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Hotels of Gyeongju

A hotel in Gyeongju is an establishment that provides lodging paid on a short-term basis. Facilities provided may range from a basic bed and storage for clothing, to luxury features like en-suite bathrooms. Larger in Gyeongju hotels may provide additional guest facilities such as a swimming pool, business centre, childcare, conference facilities and social function services. Hotel rooms in Gyeongju are usually numbered (or named in some smaller hotels and B&Bs) to allow guests to identify their room. Some Gyeongju hotels offer meals as part of a room and board arrangement. Hotel operations vary in size, function, and cost. Most Gyeongju hotels and major hospitality companies that operate hotels in Gyeongju have set widely accepted industry standards to classify hotel types. General categories include the following:

Upscale luxury hotels in Gyeongju
An upscale full service hotel facility in Gyeongju that offers luxury amenities, full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and the highest level of personalized and professional service. Luxury Gyeongju hotels are normally classified with at least a Four Diamond or Five Diamond status or a Four or Five Star rating depending on classification standards.

Full service hotels in Gyeongju
Full service Gyeongju hotels often contain upscale full-service facilities with a large volume of full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and a variety of on-site amenities such as swimming pools, a health club, children's activities, ballrooms, on-site conference facilities, etc.

Historic inns and boutique hotels in Gyeongju
Boutique hotels of Gyeongju are smaller independent non-branded hotels that often contain upscale facilities of varying size in unique or intimate settings with full service accommodations. Gyeongju boutique hotels are generally 100 rooms or less. Some historic inns and boutique hotels in Gyeongju may be classified as luxury hotels.

Focused or select service hotels in Gyeongju
Small to medium-sized hotel establishments that offer a limited amount of on-site amenities that only cater and market to a specific demographic of Gyeongju travelers, such as the single business traveler. Most Gyeongju focused or select service hotels may still offer full service accommodations but may lack leisure amenities such as an on-site restaurant or a swimming pool.

Economy and limited service hotels in Gyeongju
Small to medium-sized Gyeongju hotel establishments that offer a very limited amount of on-site amenities and often only offer basic accommodations with little to no services, these facilities normally only cater and market to a specific demographic of travelers, such as the budget-minded Gyeongju traveler seeking a "no frills" accommodation. Limited service Gyeongju hotels often lack an on-site restaurant but in return may offer a limited complimentary food and beverage amenity such as on-site continental breakfast service.

Guest houses and B&Bs in Gyeongju
A bed and breakfast in Gyeongju is a small lodging establishment that offers overnight accommodation and inclusive breakfast. Usually, Gyeongju bed and breakfasts are private homes or family homes offering accommodations. The typical Gyeongju B&B has between 4 and 11 rooms, with 6 being the average. Generally, guests are accommodated in private bedrooms with private bathrooms, or in a suite of rooms including an en suite bathroom. Some homes have private bedrooms with a bathroom which is shared with other guests. Breakfast is served in the bedroom, a dining room, or the host's kitchen. Often the owners of guest house themselves prepare the breakfast and clean the rooms.

Hostels in Gyeongju
Gyeongju hostels provide budget-oriented, sociable accommodation where guests can rent a bed, usually a bunk bed, in a dormitory and share a bathroom, lounge, and sometimes a kitchen. Rooms can be mixed or single-sex, although private rooms may also be available. Hostels are often cheaper for both the operator and occupants; many Gyeongju hostels have long-term residents whom they employ as desk agents or housekeeping staff in exchange for experience or discounted accommodation.

Apartment hotels, extended stay hotels in Gyeongju
Extended stay hotels are small to medium-sized Gyeongju hotels that offer longer term full service accommodations compared to a traditional hotel. Extended stay hotels may offer non-traditional pricing methods such as a weekly rate that cater towards travelers in need of short-term accommodations for an extended period of time. Similar to limited and select service hotels, on-site amenities are normally limited and most extended stay hotels in Gyeongju lack an on-site restaurant.

Timeshare and destination clubs in Gyeongju
Gyeongju timeshare and destination clubs are a form of property ownership also referred to as a vacation ownership involving the purchase and ownership of an individual unit of accommodation for seasonal usage during a specified period of time. Timeshare resorts in Gyeongju often offer amenities similar that of a Full service hotel with on-site restaurant(s), swimming pools, recreation grounds, and other leisure-oriented amenities. Destination clubs of Gyeongju on the other hand may offer more exclusive private accommodations such as private houses in a neighborhood-style setting.

Motels in Gyeongju
A Gyeongju motel is a small-sized low-rise lodging establishment similar to that of a limited service hotel, but with direct access to individual rooms from the car park. Common during the 1950s and 1960s, motels were often located adjacent to a major road, where they were built on inexpensive land at the edge of towns or along stretches of highways. They are still useful in less populated areas of Gyeongju for driving travelers, but the more populated an area becomes the more hotels fill the need. Many of Gyeongju motels which remain in operation have joined national franchise chains, rebranding themselves as hotels, inns or lodges.

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Travelling and vacation in Gyeongju

For the 2014 South Korean film, see Gyeongju (film). For the given name, see Kyung-ju (name).
"Geumseong" redirects here. For other uses, see Geumseong (disambiguation).
Municipal City
Korean transcription(s)
• Hangul 경주시
• Hanja 慶州市
Revised Romanization Gyeongju-si
McCune-Reischauer Kyŏngju-si
A collage of six photographs of Gyeongju landmarks.
Top left: Anapji pond; Top right: Bell of King Seongdeok; middle left: Seokguram; middle right:Bulguksa temple; bottom left: Yangdong Folk Village; bottom right: Cheomseongdae.
A simplified crown in olive green on a nearly cube-shaped background in dark blue. White dots are scattered around the crown. Two gray green bars are both vertically and horizontally placed beside the diagram.
Emblem of Gyeongju
A region on an east coast is divided into 23 districts, with the southern coastal district highlighted.
Location in South Korea
Coordinates:  / 35.850; 129.217
Country South Korea
Region North Gyeongsang Province
Administrative divisions 4 eup, 8 myeon, 11 dong, 305 ri
• Total 1,324.39 km (511.35 sq mi)
Population (December 2012)
• Total 264,091
• Density 212/km (550/sq mi)
• Dialect Gyeongsang
Website City of Gyeongju

Gyeongju (Korean: 경주, pronounced [kjʌŋ.dʑu]), historically known as "Seorabeol" (Korean: 서라벌, pronounced [sʌ.ɾa.bʌl]), is a coastal city in the far southeastern corner of North Gyeongsang Province in South Korea. It is the second largest city by area in the province after Andong, covering 1,324 km (511 sq mi) with a population of 264,091 people (as of December 2012.) Gyeongju is 370 km (230 mi) southeast of Seoul, and 55 km (34 mi) east of Daegu. The city borders Cheongdo and Yeongcheon to the west, Ulsan to the south and Pohang to the north, while to the east lies the coast of the East Sea. Numerous low mountains-outliers of the Taebaek range-are scattered around the city.

Gyeongju was the capital of the ancient kingdom of Silla (57 BC – 935 AD) which ruled about two-thirds of the Korean Peninsula between the 7th and 9th centuries. Later Silla was a prosperous and wealthy country, and its metropolitan capital of Gyeongju was the fourth largest city in the world. A vast number of archaeological sites and cultural properties from this period remain in the city. Gyeongju is often referred to as "the museum without walls". Among such historical treasures, Seokguram grotto, Bulguksa temple, Gyeongju Historic Areas and Yangdong Folk Village are designated as World Heritage Sites by UNESCO. The many major historical sites have helped Gyeongju become one of the most popular tourist destinations in South Korea.

The city of Gyeongju was united with the nearby rural Gyeongju County in 1995 and is now an urban–rural complex. It is similar to 53 other small- and medium-sized cities with a population under 300,000 people in South Korea. As well as its rich historical heritage, Gyeongju today is affected by the economic, demographic, and social trends that have shaped modern South Korean culture. Tourism remains the major economic driver, but manufacturing activities have developed due to its proximity to major industrial centers such as Ulsan and Pohang. Gyeongju is connected to the nationwide rail and highway networks, which facilitate industrial and tourist traffic.

Gyeongju: History

Main article: History of Gyeongju
A portrait of the last king of Silla, King Gyeongsun (r. 927–935). After his surrender to King Taejo, Gyeongju lost its status as capital city.

The early history of Gyeongju is closely tied to that of the Silla kingdom, of which it was the capital. Gyeongju first enters non-Korean records as Saro-guk, during the Samhan period in the early Common Era. Korean records, probably based on the dynastic chronicles of Silla, record that Saro-guk was established in 57 BCE, when six small villages in the Gyeongju area united under Bak Hyeokgeose. As the kingdom expanded, it changed its name to Silla. During the Silla period, the city was called "Seorabeol" (lit. Capital), "Gyerim" (lit. Rooster's forest) or "Geumseong" (lit. City of Gold).

After the unification of the peninsula up to Taedong River in 668 AD, Gyeongju became the center of Korean political and cultural life. The city was home to the Silla court and the great majority of the kingdom's elite. Its prosperity became legendary, and was reported as far away as Persia according to the 9th century book The Book of Roads and Kingdoms. Records of Samguk Yusa give the city's population in its peak period as 178,936 households, suggesting that the total population was almost one million. Many of Gyeongju's most famous sites date from this Unified Silla period, which ended in the late 9th century by Goryeo (918–1392).

In 940, the founder of Goryeo, King Taejo, changed the city's name to "Gyeongju", which literally means "Congratulatory district". In 987, as Goryeo introduced a system in which three additional capitals were established in politically important provinces outside Gaegyeong (nowadays Kaesong), and Gyeongju was designated as "Donggyeong" ("East Capital"). However, that title was removed in 1012, the third year of King Hyeongjong's reign, due to political rivalries at that time, though Gyeongju was later made the seat of Yeongnam Province. It had jurisdiction over a wide area, including much of central eastern Yeongnam, although this area was greatly reduced in the 13th century. Under the subsequent Joseon (1392–1910) dynasties, Gyeongju was no longer of national importance, but remained a regional center of influence. In 1601, the city ceased to be the provincial capital.

Five Buddhas carved into two natural rocks.
Chilbulam (rock-engraving of seven Buddhas) on Namsan, Gyoengju.

Over these centuries, the city suffered numerous assaults. In the 13th century, Mongol forces destroyed a nine-story wooden pagoda at Hwangnyongsa. During the Japanese invasions of Korea, the Gyeongju area became a heated battlefield, and Japanese forces burned the wooden structures at Bulguksa. Not all damage was due to invasions, however. In the early Joseon period, a great deal of damage was done to Buddhist sculptures on Namsan by Neo-Confucian radicals, who hacked arms and heads off statuary.

In the 20th century, the city remained relatively small, no longer ranking among the major cities of Korea. During the early 20th century, many archaeological excavations were conducted, particularly inside the tombs which had remained largely intact over the centuries. A museum, the forerunner of the present-day Gyeongju National Museum, was inaugurated in 1915 to exhibit the excavated artifacts.

Gyeongju emerged as a railroad junction in the later years of the Japanese Occupation, as the Donghae Nambu Line and Jungang Line were established in preparation for the Second Sino-Japanese War and to exploit the rich resources of the eastern part of the Korean peninsula. Following liberation in 1945, Korea was plunged into turmoil, and Gyeongju was no exception. Returnees from abroad were numerous; a village for them was constructed in present-day Dongcheon-dong. In a period marked by widespread conflict and unrest, the Gyeongju area became particularly notorious for the level of guerrilla activity in the mountains.

Despite the outbreak of the Korean War in 1950, most of Gyeongju was spared from the fighting, and remained under South Korean control throughout the conflict. However, for a brief time in late 1950 portions of the city stood on the front lines, as North Korean forces pushed the Pusan Perimeter southward from Pohang.

In the 1970s, Korea saw substantial industrial development, much of it centered in the Yeongnam region of which Gyeongju is a part. The POSCO steel mill in neighboring Pohang commenced operations in 1973, and the chemical manufacturing complex in Ulsan emerged in the same year. These developments helped to support the emergence of Gyeongju's manufacturing sector.

Gyeongju: Geography and climate

A distant view of a wooden shrine surrounded by a thick forest on the slopes of a mountain in autumn.
Seokguram grotto on the slopes of Toham mountain.

Gyeongju lies in the southeastern corner of North Gyeongsang Province, and is bounded by the metropolitan city of Ulsan on the south. Within the province, its neighbors include Pohang on the north, Cheongdo County on the southwest, and Yeongcheon on the northwest. Gyeongju is located about 50 kilometers (31 mi) north of Busan. To the east, it has no neighbor but the sea.

Most of Gyeongju lies in the Gyeongsang Basin, but a few areas of the city belong to the Pohang Basin, such as Eoil-ri and Beomgok-ri in Yangbuk-myeon, and part of Cheonbuk-myeon. The Gyeongsang Basin areas consist of Bulguksa intrusive rock penetrating layers of sedimentary rocks, mainly granite and porphyry. By contrast, the Pohang Basin areas are made up of stratum that formed in the Tertiary period of the Cenozoic era, which consist of igneous rock, aqueous rock, porphyry, sandstone, and tuff.

Low mountains are widespread throughout Gyeongju. The highest of these are the Taebaek Mountains, which run along the city's western border. Gyeongju's highest point, Munbok Mountain (문복산), is 1,015 meters (3,330 ft) above sea level. This peak lies in Sannae-myeon, on the border with Cheongdo. East of the Taebaek range, other western peaks such as Danseok Mountain lie within the Jusa subrange. The city's eastern peaks, including Toham Mountain, belong to the Haean Mountains and Dongdae Mountains.

A river runs from south to north through the region, draining most of it. Half the tallest mountains are on the southern border; other mountains are mostly in the west, clustered in the northwest.
Principal mountains and drainage patterns of Gyeongju. Mountains of 500 to 700 m (1,600 to 2,300 ft) are in green, those taller than 700 m (2,300 ft) in violet. The rest three in gray are under 500 m (1,600 ft).

Gyeongju's drainage patterns are shaped by these lines of mountains. The Dongdae Mountains divide a narrow foothills area on their east, and various internal river systems to the west. Most of the city's interior is drained by the small Hyeongsan River, which flows north from Ulsan and meets the sea at Pohang Harbor. The Hyeongsan's chief tributaries include the Bukcheon and Namcheon, which join it in Gyeongju Basin. The southwestern corner of Gyeongju, on the far side of the Taebaek range, drains into the Geumho River, which then flows into the Nakdong. A small area of the south, just west of the Dongdae range, drains into the Taehwa River, which flows into the Bay of Ulsan.

The Gyeongju coastline runs for 36.1 kilometers (22.4 mi) between Pohang in the north and Ulsan in the south. There are no islands or large bays, only the small indentations made by the small streams flowing off the Dongdae ridgeline. Because of this, the city has no significant ports, though there are 12 small harbors. One such harbor in Gyeongju's southeast corner is home to the Ulsan base of the National Maritime Police. This base is responsible for security over a wide area of South Korea's east-central coast.

Gyeongju: Climate

Due to its coastal location, Gyeongju has a slightly milder and wetter climate than the more inland regions of Korea. In general, however, the city's climate is typical of South Korea. It has hot summers and cool winters, with a monsoon season between late June and early August. As on the rest of Korea's east coast, autumn typhoons are not uncommon. The average annual rainfall is 1,091 millimeters (43.0 in), and the average annual high temperatures range from 8.6–31.1 °C (47–88 °F).

Gyeongju's historic city center lies on the banks of the Hyeongsan in Gyeongju Basin. This lowlying area has been subject to repeated flooding throughout recorded history, often as a result of typhoons. On average, chronicles report a major flood every 27.9 years, beginning in the 1st century. Modern flood control mechanisms brought about a dramatic reduction in flooding in the later 20th century. The last major flood occurred in 1991, when the Deokdong Lake reservoir overflowed due to Typhoon Gladys.

Climate data for 36.0° N, 129.4° E
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 5.7
Average low °C (°F) −3.3
Average precipitation mm (inches) 34.4
Source: Climatological Information for Pohang, Hong Kong Observatory, 1961–1990

Gyeongju: Government

In front of a low and ivory building, a parking lot and cars are shown.
Gyeongju City Hall in Dongcheon-dong.

The executive branch of the government is headed by a mayor and vice-mayor. As in other South Korean cities and counties, the mayor is elected directly, while the vice-mayor is appointed. As of 2010, the mayor is Choi Yang-sik, who was appointed to the position on July 1, 2010 after winning the local election held on June 2 of the same year. He is Gyeongju's fifth mayor to be directly elected, the sixth to preside over the city in its present form, and the 31st mayor since 1955. Like most heads of government in the Yeongnam region, he is a member of the conservative Grand National Party.

The legislative branch consists of the Gyeongju City Council, with 21 members as of 2009. The present City Council was formed from the merger of the old Gyeongju City Council with the Wolseong County Council in 1991. Most subdivisions of Gyeongju elect a single member to represent them in the Council, but Angang-eup is represented by two members because of its large population, and two of the representatives serve combined districts composed of two dong. Like the mayor, the council members were last elected in 2006, except for a small number elected in more recent by-elections.

The central administration is composed of a City Council committee, five departments, two subsidiary organs, a chamber (the auditor), and six business offices. The five departments are the departments of Planning and Culture, Autonomous Administration, Industry and Environment, Construction and Public Works, and the National Enterprise Committee; these oversee a total of 29 subdivisions. The two subsidiary organs are the Health Care Center and Agro-technology Center; these belong directly to the central administration and have a total of 4 subdivisions. In addition, there are 23 local administrative subdivisions. Each of these subdivisions has a local office with a small administrative staff. As of December 2008, the city government employed 1,462 people.

Gyeongju: Subdivisions

Main article: Subdivisions of Gyeongju

The city is divided into 23 administrative districts: 4 eup, 8 myeon, and 11 dong. These are the standard subdivisions of cities and counties in South Korea. The dong or neighborhood units occupy the area of the city center, which was formerly occupied by Gyeongju-eup. Eup are typically substantial villages, whereas myeon are more rural.

The city's boundaries and designation changed several times in the 20th century. From 1895 to 1955, the area was known as Gyeongju-gun ("Gyeongju County"). In the first decades of the century, the city center was known as Gyeongju-myeon, signifying a relatively rural rea. In 1931, the downtown area was designated Gyeongju-eup, in recognition of its increasingly urban nature. In 1955, Gyeongju-eup became Gyeongju-si ("Gyeongju City"), the same name as today, but with a much smaller area. The remainder of Gyeongju-gun became "Wolseong County." The county and city were reunited in 1995, creating Gyeongju City as we know it today.

Map of Gyeongju
Map of the coastal district previously mentioned. Its center, covering about a sixth of the area, is divided into 11 subdivisions. The surrounding regions are divided into eight subdivisions in a different color. The rest, four subdivisions in a third color, are scattered to the northeast, west, southeast and east respectively.
# Place Population
Households Area
# Place Population
Households Area
1 Sannae-myeon 3,561 1,779 142.6 13 Seondo-dong 13,813 2,831 28.0
2 Seo-myeon 4,773 1,779 52.1 14 Seonggeon-dong 18,378 7,562 6.4
3 Hyeongok-myeon 16,829 5,726 55.7 15 Hwangseong-dong 29,660 9,415 3.8
4 Angang-eup 33,802 12,641 138.6 16 Yonggang-dong 15,959 5,244 5.1
5 Gangdong-myeon 8,834 3,659 81.4 17 Bodeok-dong 2,296 977 81.0
6 Cheonbuk-myeon 6,185 2,328 58.2 18 Bulguk-dong 9,001 3,722 37.4
7 Yangbuk-myeon 4,535 2,026 120.1 19 Hwangnam-dong* 8,885 3,875 20.5
8 Gampo-eup 7,099 3,084 44.9 20 Jungbu-dong 7,003 3,022 0.9
9 Yangnam-myeon 7,131 2,941 85.1 21 Hwango-dong* 10,225 4283 1.5
10 Oedong-eup 19,006 6,965 109.8 22 Dongcheon-dong 26,721 9,228 5.3
11 Naenam-myeon 6,142 2,526 122.1 23 Wolseong-dong 6,522 4,842 31.4
12 Geoncheon-eup 11,217 4,533 92.4
Eup Myeon Dong
*Figures based on resident registration figures made available by local government offices. For more detailed source information, see Subdivisions of Gyeongju.

Gyeongju: Demographics

When the Silla kingdom reached the peak of its development, Gyeongju was estimated to have a million residents, four times the city's population in 2008. In recent years, Gyeongju has followed the same trends that have affected the rest of South Korea. Like the country as a whole, Gyeongju has seen its population age and the size of families shrink. For instance, the mean household size is 2.8 people. Because this has fallen in recent years, there are more households in the city as of 2008 (105,009) than there were in 2003, even though the population has fallen.

Like most of South Korea's smaller cities, Gyeongju has seen a steady drop in population in recent years. From 2002 to 2008, the city lost 16,557 people. This is primarily due to the migration of workers seeking employment in the major South Korean cities. In 2007, about 1,975 more people moved away from the city each year than moved in. During the same period, births exceeded deaths by roughly 450 per year, a significant number but not enough to offset the losses due to migration.

Gyeongju has a small but growing population of non-Koreans. In 2007, there were 4,671 foreigners living in Gyeongju. This number corresponds to 1.73% of the total population, more than double the figure from 2003. The growth was largely in immigrants from other Asian countries, many of whom are employed in the automotive parts industry. Countries of origin whose numbers have risen include the Philippines, China, Taiwan, Indonesia, and Vietnam. The number of residents from Japan, the United States, and Canada fell significantly in the 2003–2007 period.

Gyeongju: Dialect

The city has a distinctive dialect which it shares with northern portions of Ulsan. This dialect is similar to the general Gyeongsang dialect, but retains distinctive features of its own. Some linguists have treated the distinctive characteristics of the Gyeongju dialect as vestiges of the Silla language. For instance, the contrast between the local dialect form "소내기" (sonaegi) and the standard "소나기" (sonagi, meaning "rainshower") has been seen as reflecting the ancient phonemic character of the Silla language.

Gyeongju: Culture and people

Gyeongju: Cultural properties

A model of a stone pagoda on the left and an ivory building with a cursive dark blue roof on the background
Gyeongju National Museum.
A gold crown excavated from Gold Crown Tomb. National Treasures of South Korea No. 87.
Divine Bell of King Seongdeok

Gyeongju is the main destination in South Korea for visitors interested in the cultural heritage of Silla and the architecture of the Joseon Dynasty (1392–1910). The city has 31 National Treasures, and Gyeongju National Museum houses 16,333 artifacts. There are four broad categories of relics and historical sites: tumuli and their artifacts; Buddhist sites and objects; fortresses and palace sites; and ancient architecture. Prehistoric remains including Mumun pottery have been excavated in central Gyeongju, in the Moa-ri and Oya-ri villages of the Cheonbuk-myeon district, and in the Jukdong-ri village of the Oedong-eup district. Dolmens are found in several places, especially in Gangdong-myeon and Moa-ri. Bronze Age relics found in Angye-ri village of Gangdong-myeon, Jukdong-ri and Ipsil-ri villages of Oedong-eup and graveyards in the Joyang-dong district represent the Samhan confederacy period of around the 1st century BC to the 3rd century AD.

There are 35 royal tombs and 155 tumuli in central Gyeongju, and 421 tumuli in the outskirts of the city. Silla burial mounds built after the period of the Three Kingdoms are found in central Gyeongju, including tumuli in the districts of Noseo-dong, Nodong-dong, Hwangnam-dong, Hwango-dong and Inwang-dong. Western Gyeongju has the tomb of King Muyeol in Seoak-dong, nearby tumuli in Chunghyo-dong and the tomb of Kim Yu-sin. The tombs of Queen Seondeok, King Sinmun, King Hyogong and King Sinmu are at the base of Namsan mountain while the tombs of King Heongang, King Jeonggang, King Gyeongmyeong and King Gyeongae are on the slopes of the mountain. In addition to the tombs, tumuli have been found surrounding Namsan mountain and in the western part of Geumgang mountain. Artifacts excavated from the tombs of Geumgwanchong (gold crown tomb), Seobongchong (western phoenix tomb), Cheonmachong (heavenly horse tomb) and northern and southern parts of Tomb No. 98 are good examples of Silla culture.

Gyeongju: Notable people

For more information on the Korean clan structure, see Korean name.
A bronze statue of a knight in armor on a riding horse against gloomy skies
Statue of General Kim Yusin at Hwangseong Park.
Yi Je-hyun (1287–1367), an early Korean Neo-Confucianism scholar, whose Bon-gwan was Gyeongju.
Yi Je-hyeon (1287–1367)

Gyeongju has produced notable individuals throughout its history. As the capital of Silla, Gyeongju was a center of culture in its heyday. Notable Gyeongju residents in the Silla period included most of the kingdom's leading figures, not only rulers but scholars such as Seol Chong and Choe Chi-won, and generals like Kim Yusin, the leader of the Hwarang warriors. The city continued to contribute to traditional Korean thought in subsequent dynasties. Relatives of Choe Chi-won such as Choe Eon-wui and Choe Hang played an important role in establishing the structures of early Goryeo. In the Joseon period, Gyeongju joined the rest of Gyeongsang in becoming a hotbed of the conservative Sarim faction. Notable Gyeongju members of this faction included the 15th century intellectual Yi Eon-jeok. He has been enshrined in the Oksan Seowon since 1572. In modern times, the city produced writers such as Kim Dong-ni and Park Mok-wol, both of whom did a great deal to popularize the region's culture, as well as Choe Jun, a wealthy businessman who established the Yeungnam University Foundation.

Some Korean family clans trace their origins to Gyeongju, often to the ruling elites of Silla. For example, the Gyeongju Kim clan claims descent from the rulers of later Silla. The Gyeongju Park and Gyeongju Seok clans trace their ancestry to Silla's earlier ruling families. These three royal clans played a strong role in preserving the historical precincts of Gyeongju into modern times. The Gyeongju Choe and Lee clans also trace their ancestry to the Silla elites. Prominent members of the Gyeongju Lee clan include Goryeo period scholar Yi Je-hyeon, and Joseon period scholars Yi Hwang and Yi Hang-bok. A contemporary notable figure from the Gyeongju Lee clan is Lee Byung-chull, the founder of Samsung Group. However, not all Gyeongju clans date to the Silla period; for instance, the Gyeongju Bing clan was founded in the early Joseon Dynasty.

Gyeongju: Religion

The city remains an important centre of Korean Buddhism. East of the downtown area lies Bulguksa, one of South Korea's largest Buddhist temples; nearby is Seokguram, a famed Buddhist shrine. Traditional prayer locations are found on mountains throughout Gyeongju. Such mountains include Namsan near the city center, Danseok-san and Obong-san in the west, and the low peak of Hyeong-san on the Gyeongju-Pohang border. Namsan in particular is often referred to as "the sacred mountain" due to the Buddhist shrines and statues which cover its slopes. In addition, Gyeongju is the birthplace of Cheondoism, an indigenous religion to Korea based on Korean shamanism, Taoism and Korean Buddhism, with elements drawn from Christianity. The religion evolved from Donghak (lit. East learning) disciplines established by Choe Je-u. His birthplace of Yongdamjeong, located in Hyeongok-myeon, is regarded as a sacred place to followers of Cheondogyo.

Gyeongju: Cuisine

See also: Korean cuisine
24 buns in golden brown are put in a white rectangular box. The buns are arranged like an abacus.
Gyeongju bread, a local speciality.

The cuisine of Gyeongju is generally typical of the cuisine elsewhere in Gyeongsang province: spicy and salty. However, it has distinctive tastes according to region and several local specialties known nationwide. The most famous of these is "Gyeongju bread" or "Hwangnam bread", a red-bean pastry first baked in 1939 and now sold throughout the country. Chalboribbang, made with locally produced glutinous barley, is also a pastry with a filling of red bean paste. Local specialties with a somewhat longer pedigree include beopju, a traditional Korean liquor produced by the Gyeongju Choe in Gyo-dong. The brewing skill and distill master were designated as Important Intangible Cultural Properties by South Korea government.

An array of about 10 small side dishes, a bean curd stew, and leaf vegetables on a table.
Ssambap, a rice dish served with vegetable leaves, various small side dishes and condiments.

Other local specialities include ssambap, haejangguk, and muk. Ssambap refers to a rice dish served with vegetable leaves, various banchan (small side dishes) and condiments such as gochujang (chili pepper paste) or ssamjang (a mixture of soybean paste and gochujang) to wrap them together. Most ssambap restaurants in Gyeongju are gathered in the area of Daenuengwon or Grand Tumuli Park. Haejangguk is a kind of soup eaten as a hangover cure, and means "soup to chase a hangover". A street dedicated to haejangguk is located near Gyeongju National Museum, where 20 haejangguk restaurants are gathered to serve the Gyeongju-style haejangguk. The soup is made by boiling soybean sprout, sliced memilmuk (buckwheat starch jelly), sour kimchi (pickled vegetables) and gulfweed in a clear broth of dried anchovy and Alaska pollack.

The east district of Gyeongju, Gampo-eup town, is adjacent to the sea, so fresh seafood and jeotgal (fermented salted seafood) are abundant. There are over 240 seafood restaurants in Gampo Harbor offering various dishes made with seafood caught in the sea, such as hoe (raw fish dishes), jeonboktang (an abalone soup), grilled seafood and others.

Gyeongju: Sports

People cheering their teams with colorful flags for track and field games in a stadium
2008 Gyeongju Citizens' Athletics Festival held at Gyeongju Public Stadium.

As of 2007, Gyeongju city had two stadiums, two gymnasiums, two tennis courts, one swimming pool and others as public sport facilities as well as various registered private sports venues. Many of public sport facilities are located in Hwangseong Park with an area of 1,022,350 m (11,004,500 sq ft) including a luxuriant pine trees forest. The site was originally the location of the artificial forest of Doksan which was established for feng shui purposes during the Silla period. It was also used as a training ground for hwarang warriors and hunting spot for Silla kings, and was reported to be King Jinpyeong's favorite location. In 1975, Hwangseong Park was designated a "city neighborhood park" and it currently consists of the multi-purpose Gyeongju Public Stadium, Football Park (with seven football fields and one futsal field), and one gymnasium, as well as Horimjang field for gukgung or Korean traditional archery and a ssireum wrestling ring. In addition, it contains a gateball field, an inline skating rink, jogging courses, and cycling roads. The Gyeongju Public Stadium was completed in 1982 and can accommodate 20,000 people at capacity.

Angang Field Hockey Stadium, located in the district of Angang-eup, is home to Gyeongju City Hockey, which is one of four professional women's field hockey teams in South Korea. The team was formed in 1994, and is governed by the Sport and Youth Division of Gyeongju City. Although not an initial successful team, Gyeongju City Hockey won the first trophies both at National Division Hockey Championships and National Sports Festival in 2000. In 2002, Gyeongju City Hockey took a first prize and three second prizes, and in 2008, the team won the first prize at the 51st National Division Hockey Championships.

The city plays host to two annual marathon events. The Gyeongju International Marathon, held in October, garners elite level competition while the larger Gyeongju Cherry Blossom Marathon caters more for amateur fun runners. The Cherry Blossom Marathon has been held each year in Gyeongju since 1992, usually in April, to improve relations with Japan (a country with a long history of marathon running). The race, mainly sponsored by Gyeongju city and the district, attracted 13,600 participants in 2009 including about 1,600 foreigners.

Gyeongju: Economy

See also: Economy of South Korea
Two boats anchor in a harbor on the right. Blue skies and the sea are clear and tranquil.
Gampo Port

The economy of Gyeongju is more diverse than the city's image as a tourist haven would suggest. Although tourism is important to the economy, most residents work in other fields. Over 27,000 are employed in manufacturing compared to roughly 13,500 in the hospitality industry. The number involved in tourism has remained constant over recent years, while the manufacturing sector added about 6,000 jobs from 1999 to 2003. The manufacturing sector is closely tied to nearby cities, utilizing Gyeongju's transit links with Ulsan, Pohang, and Daegu. As in Ulsan and Daegu the automotive parts industry plays an important role. Of the 1,221 businesses incorporated in Gyeongju almost a third are involved in auto-parts manufacture.

Fishing takes place in coastal towns, especially in Gampo-eup in the city's northeast, with 436 registered fishing craft in the city. Fishing industry in Gyeongju is generally in a declined status due to relatively inconvenient transport conditions and lacks of subordinate facilities. Much of the catch from these boats goes direct from the harbor to Gyeongju's many seafood restaurants. Mainly, sauries, anchovies, rays are harvested and a small number of abalone and wakame farming takes place. Local specialties include myeolchijeot (fermented anchovy), abalone, wakame, and squid.

Yellow paddy fields and green hills during autumn
Paddy fields in Gyeongju

Agriculture is still important, particularly in the outlying regions of Gyeongju. According to the 2006 statistical yearbook of Gyeongju, rice fields occupy an area of 169.57 km (65.47 sq mi), which is 70% of the total cultivated acreage of 24,359 km (9,405 sq mi). The remaining 74.02 km (28.58 sq mi) consists of fields under other crops and farmsteads. Crop production is centered in the fertile river basins near the Hyeongsan River. The main crops are rice, barley, beans and corn. Vegetables such as radish and napa cabbage and fruits are also important crops. Apples are mainly produced in the districts of Geoncheon-eup, Gangdong-myeon and Cheonbuk-myeon and Korean pear are cultivated in Geoncheon-eup and Angang-eup. The city plays a leading role in the domestic production of beef and mushrooms. Button mushrooms harvested in Geoncheon-eup are canned and exported. The cultivated acreage and the number of households engaging in agriculture is however declining.

A small amount of quarrying activity takes place in the city, with 46 active mines and quarries in Gyeongju. Most are engaged in the extraction of kaolin, fluorspar and Agalmatolite and Kaolin is exported.

A female customer browsing a fruit shop. Banana and grapes are displayed on the front.
A fruit shop at Seongdong Market

As the capital of Silla, commerce and trading in Gyeongju developed early on. Samguk Sagi has records on the establishment of Gyeongdosi (capital area market) in March, 490 during King Soji's reign, and Dongsi (East Market) in 509, during King Jijeung's reign. In the 1830s, Gyeongju had five five-day markets which remained very active until the late 1920s. Due to its size Gyeongju Bunaejang (Gyeongju village market) was referred to as one of the two leading markets in the Yeongnam area, along with Daegu Bunaejang. Transportation developed in the late period of the Japanese occupation, as the Jungang Line and the Daegu Line and the connecting route between Pohang and the northwestern part of Japan were set up, leading to increasing population and developing commerce. After the 1960s, traditional periodic markets gradually transformed into regular markets as the city was flourishing. In periodic markets, agricultural and marine products, industrial products, living necessaries, wild edible greens, herbs, and cattle are mainly traded. As of 2006, Gyeongju had eight regular markets, nine periodic markets and the Gyeongju department store. Traditional periodic markets declined and have become token affairs these days.

Gyeongju: Tourism

Main article: Tourism in Gyeongju
A stone pagoda with elaborated tiers, a small lion status, and stairs. Blue skies and a roof of a building and trees are shown on the background
Dabotap pagoda at Bulguksa temple

Gyeongju is a major tourist destination for South Koreans as well as foreign visitors. It boasts the 1000 years of Silla heritage with vast number of ancient ruins and archaeological sites found throughout the city, which help to attract 6 million visiting tourists including 750,000 foreigners per year. The city government has parlayed its historic status into a basis for other tourism-related developments such as conferences, festivals, and resorts.

Many Silla sites are located in Gyeongju National Park such as the Royal Tomb Complex, the Cheomseongdae observatory that is one of the oldest surviving astronomical observatories in East Asia, the Anapji royal pond garden, and the Gyerim forest. Gyeongju National Museum hosts many important artifacts and national treasures that have been excavated from sites within the city and surrounding areas.

A huge three-story pagoda stands against blue skies. The pagoda is made with bricks of dark gray stone. Colorful lanterns are lined up.
Bunhwangsa pagoda, National Treasure of Korea No. 30

Much of Gyeongju's heritage are related to the Silla kingdom's patronage of Buddhism. The grotto of Seokguram and the temple of Bulguksa were the first Korean sites to be included on the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1995. In addition, the ruins of the old Hwangnyongsa temple, said to have been Korean's largest, are preserved on the slopes of Toham Mountain. Various Silla-era stone carvings of Buddhas and Bodhisattvas are found on mountainsides throughout the city, particularly on Namsan.

A significant portion of Gyeongju's tourist traffic is due to the city's promotion of itself as a site for various festivals, conferences, and competitions. Every year since 1962, the Silla cultural festival has been held in October to celebrate and honour the dynasty's history and culture. It is one of the major festivals of Korea. It features athletic events, folk games, music, dance, literary contests and Buddhist religious ceremonies. Other festivals include the Cherry Blossom Marathon in April, the Korean Traditional Liquor and Cake festival in March, and memorial ceremonies for the founders of the Silla Dynasty and General Kim Yu-sin.

There were 15 hotels including Hilton Hotel, Gyeognju Chosun Hotel, and 276 lodging facilities, and 2,817 restaurants in Gyeongju in 2006.

Gyeongju: Media

In front of a beige nine-story building, three cars parked
Gyeongju Sinmun, a local newspaper company is housed in this building.

Gyeongju has two main local newspapers; the Gyeongju Sinmun and the Seorabeol Sinmun. Both are weekly newspapers providing news via online as well and their headquarters are located in the neighborhood of Dongcheon-dong. The Gyeongju Sinmun was founded in 1989 and provides various news and critics on anything concerning Gyeongju. Its online newspaper, Digital Gyeongju Sinmun opened in December, 2000 to provide live local news out of the limit as a weekly newspaper and to establish mutual information exchanges from Gyeongju locals. In 2001, Gyeongju Sinmun started to present Gyeongju Citizen Awards to people who try to develop the local industry and economy, culture and education, and welfare service. Since 2003, the Wolseong Nuclear Power Plant headquarter co-hosts the awards with Gyeongju Sinmun.

The Seorabeol Sinmun was established in 1993, however, from November 15, 2000 to November 10, 2005, its publication was stopped for financial difficulties after the 1997 Asian economic crisis had left a strong impact on the nationwide economy. Since 2006, Seorabeol Sinmun presents Serabeol Awards to people having devouring to develop Gyeongju.

Several major feature films have been filmed in the city, including Kick the Moon, On the Occasion of Remembering the Turning Gate, Taegukgi, Chwihwaseon and others. In 2009, the filming of the Queen Seondeok, a popular MBC TV series took place in a studio at Silla Millennium Park located in Bomun Lake Resort.

Gyeongju: Education

See also: Education in South Korea

Gyeongju is strongly associated with the education tradition of Hwarangdo ("Way of the Flower of Young Men") which was established and flourished during the Silla period. It is a military and philosophical code that offered the basis of training to Hwarang, a military cadet of youths from the aristocratic class. The training equally emphasized practicing academic and martial arts based on Buddhism and patriotism. A number of Silla's greatest generals and military leaders such as Kim Yu-sin were Hwarang who played a central role in Silla unification of the Korean peninsula. As Silla was integrated into the next ruling dynasty, Goryeo, the system declined and was officially disbanded in the Joseon dynasty. However, the spirit and discipline were revived in the second half of the 20th century as a form of Korean martial arts with the same name.

On a sunny day, a Korean traditional wooden building painted with white and dark red stands on a grass field. Luxuriant trees are seen on the right while a gate is shown at a distance.
A building of the Gyeongju Hyanggyo

Formal education has a longer history in Gyeongju than anywhere else in South Korea. The Gukhak, or national academy, was established here in 682, at the beginning of the Unified Silla period. Its curriculum focused on the Confucian classics for local officials. After the fall of Silla in the 10th century, the Gukhak closed. However, due to Gyeongju's role as a provincial center under the Goryeo and early Joseon dynasties, the city was home to state-sponsored provincial schools (hyanggyo) under both dynasties such as Gyeongju Hyanggyo. During the later Joseon dynasty there were several seowon, or private Confucian academies, were set up in the city such as Oksan Seowon and Seoak Seowon.

The education system of Gyeongju is the same as elsewhere in the country. Schooling begins with preschools; there are 65 in the city. This is followed by six years in elementary schools; Gyeongju has 46. Subsequently students pass through three years of middle school. There are 19 middle schools in Gyeongju. High school education, which lasts for three years, is not compulsory, but most students attend and graduate from high school. Gyeongju is home to 21 high schools, of which 11 provide specialized technical training. At each of these levels, there is a mix of public and private institutions. All are overseen by the Gyeongju bureau of North Gyeongsang's Provincial Office of Education. Gyeongju is home to a school for the mentally disabled, which provides education to students from preschool to adult age.

A night scene of a building complex.
Campus of Dongguk University in Gyeongju at night

Gyeongju is home to four institutions of tertiary education. Sorabol College is a technical college in the district of Chunghyo-dong that offers majors specializing in tourism, leisure, health care and cosmetic treatments.

Each of Gyeongju's three universities reflects the city's unique role. Dongguk and Uiduk universities are Buddhist institutions, reflecting that religion's link to the city. Gyeongju University, formerly Korea Tourism University, is strongly focused on tourism, reflecting its importance in the region.

Gyeongju: Infrastructure

Gyeongju: Healthcare

A large seven-story hospital complex on a slope that consists of about two buildings. The wall of one on the left is covered with blue glasses, and the other building with round corners is covered with beige bricks. Large green vertical signs are attached on the wall of the latter. The signs say "동국대학교 부속병원 한방병원". In front of the hospital, a black car coming down from the slope.
Dongguk University Gyeongju Hospital

According to the 2008 yearbook of Gyeongju, the total number of medical institutions was 224 with 3,345 beds, including two general hospitals, thirteen hospitals, 109 clinics, five nursing homes, forty two dental hospitals, two Korean traditional medicine hospitals and 50 Korean traditional medicine clinics. There are also twenty eight medical institutions related to Gyeongju Health Center affiliated to the Gyeongju City government.

The two general hospitals are associated with two major universities in Gyeongju and nearby Daegu. One is the Dongguk University Gyeongju Hospital, located in the district of Seokjang-dong, which is affiliated with Dongguk University Medical School and Center. The Gyeongju Hospital was opened in a seven-story building in 1991 to provide Gyeongju locals with a quality medical service and train medical specialists in the region. After various renovations the hospital currently has 24 departments including a radiation oncology center and 438 beds. It is also assigned as a teaching and learning hospital and in partnership with Dongguk University Oriental Hospital. The other general hospital is a branch of Keimyung University, Dongsan Medical Hospital in Daegu. It is the successor of Gyeongju Christianity Hospital founded in 1962, and was reborn as the current general hospital in 1991. The Gyeongju Dongsan Hospital is located in the district of Seobu-dong and has 12 departments in a three-story building.

Gyeongju: Utilities

A vast and tranquil river in a clear day of fall. Apartment blocks and buildings under construction are seen at a distance.
A view of Hyeongsan River from Dong Bridge. The river is one of water sources of Gyeongju.

Water supply and sewage disposal are municipal services which are respectively handled by the Water Supply Office and Water Quality and Environment Office. Water comes from the Hyeongsan River, the multi-purpose Deokdong Dam and several streams. The city is divided into seven water districts, with eight filtration plants and seven sewage treatment plants. One of the sewage treatment plants, Angang Sewage Disposal Plant began operating in April 2005 by the co-investment of the Government of North Gyeongsang and Gyeongju City with a fund of 44,300,000,000 won to install facilities to prevent the pollution of the Hyeongsan River, which is a main water source for Gyeongju and Pohang residents. The plant is located on a spacious site with 39,000 m (420,000 sq ft) in Homyeong-ri, Gangdong-myeon in Gyeongju where nature friendly facilities provide recreational venues for the locals. Through 56.1 km (34.9 mi) of sewer pipes and 14 pumping stations, the plant has a capacity of 18,000 tonnes of domestic sewage per day that comes from Angang-eup, and Gangdong-myeon. The facilities have high-powered disposal equipment developed by related industrial companies to maintain the discharged water at the first or second degree in quality, so that it is used as river maintenance flow and agricultural water in case a drought occurs.

The city had managed its own recycling service, but privatized it since July 1, 2009.

Other utilities are provided by private entities or South Korean government-owned companies. Seorabeol City Gas, an affiliate of GS Group, provides gas to the Gyeongju residents, while, electrical power is supplied by the public enterprises, Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power via the Wolseong Nuclear Power Plant. The plant is known for the only nuclear power plant operating PHWRs (Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor) in South Korea and supplies about 5% of South Korea's electricity. The owner, Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power began to build the Wolseong 1 in the districts of Yangnam-myeon, Yangbuk-myeon and Gampo-eup in 1976. Since 1983, the power plant has been providing commercial service and operating with the PHWRs that has a capacity of 678,000 kW. As the construction of each Wolseong 2, 3 and 4 with a capacity of 70,000 kW were completed respectively in 1997, 1998 and 1999, Wolseong Nuclear Power plant site has been successfully operating the four PHWRs plants. New project, Sinwolseong No. 1 and No. 2 are currently under construction which is estimated to be completed until 2011–12.

Gyeongju: Transportation

A front view of a one-story building with a Korean traditional roof.
Gyeongju Station

The city lies at the junction of two minor lines operated by the Korean National Railroad. The Jungang Line runs from Seoul to Gyeongju and carries trains from the Daegu Line, which originates in Dongdaegu. In Gyeongju, the Jungang line connects to the Donghae Nambu Line which runs between Pohang and Busan. The Gyeongbu Expressway, which runs from Seoul to Busan, passes through Gyeongju, and Provincial highway 68, aided by the South Korean government, connects Seocheon in the South Chungcheong province to Gyeongju. Additionally national highways such as Route 4, 7, 14, 20, 28, 31, and 35 crisscross the city. Since the city is a popular tourist destination, nonstop bus services are available from most major cities in South Korea.

High-speed rail does not serve central Gyeongju, but the KTX Gyeongbu Line stops at the nearby Singyeongju Station, in Geoncheon-eup, west of Gyeongju's city center.

Gyeongju: Sister cities

  • South Korea Iksan, North Jeolla, South Korea (1998)
  • Japan Nara, Nara, Japan (1970)
  • Japan Obama, Fukui, Japan (1977)
  • Italy Pompeii, Campania, Italy (1985)
  • France Versailles, Île-de-France, France (1987)
  • China Xi'an, Shaanxi, China (1994)
  • Vietnam Huế, Thừa Thiên–Huế, Vietnam (2007)
  • Iran Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran (2017)

Gyeongju: See also

  • Geography of South Korea
  • List of cities in South Korea
  • Southeastern Maritime Industrial Region
  • World Heritage Site

Gyeongju: Notes

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  3. "S. Korean, US presidents to meet before APEC summit". Xinhua News. 2005-10-18. Retrieved 2009-09-15.
  4. "Administrative divisions" (in Korean). The Government of North Gyeongsang province. 2007. Retrieved 2009-09-15.
  5. Smyth, Terry (2008-11-13). "Saving face for Australia". Brisbane Times. Retrieved 2009-08-11.
  6. "Kyŏngju". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2009. Retrieved 2009-09-15.
  7. 경주시의 자연환경 [Natural environment of Gyeongju] (in Korean). Nate / Encyclopedia of Korean Culture. Retrieved 2009-08-05.
  8. MacGregor, Neil. A History of the World in 100 Objects. Penguin UK. ISBN 9780141966830. Retrieved 30 September 2016.
  9. Chŏng, Yang-mo; Smith, Judith G.; Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York, N.Y.). Arts of Korea. Metropolitan Museum of Art. p. 230. ISBN 9780870998508. Retrieved 30 September 2016.
  10. International, Rotary. The Rotarian. Rotary International. p. 28. Retrieved 30 September 2016.
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  13. Adams, Edward Ben. Koreaʾs pottery heritage. Seoul International Pub. House. p. 53. Retrieved 30 September 2016.
  14. Robinson et al. 2007. p.187
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  16. "Korea, Republic of". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. 2009. Retrieved 2010-08-22.
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  18. "Insa-dong Rivals Jeju as Most Popular Tourist Spot". The Chosun Ilbo. 2009-05-05. Retrieved 2009-08-04.
  19. Lee, Jae Won; Lee, Man Hyung (1997). "Urban-Rural Integration Conflicts After 1994's Reform in Korea" (PDF). Dosi Yeongu, Korea Center for City and Environment Research. 3: 103–121.
  20. Yun, Daesic; Hwang, Junghoon; Moon, Changkeun (June 2008). "A Study on Analysis of Mode Choice Characteristics and Travel Pattern in Urban-Rural Integrated City" (PDF) (in Korean). Korea Research Institute For Human Settlements. p. 118. Retrieved 2009-09-15.
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  23. Tamásy & Taylor, (2008) p.129
  24. 경주시의 역사 [History of Gyeongju] (in Korean). Nate / Encyclopedia of Korean Culture. Retrieved 2009-08-05.
  25. 신라 (新羅) [Silla] (in Korean). Nate / Encyclopedia of Korean Culture. Retrieved 2009-08-05.
  26. Lee, Ki-baek, (1984), p.78
  27. Robinson et al. 2007. p.26
  28. Robinson et al. 2007. p.28
  29. Lee, Gwang-pyo (이광표) (2008-04-05). ('황금의 제국' 페르시아) <3>페르시아인들 경주를 활보하다 [('Empire of Gold', Persia) Persians strode away in Gyeongju)] (in Korean). Dong-a Ilbo. Retrieved 2009-09-15.
  30. "이븐 쿠르다지바 Abu'I Qāsim Abādu'l Lāh Ibn Khurdāhibah a (816 ~ 912)" (in Korean). Doosan Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2009-09-15.
  31. 제 1전시 한민족 생활사 [Exhibition Hall 1, History of Korean People] (in Korean). National Museum of Korea. Retrieved 2009-08-06.
  32. Breen (1999), p.82
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  178. "Gyeongju Hyanggyo (a local school annexed to the Confucian shrine)". Gyeongju City-Transportation System. Retrieved 2009-08-02.
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  181. "서라벌대학 Sorabol College 徐羅伐大學" (in Korean). Doosan Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2009-08-31.
  182. Kim, Hui-jeong (김희정) (2009-08-03). 뜨는' 직종 따라 신설학과도 뜬다? [New departments becoming popular according to popular jobs?] (in Korean). Dailian News. Retrieved 2009-08-06.
  183. 동국대학교 (東國大學校) [Dongguk University] (in Korean). Nate / Encyclopedia of Korean Culture. Retrieved 2009-08-06.
  184. 위덕대학교 (威德大學校) [Uiduk University] (in Korean). Nate / Encyclopedia of Korean Culture. Retrieved 2009-08-06.
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  189. Kim Gyeong-yeop (김경엽) (2008-05-22). (경북) 동국대 의대 일산 이전 '먹튀' 논란 [(Gyeongbuk) Controversies over the plan of Dongguk University Medical School to move to Ilsan] (in Korean). Hankook Ilbo. Retrieved 2009-08-06.
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  193. 상하수도 [Water supply and sewage service] (in Korean). Gyeongju City. Archived from the original on June 13, 2011. Retrieved 2009-08-06.
  194. Yonhap News (2005-04-28). 경주 안강하수처리장 준공 [The completion of the Angang Sewage Disposal Plant in Gyeongju] (in Korean). Ministry of Environment of South Korea. Retrieved 2009-08-06.
  195. Lee, Seung-hyeong (이승형). 경주 재활용 선별장 갈등 해법 못찾나 [No way to resolve the conflicts over Gyeongju's recycling center?] (in Korean). Yonhap. Retrieved 2009-08-06.
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  199. "Wolseong Nuclear Power plant". Korea Neclear Energy Foundation. Retrieved 2009-08-06.
  200. Wald, Matthew L. (1991-01-10). "TALKING DEALS; Help for Canada's Nuclear Industry". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-08-06.
  201. Lee Jeong-hun (이정훈) (2006-10-11). 직도지원책, 고군산연결도로사업 청신 (in Korean). KMR News. Retrieved 2009-08-10.
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  203. "Route 7" (in Korean). Doosan Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2009-08-10.
  204. "Route 14" (in Korean). Doosan Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2009-08-10.
  205. "Route 20" (in Korean). Doosan Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2009-08-10.
  206. "Route 28" (in Korean). Doosan Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2009-08-10.
  207. "Route 31" (in Korean). Doosan Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2009-08-10.
  208. "Route 35" (in Korean). Doosan Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2009-08-10.
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  210. Gang, Byeong-seo; Lee, Chae-su; Hwang, I-ju (2009-07-08). "포항·경주·영덕·울진, 21C 중심도시 나래 펴다" [Pohang, Gyeongju, Yeongdeok, Uljin, 21c centered cities unfold wings] (in Korean). Maeil Sinmun hosted by Pohang Institute of Industry Advancement. Retrieved 2009-08-06.
  211. Jo, Min-hui (2009-02-12). "서울~부산 30분 단축 '완행 KTX'시대 끝난다" (in Korean). Kookje Sinmun. Retrieved 2009-08-06. KTX 2단계 구간(동대구~경주~울산~부산 123㎞)
  212. Lee, Jong-hun (2009-07-08). "경북도, KTX역세권 개발계획" [North Gyeongsang province, KTX station areas under the development plan] (in Korean). Retrieved 2009-08-06.
  213. Sister Cities

Gyeongju: References

  • Breen, Michael (1999) The Koreans: who they are, what they want, where their future lies Macmillan, Buy book ISBN 0-312-24211-5
  • Cherry, Judith (2001), Korean multinationals in Europe, Routledge Advances in Korean Studies, Routledge, Buy book ISBN 0-7007-1480-4
  • Cumings, Bruce (1997). Korea's place in the sun: A modern history. New York: Norton. Buy book ISBN 0-393-31681-5
  • Kang, Bong W. (2002). A study of success and failure in the water management of the Buk Chun in Kyongju, Korea. Paper delivered at the Eighteenth Congress of the International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage. (Electronic Version).
  • Kang, Jae-eun; Lee, Suzanne. (2006) The land of scholars: two thousand years of Korean Confucianism Homa & Sekey Books, Buy book ISBN 1-931907-37-4
  • Kim, Chang-hyun (August, 2008), The Position and the Administration System of Donggyeong in Koryeo Dynasty, (in Korean) Dongguk University, Silla Culture, issue 32, pp. 1–43
  • Kim, Chong-un; Fulton, Bruce, (1998) A ready-made life: early masters of modern Korean fiction, University of Hawaii Press, pp. 107–120, Buy book ISBN 0-8248-2071-1
  • Kim, Deok-muk, (2003) 전국의 기도터와 굿당 (Jeon-gukui gidoteo wa gutdang. Tr. "Sites of Buddhist prayer and shamanic practice nationwide"), (in Korean), 한국민속기록보존소 Buy book ISBN 89-953630-3-7
  • Kim, Won-yong. (1982). Kyŏngju: The homeland of Korean culture. Korea Journal 22(9), pp. 25–32.
  • Kookmin University, Department of Korean History (2004) "경주문화권 (Gyeongju Munhwagwon. The Gyeongju cultural area)", Seoul:역사공간 Buy book ISBN 89-90848-02-4
  • Korean Overseas Information Service, (2003), Handbook of Korea (11th ed.), Seoul, Hollym, Buy book ISBN 1-56591-212-8
  • Lee, Ki-baek; Tr. by E.W. Wagner & E.J. Schulz, (1984), A new history of Korea (rev. ed.), Seoul, Ilchogak, Buy book ISBN 89-337-0204-0
  • Nilsen, Robert, South Korea, Moon Handbooks, Buy book ISBN 1-56691-418-3
  • Oppenheim, Robert. (2008) Kyǒngju things: assembling place, University of Michigan Press, Buy book ISBN 0-472-05030-3
  • Ring, Trudy; Robert M. Salkin, Paul E Schellinger, Sharon La Boda (1996) International Dictionary of Historic Places: Asia and Oceania Taylor & Francis, Buy book ISBN 1-884964-04-4
  • Robinson, Martin; Ray Bartlett, Rob Whyte (2007), Korea Lonely Planet, pp. 197–209, Buy book ISBN 1-74104-558-4
  • Rutt, Richard; Hoare, James. (1999) Korea: a historical and cultural dictionary, Durham East-Asia series. Routledge. Buy book ISBN 0-7007-0464-7
  • Sundaram, Jomo Kwame. (2003) Manufacturing competitiveness in Asia: how internationally competitive national firms and industries developed in East Asia, Routledge, Buy book ISBN 0-415-29922-5
  • Tamásy, Christine; Taylor, Mike. (2008) Globalising Worlds and New Economic Configurations, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., Buy book ISBN 0-7546-7377-4
  • Yi, Sŭng-hwan; Song, Jaeyoon (translation) (2005) A topography of Confucian discourse: politico-philosophical reflections on Confucian discourse since modernity, Homa & Sekey Books, Buy book ISBN 1-931907-27-7
  • Yu, Hong-jun; (translation) Mueller, Charles M., (1999) Smiles of the baby Buddha: appreciating the cultural heritage of Kyǒngju, Changbi (창비), Buy book ISBN 89-364-7056-6
  • Gyeongju travel guide from Wikivoyage
  • City of Gyeongju Government official website
  • Gyeongju Guide official website

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