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Hotels of Essaouira

A hotel in Essaouira is an establishment that provides lodging paid on a short-term basis. Facilities provided may range from a basic bed and storage for clothing, to luxury features like en-suite bathrooms. Larger in Essaouira hotels may provide additional guest facilities such as a swimming pool, business centre, childcare, conference facilities and social function services. Hotel rooms in Essaouira are usually numbered (or named in some smaller hotels and B&Bs) to allow guests to identify their room. Some Essaouira hotels offer meals as part of a room and board arrangement. Hotel operations vary in size, function, and cost. Most Essaouira hotels and major hospitality companies that operate hotels in Essaouira have set widely accepted industry standards to classify hotel types. General categories include the following:

Upscale luxury hotels in Essaouira
An upscale full service hotel facility in Essaouira that offers luxury amenities, full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and the highest level of personalized and professional service. Luxury Essaouira hotels are normally classified with at least a Four Diamond or Five Diamond status or a Four or Five Star rating depending on classification standards.

Full service hotels in Essaouira
Full service Essaouira hotels often contain upscale full-service facilities with a large volume of full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and a variety of on-site amenities such as swimming pools, a health club, children's activities, ballrooms, on-site conference facilities, etc.

Historic inns and boutique hotels in Essaouira
Boutique hotels of Essaouira are smaller independent non-branded hotels that often contain upscale facilities of varying size in unique or intimate settings with full service accommodations. Essaouira boutique hotels are generally 100 rooms or less. Some historic inns and boutique hotels in Essaouira may be classified as luxury hotels.

Focused or select service hotels in Essaouira
Small to medium-sized hotel establishments that offer a limited amount of on-site amenities that only cater and market to a specific demographic of Essaouira travelers, such as the single business traveler. Most Essaouira focused or select service hotels may still offer full service accommodations but may lack leisure amenities such as an on-site restaurant or a swimming pool.

Economy and limited service hotels in Essaouira
Small to medium-sized Essaouira hotel establishments that offer a very limited amount of on-site amenities and often only offer basic accommodations with little to no services, these facilities normally only cater and market to a specific demographic of travelers, such as the budget-minded Essaouira traveler seeking a "no frills" accommodation. Limited service Essaouira hotels often lack an on-site restaurant but in return may offer a limited complimentary food and beverage amenity such as on-site continental breakfast service.

Guest houses and B&Bs in Essaouira
A bed and breakfast in Essaouira is a small lodging establishment that offers overnight accommodation and inclusive breakfast. Usually, Essaouira bed and breakfasts are private homes or family homes offering accommodations. The typical Essaouira B&B has between 4 and 11 rooms, with 6 being the average. Generally, guests are accommodated in private bedrooms with private bathrooms, or in a suite of rooms including an en suite bathroom. Some homes have private bedrooms with a bathroom which is shared with other guests. Breakfast is served in the bedroom, a dining room, or the host's kitchen. Often the owners of guest house themselves prepare the breakfast and clean the rooms.

Hostels in Essaouira
Essaouira hostels provide budget-oriented, sociable accommodation where guests can rent a bed, usually a bunk bed, in a dormitory and share a bathroom, lounge, and sometimes a kitchen. Rooms can be mixed or single-sex, although private rooms may also be available. Hostels are often cheaper for both the operator and occupants; many Essaouira hostels have long-term residents whom they employ as desk agents or housekeeping staff in exchange for experience or discounted accommodation.

Apartment hotels, extended stay hotels in Essaouira
Extended stay hotels are small to medium-sized Essaouira hotels that offer longer term full service accommodations compared to a traditional hotel. Extended stay hotels may offer non-traditional pricing methods such as a weekly rate that cater towards travelers in need of short-term accommodations for an extended period of time. Similar to limited and select service hotels, on-site amenities are normally limited and most extended stay hotels in Essaouira lack an on-site restaurant.

Timeshare and destination clubs in Essaouira
Essaouira timeshare and destination clubs are a form of property ownership also referred to as a vacation ownership involving the purchase and ownership of an individual unit of accommodation for seasonal usage during a specified period of time. Timeshare resorts in Essaouira often offer amenities similar that of a Full service hotel with on-site restaurant(s), swimming pools, recreation grounds, and other leisure-oriented amenities. Destination clubs of Essaouira on the other hand may offer more exclusive private accommodations such as private houses in a neighborhood-style setting.

Motels in Essaouira
A Essaouira motel is a small-sized low-rise lodging establishment similar to that of a limited service hotel, but with direct access to individual rooms from the car park. Common during the 1950s and 1960s, motels were often located adjacent to a major road, where they were built on inexpensive land at the edge of towns or along stretches of highways. They are still useful in less populated areas of Essaouira for driving travelers, but the more populated an area becomes the more hotels fill the need. Many of Essaouira motels which remain in operation have joined national franchise chains, rebranding themselves as hotels, inns or lodges.

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Travelling and vacation in Essaouira

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Essaouira
Mugadur
Sidi Megdoul
City and Wilaya
Essaouira2.jpg
Essaouira 116.JPG Essaouira, Morocco (8141937822).jpg
Essaouira citadel.JPG Essaouira - panoramio (163).jpg
Clockwise from top:
Essaouira skyline, city wall bastion, Magana clocktower, Essaouira citadel by Scala harbour, Mosque Ben Youssef
Coat of arms of Essaouira
Coat of arms
Essaouira is located in Morocco
Essaouira
Essaouira
Location in Morocco
Coordinates:  / 31.51306; -9.76972
Country Morocco
Region Marrakesh-Safi
Government
• Mayor Asma Chaâbi
Elevation −160 ft (0-50 m)
Population (2004)
• Total 70,000
Time zone WET (UTC+0)
• Summer (DST) WEST (UTC+1)
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Criteria Cultural: (ii), (iv) Edit this on Wikidata
Reference 753
Inscription 2001 (25th Session)
[edit on Wikidata]

Essaouira (Arabic: الصويرة‎‎; Berber: Mugadur), formerly known as Mogador, is a city in the western Moroccan economic region of Marrakesh-Safi, on the Atlantic coast. The modern name means "the little rampart", a reference to the fortress walls that still enclose part of the city.

Essaouira: Name and etymology

The name of the city is usually spelled Essaouira in Latin script, and الصويرة in Arabic script. Both spellings represent its name in Moroccan Arabic, ṣ-Ṣwiṛa. This is the diminutive (with definite article) of the noun ṣuṛ which means "wall (as round a yard, city), rampart". The pronunciation with pharyngealized /ṣ/ and /ṛ/ is a typically Moroccan development. In Classical Arabic, the noun is sūr (with plain /s/ and /r/), diminutive suwayrah. Hence the spelling of the name in Arabic script according to the classical pronunciation is السويرة al-Suwayrah (with sīn not ṣād).

In the Berber language which is spoken by a sizeable proportion of the city's inhabitants, it is called "Taṣṣort", meaning 'the small fortress'.

In Moroccan Arabic, a single male inhabitant is called ṣwiṛi, plural ṣwiṛiyin, a single female inhabitant is ṣwiṛiya, plural ṣwiṛiyat. In the Berber language, a single male inhabitant is U-Taṣṣort, plural: Ayt Taṣṣuṛt, a single female inhabitant is Ult Taṣṣort, plural 'Ist Taṣṣort.

Until the 1960s, Essaouira was generally known by its Portuguese name, Mogador. This name is probably a corruption of the older Berber name Amaqdūl that is mentioned by the 11th-century geographer al-Bakrī.

Essaouira: History

Archaeological research shows that Essaouira has been occupied since prehistoric times. The bay at Essaouira is partially sheltered by the island of Mogador, making it a peaceful harbor protected against strong marine winds.

Essaouira: Antiquity

Phoenician plate with red slip, 7th century BCE, excavated in Mogador island, Essaouira. Sidi Mohammed ben Abdallah Museum.

Essaouira has long been considered as one of the best anchorages of the Moroccan coast. The Carthaginian navigator Hanno visited in the 5th century BC and established the trading post of Arambys.

Around the end of the 1st century BCE or early 1st century CE, the Berber king Juba II established a Tyrian purple factory, processing the murex and purpura shells found in the intertidal rocks at Essaouira and the Iles Purpuraires. This dye colored the purple stripe in Imperial Roman Senatorial togas.

A Roman villa was excavated on Mogador island. A Roman vase was found as well as coinage from the 3rd century CE. Most of the artifacts are now visible in the Sidi Mohammed ben Abdallah Museum and the Rabat Archaeological Museum.

Essaouira: Early modern period

Resting place of Sidi Mogdoul in Essaouira.

During the Middle Ages, a Muslim saint named Sidi Mogdoul was buried in Essaouira, probably giving its origin to the name "Mogador".

Essaouira: Portuguese establishment (1506–10)

In 1506, the king of Portugal, D. Manuel I, ordered a fortress to be built there, named Castelo Real de Mogador. Altogether, the Portuguese are documented to have seized six Moroccan towns and built six stand-alone fortresses on the Moroccan Atlantic coast, between the river Loukos in the north and the river of Sous in the south. Four of them only had a short duration: Graciosa (1489), São João da Mamora (1515), Castelo Real of Mogador (1506–10) and Aguz (1520–25). Two became permanent urban settlements: Santa Cruz do Cabo de Gué (modern Agadir, founded in 1505–06), and Mazagan, founded in 1514–17. Following the 1541 Fall of Agadir, the Portuguese had to abandon most of their settlements between 1541 and 1550, although they were able to keep Ceuta, Tangier and Mazagan.

The fortress of Castelo Real of Mogador fell to the local resistance of the Regraga fraternity four years after its establishment, in 1510.

The Portuguese-built Castelo Real of Mogador was defended under Abd el-Malek II by a garrison of 100 Moroccans. It was drawn by Adriaen Matham in 1641.

During the 16th century, powers including Spain, England, the Netherlands and France tried in vain to conquer the locality. Essaouira remained a haven for the export of sugar, molasses and the anchoring of pirates.

Essaouira: De Razilly expedition (1629)

France was involved in an early attempt to colonize Mogador in 1629. As Richelieu and Père Joseph were attempting to establish a colonial policy, Admiral Isaac de Razilly suggested they occupy Mogador in 1626, which he had reconnoitered in 1619. The objective was to create a base against the Sultan of Marrakesh and asphyxiate the harbour of Safi.

He departed for Salé on 20 July 1629 with a fleet composed of the ships Licorne, Saint-Louis, Griffon, Catherine, Hambourg, Sainte-Anne, Saint-Jean. He bombarded the city the Salé, destroyed three corsair ships, and then sent the Griffon under Captain Treillebois to Mogador. The men of Razilly saw the fortress of Castelo Real in Mogador and landed 100 men with wood and supplies on Mogador island, with the agreement of Richelieu. After a few days, however, the Griffon reimbarked the colonists and departed to rejoin the fleet in Salé.

After these expeditions, France signed a treaty with Abd el-Malek II in 1631, giving France preferential treatment, known as "capitulations": preferential tariffs, the establishment of a Consulate, and freedom of religion for French subjects.

Essaouira: Foundation of modern Essaouira (1760–70)

Map of Essaouira by Théodore Cornut. When he left in 1767, areas in pink were already built (streets are still recognizable); areas in yellow (harbour front and medina) were only projected.
Dutch cannon made by Adrianus Crans in The Hague in 1744, installed in Essaouira.

The present city of Essaouira was built during the 18th century. Mohammed III, wishing to reorient his kingdom toward the Atlantic for increased exchanges with European powers, chose Mogador as his key location. One of his objectives was to establish a harbour at the closest possible point from Marrakesh. The other was to cut off trade from Agadir in the south, which had been favouring political rival of Mohammed III, and the inhabitants of Agadir were forced to relocate to Essaouira.

For 12 years, Mohammed III directed a French engineer, Théodore Cornut, and several other European architects and technicians to build the fortress and city along modern lines. Originally called "Souira" ("the small fortress"), the name became "Es-Saouira" ("the beautifully designed").

Harbour fortifications were built by an English renegade named Ahmed El Alj in 1770, as described in the sculptured inscription in Arabic (right).
Essaouira in 1809.

Thédore Cornut designed and built the city itself, particularly the Kasbah area, corresponding to the royal quarters and the buildings for Christian merchants and diplomats. Other parts were built by other foreigners. The harbour entrance, with the "Porte de la Marine", was built by an English renegade by the names of Ahmed el Inglizi ("Ahmed the English") or Ahmed El Alj ("Ahmed the Renegade"). The two "scalas" with their fortifications (the Harbour scala and the Northern scala) were built by Genoese engineers.

Mohammed III took numerous steps to encourage the development of Essaouira: the harbour of Agadir to the south was closed off in 1767, so that southern trade should be redirected through Essaouira. European communities in the northern harbour of Rabat-Salé were ordered to move to Essaouira through an ordinance of January 21, 1765.

From the time of its rebuilding by Muhammad III until the end of the nineteenth century, Essaouira served as Morocco's principal port, offering the goods of the caravan trade to the world. The route brought goods from sub-Saharan Africa to Timbuktu, then through the desert and over the Atlas mountains to Marrakech. The road from Marrakech to Essaouira is a straight line, explaining the king's choice of this port among the many that the Moroccan coast offers.

Essaouira: Jewish presence

A Jewish house in Mogador, by Darondeau (1807–1841).

Mohammed ben Abdallah encouraged Moroccan Jews to settle in the town and handle the trade with Europe. Jews once comprised 40% of the population, and the Jewish quarter (or mellah) contains many old synagogues. The town also has a large Jewish cemetery. The city flourished until the caravan trade died, outmoded by direct European trade with sub-Saharan Africa.

Essaouira: European trade and diplomacy

In the 19th century, Essaouira became the first seaport of Morocco, with trade volumes about double those of Rabat. The city functioned as the harbour for Marrakesh, as it was only a few days from the inland city. Diplomatic and trade representations were established by European powers in Essouira. In the 1820, European diplomats were concentrated in either Tangiers or Essaouira.

Essaouira: French interventions and Protectorate

The attack of Mogador by the French fleet in August 1844, Serkis Diranian.
Former Franco-Moroccan school in Derb Dharb street, Essaouira.

Following Morocco's alliance with Algeria's Abd-El-Kader against France, Essaouira was bombarded and briefly occupied by the French Navy under the Prince de Joinville on August 16, 1844, in the Bombardment of Mogador, an important battle of the First Franco-Moroccan War.

From 1912 to 1956, Essaouira was part of the French protectorate of Morocco. Mogador was used as a base for a military expedition against Dar Anflous, when 8,000 French troops were located outside of the city under the orders of Generals Franchet d'Esperey and Brulard. The Kasbah of Dar Anflous was taken on 25 January 1913. In 1930, brothers, Michel and Jean Vieuchange used Essaouira as a base before Michel set off into the Western Sahara to try to find Smara.

France had an important administrative, military and economic presence. Essaouira had a Franco-Moroccan school, still visible in Derb Dharb street. Linguistically, many Moroccans of Essaouira speak French fluently today.

Essaouira: Recent years

In the early 1950s film director and actor Orson Welles stayed at the Hotel des Iles just south of the town walls during the filming of his 1952 classic version of "Othello" which contains several memorable scenes shot in the labyrinthine streets and alleyways of the medina. Legend has it that during Welles's sojourn in the town he met Winston Churchill, another guest at the Hotel des Iles. A bas-relief of Orson Welles is located in a small square just outside the medina walls close to the sea. It is in a neglected state being covered in bird droppings, graffiti and with a broken nose. In addition, the dedication plaque below it has been stolen (as of Dec 2008). Several other film directors have utilised Essaouira's photogenic and atmospheric qualities.

Beginning in the late 1960s, Essaouira became something of a hippie hangout. Despite common misconception, Jimi Hendrix's song "Castles Made of Sand" was written in 1967, two years before he visited the castles of Essaouira.

Essaouira: Geography

Iles Purpuraires, with Mogador island in the background seen from the ramparts of Essaouira.
Essaouira beach.

Essaouira is protected by a natural bay partially shielded from wave action by the Iles Purpuraires. A broad sandy beach extends from the harbour south of Essaourira, at which point the Oued Ksob discharges to the ocean; south of the discharge lies the archaeological ruin, the Bordj El Berod. The Canary Current is responsible for the generally southward movement of ocean circulation and has led to enhancement of the local fishery. The village of Diabat lies about five kilometres (3.1 miles) south of Essaouira, immediately south of the Oued Ksob.

Essaouira connects to Safi to the north and to Agadir to the south via the N1 road and to Marrakech to the east via the R 207 road. There is a small airport some 7 to 8 km (4 to 5 mi) away from the town, which schedules several flights a week to Paris-Orly and daily to Casablanca.

Essaouira: Climate

Essaouira's climate is semi-arid (BSk) bordering a warm summer Mediterranean one (Csb). The gap between highs and lows is small and summers are warm while winters are mild. Annual rainfall is between 300 to 500 millimetres (12 to 20 in) and varies from year to year. Essaouira's climate is akin to coastal Los Angeles, specifically Santa Monica in California.

Climate data for Essaouira, Morocco (1961–1990, extremes 1941–1992)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 30.5
(86.9)
31.0
(87.8)
34.6
(94.3)
35.0
(95)
33.0
(91.4)
38.7
(101.7)
39.0
(102.2)
40.0
(104)
39.5
(103.1)
38.5
(101.3)
35.0
(95)
31.0
(87.8)
40.0
(104)
Average high °C (°F) 18.1
(64.6)
18.2
(64.8)
18.7
(65.7)
18.7
(65.7)
19.5
(67.1)
20.6
(69.1)
21.3
(70.3)
21.6
(70.9)
22.1
(71.8)
21.7
(71.1)
20.3
(68.5)
18.7
(65.7)
20.0
(68)
Daily mean °C (°F) 14.6
(58.3)
15.1
(59.2)
15.8
(60.4)
16.0
(60.8)
17.2
(63)
18.6
(65.5)
19.2
(66.6)
19.5
(67.1)
19.8
(67.6)
19.0
(66.2)
17.3
(63.1)
15.2
(59.4)
17.3
(63.1)
Average low °C (°F) 11.2
(52.2)
11.9
(53.4)
12.8
(55)
13.4
(56.1)
14.9
(58.8)
16.5
(61.7)
17.2
(63)
17.4
(63.3)
17.4
(63.3)
16.4
(61.5)
14.4
(57.9)
11.8
(53.2)
14.6
(58.3)
Record low °C (°F) 3.0
(37.4)
2.0
(35.6)
5.8
(42.4)
7.0
(44.6)
9.0
(48.2)
11.8
(53.2)
14.0
(57.2)
13.5
(56.3)
12.7
(54.9)
9.0
(48.2)
6.0
(42.8)
2.0
(35.6)
2.0
(35.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 51.5
(2.028)
37.4
(1.472)
39.5
(1.555)
34.9
(1.374)
8.5
(0.335)
1.6
(0.063)
0.1
(0.004)
1.0
(0.039)
3.1
(0.122)
25.3
(0.996)
72.7
(2.862)
65.0
(2.559)
340.6
(13.409)
Average precipitation days 8.3 7.8 7.9 6.9 3.5 1.0 0.1 0.3 1.2 5.2 8.6 8.4 59.2
Average relative humidity (%) 80 81 81 82 82 84 86 86 84 83 80 81 83
Mean monthly sunshine hours 208.5 204.9 247.2 264.0 289.5 290.9 301.6 291.4 251.8 234.1 197.0 197.6 2,978.5
Source #1: NOAA
Source #2: Deutscher Wetterdienst (extremes and humidity)

Essaouira: Essaouira today

The Medina of Essaouira (formerly "Mogador") is a UNESCO World Heritage listed city, an example of a late 18th-century fortified town, as transferred to North Africa by European colonists. Major problems currently are deterioration of the extensive ramparts around the Medina; and widespread violation of laws against motorized vehicles (primarily mopeds) within the Medina.

Essaouira: Accommodation

There are only a handful of modern purpose-built hotels within the walls of the old city. Newer international hotels have been built along the sea front – the local planning regulations restrict buildings to 4 storeys high to help preserve the stunning views. There are also many privately owned riads, also known as dars, that may be rented on a daily or weekly basis.

Essaouira: Activities

The medina is home to many small arts and crafts businesses, notably cabinet making and 'thuya' wood-carving (using roots of the Tetraclinis tree), both of which have been practised in Essaouira for centuries.

The fishing harbour, suffering from the competition of Agadir and Safi remains rather small, although the catches (sardines, conger eels) are surprisingly abundant due to the coastal upwelling generated by the powerful trade winds and the Canaries Current. Essaouira remains one of the major fishing harbours of Morocco.

Essaouira is also renowned for its kitesurfing and windsurfing, with the powerful trade wind blowing almost constantly onto the protected, almost waveless, bay. Several world-class clubs rent top-notch material on a weekly basis. The township of Sidi Kaouki is located 25 km south of Essaouira and is becoming one of the best locations in Morcco for surfing, windsurfing and kitesurfing. There are several businesses in Sidi Kaouki which offer gear rental.

Essaouira is also a center of argan oil production. It has become a tourist attraction due to the tree-climbing goats who are unique to the region, as argan trees are the only type the goats climb.

Culinary classes can also be offered

Essaouira: Education

There is a French international school in Essaouira, Groupe scolaire Eric-Tabarly.

Essaouira: Culture

Bas relief of Orson Welles

Essaouira presents itself as a city full of culture: several small art galleries are found all over the town. Since 1998, the Gnaoua Festival of World Music is held in Essaouira, normally in the last week of June. It brings together artists from all over the world. Although focussed on gnaoua music, it includes rock, jazz and reggae. Dubbed as the "Moroccan Woodstock" it lasts four days and attracts annually around 450,000 spectators.

Essaouira: International relations

Essaouira: Twin towns-sister cities

Essaouira is twinned with:

  • France La Rochelle, France (since 1999)

Essaouira: Notable people

  • Albert Almoznino, hand shadow artist
  • Jacques Amir, politician
  • André Azoulay, adviser to the King
  • David Bensoussan, author of memoir, Le fils de Mogador,
  • Meir Cohen, politician
  • Victor Elmaleh, businessman and national champion handball and squash player.
  • Edmond Amran El Maleh, writer

Essaouira: See also

  • Haha
  • Regraga
  • Tensift River
  • Souira Guedima
  • André Jodin
  • William Willshire
  • Mogador class destroyer

Essaouira: Notes

  1. http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/753.
  2. On the formation of diminutive nouns in Moroccan Arabic, see R.S. Harrell, A short reference grammar of Moroccan Arabic (Washington, D.C., 1962), p. 81.
  3. See T. Fox and M. Abu-Talib, A dictionary of Moroccan Arabic (Washington, D.C., 1966), p. 148.
  4. The form sūr, with plain /s/, is the only form cited in all dictionaries of Classical Arabic.
  5. Mac Guckin de Slane (ed. and transl.), Description de l'Afrique septentrionale par el-Bekri (Alger 1913), Arabic text p. 86 مرسى امقدول marsá Ameqdūl "the port of Ameqdūl", translation p. 175 Amegdoul (Amegdul), with footnote: "Le tombeau ou chapelle de Sîdi Megdoul est situé tout auprès de Mogador; ce dernier est une altération de Megdoul".
  6. Marokko Ingeborg Lehmann, Rita Henss p.243
  7. City walls: the urban enceinte in global perspective, James D. Tracy, p.352
  8. Notes to The History and Description of Africa and of the Notable Things Therein by Leo Africanus p.338
  9. E.J. Brill's first encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913–1936, Volume 9 by Martijn Theodoor Houtsma, p.549
  10. France in the age of Louis XIII and Richelieu by Victor Lucien Tapié p.259
  11. The Anglo American, Volume 3 by Alexander D. Paterson p.521
  12. Of Essaouira: "He employed European architects to design it, one a Frenchman said to be his prisoner, and the other an Englishman, converted to Islam and known as Ahmed el-Inglizi- otherwise Ahmed the Englishman." in Morocco, Dorothy Hales Gary, Baron Patrick Balfour Kinross, Viking Press, 1971, p.35
  13. The sultan's Jew: Morocco and the Sephardi world by Daniel J. Schroeter, pp. 17 ff
  14. The Anglo American, Volume 3 by Alexander D. Paterson p.520 ff
  15. The sultan's Jew: Morocco and the Sephardi world by Daniel J. Schroete,r p.125
  16. The sultan's Jew: Morocco and the Sephardi world by Daniel J. Schroeter p.17
  17. The sultan's Jew: Morocco and the Sephardi world by Daniel J. Schroeter, p.121
  18. http://www.univibes.com/Moroccofake.html
  19. "Castles In The Sand". Archived from the original on 2012-02-18. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
  20. Brigitte Tast, Hans-Juergen Tast: And the wind cries Jimi. Hendrix in Marokko, Kulleraugen – Visuelle Kommunikation Nr. 40, Schellerten 2012, ISBN 978-3-88842-040-5
  21. C.Michael Hogan, Mogador: promontory fort, The Megalithic Portal, ed. Andy Burnham, Nov. 2, 2007 [1]
  22. William Adams Hance, The Geography of Modern Africa, Columbia University Press, 1975 ISBN 0-231-03869-0
  23. "Essaouira Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved January 26, 2016.
  24. "Klimatafel von Essaouira (Mogador) / Marokko" (PDF). Baseline climate means (1961–1990) from stations all over the world (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved January 26, 2016.
  25. Planet, Lonely. "Sidi Kaouki, Morocco - Lonely Planet". Lonely Planet. Retrieved 2016-10-13.
  26. "Essaouira: Home of the Argan Tree, Hardworking Berber Women, and Amusing Goats". Essence of Argan. Retrieved 18 December 2016.
  27. "Groupe scolaire Eric-Tabarly - OSUI." AEFE. Retrieved on May 12, 2016. "25 rue Princesse Lalla Hasna, Quartier des Dunes, 44000 Essaouira"
  28. Gnaoua Festival Press Kit Archived August 28, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
  29. "La Rochelle: Twin towns". www.ville-larochelle.fr. Retrieved 2009-11-07.
  30. ""La Rosace du Roi Salomon", nouveau roman de David Bensoussan". Le Mag. 14 November 2011. Archived from the original on 3 July 2015. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
  31. "Le judaïsme marocain est "bien vivant"". Atlas. 8 November 2011. Retrieved 6 May 2015.

Essaouira: Further reading

  • David Bensoussan & Asher Knafo, "Mariage juif à Mogador" Éditions Du Lys, www.editionsdulys.com, Montréal, 2004 (ISBN 2-922505-15-4)
  • David Bensoussan, Le fils de Mogador, www.editionsdulys.com,Éditions Du Lys, Montréal, 2002 (ISBN 978-2-922505-21-4)
  • David Bensoussan, Il était une fois le Maroc : témoignages du passé judéo-marocain, éd. du Lys, www.editionsdulys.com, Montréal, 2010 (ISBN 2-922505-14-6); Deuxième édition : www.iuniverse.com, ISBN 978-1-4759-2608-8, 620p. ebook ISBN 978-1-4759-2609-5, Prix Haïm Zafrani de l'Institut universitaire Élie Wiesel, Paris 2012.
  • David Bensoussan, La rosace du roi Salomon, Les Éditions Du Lys,www.editionsdulys.com, 2011, ISBN 978-2-922505-23-8.
  • ISBN 9981889180
  • Jean-Marie Thiébaud, Consuls et vice-consuls de France à Mogador (Maroc), L'Harmattan, 2010 Harmattan.fr
  • Jean-Marie Thiébaud, Les Inscriptions du cimetière [chrétien] de Mogador (Essaouira, Maroc) – étude épigraphique et généalogique, L'Harmattan, 2010 Harmattan.fr
  • Doris Byer: Essaouira, endlich, Wien 2004, ISBN 978-3-8542-0651-4
  • Brigitte Tast, Hans-Juergen Tast: And the wind cries Jimi. Hendrix in Marokko, Schellerten 2012, ISBN 978-3-88842-040-5
  • Brigitte Tast, Hans-Jürgen Tast: Orson Welles – Othello – Mogador. Aufenthalte in Essaouira, Kulleraugen Vis.Komm. Nr. 42, Schellerten 2013, ISBN 978-3-88842-042-9
  • UNESCO World Heritage site: Medina of Essaouira (formerly Mogador)
  • Website of the Urban Agency of Essaouira

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