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What's important: you can compare and book not only Ganja hotels and resorts, but also villas and holiday cottages, inns and B&Bs (bed and breakfast), condo hotels and apartments, timeshare properties, guest houses and pensions, campsites (campgrounds), motels and hostels in Ganja. If you're going to Ganja save your money and time, don't pay for the services of the greedy travel agencies. Instead, book the best hotel in Ganja online, buy the cheapest airline tickets to Ganja, and rent a car in Ganja right now, paying the lowest price! Besides, here you can buy the Ganja related books, guidebooks, souvenirs and other goods.

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In order to book an accommodation in Ganja enter the proper dates and do the hotel search. If needed, sort the found Ganja hotels by price, star rating, property type, guest rating, hotel features, hotel theme or hotel chain. Then take a look at the found hotels on Ganja map to estimate the distance from the main Ganja attractions and sights. You can also read the guest reviews of Ganja hotels and see their ratings.

When a hotel search in Ganja is done, please select the room type, the included meals and the suitable booking conditions (for example, "Deluxe double room, Breakfast included, Non-Refundable"). Press the "View Deal" ("Book Now") button. Make your booking on a hotel booking website and get the hotel reservation voucher by email. That's it, a perfect hotel in Ganja is waiting for you!

Hotels of Ganja

A hotel in Ganja is an establishment that provides lodging paid on a short-term basis. Facilities provided may range from a basic bed and storage for clothing, to luxury features like en-suite bathrooms. Larger in Ganja hotels may provide additional guest facilities such as a swimming pool, business centre, childcare, conference facilities and social function services. Hotel rooms in Ganja are usually numbered (or named in some smaller hotels and B&Bs) to allow guests to identify their room. Some Ganja hotels offer meals as part of a room and board arrangement. Hotel operations vary in size, function, and cost. Most Ganja hotels and major hospitality companies that operate hotels in Ganja have set widely accepted industry standards to classify hotel types. General categories include the following:

Upscale luxury hotels in Ganja
An upscale full service hotel facility in Ganja that offers luxury amenities, full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and the highest level of personalized and professional service. Luxury Ganja hotels are normally classified with at least a Four Diamond or Five Diamond status or a Four or Five Star rating depending on classification standards.

Full service hotels in Ganja
Full service Ganja hotels often contain upscale full-service facilities with a large volume of full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and a variety of on-site amenities such as swimming pools, a health club, children's activities, ballrooms, on-site conference facilities, etc.

Historic inns and boutique hotels in Ganja
Boutique hotels of Ganja are smaller independent non-branded hotels that often contain upscale facilities of varying size in unique or intimate settings with full service accommodations. Ganja boutique hotels are generally 100 rooms or less. Some historic inns and boutique hotels in Ganja may be classified as luxury hotels.

Focused or select service hotels in Ganja
Small to medium-sized hotel establishments that offer a limited amount of on-site amenities that only cater and market to a specific demographic of Ganja travelers, such as the single business traveler. Most Ganja focused or select service hotels may still offer full service accommodations but may lack leisure amenities such as an on-site restaurant or a swimming pool.

Economy and limited service hotels in Ganja
Small to medium-sized Ganja hotel establishments that offer a very limited amount of on-site amenities and often only offer basic accommodations with little to no services, these facilities normally only cater and market to a specific demographic of travelers, such as the budget-minded Ganja traveler seeking a "no frills" accommodation. Limited service Ganja hotels often lack an on-site restaurant but in return may offer a limited complimentary food and beverage amenity such as on-site continental breakfast service.

Guest houses and B&Bs in Ganja
A bed and breakfast in Ganja is a small lodging establishment that offers overnight accommodation and inclusive breakfast. Usually, Ganja bed and breakfasts are private homes or family homes offering accommodations. The typical Ganja B&B has between 4 and 11 rooms, with 6 being the average. Generally, guests are accommodated in private bedrooms with private bathrooms, or in a suite of rooms including an en suite bathroom. Some homes have private bedrooms with a bathroom which is shared with other guests. Breakfast is served in the bedroom, a dining room, or the host's kitchen. Often the owners of guest house themselves prepare the breakfast and clean the rooms.

Hostels in Ganja
Ganja hostels provide budget-oriented, sociable accommodation where guests can rent a bed, usually a bunk bed, in a dormitory and share a bathroom, lounge, and sometimes a kitchen. Rooms can be mixed or single-sex, although private rooms may also be available. Hostels are often cheaper for both the operator and occupants; many Ganja hostels have long-term residents whom they employ as desk agents or housekeeping staff in exchange for experience or discounted accommodation.

Apartment hotels, extended stay hotels in Ganja
Extended stay hotels are small to medium-sized Ganja hotels that offer longer term full service accommodations compared to a traditional hotel. Extended stay hotels may offer non-traditional pricing methods such as a weekly rate that cater towards travelers in need of short-term accommodations for an extended period of time. Similar to limited and select service hotels, on-site amenities are normally limited and most extended stay hotels in Ganja lack an on-site restaurant.

Timeshare and destination clubs in Ganja
Ganja timeshare and destination clubs are a form of property ownership also referred to as a vacation ownership involving the purchase and ownership of an individual unit of accommodation for seasonal usage during a specified period of time. Timeshare resorts in Ganja often offer amenities similar that of a Full service hotel with on-site restaurant(s), swimming pools, recreation grounds, and other leisure-oriented amenities. Destination clubs of Ganja on the other hand may offer more exclusive private accommodations such as private houses in a neighborhood-style setting.

Motels in Ganja
A Ganja motel is a small-sized low-rise lodging establishment similar to that of a limited service hotel, but with direct access to individual rooms from the car park. Common during the 1950s and 1960s, motels were often located adjacent to a major road, where they were built on inexpensive land at the edge of towns or along stretches of highways. They are still useful in less populated areas of Ganja for driving travelers, but the more populated an area becomes the more hotels fill the need. Many of Ganja motels which remain in operation have joined national franchise chains, rebranding themselves as hotels, inns or lodges.

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Travelling and vacation in Ganja

City & Municipality
Montage of Ganja city 2016.jpg
Official seal of Ganja
Nickname(s): Red City
Ganja is located in Azerbaijan
Coordinates:  / 40.68278; 46.36056
Country Azerbaijan
• Mayor Elmar Valiyev
• Total 170 km (70 sq mi)
Elevation 408 m (1,339 ft)
Population (2015)
• Total 325,200
• Density 2,848/km (7,380/sq mi)
• Population Rank in Azerbaijan 2nd
Demonym(s) Ağali, Lələ, Küçəli
Time zone GMT+4 (UTC+4)
Area code(s) (+994) 22
Vehicle registration 20 AZ
Website www.ganca.net

Ganja (Azerbaijani: Gəncə [ˈgænd͡ʒæ]) is Azerbaijan's second largest city with a population of around 325,200. It was named Elisabethpol (Russian: Елизаветполь, tr. Yelizavetpol; IPA: [jɪlʲɪzəvʲɪtˈpolʲ]) in the Russian Empire period. The city regained its original name, Ganja, in 1920 during the first part of its incorporation into the Soviet Union. However, its name was changed again in 1935 to Kirovabad (Russian: Кировабад; IPA: [kʲɪrəvɐˈbat]) and retained that name through most of the rest of the Soviet period. In 1989, during Perestroika, the city regained its original name.

Ganja, Azerbaijan: Etymology

Even though some sources from medieval Islamic time attribute the building of the town to a Muslim Arab ruler, modern historians believe that the fact that the name Ganja derives from the New Persian ganj ("treasure") and in Arabic source the name is recorded as Janza (from the Middle Persian ganza) suggests that the city existed in pre-Islamic times and was likely founded in the 5th century. The area in which Ganja is located was known as Arran from the 9th to 12th century; its urban population spoke mainly in the Persian language.

Ganja, Azerbaijan: History

Ganja, Azerbaijan: Feudal era

According to medieval Arabic sources, the city of Ganja was founded in 859-60 by Muhammad ibn Khalid ibn Yazid ibn Mazyad, the Arab governor of the region in the reign of the caliph al-Mutawakkil, and so-called because of a treasure unearthed there. According to the legend, the Arab governor had a dream where a voice told him that there was a treasure hidden under one of the three hills around the area where he camped. The voice told him to unearth it and use the money to found a city. He did so and informed the caliph about the money and the city. Caliph made Muhammad the hereditary governor of the city on a condition that he would give the money he found to the caliph.

Foundation of the city by Arabs is confirmed by the medieval Armenian historian Movses Kagankatvatsi, who mentions that the city of Ganja was founded in 846-47 in the canton of Arshakashen by the son of Khazr Patgos, "a furious and merciless man".

Historically an important city of the South Caucasus, Ganja has been part of the Sassanid empire, Great Seljuk Empire, Kingdom of Georgia, Atabegs of Azerbaijan, Khwarezmid Empire, Il-Khans, Timurids, Jalayirids, Qara Qoyunlu, Ak Koyunlu, the Safavid, the Afsharid, the Zand and the Qajar empires of Persia/Iran. Prior to the Iranian Zand and Qajar rule, following Nader Shah's death, it was ruled locally for a few decades by the khans/dukes of the Ganja Khanate, who themselves were subordinate to the central rule in mainland Iran and were a branch of the Iranian Qajar family. Ganja is also the birthplace of the famous poet Nizami Ganjavi.

Gate of Ganja, now in Gelati Monastery, Imereti, Georgia

The people of Ganja experienced a temporary cultural decline after an earthquake in 1139, when the city was taken by king Demetrius I of Georgia and its gates taken as trophies which is still kept in Georgia, and again after the Mongol invasion in 1231. The city was revived after the Safavids came to power in 1501, and incorporated all of Azerbaijan and beyond into their territories. The city came under brief occupation by the Ottomans between 1578–1606 and 1723-1735 during the prolonged Ottoman-Persian Wars, but nevertheless stayed under intermittent Iranian suzerainty from the earliest 16th century up to the course of the 19th century, when it was forcefully ceded to neighbouring Imperial Russia.

Ganja, Azerbaijan: 16th-19th centuries and Iran's ceding to Russia

For a short period, Ganja was renamed Abbasabad by Shah Abbas after war against the Ottomans. He built a new city 8 kilometres (5 miles) to the southwest of the old one, but the name changed back to Ganja during the time. During the Safavid rule, it was the capital of the Karabakh province. In 1747, Ganja became the center of the Ganja Khanate for a few decades following the death of Nader Shah, until the advent of the Iranian Zand and Qajar dynasties. The khans/dukes who de facto self-ruled the khanate, were subordinate to the central rule in mainland Iran and were from a branch of the Iranian Qajar family.

The siege of Ganja Fortress in 1804 during the Russo-Persian War (1804-1813) by the Russian forces under leadership of general Pavel Tsitsianov.

From the late 18th century, Russia actively started to increase its enroachments into Iranian and Turkish territory to the south. Following the annexation of eastern Georgia in 1801, Russia was now keen to conquer the rest of the Iranian possessions in the Caucasus. Russian expansion into the South Caucasus met particularly strong opposition in Ganja. In 1804, the Russians, led by General Pavel Tsitsianov, invaded and sacked Ganja, sparking the Russo-Persian War of 1804-1813. Some western sources assert that "the capture of the city was followed by a massacre of up to 3,000 inhabitants of Ganja by the Russians". They also claim that "500 of them were slaughtered in a mosque where they had taken refuge, after an Armenian told the Russian soldiers that there might have been "Daghestani robbers" among them". Thosaunds of Azeris left Ganja and fled to Iran following the capture.

Militarily superior, the Russians ended the Russo-Persian War of 1804-1813 with a victory. By the Treaty of Gulistan that followed, Iran was forced to cede the Ganja Khanate to Russia. The Iranians briefly managed to oust the Russians from Ganja during the 1826-1827 offensive during the Russo-Persian War of 1826-1828, but the resulting Treaty of Turkmenchay made its inclusion into the Russian Empire definite. It was renamed Elisabethpol (Russian: Елизаветполь) after the wife of Alexander I of Russia, Elisabeth, and in 1868 became the capital of Elisabethpol Governorate. Elizavetpol was an uyezd of Tiflis Governorate before 1868. The Russian name was not accepted by Azerbaijanis who continued to call the city Ganja.

Ganja, Azerbaijan: 20th century

In 1918, Ganja became the temporary capital of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic, at which point it was renamed Ganja again, until Baku was recaptured from the British backed Centrocaspian Dictatorship. In April 1920, the Red Army occupied Azerbaijan. In May 1920, Ganja was the scene of an abortive anti-Soviet rebellion, during which the city was heavily damaged by fighting between the insurgents and the Red Army. In 1935, Joseph Stalin renamed the city Kirovabad after Sergei Kirov. In 1991, Azerbaijan re-established its independence, and the ancient name of the city was given back. For many years the 104th Guards Airborne Division of the Soviet Airborne Troops was based in the town.

In November 1988, the Kirovabad pogrom forced many Armenians to leave the city.

Ganja, Azerbaijan: 21st century

Reconstruction in the 21st century has led to dramatic changes in the city's urban development, transforming the old Soviet city into a hub of high-rise, mixed-use buildings.

In 2008, Ganja Mausoleum Gates were built on the basis of sketches of ancient Ganja gates made by local master Ibrahim Osman oglu in 1063.

Ganja, Azerbaijan: Geography

Ganja, Azerbaijan: Climate

Ganja has a semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification: BSk).

Climate data for Ganja (1981–2010, extremes 1890–2014)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 22.8
Average high °C (°F) 7.0
Daily mean °C (°F) 3.2
Average low °C (°F) 0.5
Record low °C (°F) −17.8
Average precipitation mm (inches) 8
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 7.0 7.0 8.0 8.2 9.0 7.0 4.0 3.0 4.0 6.3 6.5 6.0 76.0
Average rainy days 3 4 6 8 9 6 4 3 4 6 6 4 63
Average snowy days 3 5 2 0.2 0 0 0 0 0 0.4 1 2 14
Average relative humidity (%) 71 71 68 70 68 61 59 61 65 74 76 74 68
Mean monthly sunshine hours 120 113 141 182 229 267 278 252 212 168 123 115 2,200
Source #1: Deutscher Wetterdienst (sun, 1961–1990)
Source #2: Pogoda.ru.net

Ganja, Azerbaijan: Administrative divisions

Today, Ganja is divided into 2 rayons (administrative districts). The mayor, presently Elmar Valiyev, embodies the executive power of the city.

  • Kapaz raion (Kəpəz rayonu)
  • Nizami raion (Nizami rayonu)

Ganja, Azerbaijan: Demographics

Ethnic groups in Ganja
Year Azerbaijanis % Armenians % Russians % Others % TOTAL
Georgians, Jews, Ukrainians etc.

Ganja is the second largest city of Azerbaijan after Baku with about 313,300 residents. The city is also inhabited by a large number of Azerbaijani refugees from Armenia and IDPs from the Azerbaijani community of Nagorno-Karabakh and surrounding areas. Their number was estimated to be 33,000 in 2011.

Ganja, Azerbaijan: Historic Armenian community

In addition to Persian and Turkic-speaking Muslims, the city has had a numerically, economically and, culturally significant Armenian Christians community. Among the Armenians, the city is known as Gandzak (Գանձակ) The name Gandzak derives from gandz (Arm. - գանձ), the loan word from Old Iranian, which means treasure or riches. The city's historically important Christian figures include Kirakos Gandzaketsi, author of the History of the Armenians), Armenian philosopher Mkhitar Gosh author of the Code of Laws that was used in Armenia, Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia and Armenian diasporan groups in Europe, 13th century polymath Vardan Areveltsi and Grigor Paron-Ter, Armenian Patriarch of Jerusalem. Among the modern time's prominent Armenian person's of the city were Russian-Armenian architect Karo Halabyan, secretary of the Armenian SSR Communist Party Askanaz Mravyan, and the Olympic champion Albert Azaryan, and Artyom Alikhanian a Soviet Armenian physicist, and one of the founders and first director of the Yerevan Physics Institute. He is known as the "father of Armenian physics", and Abraham Alikhanov a Soviet Armenian physicist, academic of the USSR Academy of Sciences.

The founder of the Hethumid dynasty, Oshin of Lampron was an Armenian nakharar and lord of a castle near Ganja who fled to Cilicia in 1075 during the Seljuk invasion of Armenia.

Ganja, Azerbaijan: Religion

The urban landscape of Ganja is shaped by many communities. The religion with the largest community of followers is Islam. The majority of the Muslims are Shia Muslims, and the Republic of Azerbaijan has the second highest Shia population percentage in the world after Iran. The city's notable mosques include Shah Abbas Mosque, Goy Imam Mosque, Shahsevenler Mosque, Qirikhli Mosque and Qazakhlar Mosque.

There are some other faiths practiced among the different ethnic groups within the country. The other faith worshipping places include Alexander Nevsky Church, German Lutheran Church, Saint John Church and Saint Sarkis Church. Before the Kirovabad Pogrom in 1988 a significant community of Armenian Christians existed.

Ganja, Azerbaijan: Economy

The economy of Ganja is partially agricultural, partially tourist based, with some industries in operation. Ore minerals extracted from nearby mines supply Ganja's metallurgical industries, which produces copper and alumina. There are porcelain, silk and footwear industries. Other industries process food, grapes and cotton from the surrounding farmlands.

The city has one of the largest textile conglomerates in Azerbaijan and is famous for a fabric named Ganja silk, which received the highest marks in the markets of neighboring countries and the Middle East.

Ganja, Azerbaijan: Tourism and shopping

Traditional shops, modern shops and malls create a mixture of shopping opportunities in Ganja. Javad Khan Street is the traditional shopping street that is located in the old town. In 2013, construction work started on the Ganja Mall, which is expected to be the city's largest mall.

In 2016, Ganja was selected as the European Youth Capital, an event with a budget of 5.7 million euros, projected to boost tourism by about one-fifth.

Ganja, Azerbaijan: Culture

The city has many amenities that offer a wide range of cultural activities, drawing both from a rich local dramatic portfolio and an international repertoire. The city is known for its famous metal handicrafts industry during the Middle Ages. The most notable works of that period includes Gates of Ganja and Ancient Ganja Gate.

Ganja State History-Ethnography Museum is the oldest museum in the city, with over 30,000 artifacts. The city is also home to Nizami Ganjavi Museum, which was built in 2014. The museum contains a research section, a library, a conference room, and corners for guests and tourists’ relaxation.

As of 2012, the city along with Baku and Lankaran participates in Earth Hour movement.

Ganja, Azerbaijan: Architecture

Ganja is primarily known for its Azerbaijani and Islamic architecture, but its buildings reflect the various peoples and empires that have previously ruled the city. During Ganja Khanate period, the Khans proceeded to make an indelible impression on the skyline of Ganja, building towering mosques and houses from red bricks.

Among the oldest surviving examples of Islamic architecture in Ganja are the Nizami Mausoleum and Shah Abbas Caravanserai, which assisted the Shahs during their siege of the city. The area around and inside the mosques, contains many fine examples of traditional architecture like Chokak Bath.

Ganja, Azerbaijan: Music and media

On 21 January 2012, president Ilham Aliyev laid the foundation of Ganja State Philharmonic. The facility will include a 1,200 concert hall, an open-air cinema theatre, a drawing gallery, an urban center and an observation tower.

The two regional channels Kapaz TV and Alternativ TV are headquartered in Ganja.

Ganja, Azerbaijan: Parks and gardens

Ganja has many well-maintained parks and gardens, with the Khan's garden being one of the most scenic parks, and one of the city's most known landmarks. It features interesting landscaping, and consists of a wide variety of trees and plants in an open concept.

Ganja, Azerbaijan: Sports

The city has one professional football team, Kapaz, currently competing in the second-flight of Azerbaijani football, the Azerbaijan First Division. The club has three Azerbaijani league and four cup titles.

Ganja, Azerbaijan: Transport

Ganja, Azerbaijan: Public transport

Ganja has a large urban transport system, mostly managed by the Ministry of Transportation. In 2013, Ministry of Transportation stated that city, along with Nakhchivan and Sumqayit will have new subway line within the framework of the 20-year subway program. The city had trolleybus system, functioning from 1955 to 2004.

The Ganja trams is expected to become operational in 2015. The city had been without a tram system since Ganja tramway network ceased in the 1980s. Alstom is expected to participate in the reconstruction of the tram-line.

Ganja, Azerbaijan: Air

Ganja International Airport is the only airport in the city. The airport is connected by bus to the city center. There are domestic flights to Baku and international service to Russia and Turkey.

Ganja, Azerbaijan: Rail

Kars–Tbilisi–Baku railway will directly connect the city with Turkey and Georgia.

Ganja sits on one of the Azerbaijani primary rail lines running East-West connecting the capital, Baku, with the rest of the country. The Kars–Tbilisi–Baku railway will run along the line through the city. The railway provides both human transportation and transport of goods and commodities such as oil and gravel.

Ganja's Central Railway Station is the terminus for national and international rail links to the city. The Kars–Tbilisi–Baku railway, which will directly connect Turkey, Georgia and Azerbaijan, began to be constructed in 2007 and is scheduled for completion in 2015. The completed branch will connect Ganja with Tbilisi in Georgia, and from there trains will continue to Akhalkalaki, and Kars in Turkey.

Ganja, Azerbaijan: Education

Ganja is home to four major institutes for post-secondary education. Ganja State University was founded as Ganja Teachers Institute after Hasan bey Zardabi in 1939. In 2000, the President of Azerbaijan renamed the institute to Ganja State University. The university includes 8 faculty departments and 10 offices. The city also includes Azerbaijan State Agricultural Academy, Azerbaijan Technological University and local branch of Azerbaijan Teachers Institute.

Ganja, Azerbaijan: Famous native

Because of its intermittent periods of great prosperity as well as being one of the largest cities in Azerbaijan and one of the most ethnically and culturally diverse in the Caucasus, Ganja prides itself on having produced a disproportionate number of notable figures in the sciences, arts and other fields. Some of the houses they resided in display commemorative plaques. Some of the many prestigious residents include: poet Nizami Ganjavi, Olympic champion Toghrul Asgarov, ruler of Ganja Khanate Javad Khan, poets Mirza Shafi Vazeh, Mahsati Ganjavi, Nigar Rafibeyli, composer Fikrat Amirov, philosopher Vardan Areveltsi and prime minister of Azerbaijan Artur Rasizade.

Ganja, Azerbaijan: International relations

Ganja, Azerbaijan: Twin towns - Sister cities

Ganja is twinned with various cities.

  • Turkey İzmir, Turkey, (since 1994)
  • Turkey Kars, Turkey, (since 2001)
  • United States Newark, New Jersey, United States, (since 2004)
  • Ukraine Dnipro, Ukraine, (since 2005)
  • Turkey Gaziantep, Turkey, (since 2012)
  • Czech Republic Olomouc, Czech Republic, (since 2012)
  • Tajikistan Khujand, Tajikistan, (since 2012)
  • Turkey Eskişehir, Turkey, (since 2013)
  • Georgia (country) Kutaisi, Georgia
  • Iran Tabriz, Iran, (since 2015)
  • Russia Derbent, Russia
  • Turkey Bursa, Turkey
  • Turkey Ankara, Turkey
  • Turkey Elâzığ, Turkey
  • Russia Moscow, Russia
  • Georgia (country) Rustavi, Georgia
  • Tajikistan Dushanbe, Tajikistan
  • Turkey Konya, Turkey
  • Turkey Ordu, Turkey
  • Vietnam Vũng Tàu, Vietnam

Ganja, Azerbaijan: See also

  • List of cities in Azerbaijan
  • Mingachevir
  • Nakhchivan
  • Qabala
  • Sumgait

Ganja, Azerbaijan: Notes

  1. Station ID for Gandja is 37735 Use this station ID to locate the sunshine duration

Ganja, Azerbaijan: References

  1. Azərbaycan Respublikası. - 2. Azərbaycan Respublikasının iqtisadi və inzibati rayonları. - 2.4. Azərbaycan Respublikasının iqtisadi və inzibati rayonlarının ərazisi, əhalisinin sayı və sıxlığı, səhifə 66. // Azərbaycanın əhalisi (statistik bülleten). Müəllifi: Azərbaycan Respublikasının Dövlət Statistika Komitəsi. Buraxılışa məsul şəxs: Rza Allahverdiyev. Bakı - 2015, 134 səhifə.
  2. Bölmə 2: Demoqrafik göstəricilər, səhifə 89. // Azərbaycanın Statistik Göstəriciləri 2015 (statistik məcmuə). Müəllifi: Azərbaycan Respublikası Dövlət Statistika Komitəsi. Məcmuənin ümumi rəhbəri: Həmid Bağırov; Məcmuənin hazırlanması üçün məsul şəxs: Rafael Süleymanov. Bakı - 2015, 814 səhifə.
  3. Encyclopedia Iranica, "Ganja", C. Edmund Bosworth Archived 23 August 2011 at WebCite
  4. Ростислав Борисовч Рыбаков (1995). Восток в средние века. ISBN 978-5-02-017711-6.
  5. Дьяконов, Игорь Михайлович. Книга воспоминаний. Издательство "Европейский дом", Санкт-Петербург, 1995., 1995. - ISBN 978-5-85733-042-5. cтр. 730-731 Igor Diakonov. The book of memoirs.
  6. V.Minorsky. A History of Shirvan and Derbent.
  7. History of the Caucasian Albanians by Movses Dasxuranci, C.J.F. Dowsett trans. (London 1961), chapter 21.
  8. Iran. (2007). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved March 17, 2007
  9. Timurid Dynasty. (2007). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved March 16, 2007
  10. Jalayirid. (2007). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved March 17, 2007
  11. Kara Koyunlu. (2007). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved March 15, 2007
  12. Ak Koyunlu. (2007). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved March 17, 2007
  13. Aznet.org: Ganja's History
  14. ISBN 0-521-52245-5
  15. "History of Azerbaijan" Encyclopædia Britannica Online
  16. Timothy C. Dowling Russia at War: From the Mongol Conquest to Afghanistan, Chechnya, and Beyond p 728 ABC-CLIO, 2 dec. 2014 ISBN 1598849484
  17. Seyyaf Sednik oqli Pashayev. "The Monuments of Ganja Khanate of the Period form 1606 - 1804". Retrieved 2007-02-16.
  18. Tucker, Spencer C., ed. (2010). "Overview of 1800-1850: Chronology". A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East. ABC-CLIO. p. 1035. ISBN 978-1851096725. January 1804. (...) Russo-Persian War. Russian invasion of Persia. (...) In January 1804 Russian forces under General Paul Tsitsianov (Sisianoff) invade Persia and storm the citadel of Ganjeh, beginning the Russo-Persian War (1804-1813).
  19. Peter Avery; William Bayne Fisher; Gavin Hambly; Charles Melville (1991-10-25). The Cambridge history of Iran: From Nadir Shah to the Islamic Republic. Cambridge University Press. p. 332. ISBN 978-0-521-20095-0.
  20. John F. Baddeley, The Russian Conquest of the Caucasus, London: Longmans, Green and Co., 1908, p. 67, citing "Tsitsianoff's report to the Emperor: Akti, ix (supplement), p. 920".
  21. Oberling, P. "ĀYRĪMLŪ". Encyclopædia Iranica Online Edition. Retrieved 14 April 2012. Following the treaty of Torkamāṇčāy, in 1828 through which Iran lost the provinces of Īravān (Erevan) and Naḵjavān, ʿAbbās Mīrzā, the crown prince, who valued the fighting ability of Turkic tribesmen, encouraged several Turkic tribes which dwelled in the ceded provinces to settle down south of the Aras (Araxes) river, offering them fertile lands and lush pastures as a reward. One of these was the Āyrīmlū tribe, which moved from its holdings in the vicinity of Gyumri (later Alexandropol, and later still Leninakan) to Āvājīq, a district to the west of Mākū
  22. Tucker, Spencer C., ed. (2010). A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East. ABC-CLIO. pp. 1147–1148. ISBN 978-1851096725.
  23. Timothy C. Dowling Russia at War: From the Mongol Conquest to Afghanistan, Chechnya, and Beyond p 728-729 ABC-CLIO, 2 dec. 2014 ISBN 1598849484
  24. Елизаветпольская губерния (Elizavetpol Governorate) in Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary (in Russian)
  25. Tadeusz Swietochowski (2004). Russian Azerbaijan, 1905-1920: The Shaping of a National Identity in a Muslim Community. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-52245-8.
  26. Charles van der Leeuw (2000-07-04). Azerbaijan: a quest for identity : a short history. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 124. ISBN 978-0-312-21903-1.
  27. Gəncənin tarixi... (in Azerbaijani)
  28. "31-я гвардейская отдельная воздушно-десантная ордена Кутузова II степени бригада". www.bratishka.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 17 November 2014.
  29. Imogen Gladman (2004). Eastern Europe, Russia and Central Asia. Taylor & Francis Group. pp. Page 131. ISBN 1-85743-316-5.
  30. Stuart J. Kaufman, Modern Hatreds: The Symbolic Politics of Ethnic War, Cornell University Press, 2001, p. 77.
  31. На дороге Баку-Газах возводятся грандиозные "Гянджинские ворота" - ФОТО. Day.az (in Russian). Retrieved 15 April 2013.
  32. "Ilham Aliyev reviewed the monumental complex Ganja Fortress Gates - the Museum of Archeology and Ethnography". en.president.az. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
  33. "Gəncə qapıları". www.heydar-aliyev-foundation.org. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
  34. "Klimatafel von Gjandscha (Kirowabad/Elisawetpol) / Aserbaidschan" (PDF). Baseline climate means (1961-1990) from stations all over the world (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved 29 September 2016.
  35. "Station 37735 Gandja". Global station data 1961–1990-Sunshine Duration. Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved 29 September 2016.
  36. "Weather and Climate- The Climate of Ganja" (in Russian). Weather and Climate (Погода и климат). Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  37. "Üfüqdən boylanan şəhər". anl.az (in Azerbaijani). Retrieved 12 November 2014.
  38. "Elmar Valiyev's Biography". www.nizamiganjavi-ic.org. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
  39. "Ganja mayor reassigned to Sumgayit". www.azernews.az. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
  40. (in Russian) Ethno-Caucasus: Азербайджан
  41. Елисаветополь в Энциклопедическом словаре Брокгауза и Ефрона
  42. (in Russian) Демокоп Weekly г. Елисаветполь
  43. (in Russian) Ethno-Caucasus: КИРОВАБАДСКИЙ ГОРСОВЕТ (1939 г.)
  44. (in Russian) Ethno-Caucasus: КИРОВАБАДСКИЙ ГОРСОВЕТ (1959 г.)
  45. (in Russian) Ethno-Caucasus: КИРОВАБАДСКИЙ ГОРСОВЕТ (1970 г.)
  46. (in Russian) Ethno-Caucasus: КИРОВАБАДСКИЙ ГОРСОВЕТ (1979 г.)
  47. Ethnic composition of Azerbaijan 1999
  48. Ethnic composition of Azerbaijan 2009
  49. Ganja City Executive Power official web page, retrieved 9 March 2012
  50. Soviet Census in 1926-1979, Newspaper Pravda Press, Moscow, 1983
  51. According to the 1892 official data, 10524 of 25758 inhabitants of the city were Armenians, there were 6 Armenian Apostolic (Gregorian) churches", Elizavetpol article, Brockauz and Efron Encyclopedia (in Russian)
  52. "the union of Georgian and Armenian armies near Gandzak", Great Soviet Encyclopedia (BSE)
  53. "Mkhitar Gosh was born in Gandzak", Mkhitar Gosh article, (BSE)
  54. "Gandzak (Ganja)" [jss.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/6/2/145.pdf The death of the last 'Abbasid Caliph': a contemporary Muslim account, by Boyle J. // Semitic Studies.1961; 6: 145-161
  55. Philological Society (Great Britain) (1956). Transactions of the Philological Society. Philological Society (Great Britain). Published for the Society by B. Blackwell. p. 100.
  56. Dictionary.Hayastan.com
  57. Kirakos, Gandzaketsi, History of the Armenians, New York: Sources of the Armenian Tradition, 1986.
  58. "Armenian philosopher, literary and public activist", Mkhitar Gosh at BSE
  59. Mkhitar Gosh at BSE
  60. "Despite the code of Gosh not having official standing, it was used in Armenia, as in other countries with Armenian populations." Code of Laws by Gosh at Great Soviet Encyclopedia (BSE)
  61. (in Armenian) Hovhannisyan, P. «Վարդան Արևելցի» (Vardan Areveltsi). Soviet Armenian Encyclopedia. vol. xi. Yerevan, Armenian SSR: Armenian Academy of Sciences, 1985, pp. 312-313.
  62. Alabyan at BSE
  63. Mravyan at BSE
  64. Azarian at BSE
  65. Artem Alikhanian: the father of Armenian physics, CERN Courier, Vol. 48, N. 6, 2008, p. 41
  66. M. Setton, Kenneth; Robert Lee Wolff; Harry W. Hazard (2006-03-24). "XVIII: The Kingdom of Cilician Armenia". The later Crusades, 1189-1311 (A History of the Crusades, volume, II). Madison, Wisconsin: ISBN 978-0-299-04844-0.
  67. Juan Eduardo Campo,Encyclopedia of Islam, p.625
  68. "Azərbaycanda məscidlərin sayı 40 dəfə artıb". oxu.az (in Azerbaijani). Retrieved 12 November 2014.
  69. Георгий Заплетин, Гюльнара Ширин-заде (2008). Русские в истории Азербайджана. Ганун.
  70. "Nor-Dar," 1889, No. 85, p. 2
  71. Ganja on Cities & Sites
  72. Ministry of Culture and Tourism of the Republic of Azerbaijan: Ganja's History
  73. Gəncə Dövlət Universitetinin Riyaziyyat-İnformatika fakültəsi: GƏNCƏNİN TARİXİ (in Azerbaijani)
  74. "Beşikdən qəbirədək dəyişən Gəncə". www.anspress.com. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
  75. "Gəncədə nəhəng ticarət mərkəzi tikilir". www.regionsesi.az (in Azerbaijani). Retrieved 12 November 2014.
  76. "Ganja is European Youth Capital 2016!". www.yeu-international.org. Retrieved 17 November 2014.
  77. "Ganja, European Youth Capital 2016". www.youthforum.org. Retrieved 17 November 2014.
  78. "Gəncə darvazası". www.gencekitab.az (in Azerbaijani).
  79. "Ganja gates". eurotourism.az. Archived from the original on 12 November 2014. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
  80. "Ворота древней Гянджи". advantour.
  81. N.Gəncəvi adına Gəncə Dövlət Tarix-Diyarşünaslıq Muzeyi, gence.az
  82. "Nizami Ganjavi Museum in Ganja". www.heydar-aliyev-foundation.org. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
  83. "Azerbaijan to join Earth Hour". www.news.az. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 17 November 2014.
  84. "IDEA campaign to hold Earth Hour action". en.trend.az. Retrieved 17 November 2014.
  85. "Ganja's Touristic Outlook". discoverazerbaijan.az. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
  86. Peter J. Chelkowski. Mirror of the invisible world: Tales from the Khamseh of Nizami. Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1975. ISBN 0-87099-142-6, ISBN 978-0-87099-142-4, p. 3
  87. "Ganja writes history". www.euronews.com. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
  88. Rafiqqizi, Gulnur. "Gəncədə 400 yaşlı "Çökək hamam" sauna olacaq, yoxsa muzey...". www.azadliq.org (in Azerbaijani). Retrieved 12 November 2014.
  89. "Azerbaijani president reviews progress of construction at Ganja State Philharmonic (PHOTO)". en.trend.az. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
  90. "Radio-TV yayımı" (in Azerbaijani). Retrieved 13 November 2014.
  91. "Gəncədə bağı kim salıb: xan, yoxsa sərdar?". www.azadliq.org (in Azerbaijani). Retrieved 12 November 2014.
  92. Sadigov, Hasanbala. "The Khan's Garden in Ganja". www.visions.az. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
  93. Гянджа сегодня (in Russian)
  94. "Subway to be constructed in Sumgayit, Nakhchivan and Ganja". en.apa.az. Retrieved 10 November 2014.
  95. "Subways to open in major Azerbaijani cities". www.azernews.az. Retrieved 10 November 2014.
  96. "13. Гянджа (Кировабад) (троллейбус)" [Vândža (Kirovabad) (trolleybus)]. Горэлектротранс (Electrotrans) website (in Russian). Дмитрий Зиновьев (Dmitry Zinoviev). Retrieved 24 September 2012.
  97. "Tramways to be laid in Azerbaijan's Ganja". news.az. Retrieved 9 November 2014.
  98. "Tram line to appear in Ganja". www.today.az. Retrieved 9 November 2014.
  99. Gəncə Beynəlxalq hava limanının açılış mərasimi (in Azerbaijani)
  100. "Azerbaijani FM: Baku-Tbilisi-Kars railroad to be built in 2012". trend.az. Retrieved 26 January 2011.
  101. Railway Gazette International February 2009 p54 with map
  102. "Ganja State University". www.salto-youth.net. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
  103. "Ali təhsil müəssisələrinin siyahısı". www.edu.gov.az (in Azerbaijani). Retrieved 12 November 2014.
  104. Махмуд Гурбанов: Это словно первое чемпионство (in Russian)
  105. "Twin-cities of Azerbaijan". Azerbaijans.com. Retrieved 2013-08-09.
  106. "BAKÜ-İZMİR DOSTLUK KÖPRÜSÜNE BİR TUĞLA DAHA". www.izmir.bel.tr (in Turkish). Retrieved 12 November 2014.
  107. "Kars-Gence kardeş şehir". arsiv.zaman.com.tr (in Turkish).
  109. Гянджа и Днепропетровск станут городами-побратимами. www.regnum.by (in Russian). Retrieved 12 November 2014.
  110. "Gaziantep'in 4 kardeşi daha oldu". www.gaziantepgundem.com (in Turkish). Archived from the original on 13 November 2012. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
  111. Гянджа и Оломоуц стали городами-побратимами - ФОТО. www.1news.az (in Russian). Retrieved 12 November 2014.
  112. Худжанд и Гянджа стали городами побратимами. www.avesta.tj (in Russian). Retrieved 12 November 2014.
  113. "Gəncə ilə Eskişehir qardaş oldu". az.azvision.az (in Azerbaijani). Retrieved 12 November 2014.
  114. "Ganja Tabriz Sister Cities". Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  • City administration
  • Ganja at the Azerbaijan Development Gateway
  • Ganja (as Gəncə) at GEOnet Names Server

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Ganja, Azerbaijan: Information in other languages
العربية كنجه
Azərbaycanca Gəncə
تۆرکجه گنجه
Башҡортса Гәнжә
Беларуская Гянджа
Беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎ Гянджа
Български Ганджа
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Нохчийн Гянджа
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