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Hotels of Fortaleza

A hotel in Fortaleza is an establishment that provides lodging paid on a short-term basis. Facilities provided may range from a basic bed and storage for clothing, to luxury features like en-suite bathrooms. Larger in Fortaleza hotels may provide additional guest facilities such as a swimming pool, business centre, childcare, conference facilities and social function services. Hotel rooms in Fortaleza are usually numbered (or named in some smaller hotels and B&Bs) to allow guests to identify their room. Some Fortaleza hotels offer meals as part of a room and board arrangement. Hotel operations vary in size, function, and cost. Most Fortaleza hotels and major hospitality companies that operate hotels in Fortaleza have set widely accepted industry standards to classify hotel types. General categories include the following:

Upscale luxury hotels in Fortaleza
An upscale full service hotel facility in Fortaleza that offers luxury amenities, full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and the highest level of personalized and professional service. Luxury Fortaleza hotels are normally classified with at least a Four Diamond or Five Diamond status or a Four or Five Star rating depending on classification standards.

Full service hotels in Fortaleza
Full service Fortaleza hotels often contain upscale full-service facilities with a large volume of full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and a variety of on-site amenities such as swimming pools, a health club, children's activities, ballrooms, on-site conference facilities, etc.

Historic inns and boutique hotels in Fortaleza
Boutique hotels of Fortaleza are smaller independent non-branded hotels that often contain upscale facilities of varying size in unique or intimate settings with full service accommodations. Fortaleza boutique hotels are generally 100 rooms or less. Some historic inns and boutique hotels in Fortaleza may be classified as luxury hotels.

Focused or select service hotels in Fortaleza
Small to medium-sized hotel establishments that offer a limited amount of on-site amenities that only cater and market to a specific demographic of Fortaleza travelers, such as the single business traveler. Most Fortaleza focused or select service hotels may still offer full service accommodations but may lack leisure amenities such as an on-site restaurant or a swimming pool.

Economy and limited service hotels in Fortaleza
Small to medium-sized Fortaleza hotel establishments that offer a very limited amount of on-site amenities and often only offer basic accommodations with little to no services, these facilities normally only cater and market to a specific demographic of travelers, such as the budget-minded Fortaleza traveler seeking a "no frills" accommodation. Limited service Fortaleza hotels often lack an on-site restaurant but in return may offer a limited complimentary food and beverage amenity such as on-site continental breakfast service.

Guest houses and B&Bs in Fortaleza
A bed and breakfast in Fortaleza is a small lodging establishment that offers overnight accommodation and inclusive breakfast. Usually, Fortaleza bed and breakfasts are private homes or family homes offering accommodations. The typical Fortaleza B&B has between 4 and 11 rooms, with 6 being the average. Generally, guests are accommodated in private bedrooms with private bathrooms, or in a suite of rooms including an en suite bathroom. Some homes have private bedrooms with a bathroom which is shared with other guests. Breakfast is served in the bedroom, a dining room, or the host's kitchen. Often the owners of guest house themselves prepare the breakfast and clean the rooms.

Hostels in Fortaleza
Fortaleza hostels provide budget-oriented, sociable accommodation where guests can rent a bed, usually a bunk bed, in a dormitory and share a bathroom, lounge, and sometimes a kitchen. Rooms can be mixed or single-sex, although private rooms may also be available. Hostels are often cheaper for both the operator and occupants; many Fortaleza hostels have long-term residents whom they employ as desk agents or housekeeping staff in exchange for experience or discounted accommodation.

Apartment hotels, extended stay hotels in Fortaleza
Extended stay hotels are small to medium-sized Fortaleza hotels that offer longer term full service accommodations compared to a traditional hotel. Extended stay hotels may offer non-traditional pricing methods such as a weekly rate that cater towards travelers in need of short-term accommodations for an extended period of time. Similar to limited and select service hotels, on-site amenities are normally limited and most extended stay hotels in Fortaleza lack an on-site restaurant.

Timeshare and destination clubs in Fortaleza
Fortaleza timeshare and destination clubs are a form of property ownership also referred to as a vacation ownership involving the purchase and ownership of an individual unit of accommodation for seasonal usage during a specified period of time. Timeshare resorts in Fortaleza often offer amenities similar that of a Full service hotel with on-site restaurant(s), swimming pools, recreation grounds, and other leisure-oriented amenities. Destination clubs of Fortaleza on the other hand may offer more exclusive private accommodations such as private houses in a neighborhood-style setting.

Motels in Fortaleza
A Fortaleza motel is a small-sized low-rise lodging establishment similar to that of a limited service hotel, but with direct access to individual rooms from the car park. Common during the 1950s and 1960s, motels were often located adjacent to a major road, where they were built on inexpensive land at the edge of towns or along stretches of highways. They are still useful in less populated areas of Fortaleza for driving travelers, but the more populated an area becomes the more hotels fill the need. Many of Fortaleza motels which remain in operation have joined national franchise chains, rebranding themselves as hotels, inns or lodges.

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Travelling and vacation in Fortaleza

Not to be confused with Hortaleza.
For other uses, see Fortaleza (disambiguation).
The Municipality of Fortaleza
Clockwise from top: Panorama view of downtown Aratanha and Maranguape area, Theatro José de Alencar, Fortaleza Metropolitan Cathedral, A monument of the Guardian of Iracema in Iracema Beach, Meireles Beach, Ingleses Bridge in Iracema Beach, Dragão do Mar Center of Art and Culture
Clockwise from top: Panorama view of downtown Aratanha and Maranguape area, Theatro José de Alencar, Fortaleza Metropolitan Cathedral, A monument of the Guardian of Iracema in Iracema Beach, Meireles Beach, Ingleses Bridge in Iracema Beach, Dragão do Mar Center of Art and Culture
Flag of Fortaleza
Official seal of Fortaleza
Nickname(s): Fortal
Miami Brasileira (Brazilian Miami)
Terra da Luz (Land of Light)
Motto: "Fortitudine" (Latin)
Location of Fortaleza
Fortaleza is located in Brazil
Location in Brazil
Coordinates:  / -3.71833; -38.54278  / -3.71833; -38.54278
Country Brazil
State Bandeira do Ceará.svg Ceará
Founded April 13, 1726
• Type Mayor-council
• Mayor Roberto Cláudio (PDT)
• Vice Mayor Gaudêncio Lucena (PSD)
• Municipality 314.93 km (121.60 sq mi)
• Metro 7.440,053 km (2.872621 sq mi)
Elevation 21 m (69 ft)
Population (2016)
• Municipality 2,609,716
• Rank 5th
• Metro 4,019,213
• Metro density 540.21/km (1,399.1/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Portuguese: Fortalezense
Time zone BST (UTC-3)
Postal Code 60000-000
Area code(s) +55 85
Website Fortaleza, Ceará

Fortaleza ([foʁtaˈlezɐ], locally [fɔɦtaˈlezɐ], Portuguese for Fortress) is the state capital of Ceará, located in Northeastern Brazil. It belongs to the Metropolitan mesoregion of Fortaleza and microregion of Fortaleza. Distant 2285 km (1420 miles) from Brasilia, the federal capital, the city has developed on the banks of the creek Pajeú, and its toponymy is an allusion to Fort Schoonenborch, which gave rise to the city, built by the Dutch during their second stay in place between 1649 and 1654. The motto of Fortaleza, present in its coat of arms is the Latin word Fortitudine, which in Portuguese means "strength, value, courage."

Fortaleza in 2013 was the twelfth richest city in the country in GDP and second in the Northeast, with 49 billion reais (US$21 billion). It also has the third richest metropolitan area in the North and Northeast regions. It is an important industrial and commercial center of Brazil, the eighth nation's largest municipal purchasing power. According to the Ministry of Tourism, the city reached the marks of second most desired destination of Brazil and fourth Brazilian city that receives more tourists. The BR-116, the most important highway of the country, starts in Fortaleza. The municipality is part of the Common Market of Mercosur Cities, and also the Brazilian capital which is closest to Europe, 5608 km (3484 miles) from Lisbon, Portugal.

To the north of the city lies the Atlantic Ocean; to the south are the municipalities of Pacatuba, Eusébio, Maracanaú and Itaitinga; to the east is the municipality of Aquiraz and the Atlantic Ocean; and to the west is the municipality of Caucaia. Residents of the city are known as Fortalezenses. Fortaleza is one of the three leading cities in the Northeast region together with Recife and Salvador.

The city was one of the host cities of the 2014 FIFA World Cup. Additionally, Fortaleza was one of the host cities of the 2013 FIFA Confederations Cup.

Fortaleza: History

Historical Affiliations

PortugalPortuguese Empire 1630–1815
Flag of New Holland.svgDutch West India Company 1649–1654
Flag of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil, and the Algarves.svgUnited Kingdom of PBA 1815–1822
Flag of Empire of Brazil (1870-1889).svgEmpire of Brazil 1822–1889
BrazilRepublic of Brazil 1889–present

Plan of Fort Schoonenborch in 1649
Fortaleza in 1910
See also: Timeline of Fortaleza and History of Brazil

Fortaleza's history began on February 2, 1500, when Spaniard Vicente Pinzón landed in Mucuripe's cove and named the new land Santa Maria de la Consolación. Because of the Treaty of Tordesillas, the discovery was never officially sanctioned. Colonisation began in 1603, when the Portuguese Pero Coelho de Souza constructed the Fort of São Tiago and founded the settlement of Nova Lisboa (New Lisbon). After a victory over the French in 1612, Martins Soares Moreno expanded the Fort of São Tiago and changed its name to Forte de São Sebastião.

In 1630 the Dutch invaded the Brazilian Northeast and in 1637 they took the Fort of São Sebastião and ruled over Ceará. In battles with the Portuguese and natives in 1644 the fort was destroyed. Under captain Matthias Beck the Dutch West Indies Company built a new fortress by the banks of river Pajeú. Fort Schoonenborch ("graceful stronghold") officially opened on August 19, 1649. After the capitulation of Pernambuco in 1654, the Dutch handed over this fortress to the Portuguese, who renamed it Fortaleza da Nossa Senhora de Assunção ("Fort of Our Lady of the Assumption"), after which the city of Fortaleza takes its name.

Fortaleza was officially founded as a village 1726, becoming the capital of Ceará state in 1799.

During the 19th century, Fortaleza was consolidated as an urban centre in Ceará, supported by the cotton industry. In 1824, the city was targeted by the revolutionaries of Confederation of the Equator. Between the years 1846 and 1877, the city went through a period of enrichment, economic and infrastructural improvement. This included the export of cotton and the development of diverse workmanships, such as the creation of the 2 secondary schools, the Ceará and Mucuripe Lighthouse in 1845, Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Fortaleza in 1861, Prainha Seminary in 1864, Public Library in 1867 and the Public transportation network in 1870, which began with the construction of Railroad of Baturité.

Ferreira Square in 1920

In the twentieth century, Fortaleza underwent significant urban changes, with improvements and the rural exodus to the city, with growth mostly towards the end of the decade of 1910, this made the city the seventh most populated city in Brazil. In 1922, Fortaleza reached its first hundred thousand inhabitants with the annexation of the cities of Messejana and Parangaba, now important districts of the city. In 1954, the first university in the city was created, the Universidade Federal do Ceará(UFC) .

View of Leoes Palace in 1936

In 1983 DIF I started to integrate the territory of the new city of Maracanaú, which, just some years ago, was made again part of the Greater Fortaleza (the city's Metropolitan area). In the 1980s, Fortaleza exceeded Recife in population terms, becoming the second most populous city in Northeastern Brazil, with 2,571,896 inhabitants.

During the political awakening that followed the military regime, the people elected the city's first woman mayor, Maria Luíza Fontenele of the Brazilian Workers' Party, which meant that the city administration was controlled by a party of the centre-left. At the end of the twentieth century, the administration of the city hall and the city underwent a range of structural changes with the opening of several avenues, hospitals, cultural spaces and it became one of the main tourist destinations in the Northeast and in Brazil.

Fortaleza: Geography

Aerial view of Iracema Beach

Fortaleza: Climate

Fortaleza has a typical tropical climate, specifically a tropical wet and dry climate, with high temperatures and high relative humidity throughout the year. However, these conditions are usually relieved by pleasant winds blowing from the ocean. Average temperatures are not much different throughout the year. December is the warmest month, with a high of 30.7 °C (87.3 °F) and low of 24.6 °C (76.3 °F). The rainy season spans from February to May, with rainfall particularly prodigious in March and April. The average annual temperature is 26.6 °C (79.9 °F). The relative humidity in Fortaleza is 79%, with average annual rainfall of 1,608.4 millimetres (63.32 in).

Fortaleza weather is unique in that there is usually rain during the first seven months of the year from January to July. During this period, relative humidity is high. Fortaleza's climate is usually very dry from August to December, with very little rainfall.

Climate data for Fortaleza (1961–1990)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 37.7
Average high °C (°F) 30.5
Daily mean °C (°F) 27.1
Average low °C (°F) 24.4
Record low °C (°F) 20
Average rainfall mm (inches) 119.1
Average rainy days (≥ ≥ 1 mm) 11 15 22 21 19 14 10 5 5 4 3 6 132
Average relative humidity (%) 78.1 81.4 84.7 85.2 83.6 81 78.8 75.3 74.4 74 73.7 75.9 78.8
Mean monthly sunshine hours 225.2 182.3 150 157.1 208.4 238.7 268.3 295.9 281.6 291.4 282.2 262.3 2,843.4
Source: Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology (INMET).

Fortaleza: Vegetation

In Fortaleza there are some remaining areas of mangrove in preserved areas. The municipality contains the 3,320 hectares (8,200 acres) Pedra da Risca do Meio Marine State Park created in 1997 to support an offshore area of reefs of ecological and tourist importance.

Fortaleza: Demographics

See also: Largest Cities of Northeast Region, Brazil
View of Fortaleza's coast

According to the 2010 IBGE Census, there were 2,315,116 people residing in the city of Fortaleza. The census revealed the following numbers: 1,403,292 Pardo (multiracial) people (57.2%), 901,816 White people (36.8%), 110,811 Black people (4.5%), 33,161 Asian people (1.4%), 3,071 Amerindian people (0.1%).

In 2010, the city of Fortaleza was the 5th most populous city proper in Brazil, after São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Salvador, and Brasília.

In 2010, the city had 433,942 opposite-sex couples and 1,559 same-sex couples. The population of Fortaleza was 53.2% female and 46.8% male.

The following cities are included in the metropolitan area of Fortaleza (ordered by population): Fortaleza, Caucaia, Maracanaú, Maranguape, Aquiraz, Pacatuba, Pacajus, Horizonte, São Gonçalo do Amarante, Itatinga, Guaiúba and Chorozinho.

According to a genetic from 2011, 'pardos' and whites' from Fortaleza, which comprise the largest share of the population, showed up a degree of European ancestry of about 70%, being the rest basically divided between Native American and African ancestries. A 2015 study, however, found out the following composition in Fortaleza: 48,9% of European contribution, 35,4% of Native American input and 15,7% of African ancestry.

View of Fortaleza

Fortaleza: Religion

Church of Our Lady of Lebanon, one of the four Melkite Greek Catholic Church in Brazil.
Metropolitan Cathedral of Fortaleza, the country's third biggest.

The prevailing religion of Fortaleza is the Roman Catholic branch of Christianity, due to the influence of Portuguese settlers and missionaries during the colonial rule of Brazil.

Religious affiliation Percentage Number
Catholic 79.0% 1,691,487
Protestant 12.58% 269,469
No religion 5.99% 128,190
Kardecist 0.83% 17,780
Jehovah's Witnesses 0.64% 13,758
Other religions 0.7% 15,923

Source: IBGE 2000.

Fortaleza: Politics

Entrance of the Bispo Palace, seat of the municipal executive power.
Edson Ramalho Palace, seat of the Ceará's Economy Secretariat.

The first mayor was José Freire Bezerril Fontenelle. The mayor is assisted by seven Regional Executive Secretariats (SER). The legislature is made up of the City Council of Fortaleza, composed of 43 councilors, elected for four-year terms.

Fortaleza: Economy

See also: Economy of Brazil
Central Bank of Brazil em Fortaleza.
Commercial Association of Ceará.
Shopping mall in Fortaleza

In 2012, the GDP of Fortaleza was R$43.4 billion.

Downtown Fortaleza, or Centro, is where most commercial activities happen. Monsenhor Tabosa Avenue, near Iracema Beach and Aldeota neighborhood are significant commercial districts as well. Fortaleza has two of the ten biggest malls in the country, Shopping Iguatemi and RioMar Shopping, the seventh and the eighth largest, respectively. Fortaleza is home to several other malls, the most significant being RioMar Norte, Shopping Del Paseo, North Shopping Jóquei, Parangaba Shopping, Via Sul, Varanda Mall and Jardins Open Mall.

The manufacturing industry produces footwear, textiles, leather-derived items, and processed food and beverages. Presently, Fortaleza offers a wide variety of event spaces, allowing different kinds of events to be promoted, ranging from small business meetings to national and international conventions and fairs that receive thousands of people. The biggest and best-equipped event venue available in the Northeast of Brazil is the Event Center of Ceará (CEC) in Fortaleza, opened in 2012. Additionally, many hotels, business centres and other venues also offer adequate spaces for different types of gatherings. Now-defunct TAF Airlines used to have its headquarters in Fortaleza.

Ponte dos Ingleses

The GDP for the city was R$42,010,111,000 (2011). The per capita income for the city was R$16,962.89 (2011).

Fortaleza: Culture

José de Alencar Theater in Fortaleza

Since the end of the 19th century, the city has been home to various cultural institutions. The Instituto do Ceará (Ceará Institute) was established in 1887, and conducts research in history, geography and anthropology. The Academia Cearense de Letras (Ceará Academy of Letters) was the first institution of the sort in the country, established on August 15, 1894. In 1892, Fortaleza was the site of a cultural movement of literary expression called "Spiritual Bakery". There are many other cultural centres, including the Banco do Nordeste Cultural Centre and the Dragão do Mar Center of Art and Culture. The folklore of Fortaleza is rich and diverse, and has roots in a mixture of beliefs originating from white colonisers and native groups. Minor, but also considered important, are Syrian-Lebanese and African traditions.

João Felipe Railway Station in Fortaleza

Fortaleza: Carnival

Straw sheds at Praia do Futuro Beach
Main article: Brazilian Carnival

Fortaleza Carnival season is not as famous as that in other northeastern cities like Salvador or Recife, as the local population prefer to spend the holiday at others beach cities of Ceará. Through the streets of Fortaleza, the Carnival brings the samba together with festivities as a celebration of Fortaleza's past and diverse culture. It is particularly notable for its unique style of maracatu known as maracatu cearense.

Fortaleza: Cuisine

The Baião de dois a typical dish from Ceará.

Seafood is popular in Fortaleza cuisine, such as arraia moqueca, mackerel and snapper fish.

Fortaleza: Tourism

Fortaleza is a big tourist destination for the domestic Brazilian market. According to the Ministry of Tourism, the capital of Ceará is the second most desired destination in Brazil and the fourth that receives the most visitors. Fortaleza is the gateway to the Route of Emotions, a route that is composed of Delta do Parnaíba, Jericoacoara and Lençóis Maranhenses

Scuba diving is possible in the area of Pedra da Risca do Meio Marine State Park, a marine protected area located about 10 nautical miles from the shoreline of Fortaleza.

Fortaleza: Urban beaches

"Praia do Futuro" redirects here. For the Brazilian film, see Praia do Futuro (film).

Fortaleza has about 25 kilometres (16 mi) of urban beaches. From North to South, the urban beaches of Fortaleza are Iracema, Meireles, Mucuripe and Praia do Futuro. Each beach has its own peculiarities:

  • Iracema is the Bohemian beach, with bars and nightclubs;
  • Mucuripe is the place where jangadas can be found. Still used by fishermen to go into high seas, jangadas can be seen along the way during the afternoon and evenings, and returning from the sea in the morning; part of the catch of the day is sold in an old style fish market.

Fortaleza: Education

The Dragão do Mar Center of Art and Culture hosts events and programs for the dissemination and popularization of science and technology.
According to the 2016 university ranking, the Federal University of Ceará, whose headquarters are located in Fortaleza, is the 10th best university in Brazil, 1st in the North and Northeast regions of Brazil and the best university in Ceará.
The Cultural Houses of the Federal University of Ceará form the largest university extension program in language teaching in the country. In the image, one of them, the german cultural house.

In 2010, the level of the education factor of the Strengthening Human Development Index was medium, despite its great advance, which went from 0.367 to 0.695 between 1991 and 2010. According to data from the 2010 Human Development Atlas of Brazil, Fortaleza's adult education levels were divided as follows: 8.57% did not complete primary school or were illiterate, 62.43% had completed elementary education, 45.93% had completed high school and 13.73% had completed higher education; All indices above the Brazilian average. The average strength was 10.04 years expected from the study, more than the estimate from Ceará, 9.82. According to the same study, 4.14% of children aged 5 and 6 were not in school.

In 2010, according to data from the demographic census sample, of the total population, 783 911 inhabitants attended day care centers and / or schools. Of this total, 23 379 attended day-care centers, 73 219 were in pre-school education, 26 319 in the literacy class, 6 443 in youth and adult literacy, 362 029 in primary school, 125 275 in high school, 22 723 in Young adults and adults in primary education, 27 016 in the education of young people and adults in secondary education, 102,929 in undergraduate courses, 10,152 in higher education specialization, 3,104 in master's degrees and 1,324 in doctoral courses. A total of 200 457 inhabitants had never attended an educational institution. In 2012, the municipality had 1,132 schools offering primary education, of which 402 were public and 730 were private schools. Of the 308 institutions providing secondary education, 152 belonged to the public network and 156 were private schools. In 2012, the number of enrolled in elementary education was 342 920 and in high school, 111 887.

There are 54 higher education institutions in the city. The first of these was the Faculty of Law of Ceará, created in 1903. The universities present in the municipality are the Federal University of Ceará, the State University of Ceará, and the University of Fortaleza.

The Liceu do Ceará is the oldest college in the state and the third oldest in Brazil.

Fortaleza: Health

Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Fortaleza, first public hospital built in the city, on 1861.
Hospital São Mateus, private institution founded on 1993.

According to data from 2010, the infant mortality rate up to one year old was 15.8% in Fortaleza, against a Brazilian average of 16.7%.

In 2009, Fortaleza had a total of 35 general hospitals, of which 11 were public, 21 were private, two were philanthropic, and one was a trade union. Doctor José Frota Institute is the largest hospital administered by the Municipal Government, and the General Hospital of Fortaleza is the largest hospital administered by the State Government.

Fortaleza: Transport

Fortaleza: International Airport

Pinto Martins International Airport (FOR)

The passenger terminal at Pinto Martins – Fortaleza International Airport is totally air-conditioned and has four levels. There are direct flights to Bogota, Buenos Aires, Cayena, Lisbon, Rome, Frankfurt, Miami and Cape Verde. All major destinations in Brazil are also connected to Fortaleza.

Fortaleza: Roads

The system of traffic monitoring is known by the acronym CTAFOR, which stands for "Controle de Tráfego em Área de Fortaleza" (Traffic Control of the Area of Fortaleza).

Fortaleza: Subway

Fortaleza Subway on the South Line

MetroFor is the 43 kilometres (27 mi) rapid transit system for the city of Fortaleza.

Fortaleza: Bus stations

Engenheiro João Tomé Bus station is the Fortaleza Bus terminal official name. Was Contstructed in 1973. A daily average of over 8,000 passengers. 35 Bus companies and close to 200 bus lines. The bus station is centrally located within the city limits. Only 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) from the city centre and 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) from Praia de Iracema Beach. Fortaleza bus station is accessible by at least 2 city bus lines: Av. Borges de Melo I and Av. Borges de Melo II. Fortaleza has multiple Bus Rapid Transit, or BRT, lines throughout the city and has plans to extend this network of transportation (

Fortaleza: Ports

Mucuripe Port

Fortaleza Harbour is an artificial port located in the Mucuripe inlet. The quay is 1,054 metres (3,458 ft) long.

Fortaleza: Bike lanes

Fortaleza officially has 116.4 kilometres (72.3 mi) of bike lanes.

Fortaleza: Sports

Castelão Arena

The most popular sport in Fortaleza, like the rest of Brazil, is football (soccer). The main games of the Ceará State Championship are played in Fortaleza. There are several association football clubs in the city. The most important ones are Ceará SC, Fortaleza EC and Ferroviário AC. It was one of the host cities of the 2013 FIFA Confederations Cup and 2014 FIFA World Cup.

Fortaleza: Notable people

Statue of Rachel de Queiroz in Fortaleza.
Mausoleum of Marshal Castelo Branco, former President and dictator of Brazil.
José de Alencar, prominent writer of the Brazilian Empire.
  • José de Alencar, famous writer from the 19th century
  • Alberto Nepomuceno, famous composer from the 19th century
  • Rachel de Queiroz, first female writer in Academia Brasileira de Letras
  • André Diamant, international chess grandmaster
  • Casimiro Montenegro Filho, founder of the Brazillian Air Force Aeronautical Technologic Institute - ITA
  • Maurício Peixoto, mathematician, one of the founders of IMPA
  • Gilberto Câmara, former director of Brazil's National Institute for Space Research (INPE)
  • Hélder Câmara, Roman Catholic Archbishop nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize
  • Castelo Branco, former president (1964–67)
  • Karim Aïnouz, film director
  • Ed Lincoln, musician and composer
  • Shelda Bede, beach volleyball player and olympic medalist
  • Raffael, professional footballer
  • Ronny Araújo, professional footballer
  • Mário Jardel, retired professional footballer
  • Marcus Aurélio, mixed martial arts professional
  • Wilson Gouveia, mixed martial arts professional
  • Thiago Alves, mixed martial arts professional
  • Hermes França, mixed martial arts professional
  • Jorge Gurgel, mixed martial arts professional
  • Heloneida Studart, writer, politician, women's rights advocate

Fortaleza: International relations

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Brazil

Fortaleza: Twin towns – Sister cities

Fortaleza is twinned with:

Country City
Venezuela Venezuela Coat of arms of Caracas.svg Caracas
United States United States Seal of Miami Beach, Florida.png Miami Beach
Portugal Portugal LSB.png Lisboa
Italy Italy Montese-Stemma.png Montese
Brazil Brazil Brasão de Natal.jpg Natal
Cape Verde Cape Verde Cape Verde Praia
United States United States Racineflag.gif Racine, Wisconsin
Senegal Senegal Senegal Saint-Louis

Fortaleza: See also

  • Housing in Fortaleza, Brazil

Fortaleza: References

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  2. Garmany, Jeff (2011). "Situating Fortaleza: Urban space and uneven development in northeastern Brazil". Cities. Elsevier. 28 (1): 45–52. doi:10.1016/j.cities.2010.08.004.
  3. "Global city GDP 2013-2014". Brookings Institution. Archived from the original on June 4, 2013. Retrieved 1 August 2015.
  4. History of Fortaleza (English)
  5. History of Fortaleza and Ceará at Fortaleza, Ceará site
  6. The Fortress of Nossa Senhora da Assunção at Fortaleza, Ceará site
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  8. History of Fortaleza (English)
  9. "Fortaleza Bio - Fortaleza Career". Retrieved December 10, 2016.
  10. "Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC)". December 13, 2012. Retrieved December 10, 2016.
  11. "Define fortaleza - Dictionary and Thesaurus". Retrieved December 10, 2016.
  12. "Fortaleza". Retrieved December 10, 2016.
  13. "Temperatura Máxima (°C)" (in Portuguese). Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology. 1961–1990. Archived from the original on May 5, 2014. Retrieved August 19, 2014.
  14. "Temperatura Mínima (°C)" (in Portuguese). Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology. 1961–1990. Archived from the original on May 5, 2014. Retrieved August 19, 2014.
  15. "Precipitação Acumulada Mensal e Anual (mm)" (in Portuguese). Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology. 1961–1990. Archived from the original on May 5, 2014. Retrieved August 19, 2014.
  16. "Temperatura Média Compensada (°C)" (in Portuguese). Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology. 1961–1990. Archived from the original on May 5, 2014. Retrieved August 19, 2014.
  17. "Umidade Relativa do Ar Média Compensada (%)". Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology. Archived from the original on May 5, 2014. Retrieved August 19, 2014.
  18. "Número de Dias com Precipitação Mayor ou Igual a 1 mm (dias)". Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology. Archived from the original on May 5, 2014. Retrieved August 19, 2014.
  19. "Insolação Total (horas)". Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology. Archived from the original on May 5, 2014. Retrieved August 19, 2014.
  20. "Temperatura Máxima Absoluta (ºC)". Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology (Inmet). Retrieved August 19, 2014.
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  22. Manguezal do Rio Ceará (Portuguese)
  23. Manguezal do Rio Cocó (Portuguese)
  24. Parque Estadual Marinho da Pedra da Risca do Meio, SEMACE, Governo do Estado do Ceará, retrieved 2016-11-28
  25. 2010 IGBE Census (Portuguese)
  26. 2010 IGBE Census (Portuguese)
  27. The largest Brazilian cities – 2010 IBGE Census (Portuguese)
  28. "Fortaleza Ceara Brazil - travel information". Retrieved December 10, 2016.
  29. Pena, Sérgio D. J.; Pietro, Giuliano Di; Fuchshuber-Moraes, Mateus; Genro, Julia Pasqualini; Hutz, Mara H.; Kehdy, Fernanda de Souza Gomes; Kohlrausch, Fabiana; Magno, Luiz Alexandre Viana; Montenegro, Raquel Carvalho; Moraes, Manoel Odorico; Moraes, Maria Elisabete Amaral de; Moraes, Milene Raiol de; Ojopi, Élida B.; Perini, Jamila A.; Racciopi, Clarice; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Ândrea Kely Campos; Rios-Santos, Fabrício; Romano-Silva, Marco A.; Sortica, Vinicius A.; Suarez-Kurtz, Guilherme (February 16, 2011). "The Genomic Ancestry of Individuals from Different Geographical Regions of Brazil Is More Uniform Than Expected". PLOS ONE. 6 (2): e17063. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0017063. PMC 3040205Freely accessible. PMID 21359226. Retrieved December 10, 2016 – via PLoS Journals.
  30. Magalhães da Silva, Thiago; Sandhya Rani, M. R.; de Oliveira Costa, Gustavo Nunes; Figueiredo, Maria A.; Melo, Paulo S.; Nascimento, João F.; Molyneaux, Neil D.; Barreto, Maurício L.; Reis, Mitermayer G.; Teixeira, M. Glória; Blanton, Ronald E. (July 1, 2015). "The correlation between ancestry and color in two cities of Northeast Brazil with contrasting ethnic compositions". Eur J Hum Genet. 23 (7): 984–989. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2014.215. PMC 4463503Freely accessible. PMID 25293718. Retrieved December 10, 2016 – via
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  38. Soares, Marcelo de Oliveira; Paiva, Carolina Cerqueira de; Freitas, João Eduardo Pereira de; Lotufo, Tito Monteiro da Cruz (2011), "Gestão de unidades de conservação marinhas: o caso do Parque Estadual Marinho da Pedra da Risca do Meio, NE – Brasil" (PDF), Revista da Gestão Costeira Integrada, 11 (2), retrieved 2016-11-28
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Fortaleza: Bibliography

  • (Portuguese) Fortaleza City Council home page
  • (Portuguese) Fortaleza Tourism Office home page
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