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Hotels of Fez

A hotel in Fez is an establishment that provides lodging paid on a short-term basis. Facilities provided may range from a basic bed and storage for clothing, to luxury features like en-suite bathrooms. Larger in Fez hotels may provide additional guest facilities such as a swimming pool, business centre, childcare, conference facilities and social function services. Hotel rooms in Fez are usually numbered (or named in some smaller hotels and B&Bs) to allow guests to identify their room. Some Fez hotels offer meals as part of a room and board arrangement. Hotel operations vary in size, function, and cost. Most Fez hotels and major hospitality companies that operate hotels in Fez have set widely accepted industry standards to classify hotel types. General categories include the following:

Upscale luxury hotels in Fez
An upscale full service hotel facility in Fez that offers luxury amenities, full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and the highest level of personalized and professional service. Luxury Fez hotels are normally classified with at least a Four Diamond or Five Diamond status or a Four or Five Star rating depending on classification standards.

Full service hotels in Fez
Full service Fez hotels often contain upscale full-service facilities with a large volume of full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and a variety of on-site amenities such as swimming pools, a health club, children's activities, ballrooms, on-site conference facilities, etc.

Historic inns and boutique hotels in Fez
Boutique hotels of Fez are smaller independent non-branded hotels that often contain upscale facilities of varying size in unique or intimate settings with full service accommodations. Fez boutique hotels are generally 100 rooms or less. Some historic inns and boutique hotels in Fez may be classified as luxury hotels.

Focused or select service hotels in Fez
Small to medium-sized hotel establishments that offer a limited amount of on-site amenities that only cater and market to a specific demographic of Fez travelers, such as the single business traveler. Most Fez focused or select service hotels may still offer full service accommodations but may lack leisure amenities such as an on-site restaurant or a swimming pool.

Economy and limited service hotels in Fez
Small to medium-sized Fez hotel establishments that offer a very limited amount of on-site amenities and often only offer basic accommodations with little to no services, these facilities normally only cater and market to a specific demographic of travelers, such as the budget-minded Fez traveler seeking a "no frills" accommodation. Limited service Fez hotels often lack an on-site restaurant but in return may offer a limited complimentary food and beverage amenity such as on-site continental breakfast service.

Guest houses and B&Bs in Fez
A bed and breakfast in Fez is a small lodging establishment that offers overnight accommodation and inclusive breakfast. Usually, Fez bed and breakfasts are private homes or family homes offering accommodations. The typical Fez B&B has between 4 and 11 rooms, with 6 being the average. Generally, guests are accommodated in private bedrooms with private bathrooms, or in a suite of rooms including an en suite bathroom. Some homes have private bedrooms with a bathroom which is shared with other guests. Breakfast is served in the bedroom, a dining room, or the host's kitchen. Often the owners of guest house themselves prepare the breakfast and clean the rooms.

Hostels in Fez
Fez hostels provide budget-oriented, sociable accommodation where guests can rent a bed, usually a bunk bed, in a dormitory and share a bathroom, lounge, and sometimes a kitchen. Rooms can be mixed or single-sex, although private rooms may also be available. Hostels are often cheaper for both the operator and occupants; many Fez hostels have long-term residents whom they employ as desk agents or housekeeping staff in exchange for experience or discounted accommodation.

Apartment hotels, extended stay hotels in Fez
Extended stay hotels are small to medium-sized Fez hotels that offer longer term full service accommodations compared to a traditional hotel. Extended stay hotels may offer non-traditional pricing methods such as a weekly rate that cater towards travelers in need of short-term accommodations for an extended period of time. Similar to limited and select service hotels, on-site amenities are normally limited and most extended stay hotels in Fez lack an on-site restaurant.

Timeshare and destination clubs in Fez
Fez timeshare and destination clubs are a form of property ownership also referred to as a vacation ownership involving the purchase and ownership of an individual unit of accommodation for seasonal usage during a specified period of time. Timeshare resorts in Fez often offer amenities similar that of a Full service hotel with on-site restaurant(s), swimming pools, recreation grounds, and other leisure-oriented amenities. Destination clubs of Fez on the other hand may offer more exclusive private accommodations such as private houses in a neighborhood-style setting.

Motels in Fez
A Fez motel is a small-sized low-rise lodging establishment similar to that of a limited service hotel, but with direct access to individual rooms from the car park. Common during the 1950s and 1960s, motels were often located adjacent to a major road, where they were built on inexpensive land at the edge of towns or along stretches of highways. They are still useful in less populated areas of Fez for driving travelers, but the more populated an area becomes the more hotels fill the need. Many of Fez motels which remain in operation have joined national franchise chains, rebranding themselves as hotels, inns or lodges.

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Travelling and vacation in Fez

Fès / Fas / ⴼⴰⵙ
Vue sur la médina.jpg
Fes Bab Bou Jeloud 2011.jpg Bou Inania Madrasa 2011.jpg
Leather tanning, Fes.jpg Zaouia Moulay Idriss II 2.jpg Var 132.jpg
Panorama of Street Scene - Medina (Old City) - Fez - Morocco.jpg
Clockwise from top:
View of the medina (old city), Bou Inania Madrasa, University of Al Quaraouiyine, street view, Zaouia Moulay Idriss II, Leather tanning in Fes el Bali, Bab Bou Jeloud
Fes is located in Morocco
Location in Morocco
Coordinates:  / 34.033; -5.000  / 34.033; -5.000
Country Morocco
Region Fès-Meknès
Founded 789
Founded by Idrisid dynasty
• Mayor Idriss Azami Al Idrissi
• Governor Said Zniber
• Urban 320 km (120 sq mi)
Elevation 410 m (1,350 ft)
Population (2014)
• City 1,112,072
• Rank 2nd in Morocco
Racial makeup
• Arabs 53.6%
• Berbers 32.7%
• Moriscos 10.2%
• Others 3.5%
Website www.fes-city.com
Fez, Morocco
‫فـاس‬, ⴼⴰⵙ
Zaouia Moulay Idriss II
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Location Fez (Prefecture), Morocco Edit this at Wikidata
Coordinates  / 34.0442; -5.0019
Area 320 km (3.4×10 sq ft)
Criteria iii, iv
Reference 170
Inscription 1981 (5th Session)
Website www.portaildefes.ma
Fez, Morocco is located in Morocco
Fez, Morocco
Location of Fez, Morocco
[edit on Wikidata]
Panoramic view of the Old Medina
View of the old medina of Fez

Fez (Arabic: فاس‎‎ Fas, Berber: ⴼⴰⵙ Fas, French: Fès) is the second largest city of Morocco, with a population of 1.1 million (2014).

Fez was the capital city of modern Morocco until 1925 and is now the capital of the Fès-Meknès administrative region. The city has two old medina quarters, the larger of which is Fes el Bali. It is listed as a World Heritage Site and is believed to be one of the world's largest urban pedestrian zones (car-free areas). University of Al Quaraouiyine, founded in 859, is the oldest continuously functioning university in the world. The city has been called the "Mecca of the West" and the "Athens of Africa", a nickname it shares with Cyrene in Libya.

Fez, Morocco: History

Fez, Morocco: Etymology

The Arabic word فأس Faʾs means pickaxe, which legends say Idris I of Morocco used when he created the lines of the city. One noticeable thing was that the pickaxe was made from silver and gold.

During the rule of the Idrisid dynasty, Fez consisted of two cities: Fas Elbali, founded by Idris I, and al-ʿĀliyá, founded by his son, Idris II. During Idrisid rule the capital city was known as al-ʿĀliyá, with the name Fas being reserved for the separate site on the other side of the river; no Idrisid coins have been found with the name Fez, only al-ʿĀliyá and al-ʿĀliyá Madinat Idris. It is not known whether the name al-ʿĀliyá ever referred to both urban areas. It wasn't until 1070 that the two agglomerations were united and the name Fas was used for the combined site.

Fez, Morocco: Foundation and the Idrisids

The city was founded on a bank of the Jawhar river by Idris I in 789, founder of the Zaydi Shi'i Idrisid dynasty. His son, Idris II (808), built a settlement on the opposing river bank. These settlements would soon develop into two walled and largely autonomous sites, often in conflict with one another: Madinat Fas and Al-'Aliya. In 808 Al-'Aliya replaced Walili as the capital of the Idrisids.

Arab emigration to Fez, including 800 Andalusi families of Berber descent in 817–818 expelled after a rebellion against the Umayyads of Córdoba, Andalusia, and 2000 Arab families banned from Kairouan (modern Tunisia) after another rebellion in 824, gave the city its Arabic character. The Andalusians settled in what is called the 'Old' Fez, while the Tunisians found their home in the 'New' Fez, also called al-'Aliya. These two waves of immigrants would subsequently give their name to the sites 'Adwat Al-Andalus and 'Adwat al-Qarawiyyin. The majority of the population was of Arab descent, and the minority was of North-African Berber descent, with rural Berbers from the surrounding countryside settling there throughout this early period, mainly in Madinat Fas (the Andalusian quarter) and later in Fes Jdid.

Upon the death of Idris II in 828, the dynasty’s territory was divided among his sons. The eldest, Muhammad, received Fez. The newly fragmented Idrisid power would never again be reunified. During Yahya ibn Muhammad's rule in Fez the Kairouyine mosque, one of the oldest and largest in Africa, was built and its associated University of Al Quaraouiyine was founded (859). Comparatively little is known about Idrisid Fez, owing to the lack of comprehensive historical narratives and that little has survived of the architecture and infrastructure of early Fez (Al-'Aliya). The sources that mention Idrisid Fez, describe a rather rural one, not having the cultural sophistication of the important cities of Al-Andalus and Ifriqiya.

In the 10th century the city was contested by the Caliphate of Córdoba and the Fatimid Caliphate of Tunisia, who ruled the city through a host of Zenata clients. The Fatimids took the city in 927 and expelled the Idrissids, after which their Miknasa were installed there. The Miknasa were driven out of Fez in 980 by the Maghrawa, their fellow Zenata, allies of the Caliphate of Córdoba. It was in this period that the great Andalusian ruler Almanzor commissioned the Maghrawa to rebuild and refurnish the Al-Kairouan mosque, giving it much of its current appearance. According to the Rawd al-Qirtas and other Marinid era sources, the Maghrawi emir Dunas Al-Maghrawi filled up the open spaces between the two medinas and the banks of the river, dividing them with new constructions. Thus, the two cities grew into each other, being now only separated by their walls and the river. His sons fortified the city to a great extent. This could not keep the Almoravid emir Ibn Tashfin from conquering it in 1070, after more than a decade of battling the Zenata warriors in the area and constant besieging of the city.

In 1033, several thousand Jews were killed in the Fez Massacre.

Fez, Morocco: Golden age and the Marinid period

Madinat Fas and Al-'Aliya were united in 1070 by the Almoravid dynasty: The walls dividing them were destroyed, bridges connecting them were built, and connecting walls were constructed that unified the medinas. Under Almoravid patronage the largest expansion and renovation of the Great Mosque of Kairouan took place (1134-1143). Although the capital was moved to Marrakesh and Tlemcen under the Almoravids, Fez acquired a reputation for Maliki legal scholarship and became an important centre of trade. Almoravid impact on the city's structure was such that the second Almoravid ruler, Yusuf ibn Tashfin, is often considered to be the second founder of Fez.

Like many Moroccan cities, Fez was greatly enlarged during the Almohad Caliphate and saw its previously dominating rural aspect lessen. This was accomplished partly by the settling there of Andalusians and the further improvement of the infrastructure. At the start of the 13th century they broke down the Idrisid city walls and constructed new ones, which covered a much wider space. These Almohad walls exist to this day as the outline of Fes el Bali. Under Almohad rule the city grew to become the largest in the world between 1170 and 1180, with an estimated 200.000 people living there.

In 1250 Fez regained its capital status under the Marinid dynasty. In 1276 after a massacre by the population to kill all Jews that was stopped by intervention of the Emir, they founded Fes Jdid, which they made their administrative and military centre. Fez reached its golden age in the Marinid period, which marked the beginning of its official, historical narrative. It is from the Marinid period that Fez's reputation as an important intellectual centre largely dates. They established the first madrasas in the city and country. The principal monuments in the medina, the residences and public buildings, date from the Marinid period. The madrasas are a hallmark of Marinid architecture, with its striking blending of Andalusian and Almohad traditions. Between 1271 and 1357 seven madrassas were built in Fez, the style of which has come to be typical of Fassi architecture.

The Jewish quarter of Fez, the Mellah was built in 1438, near the royal residence in Fez Jdid. The Mellah at first consisted of Jews from Fez el Bali and soon saw the arrival of Berber Jews from the Atlas range and Jewish immigrants from al-Andalus. The Marinids spread the cult of Idris I and encouraged sharifism, financing sharifian families as a way to legitimize their (in essence secular) rule: From the 14th century onwards hundreds of families throughout Morocco claimed descent from Idris I, especially in Fez and the Rif mountains. In this regard they can be seen as the enablers of the latter sharifian dynasties of Morocco. The 1465 Moroccan revolt in 1465 overthrew the last Maranid sultan. In 1474 the Marinids were replaced by their relatives of the Wattasid dynasty, who faithfully (but for a large part unsuccessfully) continued Marinid policies.

Fez, Morocco: Modern period

After the fall of the Marinids, the city remained the capital of Morocco under the Wattasids. However, in the 16th century, the Saadis, based in Marrakech, would attempt to overthrow the Wattasids. In the meanwhile, the Ottoman Empire came close to Fez after the conquest of Oujda in the 16th century. In January 1549 the Saadi sultan Mohammed ash-Sheikh took Fez and ousted the last Wattasid sultan Ali Abu Hassun. They later retook the city in 1553 with Ottoman support. However, this reconquest was short-lived, and in 1554 the Wattasids were decisively defeated in the battle of Tadla by the Saadis. The Ottomans would try to invade Morocco after the assassination of Mohammed ash-Sheikh in 1558, but were defeated by his son Abdallah al-Ghalib at the battle of Wadi al-Laban north of Fez. Hence, Morocco remained the only North-African state to evade Ottoman occupation.

After the death of Abdallah al-Ghalib a new power struggle would emerge, after Abd al-Malik would take Fez with Ottoman support and oust his nephew Abu Abdullah. The latter would flee to Portugal where he asked king Sebastian of Portugal for help to regain his throne. This would lead to the Battle of Alcacer Quibir where Abd al-Malik's army would defeat the invading Portuguese army with the support of his Ottoman allies, ensuring Moroccan independence. Abd al-Malik himself also died during the battle and would be succeeded by Ahmad al-Mansur.

After the fall of the Saadi dynasty (1649), Fez was a major trading post of the Barbary Coast of North Africa. Until the 19th century it was the only source of fezzes (also known as the tarboosh). Then manufacturing began in France and Turkey as well. Originally, the dye for the hats came from a berry that was grown outside the city, known as the Turkish kızılcık or Greek akenia (Cornus mas). Fez was also the end of a north-south gold trading route from Timbuktu. Fez was a prime manufacturing location for embroidery and leather goods such as the Adarga.

Morocco Fez Embroidery Horse Cover

The city became independent in 1790, under the leadership of Yazid (1790–1792) and later of Abu´r-Rabi Sulayman. In 1795 control of the city returned to Morocco. Fez took part in a rebellion in 1819-1821, led by Ibrahim ibn Yazid, as well as in the 1832 rebellion led by Muhammad ibn Tayyib.

Following the implementation of the Treaty of Fez, the city was heavily damaged in the 1912 Fez riots und belonged to French Morocco until 1956.

Fez was the capital of Morocco until 1925. Rabat then remained the capital even after Morocco achieved independence in 1956.

Despite its traditional character, there is a modern section: the Ville Nouvelle or "New City". Today it is a bustling commercial center. The popularity of the Fez has increased since the King of Morocco took a computer engineer from Fez, Salma Bennani, as his wife.

Place Lalla Yeddouna at the heart of the Medina is currently undergoing reconstruction and preservation measures following a design competition sponsored by the Millennium Challenge Corporation (Washington D.C.) and the Government of the Morocco. The construction projects scheduled for completion in 2016 encompass historic preservation of particular buildings, construction of new buildings that fit into the existing urban fabric and regeneration of the riverfront. The intention is to not only preserve the quality and characteristics of the UNESCO World Heritage Site, but to encourage the development of the area as a sustainable, mixed-use area for artisanal industries and local residents.

Fez, Morocco: Climate

Located by the Atlas Mountains, Fez has a Mediterranean climate with a strong continental influence, shifting from cold and rain in the winter to dry and hot days in the summer months between June and September. Rainfall can reach up to 800 mm (31 in) per year. The winter highs typically reach only 15 °C (59 °F) in December–January. The highest and lowest temperatures ever recorded in the city are 46.7 °C (116 °F) and −8.2 °C (17 °F), respectively.(see weather-table below). Fez's climate is strongly similar to that of Seville and Córdoba, Andalusia, Spain. Snowfall on average occurs once every 5 years.

Climate data for Fez
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 25.0
Average high °C (°F) 14.7
Average low °C (°F) 4.1
Record low °C (°F) −8.2
Average rainfall mm (inches) 84.6
Average rainy days 9 10 9 10 7 3 1 1 3 7 9 9 78
Average snowy days 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2
Mean daily sunshine hours 6 6 7 8 9 10 11 10 9 7 6 6 7.9
Percent possible sunshine 60 55 58 62 64 71 79 77 75 64 60 60 65.4
Source #1: Hong Kong Observatory
Source #2: Meoweather.com, Voodoo skies for extremes Weather Atlas
Climate data for Fes
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Mean daily daylight hours 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 14.0 14.0 13.0 12.0 11.0 10.0 10.0 12.0
Average Ultraviolet index 3 4 6 8 9 10 11 10 8 6 4 3 6.8
Source: Weather Atlas

Fez, Morocco: Subdivisions

The prefecture is divided administratively into the following:

Name Geographic code Type House­holds Population (2004) Foreign population Moroccan population Notes
Agdal 231.01.01. Arrondissement 32740 144064 747 143317
Mechouar Fes Jdid 231.01.03. Municipality 6097 26078 83 25995
Saiss 231.01.05. Arrondissement 32990 156590 561 156029
Fes-Medina 231.01.07. Arrondissement 20088 91473 110 91363
Jnan El Ouard 231.01.09. Arrondissement 32618 174226 15 174211
El Mariniyine 231.01.11. Arrondissement 37958 163291 40 163251
Oulad Tayeb 231.81.01. Rural commune 3233 19144 3 19141 5056 residents live in the center, called Ouled Tayeb; 14088 residents live in rural areas.
Ain Bida 231.81.03. Rural commune 1146 6854 0 6854
Sidi Harazem 231.81.05. Rural commune 982 5133 0 5133 3317 residents live in the center, called Skhinate; 1816 residents live in rural areas.

Fez, Morocco: Main sights

The Bou Inania Madrasa built by the Marinid sultan Abu Inan Faris in 1351.

Fez is becoming an increasingly popular tourist destination and many non-Moroccans are now restoring traditional houses (riads and dars) as second homes in the Fez medina. The most important monuments in the city are:

  • Bou Inania Madrasa
  • Al-Attarine Madrasa
  • University of Al Quaraouiyine
  • Zaouia Moulay Idriss II
  • Dar al-Magana
  • Ibn Danan Synagogue


Fez, Morocco: Education

University of Al Quaraouiyine.

Fez, Morocco: Universities

The University of Al Quaraouiyine is the oldest continually-operating university in the world. The al-Karaouine mosque was founded by Fatima al-Fihri in 859 with an associated school, or madrasa, which subsequently became one of the leading spiritual and educational centers of the historic Muslim world. It became a state university in 1963, and remains an important institution of learning today.

Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University is a public university that was founded in 1975 and has two primary campuses in the city (Dhar El Mehraz and Sais).

Fez, Morocco: Primary and secondary schools

The city has a French international school, Groupe scolaire Jean-de-La-Fontaine, serving moyenne section through collège (junior high school).

Fez, Morocco: Transport

The city is served by Saïss Airport. It also has an ONCF train station with lines east to Oujda and west to Tangier and Casablanca.

Fez, Morocco: Sport

Fez has two football teams, MAS Fez (Fés Maghrebi) and Wydad de Fès (WAF). They both play in the Botola the highest tier of the Moroccan football system and play their home matches at the 45,000 seat Complexe Sportif de Fès stadium.

Fez, Morocco: Notable residents

  • Fatima al-Fihri (ca. 800 - 880)
  • Isaac Alfasi (1013-1103), Talmudist and posek
  • Muhammad XII of Granada (c. 1460 - c. 1533), last Moorish king of Al-Andalus
  • Yazid of Morocco (1750-1792), sultan of Morocco from 1790 to 1792
  • Slimane of Morocco (1760-1822), sultan of Morocco from 1792 to 1822
  • Abd al-Rahman of Morocco (1778-1859), sultan of Morocco from 1822 to 1859
  • Muhammad IV of Morocco (1810-1873), sultan of Morocco from 1859 to 1873
  • Hassan I of Morocco (1836-1894),sultan of Morocco from 1873 to 1894
  • Abd al-Hafid of Morocco (1876-1937), sultan of Morocco from 1908 to 1912
  • Abdelaziz of Morocco (1878-1943), sultan of Morocco from 1894 to 1908
  • Mohammed Ben Aarafa (1886-1976), sultan of Morocco from 1953 to 1955
  • Mohammed V of Morocco (1909-1961), sultan then king of Morocco
  • Ahmed Bahnini (1909-1971), Prime Minister of Morocco from 13 November 1963 to 7 June 1965.
  • Allal al-Fassi (1910-1974), politician
  • Ahmed Sefrioui (1915-2004), writer
  • Mohammed Karim Lamrani (b. 1919), Prime Minister of Morocco
  • Azzeddine Laraki (b. 1929), Prime Minister of Morocco from 30 September 1986 to 11 August 1992
  • Ahmed Laraki (b. 1931), Premier Minister of Morocco from 7 October 1969 to 6 August 1971
  • Ali Squalli Houssaini (b. 1932), author of the words to the Moroccan National Anthem
  • Kasdi Merbah (1938-1993), Algerian politician
  • Fatema Mernissi (1940-2015), feminist writer and sociologist
  • Abdelwahab Doukkali (b. 1941), singer
  • Abdellatif Laabi (b. 1942), writer and poet
  • Joël Santoni (b. 1942), French film director and screenwriter
  • Tahar Ben Jelloun (b. 1944), writer and poet
  • Brahim Lahlafi (n. 1968), athlete/long-distance runner
  • Tarik Sektioui (b. 1977), footballer
  • Princess Lalla Salma of Morocco (b. 1978) princess consort of Morocco
  • Mohammed Bennis (b. 1948), poet
  • Jamal Fakir (b. 1982), French international rugby league player
  • Adel Taarabt (b. 1989), footballer

Fez, Morocco: International relations

Fez, Morocco: Twin towns - sister cities

Fez is twinned with:

  • Belgium Antwerp, Belgium, since 2000
  • France Montpellier, France, since 1961
  • France Strasbourg, France, since 1961
  • Italy Florence, Italy, since 1961
  • Tunisia Kairouan, Tunisia, since 1965
  • Algeria Tlemcen, Algeria, since 1969
  • Senegal Saint Louis, Senegal, since 1979
  • Spain Córdoba, Andalusia, Spain, since 1982
  • State of Palestine East Jerusalem, Palestinian territories since 1982
  • Turkey İzmir, Turkey, since 1995
  • Burkina Faso Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso, since 2003
  • South Korea Suwon, South Korea, since 2003
  • Portugal Coimbra, Portugal
  • Pakistan Lahore, Pakistan
  • Pakistan Multan, Pakistan
  • Mexico Puebla City, Mexico

Fez, Morocco: Partnerships

  • Poland Kraków in Poland (since 1985)

Fez, Morocco: See also

  • Treaty of Fez
  • Book by Roger Le Tourneau (English translation by Besse Clement), Fez in the Age of the Marinides, Oklahoma University, editions 1961 and 1974 (latter ISBN 0-8061-1198-4).
  • Article by Julian Vigo. "The Renovation of Fes’ medina qdima and the (re)Creation of the Traditional", Writing the City, Transforming the City, New Delhi: Katha, edition 2006.
  • The open international project competition for Lalla Yeddouna, A Neighborhood in the Medina of Fez, announced in September 2010 in collaboration with the Union International des Architectes (UIA) and the Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC), to renew the area and upgrade the living and working standards of the artisans in the medina. The approach of the project is probably one of the most ambitious for an Arab medina and therefore of exemplary character (www.projectcompetition-fez.com). The open international project was won by the London-based architecture practice Mossessian & Partners.

Fez, Morocco: References

Fez, Morocco: Footnotes

Fez, Morocco: Citations

  1. "Fes, Kingdom of Morocco", Lat34North.com & Yahoo! Weather, 2009, webpages: L34-Fes and Yahoo-Fes-stats.
  2. Morocco 2014 Census
  3. Mother Nature Network, 7 car-free cities
  4. History of Fes
  5. Cities of the Middle-East and North-Africa A historical enceclopedia. Michael Dumper, Bruce E. Stanley, pagina 151.
  6. An architectural Investigation of Marinid and Watasid Fes p. 19
  7. "Fes". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. 3 Mar. 2007
  8. The Places Where Men Pray Together, p. 463, at Google Books p. 55
  9. A History of the Maghrib in the Islamic Period By Jamil Mir'i Abun-Nasr. p. 51.
  10. Realm of Saints, p. 9, at Google Books
  11. Merriam Webster's Collegiate Encyclopedia. p.574.
  12. The Almoravids and the Meanings of Jihad, p. 43, at Google Books (p.51)
  13. Morocco 2009, p. 252, at Google Books (p.252)
  14. Roudh el-Kartas: Histoire des souverains du Maghreb, p. 459, at Google Books
  15. http://etheses.whiterose.ac.uk/348/1/uk_bl_ethos_426809.pdf An architectural Investigation of Marinid and Watasid Fes (p.16)
  16. http://etheses.whiterose.ac.uk/348/1/uk_bl_ethos_426809.pdf An architectural Investigation of Marinid and Watasid Fes (p.23)
  17. Encyclopedia of Islam, p. 896, at Google Books (p. 605)
  18. The Berbers and the Islamic State, p. 91, at Google Books (p. 90)
  19. Islamic Art a Visual Culture, p. 121, at Google Books (p. 121)
  20. 'http://www.al-hakawati.net/english/Cities/fez.asp
  21. http://etheses.whiterose.ac.uk/348/1/uk_bl_ethos_426809.pdf An architectural Investigation of Marinid and Watasid Fes (p.5)
  22. https://web.archive.org/web/20071219212840/http://www.bartleby.com/67/822.html
  23. H. Z(J. W.) Hirschberg (1981). A history of the Jews in North Africa: From the Ottoman conquests to the present time, edited by Eliezer Bashan and Robert Attal. BRILL. p. 318. ISBN 90-04-06295-5.
  24. https://www.mcc.gov/where-we-work/program/morocco-compact Millennium Challenge Corporation, Washington D.C.
  25. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-11-18. Retrieved 2014-09-13.
  26. http://www.weather.gov.hk/wxinfo/climat/world/eng/africa/mor_al/Fes_e.htm
  27. http://voodooskies.com/weather/morocco/fes/monthly/temperature
  28. "Weather history for Fez, Figuig, Morocco : Fez average weather by month". Meoweather.com. Archived from the original on 5 June 2012. Retrieved 20 July 2014.
  29. "Climatological Information for Fez, Morocco". Hong Kong Observatory. 15 August 2011. Retrieved 16 August 2012.
  30. "Fes, Morocco - Climate data". Weather Atlas. Retrieved March 2, 2017.
  31. "Recensement général de la population et de l'habitat de 2004" (PDF). Haut-commissariat au Plan, Lavieeco.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 April 2012. Retrieved 22 April 2012.
  32. Guinness World Records, Oldest University
  33. UNESCO, World Heritage Listing for Medina of Fez.
  34. Larbi Arbaoui, Al Karaouin of Fez: The Oldest University in the World, Morocco World News, 2 October 2012.
  35. "Groupe scolaire Jean-de-La-Fontaine." AEFE. Retrieved on June 16, 2016.
  36. "::.. Oncf ..::". Oncf.ma. Archived from the original on 2009-02-28. Retrieved 2009-05-05.
  37. "Sister cities of İzmir (1/7)" (in Turkish). Retrieved 2008-11-01.
  38. "Acordos de Geminação" (in Portuguese). © 2009 Câmara Municipal de Coimbra – Praça 8 de Maio – 3000-300 Coimbra. Retrieved 2009-06-25. External link in |publisher= (help)
  39. "Kraków - Miasta Partnerskie" [Kraków -Partnership Cities]. Miejska Platforma Internetowa Magiczny Kraków (in Polish). Archived from the original on 2013-07-02. Retrieved 2013-08-10.

Fez, Morocco: Further reading

See also: Bibliography of the history of Fez
  • Official government website of the city
  • Portal dedicated to Fez. Online Since 2006.
  • Fez travel guide from Wikivoyage
  • Fez Portal at Ville Fès
  • Complexe culturel de Fès, Cultural Complex of Fez
  • The portal of Fez at Fès-City
  • Competition for the architectural and urban preservation and renovation of the Medina
  • Medina Of Fes
  • The Fez Festival: Sacred Music From Around The World – audio report by NPR
  • "Fez". Islamic Cultural Heritage Database. Istanbul: Organization of Islamic Cooperation, Research Centre for Islamic History, Art and Culture.
  • ArchNet.org. "Fez". Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: MIT School of Architecture and Planning. Archived from the original on 2013-10-06.
Preceded by
Capital of Islamic Culture
Succeeded by
Alexandria, Djibouti, Lahore
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