Feodosia, Russia
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How to Book a Hotel in Feodosia

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Hotels of Feodosia

A hotel in Feodosia is an establishment that provides lodging paid on a short-term basis. Facilities provided may range from a basic bed and storage for clothing, to luxury features like en-suite bathrooms. Larger in Feodosia hotels may provide additional guest facilities such as a swimming pool, business centre, childcare, conference facilities and social function services. Hotel rooms in Feodosia are usually numbered (or named in some smaller hotels and B&Bs) to allow guests to identify their room. Some Feodosia hotels offer meals as part of a room and board arrangement. Hotel operations vary in size, function, and cost. Most Feodosia hotels and major hospitality companies that operate hotels in Feodosia have set widely accepted industry standards to classify hotel types. General categories include the following:

Upscale luxury hotels in Feodosia
An upscale full service hotel facility in Feodosia that offers luxury amenities, full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and the highest level of personalized and professional service. Luxury Feodosia hotels are normally classified with at least a Four Diamond or Five Diamond status or a Four or Five Star rating depending on classification standards.

Full service hotels in Feodosia
Full service Feodosia hotels often contain upscale full-service facilities with a large volume of full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and a variety of on-site amenities such as swimming pools, a health club, children's activities, ballrooms, on-site conference facilities, etc.

Historic inns and boutique hotels in Feodosia
Boutique hotels of Feodosia are smaller independent non-branded hotels that often contain upscale facilities of varying size in unique or intimate settings with full service accommodations. Feodosia boutique hotels are generally 100 rooms or less. Some historic inns and boutique hotels in Feodosia may be classified as luxury hotels.

Focused or select service hotels in Feodosia
Small to medium-sized hotel establishments that offer a limited amount of on-site amenities that only cater and market to a specific demographic of Feodosia travelers, such as the single business traveler. Most Feodosia focused or select service hotels may still offer full service accommodations but may lack leisure amenities such as an on-site restaurant or a swimming pool.

Economy and limited service hotels in Feodosia
Small to medium-sized Feodosia hotel establishments that offer a very limited amount of on-site amenities and often only offer basic accommodations with little to no services, these facilities normally only cater and market to a specific demographic of travelers, such as the budget-minded Feodosia traveler seeking a "no frills" accommodation. Limited service Feodosia hotels often lack an on-site restaurant but in return may offer a limited complimentary food and beverage amenity such as on-site continental breakfast service.

Guest houses and B&Bs in Feodosia
A bed and breakfast in Feodosia is a small lodging establishment that offers overnight accommodation and inclusive breakfast. Usually, Feodosia bed and breakfasts are private homes or family homes offering accommodations. The typical Feodosia B&B has between 4 and 11 rooms, with 6 being the average. Generally, guests are accommodated in private bedrooms with private bathrooms, or in a suite of rooms including an en suite bathroom. Some homes have private bedrooms with a bathroom which is shared with other guests. Breakfast is served in the bedroom, a dining room, or the host's kitchen. Often the owners of guest house themselves prepare the breakfast and clean the rooms.

Hostels in Feodosia
Feodosia hostels provide budget-oriented, sociable accommodation where guests can rent a bed, usually a bunk bed, in a dormitory and share a bathroom, lounge, and sometimes a kitchen. Rooms can be mixed or single-sex, although private rooms may also be available. Hostels are often cheaper for both the operator and occupants; many Feodosia hostels have long-term residents whom they employ as desk agents or housekeeping staff in exchange for experience or discounted accommodation.

Apartment hotels, extended stay hotels in Feodosia
Extended stay hotels are small to medium-sized Feodosia hotels that offer longer term full service accommodations compared to a traditional hotel. Extended stay hotels may offer non-traditional pricing methods such as a weekly rate that cater towards travelers in need of short-term accommodations for an extended period of time. Similar to limited and select service hotels, on-site amenities are normally limited and most extended stay hotels in Feodosia lack an on-site restaurant.

Timeshare and destination clubs in Feodosia
Feodosia timeshare and destination clubs are a form of property ownership also referred to as a vacation ownership involving the purchase and ownership of an individual unit of accommodation for seasonal usage during a specified period of time. Timeshare resorts in Feodosia often offer amenities similar that of a Full service hotel with on-site restaurant(s), swimming pools, recreation grounds, and other leisure-oriented amenities. Destination clubs of Feodosia on the other hand may offer more exclusive private accommodations such as private houses in a neighborhood-style setting.

Motels in Feodosia
A Feodosia motel is a small-sized low-rise lodging establishment similar to that of a limited service hotel, but with direct access to individual rooms from the car park. Common during the 1950s and 1960s, motels were often located adjacent to a major road, where they were built on inexpensive land at the edge of towns or along stretches of highways. They are still useful in less populated areas of Feodosia for driving travelers, but the more populated an area becomes the more hotels fill the need. Many of Feodosia motels which remain in operation have joined national franchise chains, rebranding themselves as hotels, inns or lodges.

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Travelling and vacation in Feodosia

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"Caffa" redirects here. For other uses, see Caffa (disambiguation).
Feodosia
Феодосия
Kefe
Феодосія
Genoese fortress of Caffa
Genoese fortress of Caffa
Flag of Feodosia
Flag
Coat of arms of Feodosia
Coat of arms
Feodosia is located in Crimea
Feodosia
Feodosia
Location of Feodosiya within Crimea
Coordinates:  / 45.04889; 35.37917  / 45.04889; 35.37917
Country Russia/Ukraine
Republic Crimea
Municipality Feodosiya Municipality
Elevation 50 m (160 ft)
Population (2015)
• Total 69,145
Time zone MSK (UTC+3)
Postal code 298100–298175
Area code(s) +7-36562
Former names Kefe (until 1784), Caffa (until the 15th century)
Climate Cfa
Website feo.rk.gov.ru

Feodosia (Russian: Феодосия, Feodosiya; Ukrainian: Феодосія, Feodosiia; Crimean Tatar and Turkish: Kefe), also called Theodosia (from Greek: Θεοδοσία), is a port and resort, a town of regional significance in Crimea on the Black Sea coast. Feodosia serves as the administrative center of Feodosia Municipality, one of the regions into which Crimea is divided. During much of its history the city was known as Caffa (Ligurian: Cafà) or Kaffa . Population: 69,145 (2014 Census).

Feodosia: History

Feodosia: Theodosia

Theodosia and other Greek colonies along the north coast of the Black Sea from the 8th to the 3rd century BC

The city was founded as Theodosia (Θεοδοσία) by Greek colonists from Miletos in the 6th century BC. Noted for its rich agricultural lands, on which its trade depended, it was destroyed by the Huns in the 4th century AD.

Theodosia remained a minor village for much of the next nine hundred years. It was at times part of the sphere of influence of the Khazars (excavations have revealed Khazar artifacts dating back to the 9th century) and of the Byzantine Empire.

Like the rest of Crimea, this place (village) fell under the domination of the Kipchaks and was conquered by the Mongols in the 1230s.

Feodosia: Kaffa

Satellite image. The Genoese ports and later Turkish-controlled area were south of the mountains.

Between 1204–1261 and again in 1296–1307, the city of Kaffa was ruled by Genoa's chief rival, the Republic of Venice. In the late 13th century, traders from the Republic of Genoa arrived and purchased the city from the ruling Golden Horde. They established a flourishing trading settlement called Kaffa, which virtually monopolized trade in the Black Sea region and served as a major port and administrative center for the Genoese settlements around the Sea. It came to house one of Europe's biggest slave markets. From 1266 and on, Kaffa was governed by a Genoese consul, who since 1316 was in charge of all Genoese Black Sea colonies.

In early 1318 Pope John XXII established a Latin Church diocese of Kaffa, as a suffragan of Genoa. The papal bull of appointment of the first bishop attributed to him a vast territory: "a villa de Varna in Bulgaria usque Sarey inclusive in longitudinem et a mari Pontico usque ad terram Ruthenorum in latitudinem". The first bishop was Fra' Gerolamo, who had already been consecrated seven years before as a missionary bishop ad partes Tartarorum. The diocese ended as a residential bishopric with the capture of the city by the Ottomans in 1475. Accordingly, Kaffa is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see.

It is believed that the devastating pandemic the Black Death entered Europe for the first time via Kaffa in 1347, through the movements of the Golden Horde. After a protracted siege during which the Mongol army under Janibeg was reportedly withering from the disease, they catapulted the infected corpses over the city walls, infecting the inhabitants, in one of the first cases of biological warfare. Fleeing inhabitants may have carried the disease back to Italy, causing its spread across Europe. However, the plague appears to have spread in a stepwise fashion, taking over a year to reach Europe from Crimea. Also, there were a number of Crimean ports under Mongol control, so it is unlikely that Kaffa was the only source of plague-infested ships heading to Europe. In addition, there were overland caravan routes from the East that would have been carrying the disease into Europe as well.

Kaffa eventually recovered. The thriving, culturally diverse city and its thronged slave market have been described by the Spanish traveler Pedro Tafur, who was there in the 1430s. In 1462 Caffa placed itself under the protection of King Casimir IV of Poland. However, Poland did not offer help when real danger came.

Feodosia: Kefe

Feodosiya and territorial demarcations in the 15th century
17th-century woodcut showing Zaporozhian Cossacks in "chaika" boats, destroying the Turkish fleet and capturing Caffa

Following the fall of Constantinople, Amasra, and lastly Trebizond, the position of Caffa had become untenable and attracted the attention of Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II. He was at no loss for a pretext to extinguish this last Genoese colony on the Black sea. In 1473, the tudun (or governor) of the Crimean Khanate died and a fight developed over the appointment of his successor. The Genoese involved themselves in the dispute, and the Tatar notables who favored the losing candidate finally asked Mehmed to settle the dispute. Mehmed dispatched a fleet under the Ottoman commander Gedik Ahmet Pasha, which left Constantinople 19 May 1475. It anchored before the walls of the city on 1 June, started the bombardment the next day, and on 6 June the inhabitants capitulated. Over the next few days the Ottomans proceeded to extract the wealth of the inhabitants, and abduct 1,500 youths for service in the Sultan's palace. On 8 July the final blow was struck when all inhabitants of Latin origin were ordered to relocate to Istanbul, where they founded a quarter (Kefeli Mahalle) which was named after the town they had been forced to leave. Renamed Kefe, Caffa became one of the most important Turkish ports on the Black Sea.

In 1615 Zaporozhian Cossacks under the leadership of Petro Konashevych-Sahaidachny destroyed the Turkish fleet and captured Caffa. Having conquered the city, the cossacks released the men, women and children who were slaves.

Feodosia: Feodosia again

Ottoman control ceased when the expanding Russian Empire conquered the whole Crimea in 1783 (or 1774?). It was renamed Feodosiya (Ѳеодосія, reformed spelling: Феодосия), after the traditional Russian reading of the ancient Greek name. In 1900 Zibold constructed the first air well (dew condenser) on mount Tepe-Oba near Feodosiya.

Feodosia, painting by Carlo Bossoli, 1856

The city was occupied by the forces of Nazi Germany during World War II, sustaining significant damage in the process. The Jewish population numbering 3,248 before the German occupation was murdered by SD-Einsatzgruppe D between November 16 and December 15, 1941. A witness interviewed by Yahad-In Unum described how the Jews were rounded-up in the city: "Posters announced that the Jews had to go to jail with food reserves for three days because they will be taken to Israel." A monument commemorating the Holocaust victims is situated at the crossroads of Kerchensky and Symferopolsky highways. On Passover eve, April 7, 2012, unknown persons desecrated, for the sixth time, the monument, allegedly as an anti-Semitic act. All native Tatar inhabitants were arrested by Russian forces as several thousand Tartars had fought side-by-side with the Nazis against Soviet forces and had participated in the Jewish genocide. Following Stalin orders, all Tartars were sent to Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and other Central Asian republics of the USSR. This was the most important ethnic cleansing of Crimea.

Feodosia: Geography

Feodosia: Climate

The climate is warm and dry and could be described as humid subtropical, but not as Mediterranean, because there is no apparent drying trend in the summer.

Climate data for Feodosia
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 19.1
(66.4)
18.6
(65.5)
27.1
(80.8)
27.5
(81.5)
31.9
(89.4)
35.4
(95.7)
37.9
(100.2)
38.1
(100.6)
33.3
(91.9)
29.0
(84.2)
26.9
(80.4)
21.8
(71.2)
38.1
(100.6)
Average high °C (°F) 4.7
(40.5)
5.1
(41.2)
8.5
(47.3)
14.6
(58.3)
20.6
(69.1)
25.7
(78.3)
29.1
(84.4)
28.7
(83.7)
23.2
(73.8)
17.0
(62.6)
10.8
(51.4)
6.5
(43.7)
16.2
(61.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) 1.8
(35.2)
1.7
(35.1)
4.9
(40.8)
10.6
(51.1)
16.2
(61.2)
21.1
(70)
24.2
(75.6)
23.8
(74.8)
18.7
(65.7)
13.1
(55.6)
7.5
(45.5)
3.7
(38.7)
12.3
(54.1)
Average low °C (°F) −0.8
(30.6)
−1.1
(30)
2.0
(35.6)
7.2
(45)
12.3
(54.1)
16.8
(62.2)
19.8
(67.6)
19.5
(67.1)
14.6
(58.3)
9.6
(49.3)
4.7
(40.5)
1.2
(34.2)
8.8
(47.8)
Record low °C (°F) −25.0
(−13)
−25.1
(−13.2)
−14.0
(6.8)
−5.5
(22.1)
1.1
(34)
5.0
(41)
9.1
(48.4)
9.4
(48.9)
1.4
(34.5)
−11.2
(11.8)
−14.9
(5.2)
−18.6
(−1.5)
−25.1
(−13.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 36
(1.42)
41
(1.61)
42
(1.65)
37
(1.46)
36
(1.42)
43
(1.69)
31
(1.22)
49
(1.93)
45
(1.77)
38
(1.5)
50
(1.97)
51
(2.01)
499
(19.65)
Average rainy days 12 8 10 11 9 7 7 6 9 8 12 12 111
Average snowy days 8 8 6 0.3 0.1 0 0 0 0 0.1 2 6 31
Average relative humidity (%) 82 80 79 75 71 69 64 64 70 77 81 83 75
Mean monthly sunshine hours 63 72 129 182 252 283 308 287 246 166 85 51 2,124
Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net.
Source #2: NOAA (sun, 1961−1990)

Feodosia: Modern Feodosiya

Panorama Feodosiya seen from the mountain Tepe Oba.
Panorama Feodosiya seen from the mountain Tepe Oba.I
Feodosia embankment.
View from Tepe-Oba over Ordzhonikidze (Urban-type settlement under the town's jurisdiction)

Modern Feodosiya is a resort city with a population of about 85,000 people. It has beaches, mineral springs, and mud baths, sanatoria, and rest homes. Apart from tourism, its economy rests on agriculture and fisheries, local industries include fishing, brewing and canning. As with much of the Crimea, most of its population is ethnically Russian; the Ukrainian language is infrequently used. In June 2006, Feodosiya made the news with the 2006 anti-NATO port riot.

While most beaches in Crimea are made of pebbles, there is a unique Golden Beach (Zolotoy Plyazh) made of small seashells in Feodosiya area. Golden Beach stretches for 15 km.

The city is sparsely populated during the winter months. Most cafes and restaurants are closed. Business and tourism increase in mid-June and peak during July and August. Like in the other resort towns in Crimea, the tourists come mostly from the C.I.S. countries of the former Soviet Union. Feodosiya was the city where the seascape painter Ivan Aivazovsky lived and worked all his life, and where general Pyotr Kotlyarevsky and the writer Alexander Grin spent their declining years. Popular tourist locations include the Aivazovsky National Art Gallery and the Genoese fortress.

Feodosia: Twin towns-sister cities

  • Armavir Arms.png Armavir, Armenia
  • Russia Azov, Russia
  • Russia Kronstadt, Russia
  • Poland Kołobrzeg, Poland
  • and other

Feodosia: People from Feodosiya

  • Ivan Aivazovsky, Armenian painter
  • Roman Kapitonenko, Ukrainian boxer
  • Andrzej Liczik, Ukrainian-Polish boxer

The late-medieval city of Caffa is the locale in a section of the novel Caprice and Rondo by Dorothy Dunnett.

An early 14th-century bishop of Caffa appears in Umberto Eco's novel The Name of the Rose, making several sharp replies in a long, tempestuous debate within a group of monks and clerics; he is portrayed as aggressive and somewhat narrow-minded.

Feodosia: See also

  • List of traditional Greek place names

Feodosia: Notes

  1. This place is located on the Crimean Peninsula, most of which is the subject of a territorial dispute between Russia and Ukraine. According to the political division of Russia, there are federal subjects of the Russian Federation (the Republic of Crimea and the federal city of Sevastopol) located on the peninsula. According to the administrative-territorial division of Ukraine, there are the Ukrainian divisions (the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the city with special status of Sevastopol) located on the peninsula.
  2. Про впорядкування транслітерації українського алфавіту... | від 27.01.2010 № 55
  3. Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2014). "Таблица 1.3. Численность населения Крымского федерального округа, городских округов, муниципальных районов, городских и сельских поселений" [Table 1.3. Population of Crimean Federal District, Its Urban Okrugs, Municipal Districts, Urban and Rural Settlements]. Федеральное статистическое наблюдение «Перепись населения в Крымском федеральном округе». ("Population Census in Crimean Federal District" Federal Statistical Examination) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved January 4, 2016.
  4. Pius Bonifacius Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae Catholicae, Leipzig 1931, p. 432
  5. Konrad Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, vol. 1, pp. 154–155; vol. 2, pp. XVIII e 117; vol. 3, p. 145; vol. 5, p. 134
  6. Gasparo Luigi Oderico, Lettere ligustiche ossia Osservazioni critiche sullo stato geografico della Liguria fino ai Tempi di Ottone il Grande, con le Memorie storiche di Caffa ed altri luoghi della Crimea posseduti un tempo da' Genovesi, Bassano 1792 (especially p. 166 ff.)
  7. Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2013 Buy book ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), p. 855
  8. Wheelis, Mark (September 2002). "Biological Warfare at the 1346 Siege of Kaffa". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 8 (9): 971–75. doi:10.3201/eid0809.010536. PMC 2732530Freely accessible. PMID 12194776.
  9. Tafur, Andanças e viajes
  10. Franz Babinger, Mehmed the Conqueror and his Time (Princeton: University Press, 1978), pp. 343ff.
  11. Martin Gilbert, The Routledge Atlas of the Holocaust, 2002, pp.64, 83
  12. "Yahad-In Unum Interactive Map". Execution Sites of Jewish Victims Investigated by Yahad-In Unum. Retrieved 10 February 2015.
  13. "ФЕОДОСИЯ. Осквернен памятник жертвам Холокоста". Всеукраинский Еврейский Конгресс. Retrieved 24 August 2012.
  14. "Weather and Climate-The Climate of Feodosia" (in Russian). Weather and Climate. Retrieved 1 March 2015.
  15. "Feodosija Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 1 March 2015.

Feodosia: Further reading

  • Annette M. B. Meakin (1906). "Theodosia". Russia, Travels and Studies. London: Hurst and Blackett. OCLC 3664651.
  • Wikisource-logo.svg Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Theodosia". Encyclopædia Britannica. 26 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  • WorldStatesmen- Ukraine
  • Ancient Theodosia and its Coinage
  • Tourist Theodosius
  • The murder of the Jews of Feodosia during World War II, at Yad Vashem website.
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