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What's important: you can compare and book not only Hanoi hotels and resorts, but also villas and holiday cottages, inns and B&Bs (bed and breakfast), condo hotels and apartments, timeshare properties, guest houses and pensions, campsites (campgrounds), motels and hostels in Hanoi. If you're going to Hanoi save your money and time, don't pay for the services of the greedy travel agencies. Instead, book the best hotel in Hanoi online, buy the cheapest airline tickets to Hanoi, and rent a car in Hanoi right now, paying the lowest price! Besides, here you can buy the Hanoi related books, guidebooks, souvenirs and other goods.

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In order to book an accommodation in Hanoi enter the proper dates and do the hotel search. If needed, sort the found Hanoi hotels by price, star rating, property type, guest rating, hotel features, hotel theme or hotel chain. Then take a look at the found hotels on Hanoi map to estimate the distance from the main Hanoi attractions and sights. You can also read the guest reviews of Hanoi hotels and see their ratings.

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Hotels of Hanoi

A hotel in Hanoi is an establishment that provides lodging paid on a short-term basis. Facilities provided may range from a basic bed and storage for clothing, to luxury features like en-suite bathrooms. Larger in Hanoi hotels may provide additional guest facilities such as a swimming pool, business centre, childcare, conference facilities and social function services. Hotel rooms in Hanoi are usually numbered (or named in some smaller hotels and B&Bs) to allow guests to identify their room. Some Hanoi hotels offer meals as part of a room and board arrangement. Hotel operations vary in size, function, and cost. Most Hanoi hotels and major hospitality companies that operate hotels in Hanoi have set widely accepted industry standards to classify hotel types. General categories include the following:

Upscale luxury hotels in Hanoi
An upscale full service hotel facility in Hanoi that offers luxury amenities, full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and the highest level of personalized and professional service. Luxury Hanoi hotels are normally classified with at least a Four Diamond or Five Diamond status or a Four or Five Star rating depending on classification standards.

Full service hotels in Hanoi
Full service Hanoi hotels often contain upscale full-service facilities with a large volume of full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and a variety of on-site amenities such as swimming pools, a health club, children's activities, ballrooms, on-site conference facilities, etc.

Historic inns and boutique hotels in Hanoi
Boutique hotels of Hanoi are smaller independent non-branded hotels that often contain upscale facilities of varying size in unique or intimate settings with full service accommodations. Hanoi boutique hotels are generally 100 rooms or less. Some historic inns and boutique hotels in Hanoi may be classified as luxury hotels.

Focused or select service hotels in Hanoi
Small to medium-sized hotel establishments that offer a limited amount of on-site amenities that only cater and market to a specific demographic of Hanoi travelers, such as the single business traveler. Most Hanoi focused or select service hotels may still offer full service accommodations but may lack leisure amenities such as an on-site restaurant or a swimming pool.

Economy and limited service hotels in Hanoi
Small to medium-sized Hanoi hotel establishments that offer a very limited amount of on-site amenities and often only offer basic accommodations with little to no services, these facilities normally only cater and market to a specific demographic of travelers, such as the budget-minded Hanoi traveler seeking a "no frills" accommodation. Limited service Hanoi hotels often lack an on-site restaurant but in return may offer a limited complimentary food and beverage amenity such as on-site continental breakfast service.

Guest houses and B&Bs in Hanoi
A bed and breakfast in Hanoi is a small lodging establishment that offers overnight accommodation and inclusive breakfast. Usually, Hanoi bed and breakfasts are private homes or family homes offering accommodations. The typical Hanoi B&B has between 4 and 11 rooms, with 6 being the average. Generally, guests are accommodated in private bedrooms with private bathrooms, or in a suite of rooms including an en suite bathroom. Some homes have private bedrooms with a bathroom which is shared with other guests. Breakfast is served in the bedroom, a dining room, or the host's kitchen. Often the owners of guest house themselves prepare the breakfast and clean the rooms.

Hostels in Hanoi
Hanoi hostels provide budget-oriented, sociable accommodation where guests can rent a bed, usually a bunk bed, in a dormitory and share a bathroom, lounge, and sometimes a kitchen. Rooms can be mixed or single-sex, although private rooms may also be available. Hostels are often cheaper for both the operator and occupants; many Hanoi hostels have long-term residents whom they employ as desk agents or housekeeping staff in exchange for experience or discounted accommodation.

Apartment hotels, extended stay hotels in Hanoi
Extended stay hotels are small to medium-sized Hanoi hotels that offer longer term full service accommodations compared to a traditional hotel. Extended stay hotels may offer non-traditional pricing methods such as a weekly rate that cater towards travelers in need of short-term accommodations for an extended period of time. Similar to limited and select service hotels, on-site amenities are normally limited and most extended stay hotels in Hanoi lack an on-site restaurant.

Timeshare and destination clubs in Hanoi
Hanoi timeshare and destination clubs are a form of property ownership also referred to as a vacation ownership involving the purchase and ownership of an individual unit of accommodation for seasonal usage during a specified period of time. Timeshare resorts in Hanoi often offer amenities similar that of a Full service hotel with on-site restaurant(s), swimming pools, recreation grounds, and other leisure-oriented amenities. Destination clubs of Hanoi on the other hand may offer more exclusive private accommodations such as private houses in a neighborhood-style setting.

Motels in Hanoi
A Hanoi motel is a small-sized low-rise lodging establishment similar to that of a limited service hotel, but with direct access to individual rooms from the car park. Common during the 1950s and 1960s, motels were often located adjacent to a major road, where they were built on inexpensive land at the edge of towns or along stretches of highways. They are still useful in less populated areas of Hanoi for driving travelers, but the more populated an area becomes the more hotels fill the need. Many of Hanoi motels which remain in operation have joined national franchise chains, rebranding themselves as hotels, inns or lodges.

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Travelling and vacation in Hanoi

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Hanoi
Hà Nội
Municipality
(from left) top: Long Biên Bridge, river near Perfume Pagoda; middle: Turtle Tower, bottom: Temple of Literature, Ho Chi Minh Mausoleum, Hanoi Opera House
(from left) top: Long Biên Bridge, river near Perfume Pagoda; middle: Turtle Tower, bottom: Temple of Literature, Ho Chi Minh Mausoleum, Hanoi Opera House
Official seal of Hanoi
Seal
Provincial location in Vietnam
Provincial location in Vietnam
Coordinates:  / 21.028472; 105.854167  / 21.028472; 105.854167
Country Vietnam
Central city Hà Nội
Central district Hoan Kiem and Ba Dinh
Foundation as capital of the Đại Việt 1010
Establishment as capital of Vietnam September 2, 1945
Founded by Lý Thái Tổ
Demonym Hanoians
Government
• Party's Secretary Hoàng Trung Hải
• Chairman of People's Council Nguyễn Thị Bích Ngọc
• Chairman of People's Committee Nguyễn Đức Chung
Area
• Municipality 3,328.9 km (1,292 sq mi)
• Urban 233.56 km (90.18 sq mi)
• Metro 24,314.7 km (9,388.0 sq mi)
Population (2015)
• Municipality 7,587,800
• Rank 2nd in Vietnam
• Density 2,300/km (5,900/sq mi)
• Urban 3,435,394
• Urban density 14,708.8/km (38,096/sq mi)
• Metro 16,100,000
• Metro density 662.1/km (1,715/sq mi)
GDP (nominal) (2015 estimate)
• Total 26.5 billion USD
• Per capita 3,425 USD
• Growth Increase 8.25%
Time zone ICT (UTC+07:00)
Area codes 4 (until 16 Jul 2017)
24 (from 17 Jun 2017)
Website www.english.hanoi.gov.vn

Hanoi (/hæˈnɔɪ/ or US: /həˈnɔɪ/; Vietnamese: Hà Nội, [hàː nôjˀ]) is the capital of Vietnam and the country's second largest city by population. Its population in 2009 was estimated at 2.6 million for urban districts and 7 million for the metropolitan jurisdiction. The population in 2015 was estimated at 7.7 million people. From 1010 until 1802, it was the most important political centre of Vietnam. It was eclipsed by Huế, the imperial capital of Vietnam during the Nguyễn Dynasty (1802–1945), but Hanoi served as the capital of French Indochina from 1902 to 1954. From 1954 to 1976, it was the capital of North Vietnam, and it became the capital of a reunified Vietnam in 1976, after the North's victory in the Vietnam War.

The city lies on the right bank of the Red River. Hanoi is 1,760 km (1,090 mi) north of Ho Chi Minh City and 120 km (75 mi) west of Hai Phong city.

October 2010 officially marked 1000 years since the establishment of the city. The Hanoi Ceramic Mosaic Mural is a 4 km ceramic mosaic mural created to mark the occasion.

Hanoi: Names

Hanoi (河內, "inside (the) river") has had many official and unofficial names throughout history.

  • During the Chinese occupation of Vietnam, it was known first as Long Biên (龍邊, "dragon edge"), then Tống Bình (宋平, "Song peace") and Long Đỗ (龍肚, "dragon belly"). Long Biên later gave its name to the famed Long Biên Bridge, built during French colonial time, and more recently to a new district to the east of the Red River. Several older names of Hanoi feature long (龍, "dragon"), which is linked to the curvy formation of the Red River around the city that was symbolized as a dragon.
  • In 866, it was turned into a citadel and named Đại La (大羅, "big net"). This gave it the nickname La Thành (羅城, "net citadel"). Both Đại La and La Thành are names of major streets in modern Hanoi.
  • When Lý Thái Tổ established the capital in the area in 1010, it was named Thăng Long (昇龍, "rising dragon"). Thăng Long later became the name of a major bridge on the highway linking the city center to Noi Bai Airport, and the Thăng Long Boulevard expressway in the southwest of the city center. In modern time, the city is usually referred to as Thăng Long – Hà Nội, when its long history is discussed.
  • During the Hồ dynasty, it was called Đông Đô (東都, "eastern metropolis").
  • During the Ming Chinese occupation, it was called Đông Quan (東關, "eastern gate").
  • During the Lê dynasty, Hanoi was known as Đông Kinh (東京, "eastern capital"). This gave the name to Tonkin and Gulf of Tonkin. A square adjacent to the Hoàn Kiếm lake was named Đông Kinh Nghĩa Thục after the reformist Tonkin Free School under French colonization.
  • After the end of the Tây Sơn dynasty, when the country had expanded further south, the city was named Bắc Thành (北城, "northern citadel").
  • Minh Mạng renamed the city Hà Nội (河內, "inside (the) river") in 1831. This has remained its official name until modern time.
  • Several unofficial names of Hanoi include: Kẻ Chợ (marketplace), Tràng An (long peace), Hà Thành (short for Thành phố Hà Nội, "city of Hanoi"), and Thủ Đô (capital).
  • In modern tourism, it is sometimes nicknamed Paris of the Orient, or Paris of the East.

Hanoi: History

Hanoi: Pre-Thăng Long period

Hanoi has been inhabited since at least 3000 BC. The Cổ Loa Citadel in Dong Anh district served as the capital of the Âu Lạc kingdom founded by the Shu emigrant Thục Phán after his 258 BC conquest of the native Văn Lang.

In 197 BC, Âu Lạc Kingdom was annexed by Nanyue, which ushered in more than a millennium of Chinese domination. By the middle of the 5th century, in the center of ancient Hanoi, the Liu Song Dynasty set up a new district (縣) called Songping (Tong Binh), which later became a commandery (郡), including two districts Yihuai (義懷) and Suining (綏寧) in the south of the Red River (now Từ Liêm and Hoài Đức districts) with a metropolis (the domination centre) in the present inner Hanoi. By the year 679, the Tang dynasty changed the region's name into Annan (Pacified South), with Songping as its capital.

In order to defeat the people's uprisings, in the later half of the 8th century, Zhang Boyi (張伯儀), a Tang dynasty viceroy, built Luocheng (羅城, La Thanh or La citadel, from Thu Le to Quan Ngua in present-day Ba Dinh precinct). In the earlier half of the 9th century, it was further built up and called Jincheng (金城, Kim Thanh or Kim Citadel). In 866, Gao Pian, the Chinese Jiedushi, consolidated and named it Daluocheng (大羅城, Dai La citadel, running from Quan Ngua to Bach Thao), the then-largest citadel of ancient Hanoi.

Hanoi: Thăng Long, Đông Đô, Đông Quan, Đông Kinh

In 1010, Lý Thái Tổ, the first ruler of the Lý Dynasty, moved the capital of Đại Việt to the site of the Đại La Citadel. Claiming to have seen a dragon ascending the Red River, he renamed the site Thăng Long (昇龍, "Soaring Dragon") – a name still used poetically to this day. Thăng Long remained the capital of Đại Việt until 1397, when it was moved to Thanh Hóa, then known as Tây Đô (西都), the "Western Capital". Thăng Long then became Đông Đô (東都), the "Eastern Capital."

In 1408, the Chinese Ming Dynasty attacked and occupied Vietnam, changing Đông Đô's name to Dongguan (Chinese: 東關, Eastern Gateway), or Đông Quan in Sino-Vietnamese. In 1428, the Vietnamese overthrew the Chinese under the leadership of Lê Lợi, who later founded the Lê Dynasty and renamed Đông Quan Đông Kinh (東京, "Eastern Capital") or Tonkin. Right after the end of the Tây Sơn Dynasty, it was named Bắc Thành (北城, "Northern Citadel").

Hanoi: During Nguyễn Dynasty and the French colonial period

France attack Hai Duong citadel
People in Ha Noi, 1884
The stamp depicted the election day in Hà Nội during French Indochina, around 1910
Ha Noi, New Year's Day, 1973

In 1802, when the Nguyễn Dynasty was established and moved the capital to Huế, the old name Thăng Long was modified to become Thăng Long (昇隆, "Soaring Dragon"). In 1831, the Nguyễn emperor Minh Mạng renamed it Hà Nội (河内, "Between Rivers" or "River Interior"). Hanoi was occupied by the French in 1873 and passed to them ten years later. As Hanoï, it was located in the protectorate of Tonkin became the capital of French Indochina after 1887.

Hanoi: During two wars

The city was occupied by the Imperial Japanese in 1940 and liberated in 1945, when it briefly became the seat of the Viet Minh government after Ho Chi Minh proclaimed the independence of Vietnam. However, the French returned and reoccupied the city in 1946. After nine years of fighting between the French and Viet Minh forces, Hanoi became the capital of an independent North Vietnam in 1954.

During the Vietnam War, Hanoi's transportation facilities were disrupted by the bombing of bridges and railways. These were all, however, promptly repaired. Following the end of the war, Hanoi became the capital of a reunified Vietnam when North and South Vietnam were reunited on July 2, 1976.

Hanoi: Modern Hanoi

On May 29, 2008, it was decided that Hà Tây Province, Vĩnh Phúc Province's Mê Linh District and 4 communes of Lương Sơn District, Hòa Bình Province be merged into the metropolitan area of Hanoi from August 1, 2008. Hanoi's total area then increased to 334,470 hectares in 29 subdivisions with the new population being 6,232,940., effectively tripling its size. The Hanoi Capital Region (Vùng Thủ đô Hà Nội), a metropolitan area covering Hanoi and 6 surrounding provinces under its administration, will have an area of 13,436 square kilometres (5,188 sq mi) with 15 million people by 2020.

Hanoi has experienced a rapid construction boom recently. Skyscrapers, popping up in new urban areas, have dramatically changed the cityscape and have formed a modern skyline outside the old city. In 2015, Hanoi is ranked # 39 by Emporis in the list of world cities with most skyscrapers over 100 m; its two tallest buildings are Hanoi Landmark 72 Tower (336 m, tallest in Vietnam and second tallest in south-east Asia after Malaysia's Petronas Twin Towers) and Hanoi Lotte Center (272 m, also, second tallest in Vietnam).

Hanoi: Geography

Hanoi: Location, topography

Hanoi is located in northern region of Vietnam, situated in the Vietnam's Red River delta, nearly 90 km (56 mi) away from the coastal area. Hanoi contains three basic kind of terrain, which are the delta area, the midland area and mountainous zone. In general, the terrain is gradually lower from the north to the south and from the west to the east, with the average height ranging from 5 to 20 meters above the sea level. The hills and mountainous zones are located in the northern and western part of the city. The highest peak is at Ba Vi with 1281 m, located west of the city proper.

Hanoi: Climate

Hanoi seen from Spot Satellite

Hanoi features a warm humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cwa) with plentiful precipitation. The city experiences the typical climate of northern Vietnam, with 4 distinct seasons. Summer, from May until August, is characterized by hot and humid weather with abundant rainfall. September to October is fall, characterized by a decrease in temperature and precipitation. Winter, from November to January, is dry and cool by national standards. The city is usually cloudy and foggy in winter, averaging only 1.5 hours of sunshine per day in February and March.

Hanoi averages 1,680 millimetres (66.1 in) of rainfall per year, the majority falling from May to September. There are an average of 114 days with rain.

The average annual temperature is 23.6 °C (74 °F) with a mean relative humidity of 79%. The highest recorded temperature was 42.8 °C (109 °F) on May 1926 while the lowest recorded temperature was 2.7 °C (37 °F) on January 1955.

Climate data for Hanoi (1898–1990)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 32.0
(89.6)
34.7
(94.5)
37.2
(99)
39.0
(102.2)
42.8
(109)
41.5
(106.7)
40.1
(104.2)
38.2
(100.8)
39.0
(102.2)
35.5
(95.9)
34.7
(94.5)
31.5
(88.7)
42.8
(109)
Average high °C (°F) 19.3
(66.7)
19.9
(67.8)
22.8
(73)
27.0
(80.6)
31.5
(88.7)
32.6
(90.7)
32.9
(91.2)
31.9
(89.4)
30.9
(87.6)
28.6
(83.5)
25.2
(77.4)
21.8
(71.2)
27.0
(80.6)
Daily mean °C (°F) 16.5
(61.7)
17.5
(63.5)
20.5
(68.9)
24.2
(75.6)
27.9
(82.2)
29.2
(84.6)
29.5
(85.1)
28.8
(83.8)
27.8
(82)
25.3
(77.5)
21.9
(71.4)
18.6
(65.5)
24.0
(75.2)
Average low °C (°F) 13.7
(56.7)
15.0
(59)
18.1
(64.6)
21.4
(70.5)
24.3
(75.7)
25.8
(78.4)
26.1
(79)
25.7
(78.3)
24.7
(76.5)
21.9
(71.4)
18.5
(65.3)
15.3
(59.5)
20.9
(69.6)
Record low °C (°F) 2.7
(36.9)
6.0
(42.8)
7.4
(45.3)
13.0
(55.4)
17.2
(63)
20.0
(68)
22.2
(72)
22.2
(72)
17.4
(63.3)
14.0
(57.2)
10.0
(50)
5.0
(41)
2.7
(36.9)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 18.6
(0.732)
26.2
(1.031)
43.8
(1.724)
90.1
(3.547)
188.5
(7.421)
239.9
(9.445)
288.2
(11.346)
318.0
(12.52)
265.4
(10.449)
130.7
(5.146)
43.4
(1.709)
23.4
(0.921)
1,676.2
(65.992)
Average rainy days 8.4 11.3 15.0 13.3 14.2 14.7 15.7 16.7 13.7 9.0 6.5 6.0 144.5
Average relative humidity (%) 78 82 83 83 77 78 79 82 79 75 74 75 78.8
Mean monthly sunshine hours 68.2 45.2 43.4 81.0 164.3 156.0 182.9 164.3 162.0 164.3 126.0 108.5 1,466.1
Source #1: World Meteorological Organization, BBC Weather (humidity)
Source #2: Pogoda.ru.net (records), (May record high and January record low only), (sunshine hours only), Vietnamnet.vn (June record high only)

Hanoi: Administrative divisions

Hà Nội is divided into 12 urban districts, 1 district-leveled town and 17 rural districts. When Hà Tây was merged into Hanoi in 2008, Hà Đông was transformed into an urban district while Sơn Tây degraded to a district-leveled town. They are further subdivided into 22 commune-level towns (or townlets), 399 communes, and 145 wards.

Administrative divisions of Hanoi

Hanoi: List of local government divisions

Subdivisions of Hanoi
Provincial Cities/Districts Wards Area (km) Population
1 town (Thị xã)
Sơn Tây Town 15 113.474 181,831
12 urban districts (Quận)
Ba Đình District 14 9.224 228,352
Bắc Từ Liêm District 13 43.35 320,414
Cầu Giấy District 8 12.04 251,000
Đống Đa District 21 9.96 408,000
Hai Bà Trưng District 20 14.6 378,000
Hà Đông District 17 47.917 250,687
Hoàn Kiếm District 18 5.29 178,073
Hoàng Mai District 14 41.04 358,277
Long Biên District 14 60.38 273,706
Nam Từ Liêm District 10 32.27 232,894
Tây Hồ District 8 24 115,163
Thanh Xuân District 11 9.11 259,000 (2011)
Subtotal 145 233.56 3,435,394
17 rural districts (Huyện)
Ba Vì District 31 + 1 town 428.0 242,600 (1999)
Chương Mỹ District 30 + 2 towns 232.9 261,000 (2013)
Đan Phượng District 15 + 1 town 76.8 124,900
Đông Anh District 23 + 1 town 182.3 376,750 (2009)
Gia Lâm District 20 + 2 towns 114.0 251,275 (2011)
Hoài Đức District 19 + 1 town 95.3 188,800
Mê Linh District 16 + 2 towns 141.26 187,536 (2008)
Mỹ Đức District 21 + 1 town 230.0 167,700 (1999)
Phú Xuyên District 26 + 2 towns 171.1 181,500
Phúc Thọ District 25 + 1 town 113.2 154,800 (2001)
Quốc Oai District 20 + 1 town 136.0 (2001) 146,700 (2001)
Sóc Sơn District 25 + 1 town 306.51 254,000
Thanh Trì District 15 + 1 town 63.17 241,000 (2009)
Thanh Oai District 20 + 1 town 129.6 142,600 (2007)
Thạch Thất District 22 + 1 town 128.1 149,000 (2003)
Thường Tín District 28 + 1 town 127.7 208,000
Ứng Hòa District 28 + 1 town 183.72 193,731 (2005)
Subtotal 399 + 22 towns 3,266.186 3,972,851
Total 559 + 22 towns 3,344.47 7,408,245

– formerly an administrative subdivision unit of the defunct Hà Tây Province

Hanoi: Demographics

Hanoian women wearing traditional costume Áo dài during APEC Summit 2006

Hanoi's population is constantly growing (about 3.5% per year), a reflection of the fact that the city is both a major metropolitan area of Northern Vietnam, and also the country's political centre. This population growth also puts a lot of pressure on the infrastructure, some of which is antiquated and dates back to the early 20th century.

The number of Hanoians who have settled down for more than three generations is likely to be very small when compared to the overall population of the city. Even in the Old Quarter, where commerce started hundreds of years ago and consisted mostly of family businesses, many of the street-front stores nowadays are owned by merchants and retailers from other provinces. The original owner family may have either rented out the store and moved into the adjoining house or moved out of the neighbourhood altogether. The pace of change has especially escalated after the abandonment of central-planning economic policies and relaxing of the district-based household registrar system.

Hanoi's telephone numbers have been increased to 8 digits to cope with demand (October 2008). Subscribers' telephone numbers have been changed in a haphazard way; however, mobile phones and SIM cards are readily available in Vietnam, with pre-paid mobile phone credit available in all areas of Hanoi.

Hanoi: Economy

Hanoi has the highest Human Development Index among the cities in Vietnam.According to a recent ranking by PricewaterhouseCoopers, Hanoi will be the fastest growing city in the world in terms of GDP growth from 2008 to 2025. In the year 2013, Hanoi contributed 12.6% to GDP, exported 7.5% of total exports, contributed 17% to the national budget and attracted 22% investment capital of Vietnam. The city's nominal GDP at current prices reached 451,213 billion VND (21.48 billion USD) in 2013, which made per capita GDP stand at 63.3 million VND (3,000 USD). Industrial production in the city has experienced a rapid boom since the 1990s, with average annual growth of 19.1 percent from 1991–95, 15.9 percent from 1996–2000, and 20.9 percent during 2001–2003. In addition to eight existing industrial parks, Hanoi is building five new large-scale industrial parks and 16 small- and medium-sized industrial clusters. The non-state economic sector is expanding fast, with more than 48,000 businesses currently operating under the Enterprise Law (as of 3/2007).

West Hanoi

Trade is another strong sector of the city. In 2003, Hanoi had 2,000 businesses engaged in foreign trade, having established ties with 161 countries and territories. The city's export value grew by an average 11.6 percent each year from 1996–2000 and 9.1 percent during 2001–2003. The economic structure also underwent important shifts, with tourism, finance, and banking now playing an increasingly important role. Hanoi's business districts are traditionally Hoàn Kiếm, Đống Đa District and the neighborhood; and a newly developing Cầu Giấy and Từ Liêm in the western part.

Similar to Ho Chi Minh City, Hanoi enjoys a rapidly developing real estate market. The current most notable new urban areas are central Trung Hoa Nhan Chinh, Mỹ Đình, the luxurious zones of The Manor, Ciputra and Times City.

Agriculture, previously a pillar in Hanoi's economy, has striven to reform itself, introducing new high-yield plant varieties and livestock, and applying modern farming techniques.

Together with economic growth, Hanoi's appearance has also changed significantly, especially in recent years. Infrastructure is constantly being upgraded, with new roads and an improved public transportation system.

Hanoi: Landmarks

North gate of Hanoi Citadel from inside (19th century)

As the capital of Vietnam for almost a thousand years, Hanoi is considered one of the main cultural centres of Vietnam, where most Vietnamese dynasties have left their imprint. Even though some relics have not survived through wars and time, the city still has many interesting cultural and historic monuments for visitors and residents alike. Even when the nation's capital moved to Huế under the Nguyễn Dynasty in 1802, the city of Hanoi continued to flourish, especially after the French took control in 1888 and modeled the city's architecture to their tastes, lending an important aesthetic to the city's rich stylistic heritage. The city hosts more cultural sites than any other city in Vietnam, and boasts more than 1,000 years of history; that of the past few hundred years has been well preserved.

Hanoi: Old Quarter

The Old Quarter, near Hoàn Kiếm Lake, maintains most of the original street layout and some of the architecture of old Hanoi. At the beginning of the 20th century Hanoi consisted of the "36 streets", the citadel, and some of the newer French buildings south of Hoàn Kiếm lake, most of which are now part of Hoàn Kiếm district. Each street had merchants and households specializing in a particular trade, such as silk, jewelry or even bamboo. The street names still reflect these specializations, although few of them remain exclusively in their original commerce. The area is famous for its specializations in trades such as traditional medicine and local handicrafts, including silk shops, bamboo carpenters, and tin smiths. Local cuisine specialties as well as several clubs and bars can be found here also. A night market (near Đồng Xuân Market) in the heart of the district opens for business every Friday, Saturday, and Sunday evening with a variety of clothing, souvenirs and food.

Some other prominent places are: The Temple of Literature (Văn Miếu), site of the oldest university in Vietnam 1010; One Pillar Pagoda (Chùa Một Cột) which was built based on the dream of king Lý Thái Tông (1028-1054) in 1049 ; Flag Tower of Hanoi (Cột cờ Hà Nội). In 2004, a massive part of the 900-year-old Hanoi Citadel was discovered in central Hanoi, near the site of Ba Đình Square.

Hanoi: Lakes

A city between rivers built from low land, Hanoi has many scenic lakes and is sometimes called "city of lakes." Among its lakes, the most famous are Hoàn Kiếm Lake, West Lake, and Bảy Mẫu Lake (inside Thống Nhất Park). Hoàn Kiếm Lake, also known as Sword Lake, is the historical and cultural center of Hanoi, and is linked to the legend of the magic sword. West Lake (Hồ Tây) is a popular place for people to spend time. It is the largest lake in Hanoi and there are many temples in the area. The lakeside road in the Nghi Tam – Quang Ba area is perfect for bicycling, jogging and viewing the cityscape or enjoying lotus ponds in the summer. The best way to see the majestic beauty of a West lake sunset is to view it from one of the many bars around the lake, especially the Sofitel Plaza rooftop bar.

Hanoi: Colonial Hanoi

Hotel Metropole in colonial Hanoi

Under French rule, as an administrative centre for the French colony of Indochina, the French colonial architecture style became dominant, and many examples remain today: the tree-lined boulevards (e.g. Phan Dinh Phung street) and its many villas and mansions, Grand Opera House, State Bank of Vietnam (formerly The Bank of Indochina), Presidential Palace (formerly the Palace of the Governor-General of French Indochina), St. Joseph's Cathedral, and the historic Hotel Metropole. Many of the colonial structures are an eclectic mixture of French and traditional Vietnamese architectural styles, such as the National Museum of Vietnamese History, the Vietnam National Museum of Fine Arts and the old Indochina Medical College. Gouveneur-Général Paul Doumer (1898-1902) played a crucial role in colonial Hanoi's urban planning. Under his tenure there was a major construction boom.

Critical historians of empire have noted that French colonial rule imposed a system of white supremacy on the city. Vietnamese subjects supplied labor and tax revenue, but the privileges and comforts of the city went to the white population. French efforts at rat eradication revealed some of the colonial city's racial double-standards.

Trung Hoa Nhan Chinh Area

Hanoi: Museums

New City Trung Hoa

Hanoi is home to a number of museums:

  • National Museum of Vietnamese History
  • Vietnam National Museum of Fine Arts
  • Vietnam Museum of Ethnology
  • Vietnam Museum of Revolution
  • Hỏa Lò Prison (Hanoi Hilton)
  • Ho Chi Minh Museum
  • Hanoi Contemporary Arts Centre
  • Vietnam Military History Museum
  • Hanoi Museum

Hanoi: Tourism

Hanoi is sometimes dubbed the "Paris of the East" for its French influences. With its tree-fringed boulevards, more than two dozen lakes and thousands of French colonial-era buildings, Hanoi is a popular tourist destination.

Since 2014, Hanoi has consistently been voted in the world's top ten destinations by TripAdvisor. It ranked 8th in 2014, 4th in 2015 and 8th in 2016.

Hanoi is the most affordable international destination in TripAdvisor's annual TripIndex report.

Hanoi: Entertainment

Performance of the water puppet theatre Thăng Long

A variety of options for entertainment in Hanoi can be found throughout the city. Modern and traditional theaters, cinemas, karaoke bars, dance clubs, bowling alleys, and an abundance of opportunities for shopping provide leisure activity for both locals and tourists. Hanoi has been named one of the top 10 cities for shopping in Asia by Water Puppet Tours. The number of art galleries exhibiting Vietnamese art has dramatically increased in recent years, now including galleries such as "Nhat Huy" of Huynh Thong Nhat.

Nhà Triển Lãm at 29 Hang Bai street hosts regular photo, sculpture, and paint exhibitions in conjuncture with local artists and travelling international expositions.

A popular traditional form of entertainment is Water puppetry, which is shown, for example, at the Thăng Long Water Puppet Theatre.

Hanoi: Shopping

Trang Tien Plaza

With rapid economic growth and extremely high population density, many modern shopping centers and megamalls have been opened in Hanoi.

Major malls are:

  • Trang Tien Plaza, High-end Mall on Trang Tien street (right next to Hoàn Kiếm Lake), Hoàn Kiếm District
  • Vincom Center, a modern mall with hi-end CGV cineplex, Ba Trieu Street (just 2 km from Hoan Kiem lake), Hai Bà Trưng District
  • Parkson Department Store, Tây Sơn Street, Đống Đa District;
  • The Garden Shopping Center, Me Tri – Mỹ Đình, Từ Liêm District
  • Indochina Plaza, Xuan Thuy street, Cầu Giấy District
  • Vincom Royal City Megamall, the largest underground mall in Asia with 230,000 square metres of shops, restaurants, cineplex, waterpark, ice skating rink; Nguyen Trai street (approx 6 km from Hoan Kiem Lake), Thanh Xuân District
  • Vincom Times City Megamall, another megamall of 230,000 square metres including shops, restaurants, cineplex, huge musical fountain on central square and a giant aquarium; Minh Khai street (approx 5 km from Hoan Kiem Lake), Hai Ba Trung district
  • Times City mall
    Lotte Department Store, opened September 2014, Liễu Giai Street, Ba Đình District
  • Aeon Mall Long Bien opened last October 2015, Long Bien District

Hanoi: Cuisine

Hanoi has rich culinary traditions. Many of Vietnam's most famous dishes, such as phở, chả cá, bánh cuốn and cốm are believed to have originated in Hanoi. Perhaps most widely known is Phở-a simple rice noodle soup often eaten as breakfast at home or at street-side cafes, but also served in restaurants as a meal. Two varieties dominate the Hanoi scene: Phở Bò, containing beef and Phở Gà, containing chicken. Bún chả, a dish consisting of charcoal roasted pork served in a sweet/salty soup with rice noodle vermicelli and lettuce, is by far the most popular food item among locals. President Obama famously tried this dish at a Le Van Huu eatery with Anthony Bourdain in 2016, prompting the opening of a Bún chả restaurant bearing his name in the Old Quarter.

Vietnam's national dish phở has been named as one of the Top 5 street foods in the world by globalpost.

Hanoi has a number of restaurants whose menus specifically offer dishes containing snake and various species of insects. Insect-inspired menus can be found at a number of restaurants in Khuong Thuong village, Hanoi. The signature dishes at these restaurant are those containing processed ant-eggs, often in the culinary styles of Thai people or Vietnam's Muong and Tay ethnic people. Hanoi is also home to much of the dog eating culture of Vietnam, with several restaurants offering the dish in the Old Quarter and surrounding areas.

Bia Hoi, a local take on a Czech style beer allegedly introduced by guest engineers in post liberation Hanoi, is also a local specialty. This beer is light, gassy, with a very neutral pallet which agrees with the local diet quite well. It contains no preservatives and is therefore "fresh" beer. It is usually purchased for around 5-10,000 dong per glass or around 25 to 40 cents. The beer is produced by a variety of the local breweries and is the tent pole item for many local eateries generally referred to as "bia hoi" which serve a variety of local dishes.

Hanoi: Education

Indochina Medical College in the early 20th century, today the Hanoi Medical University

Hanoi, as the capital of French Indochina, was home to the first Western-style universities in Indochina, including: Indochina Medical College (1902) – now Hanoi Medical University, Indochina University (1904) – now Hanoi National University (the largest), and École Supérieure des Beaux-Arts de l'Indochine (1925) – now Hanoi University of Fine Art.

After the Communist Party of Vietnam took control of Hanoi in 1954, many new universities were built, among them, Hanoi University of Technology, still the largest technical university in Vietnam. Recently ULIS (University of Languages and International Studies) was rated as one of the top universities in south-east Asia for languages and language studies at the undergraduate level. Other universities that are not part of Vietnam National University or Hanoi University include Hanoi School for Public Health and Hanoi School of Agriculture and University of Transport and Communications.

Hanoi is the largest center of education in Vietnam. It is estimated that 62% of the scientists in the whole country are living and working in Hanoi. Admissions to undergraduate study are through entrance examinations, which are conducted annually and open to everyone (who has successfully completed his/her secondary education) in the country. The majority of universities in Hanoi are public, although in recent years a number of private universities have begun operation. Thăng Long University, founded in 1988, by Vietnamese mathematics professors in Hanoi and France was the first private university in Vietnam. Because many of Vietnam's major universities are located in Hanoi, students from other provinces (especially in the northern part of the country) wishing to enter university often travel to Hanoi for the annual entrance examination. Such events usually take place in June and July, during which a large number of students and their families converge on the city for several weeks around the intense examination period. In recent years, these entrance exams have been centrally coordinated by the Ministry of Education, but entrance requirements are decided independently by each university.

Although there are state owned kindergartens, there are also many private ventures that serve both local and international needs. Pre-tertiary (elementary and secondary) schools in Hanoi are generally state run, but there are also some independent schools. Education is equivalent to the K–12 system in the U.S., with elementary school between grades 1 and 5, middle school (or junior high) between grades 6 and 9, and high school from grades 10 to 12.

Hanoi: Transport

Inside International Terminal

Hanoi is served by Noi Bai International Airport, located in the Soc Son District, approximately 15 km (9 mi) north of Hanoi. The new international terminal (T2), designed and built by Japanese contractors, opened in January 2015 and is a big facelift for Noibai International Airport. In addition, a new highway and the new Nhat Tan cable-stay bridge connecting the airport and the city center opened at the same time, offering much more convenience than the old road (via Thanglong bridge). Taxis are plentiful and usually have meters, although it is also common to agree on the trip price before taking a taxi from the airport to the city centre.

Hanoi is also the origin or departure point for many Vietnam Railways train routes in the country. The Reunification Express (tàu Thống Nhất) runs from Hanoi to Ho Chi Minh City from Hanoi station (formerly Hang Co station), with stops at cities and provinces along the line. Trains also depart Hanoi frequently for Hai Phong and other northern cities. The Reunification Express line was established during French colonial rule and was completed over a period of nearly forty years, from 1899 to 1936. The Reunification Express between Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City covers a distance of 1,726 km (1,072 mi) and takes approximately 33 hours. As of 2005, there were 278 stations on the Vietnamese railway network, of which 191 were located along the North-South line.

Hanoi Metro Map, none of the lines are in operation at the moment

The main means of transport within Hanoi city are motorbikes, buses, taxis, and a rising number of cars. In recent decades, motorbikes have overtaken bicycles as the main form of transportation. Cars however are probably the most notable change in the past 5 years as many Vietnamese people purchase the vehicles for the first time. The increased number of cars are the main cause gridlock as roads and infrastructure in the older parts of Hanoi were not designed to accommodate them. The local government is trying to increase public transportation. For example, an elevated rail line has been under construction for the past several years with opening dates cited as early as 2017. Public buses still run on many routes and fares can be purchased on the bus, for very cheap prices (30 cents for a journey where a taxi might cost $10). The city has recently added a fleet of new buses as well as a tourist bus connecting the city with Noi Bai Airport and the Hanoi Train Station on Le Duan street.

There are 2 metro lines under construction in Hanoi now. The first one is expected to be operational in 2018, the second in 2021.

Persons on their own or traveling in a pair who wish to make a fast trip around Hanoi to avoid traffic jams or to travel at an irregular time or by way of an irregular route often use "xe ôm" (literally, "hug bike"). Motorbikes can also be rented from agents within the Old Quarter of Hanoi, although this falls inside a rather grey legal area.

Hanoi: Sports

Mỹ Đình National Stadium

There are several gymnasiums and stadiums throughout the city of Hanoi. The biggest ones are Mỹ Đình National Stadium (Lê Đức Thọ Boulevard), Quan Ngua Sporting Palace (Văn Cao Avenue), Hanoi Aquatics Sports Complex and Mỹ Đình Indoor Athletics Gymnasium. The others include Hà Nội Stadium (as known as Hàng Đẫy stadium). The third Asian Indoor Games were held in Hanoi in 2009. The others are Hai Bà Trưng Gymnasium, Trịnh Hoài Đức Gymnasium, Vạn Bảo Sports Complex.

Hanoi: Health care and other facilities

Vinmec Hospital

Some medical facilities in Hanoi:

  • Bạch Mai Hospital
  • Viet Duc Hospital
  • Saint Paul Hospital
  • 108 Hospital
  • Hôpital Français de Hanoi
  • International SOS
  • Hanoi Medical University Hospital
  • Thanh Nhan Hospital
  • Vinmec International Hospital

Hanoi: International relations

Hanoi is a member of the Asian Network of Major Cities 21 and the C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group.

Hanoi: Twin towns and sister cities

Hanoi is twinned with:

  • China Beijing, China
  • Kazakhstan Astana, Kazakhstan
  • Hong Kong Hong Kong, Hong Kong
  • Turkey Ankara, Turkey
  • Poland Warsaw, Poland
  • France Toulouse, France
  • Japan Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan
  • Thailand Bangkok, Thailand
  • Russia Moscow, Russia
  • Philippines Manila, Philippines
  • France Angoulême, France
  • South Korea Seoul, South Korea
  • Cambodia Phnom Penh, Cambodia
  • Indonesia Jakarta, Indonesia
  • Iran Isfahan, Iran
  • Canada Montreal, Quebec, Canada
  • Seychelles Victoria, Seychelles

Hanoi: See also

  • Gioi Market
  • Đồng Xuân Market
  • Ho Chi Minh City
  • North–South Railway (Vietnam)
  • List of historical capitals of Vietnam
  • All pages with a title containing Hanoi

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  62. "Sister Cities". Phnompenh.gov.kh. Archived from the original on 2013-08-23. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
  63. "Thủ tướng Nguyễn Tấn Dũng hội kiến Tổng thống Seychelles". BÁO ĐIỆN TỬ CỦA CHÍNH PHỦ NƯỚC CỘNG HÒA XÃ HỘI CHỦ NGHĨA VIỆT NAM. Archived from the original on 2013-08-31. Retrieved 2013-08-29.

Hanoi: Bibliography

  • Boudarel, Georges (2002). Hanoi: City Of The Rising Dragon. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. ISBN 0-7425-1655-5.
  • Forbes, Andrew, and Henley, David: Vietnam Past and Present: The North (History and culture of Hanoi and Tonkin). Chiang Mai. Cognoscenti Books, 2012. ASIN: B006DCCM9Q.
  • Logan, William S. (2001). Hanoi: Biography of a City. University of Washington Press. ISBN 0-295-98014-1.
  • Official Site of Hanoi Government
  • An article in New York Times about Hanoi
  • Hanoi travel guide from Wikivoyage
Source of information: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. We're not responsible for the content of this article and your use of this information. Disclaimer
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