq Climate". My Forecast. Retrieved 14 July 2013.
  32. "Erbil climate info". What's the Weather Like.org. Retrieved 14 July 2013.
  33. "Erbil Weather Forecast and Climate Information". Erbilia. Retrieved 14 July 2013.
  34. "Erbil Citadel". UNESCO. Retrieved 30 August 2010.
  35. 'Erbil Citadel' Brochure, High Commission for Erbil Citadel Revitalization (HCECR). www.erbilcitadel.org
  36. Milliyet. "Türkmenler, Irak'ta eğitim düzeyleriyle öne çıkıyor...". Retrieved 16 June 2014.

Erbil: Sources

  • Sourdel, D. (2010), "Irbil", in Bearman, P.; Bianquis, Th.; Bosworth, C.E.; van Donzel, E.; Heinrichs, W.P., Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Brill Online, OCLC 624382576
  • Grousset, René, The Empire of the Steppes, (Translated from the French by Naomi Walford), New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press (1970)
  • Hawler Governorate
  • Erbil – Portal for international visitors
  • Livius.org: Arbela
  • Erbil Information Guide
  • Hawler/Erbil visitor's guide
  • Erbil seen through camera lens
Source of information: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. We're not responsible for the content of this article and your use of this information. Disclaimer
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