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What's important: you can compare and book not only Hesse hotels and resorts, but also villas and holiday cottages, inns and B&Bs (bed and breakfast), condo hotels and apartments, timeshare properties, guest houses and pensions, campsites (campgrounds), motels and hostels in Hesse. If you're going to Hesse save your money and time, don't pay for the services of the greedy travel agencies. Instead, book the best hotel in Hesse online, buy the cheapest airline tickets to Hesse, and rent a car in Hesse right now, paying the lowest price! Besides, here you can buy the Hesse related books, guidebooks, souvenirs and other goods.

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How to Book a Hotel in Hesse

In order to book an accommodation in Hesse enter the proper dates and do the hotel search. If needed, sort the found Hesse hotels by price, star rating, property type, guest rating, hotel features, hotel theme or hotel chain. Then take a look at the found hotels on Hesse map to estimate the distance from the main Hesse attractions and sights. You can also read the guest reviews of Hesse hotels and see their ratings.

When a hotel search in Hesse is done, please select the room type, the included meals and the suitable booking conditions (for example, "Deluxe double room, Breakfast included, Non-Refundable"). Press the "View Deal" ("Book Now") button. Make your booking on a hotel booking website and get the hotel reservation voucher by email. That's it, a perfect hotel in Hesse is waiting for you!

Hotels of Hesse

A hotel in Hesse is an establishment that provides lodging paid on a short-term basis. Facilities provided may range from a basic bed and storage for clothing, to luxury features like en-suite bathrooms. Larger in Hesse hotels may provide additional guest facilities such as a swimming pool, business centre, childcare, conference facilities and social function services. Hotel rooms in Hesse are usually numbered (or named in some smaller hotels and B&Bs) to allow guests to identify their room. Some Hesse hotels offer meals as part of a room and board arrangement. Hotel operations vary in size, function, and cost. Most Hesse hotels and major hospitality companies that operate hotels in Hesse have set widely accepted industry standards to classify hotel types. General categories include the following:

Upscale luxury hotels in Hesse
An upscale full service hotel facility in Hesse that offers luxury amenities, full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and the highest level of personalized and professional service. Luxury Hesse hotels are normally classified with at least a Four Diamond or Five Diamond status or a Four or Five Star rating depending on classification standards.

Full service hotels in Hesse
Full service Hesse hotels often contain upscale full-service facilities with a large volume of full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and a variety of on-site amenities such as swimming pools, a health club, children's activities, ballrooms, on-site conference facilities, etc.

Historic inns and boutique hotels in Hesse
Boutique hotels of Hesse are smaller independent non-branded hotels that often contain upscale facilities of varying size in unique or intimate settings with full service accommodations. Hesse boutique hotels are generally 100 rooms or less. Some historic inns and boutique hotels in Hesse may be classified as luxury hotels.

Focused or select service hotels in Hesse
Small to medium-sized hotel establishments that offer a limited amount of on-site amenities that only cater and market to a specific demographic of Hesse travelers, such as the single business traveler. Most Hesse focused or select service hotels may still offer full service accommodations but may lack leisure amenities such as an on-site restaurant or a swimming pool.

Economy and limited service hotels in Hesse
Small to medium-sized Hesse hotel establishments that offer a very limited amount of on-site amenities and often only offer basic accommodations with little to no services, these facilities normally only cater and market to a specific demographic of travelers, such as the budget-minded Hesse traveler seeking a "no frills" accommodation. Limited service Hesse hotels often lack an on-site restaurant but in return may offer a limited complimentary food and beverage amenity such as on-site continental breakfast service.

Guest houses and B&Bs in Hesse
A bed and breakfast in Hesse is a small lodging establishment that offers overnight accommodation and inclusive breakfast. Usually, Hesse bed and breakfasts are private homes or family homes offering accommodations. The typical Hesse B&B has between 4 and 11 rooms, with 6 being the average. Generally, guests are accommodated in private bedrooms with private bathrooms, or in a suite of rooms including an en suite bathroom. Some homes have private bedrooms with a bathroom which is shared with other guests. Breakfast is served in the bedroom, a dining room, or the host's kitchen. Often the owners of guest house themselves prepare the breakfast and clean the rooms.

Hostels in Hesse
Hesse hostels provide budget-oriented, sociable accommodation where guests can rent a bed, usually a bunk bed, in a dormitory and share a bathroom, lounge, and sometimes a kitchen. Rooms can be mixed or single-sex, although private rooms may also be available. Hostels are often cheaper for both the operator and occupants; many Hesse hostels have long-term residents whom they employ as desk agents or housekeeping staff in exchange for experience or discounted accommodation.

Apartment hotels, extended stay hotels in Hesse
Extended stay hotels are small to medium-sized Hesse hotels that offer longer term full service accommodations compared to a traditional hotel. Extended stay hotels may offer non-traditional pricing methods such as a weekly rate that cater towards travelers in need of short-term accommodations for an extended period of time. Similar to limited and select service hotels, on-site amenities are normally limited and most extended stay hotels in Hesse lack an on-site restaurant.

Timeshare and destination clubs in Hesse
Hesse timeshare and destination clubs are a form of property ownership also referred to as a vacation ownership involving the purchase and ownership of an individual unit of accommodation for seasonal usage during a specified period of time. Timeshare resorts in Hesse often offer amenities similar that of a Full service hotel with on-site restaurant(s), swimming pools, recreation grounds, and other leisure-oriented amenities. Destination clubs of Hesse on the other hand may offer more exclusive private accommodations such as private houses in a neighborhood-style setting.

Motels in Hesse
A Hesse motel is a small-sized low-rise lodging establishment similar to that of a limited service hotel, but with direct access to individual rooms from the car park. Common during the 1950s and 1960s, motels were often located adjacent to a major road, where they were built on inexpensive land at the edge of towns or along stretches of highways. They are still useful in less populated areas of Hesse for driving travelers, but the more populated an area becomes the more hotels fill the need. Many of Hesse motels which remain in operation have joined national franchise chains, rebranding themselves as hotels, inns or lodges.

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Travelling and vacation in Hesse

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For the writer, see Hermann Hesse. For other persons, see Hesse (surname). For other uses, see Hesse (disambiguation).
Hesse
Hessen
State of Germany
Flag of Hesse
Flag
Coat of arms of Hesse
Coat of arms
Deutschland Lage von Hessen.svg
Coordinates:  / 50.66611; 8.59111
Country Germany
Capital Wiesbaden
Government
• Minister-President Volker Bouffier (CDU)
• Governing parties CDU / Greens
• Bundesrat votes 5 (of 69)
Area
• Total 21,100 km (8,100 sq mi)
Population (2015-12-31)
• Total 6,176,172
• Density 290/km (760/sq mi)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
• Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
ISO 3166 code DE-HE
GDP/ Nominal €263/ $292 billion (2015)
GDP per capita €43,000/ $48,000 (2015)
NUTS Region DE7
Website www.hessen.de

Hesse (/ˈhɛs/ or /ˈhɛsi/) or Hessia (German: Hessen [ˈhɛsn̩], Hessian dialect: Hesse [ˈhɛzə]) is a federal state (Land) of the Federal Republic of Germany, with just over six million inhabitants. The state capital is Wiesbaden; the largest city is Frankfurt am Main. Until the unification of Germany, the territory of Hesse was occupied by the Grand Duchy of Hesse, the Duchy of Nassau, the free city of Frankfurt and the Electorate of Hesse, known also as Hesse-Cassel. Due to divisions after World War II, the modern federal state does not cover the entire cultural region of Hesse which includes both the State of Hesse and the area known as Rhenish Hesse (Rheinhessen) in the neighbouring state of Rhineland-Palatinate.

The English name "Hesse" originates in the Hessian dialects. The variant "Hessia" comes from the medieval Latin Hassia. The German term Hessen is used by the European Commission because their policy is to leave regional names untranslated (paragraphs 1.31 & 1.35). The term "Hesse" ultimately derives from a Germanic tribe called the Chatti, who settled in the region in the first century B.C. An inhabitant of Hesse is called a Hessian (German: Hesse (masculine) or Hessin (feminine)). The synthetic element hassium, number 108 on the periodic table, is named after the state of Hesse.

Hesse: History

Main article: History of Hesse

As early as the Paleolithic period, the Central Hessian region was inhabited. Due to the favorable climate of the location, people lived there about 50,000 years ago during the last glacial period, as burial sites show from this era. Finds of paleolitical tools in southern Hesse in Rüsselsheim suggest Pleistocene hunters about 13,000 years ago. The Züschen tomb (German: Steinkammergrab von Züschen, sometimes also Lohne-Züschen) is a prehistoric burial monument, located between Lohne and Züschen, near Fritzlar, Hesse, Germany. Classified as a gallery grave or a Hessian-Westphalian stone cist (hessisch-westfälische Steinkiste), it is one of the most important megalithic monuments in Central Europe. Dating to the late fourth millennium BC (and possibly remaining in use until the early third), it belongs to the Late Neolithic Wartberg culture.

An early Celtic presence in what is now Hesse is indicated by a mid-fifth-century BC La Tène style burial uncovered at Glauberg. The region was later settled by the Germanic Chatti tribe around the first century BC, and the name Hesse is a continuation of that tribal name.

The ancient Romans had a military camp in Dorlar, and in Waldgirmes directly on the eastern outskirts of Wetzlar was a civil settlement under construction. Presumably, the provincial government for the occupied territories of the right bank of Germania was planned at this location. The governor of Germania, at least temporarily, likely had resided here. The settlement appears to have been abandoned by the Romans after the devastating Battle of the Teutoburg Forest failed in the year 9 AD. The Chatti were also involved in the Revolt of the Batavi in 69 AD.

Hessia, from the early seventh century on, served as a buffer between areas dominated by the Saxons (to the north) and the Franks who brought the area to the south under their control in the early sixth century and occupied Thuringia (to the east) in 531. Hessia occupies the northwestern part of the modern German state of Hesse; its borders were not clearly delineated. Its geographic center is Fritzlar; it extends in the southeast to Hersfeld on the Fulda river, in the north to past Kassel and up to the rivers Diemel and Weser. To the west, it occupies the valleys of the rivers Eder and Lahn (the latter until it turns south). It measured roughly 90 kilometers north-south, and 80 north-west.

The area around Fritzlar shows evidence of significant pagan belief from the first century on. Geismar was a particular focus of such activity; it was continuously occupied from the Roman period on, with a settlement from the Roman period, which itself had a predecessor from the fifth century BC. Excavations have produced a horse burial and bronze artifacts. A possible religious cult may have centered on a natural spring in Geismar, called Heilgenbron; the name "Geismar" (possibly "energetic pool") itself may be derived from that spring. The village of Maden, Gudensberg (de), now a part of Gudensberg near Fritzlar and less than ten miles from Geismar, was likely an ancient religious center: the basalt outcrop of Gudensberg is named for Wodan, and there is a two-meter tall quartz megalith called the Wotanstein in the center of the village.

By 650, the Franks were establishing themselves as overlords, which is suggested by archeological evidence of burials, and were building fortifications in various places including Christenberg. By 690 they were taking direct control over Hessia, apparently to counteract expansion by the Saxons, who built fortifications in Gaulskopf and Eresburg across the river Diemel, the northern boundary of Hessia. The Büraburg (which already had a Frankish settlement in the sixth century) was one of the places the Franks fortified in order to resist the Saxon pressure, and according to John-Henry Clay the Büraburg was "probably the largest man-made construction seen in Hessia for at least seven hundred years". Walls and trenches totaling one kilometer in length were made, and they enclosed "8 hectares of a spur that offered a commanding view over Fritzlar and the densely populated heart of Hessia".

Following Saxon incursions into Chattish territory in the seventh century, two gaus had been established-a Frankish one, comprising an area around Fritzlar and Kassel, and a Saxon one. In the 9th century, the Saxon Hessengau also came under the rule of the Franconians. In the 12th, century it was passed to Thuringia.

In the War of the Thuringian Succession (1247-1264), Hesse gained its independence and became a Landgraviate within the Holy Roman Empire. It shortly rose to primary importance under Landgrave Philip the Magnanimous, who was one of the leaders of German Protestantism. After Philip's death in 1567, the territory was divided among his four sons from his first marriage (Philip was a bigamist) into four lines: Hesse-Kassel (or Hesse-Cassel), Hesse-Darmstadt, Hesse-Rheinfels, and the also previously existing Hesse-Marburg. As the latter two lines died out quite soon (1583 and 1605, respectively), Hesse-Kassel and Hesse-Darmstadt were the two core states within the Hessian lands. Several collateral lines split off during the centuries, such as in 1622, when Hesse-Homburg split off from Hesse-Darmstadt. In the late 16th century, Kassel adopted Calvinism, while Darmstadt remained Lutheran and subsequently the two lines often found themselves on different sides of a conflict, most notably in the disputes over Hesse-Marburg and in the Thirty Years' War, when Darmstadt fought on the side of the Emperor, while Kassel sided with Sweden and France.

The Landgrave Frederick II (1720–1785) ruled as a benevolent despot, 1760-1785. He combined Enlightenment ideas with Christian values, cameralist plans for central control of the economy, and a militaristic approach toward diplomacy. He funded the depleted treasury of the poor nation by renting out 19,000 soldiers in complete military formations to Great Britain to fight in North America during the American Revolutionary War, 1776-1783. These soldiers, commonly known as Hessians, fought under the British flag. The British used the Hessians in several conflicts, including in the Irish Rebellion of 1798. For further revenue, the soldiers were rented out elsewhere, as well. Most were conscripted, with their pay going to the Landgrave.

Arms of Hesse-Kassel (1815–1866)

Hesse: 19th century

The ruler of Hesse-Kassel was elevated to the status of Prince-Elector in 1803, but this remained without effect, as the Holy Roman Empire was disbanded in 1806. The territory was annexed by Napoleon to the Kingdom of Westphalia in 1806, but restored to the Elector in 1813. While other Electors had gained other titles, becoming either Kings or Grand Dukes, the Elector of Hesse-Kassel alone retained the anachronistic title. The name survived in the term Kurhessen, denoting the region around Kassel. In 1866, it was annexed by Prussia, together with the Free City of Frankfurt, the small Landgraviate of Hesse-Homburg, and the Duchy of Nassau, which were then combined into the province of Hesse-Nassau.

Arms of Grand Duchy of Hesse

Hesse-Darmstadt was elevated by Napoleon to the status of a Grand Duchy in 1806, becoming the Grand Duchy of Hesse. In the War of 1866, it fought on the side of Austria against Prussia, but retained its autonomy in defeat because a greater part of the country was situated south of the Main River and Prussia did not dare to expand beyond the Main line, as this might have provoked France. However, the parts of Hesse-Darmstadt north of the Main (the region around the town of Gießen, commonly called Oberhessen) were incorporated in the Norddeutscher Bund, a tight federation of German states, established by Prussia in 1867. In 1871, after France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War, the rest of the Grand Duchy joined the German Empire. Around the turn of the 20th century, Darmstadt was one of the centres of the Jugendstil. Until 1907, the Grand Duchy of Hesse used the Hessian red and white lion as its coat-of-arms.

Hesse: 20th century

The revolution of 1918 transformed Hesse-Darmstadt from a monarchy to a republic, which officially renamed itself "Volksstaat Hessen" (People's State of Hesse). The parts of Hesse-Darmstadt on the western banks of the Rhine (province Rheinhessen) were occupied by French troops until 1930 under the terms of the Versailles peace treaty that officially ended World War I in 1919.

After World War II, the Hessian territory west of the Rhine was again occupied by France, whereas the rest of the region was part of the US occupation zone. The French separated their part of Hesse from the rest of the region and incorporated it into the newly founded state of Rhineland-Palatinate (Rheinland-Pfalz). The United States, on the other side, proclaimed the state of Greater Hesse (Groß-Hessen) on 19 September 1945, out of Hesse-Darmstadt and most of the former Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau. On 4 December 1946 Groß-Hessen was officially renamed Hessen.

Hesse: Geography

See also: List of places in Hesse and List of mountains of Hesse
The most important rivers, mountains, and cities of Hesse

Situated in west-central Germany, Hesse state borders the German states of (starting in the north and proceeding clockwise) Lower Saxony, Thuringia, Bavaria, Baden-Württemberg, Rhineland-Palatinate, and North Rhine-Westphalia.

Most of the population of Hesse is in the southern part in the Rhine Main Area. The principal cities of the area include Frankfurt am Main, Wiesbaden, Darmstadt, Offenbach, Hanau, Gießen, Wetzlar, and Limburg. Other major towns in Hesse are Fulda in the east, and Kassel and Marburg an der Lahn in the north. The densely populated Rhine-Main region is much better developed than the rural areas in the middle and northern parts of Hesse.

The most important rivers in Hesse are the Fulda and Eder Rivers in the north, the Lahn in the central part of Hesse, and the Main and Rhine in the south. The countryside is hilly and the numerous mountain ranges include the Rhön, the Westerwald, the Taunus, the Vogelsberg, the Knüll and the Spessart.

The Rhine borders Hesse on the southwest without running through the state, only one old arm – the so-called Alt-Rhein – runs through Hesse. The mountain range between the Main and the Neckar Rivers is called the Odenwald. The plain between the rivers Main, Rhine, and Neckar, and the Odenwald Mountains is called the Ried.

Hesse is the greenest state in Germany, as forest covers 42% of the state.

Hesse: Administration of the State of Hesse

Hesse is a unitary state governed directly by the Hessian government in the capital city Wiesbaden, partially through regional vicarious authorities called Regierungspräsidien. Municipal parliaments are, however, elected independently from the state government by the Hessian people. Local municipalities enjoy a considerable degree of home rule.

Hesse: Districts

The state is divided into three administrative provinces (Regierungsbezirke): Kassel in the north and east, Gießen in the centre, and Darmstadt in the south, the latter being the most populous region with the Frankfurt Rhine-Main agglomeration in its central area. The administrative regions have no legislature of their own, but are executive agencies of the state government.

Map of Hesse with districts (with numbers).svg

State chancellery building in the capital city Wiesbaden
Frankfurt am Main
Kassel
Darmstadt
Offenbach am Main

Hesse is divided into 21 districts (Kreise) and five independent cities, each with their own local governments. They are, shown with abbreviations as used on vehicle number plates:

  1. Bergstraße (Heppenheim) (HP)
  2. Darmstadt-Dieburg (Darmstadt) (DA, DI)
  3. Groß-Gerau (Groß-Gerau) (GG)
  4. Hochtaunuskreis (Bad Homburg) (HG, USI)
  5. Main-Kinzig-Kreis (Gelnhausen) (MKK, GN, HU, SLÜ)
  6. Main-Taunus-Kreis (Hofheim am Taunus) (MTK)
  7. Odenwaldkreis (Erbach) (ERB)
  8. Offenbach (Dietzenbach) (OF)
  9. Rheingau-Taunus-Kreis (Bad Schwalbach) (RÜD,SWA)
  10. Wetteraukreis (Friedberg) (FB, BÜD)
  11. Gießen (Gießen) (GI)
  12. Lahn-Dill-Kreis (Wetzlar) (LDK)
  13. Limburg-Weilburg (Limburg) (LM, WEL)
  14. Marburg-Biedenkopf (Marburg) (MR, BID)
  15. Vogelsbergkreis (Lauterbach) (VB)
  16. Fulda (Fulda) (FD)
  17. Hersfeld-Rotenburg (Bad Hersfeld) (HEF, ROF)
  18. Kassel (Kassel) (KS, HOG,WOH)
  19. Schwalm-Eder-Kreis (Homberg (Efze)) (HR)
  20. Werra-Meißner-Kreis (Eschwege) (ESW, WIZ)
  21. Waldeck-Frankenberg (Korbach) (KB, FKB, WA)

Independent cities:

  1. Darmstadt (DA)
  2. Frankfurt am Main (F)
  3. Kassel (KS)
  4. Offenbach am Main (OF)
  5. Wiesbaden (WI)

Hesse: Rhenish Hesse

The province of Rhenish Hesse (German: Rheinhessen) refers to the part of the former Grand Duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt located west of the Rhine. It has not been part of the State of Hessen since 1946 due to divisions in the aftermath of World War II. This province is now part of the State of Rhineland-Palatinate. It is a hilly countryside largely devoted to vineyards; therefore, it is also called the "land of the thousand hills". Its larger towns include Mainz, Worms, Bingen, Alzey, Nieder-Olm, and Ingelheim. Many inhabitants commute to work in Mainz, Wiesbaden, or Frankfurt.

Hesse: State symbols and politics

Main article: Politics of Hesse

Hessen has been a parliamentary republic since 1918, interrupted by a 12-year episode from 1933 until 1945 during the Nazi dictatorship. The German federal system has elements of exclusive federal competences, shared competences, and exclusive competences of the federal states. Hessen is famous for having a rather brisk style in its politics with the ruling parties being either the center-right Christian Democratic Union (CDU) or the center-left Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD). However, due to the Hessian electoral laws, the biggest party normally needs a smaller coalition partner.

Hesse: Head of State

As Hesse is a federal state, its constitution combines the offices of the head of state and head of government in one office called the "Minister President" (German: Ministerpräsident) which is comparable to the office of a prime minister. In the framework of the German federation, the President of Germany is de facto' Hesse's head of state.

Hesse: Most recent state election

Although the government under Minister-President Volker Bouffier (CDU) lost some votes in the 2014 state elections, he could form a government with the Green Party as the conservative CDU's coalition partner. Hesse is the first German state with a coalition government formed by the conservative CDU and the leftist Green party. In the current Hessian parliament (Hessischer Landtag) the conservative CDU holds a 47 seats, the centre-left SPD 37 seats, the leftist Green party 14 seats and the liberal FDP as well as the socialist party "Die Linke" each six seats.

The Hessian parliament according to the 2014 elections

Hesse: Foreign affairs

As a member state of the German federation, Hesse does not have a diplomatic service of its own. However, Hessen operates representation offices in foreign countries such as the USA, China, Hungary, Cuba, Russia, Poland, and Iran. These offices are mostly used to represent Hessian interests in cultural and economic affairs. Hesse has also permanent representation offices in Berlin at the federal government of Germany and in Brussels at the European Union.

Hesse: Flag and anthem

The flag colors of Hesse are red and white; its coat of arms shows a standing lion. These symbols are in line with the state symbols of the former Grand Duchy of Hesse. The official anthem of Hesse is called "Hessenlied" ("Song of Hesse") and was written by Albrecht Brede (music) and Carl Preser (lyrics).

Hesse: Demographics

Significant foreign born populations
Nationality Population (2014)
Turkey 159,572
Poland 73,232
Italy 69.116
Romania 39,320
Croatia 38,322
Greece 33,148
Bulgaria 26,987
Spain 23,302
Bosnia 17,792
Morocco 17,344
Russia 15,434
Portugal 15,151
United States 15,136
Austria 13,709
Afghanistan 13,575

Hesse: Culture

The southern parts of Hesse were deeply influenced by the fact that they belonged to the Grand Duchy of Hessen, an independent state until 1871, while the northern region of what is today the State of Hessen came under strong Prussian influence. Darmstadt which was the capital city of Hessen until 1945, the city from which the Grand Dukes of Hesse ruled the country, was influenced by British and Russian imperial architecture due to close family ties of the Grand Duke's family to the reigning dynasties in London and Saint Petersburg.

Hesse: Language

The Hessian people speak a variety of German, a Rhine Franconian dialect known as Hessisch.

Hesse: Religion

Religious affiliation in Hesse (2013)
Affiliation Percentage of Hessian population
Christian 67 67
EKD Protestant 40 40
Catholic 25 25
Other Christian 2 2
Muslim 4 4
Other 1 1
Unaffiliated 26 26
Don't know/refused answer 2 2
Total 100 100
View of the Stadtpfarrkirche St. Blasius in Fulda

In 2013 Christianity was the most widespread religion in the state (67%). 40% of the Hessians belonged to the Protestant Church in Hesse and Nassau or Evangelical Church of Hesse Electorate-Waldeck (members of the Evangelical Church in Germany), 25% adhered to the Roman Catholic Church, while other Christians constituted some 2%. The remaining one third of the Hessian population were Muslims or belonged to other faiths, or were unaffiliated. Acknowledged as a legal entity under public law in Hesse, the Ahmadiyya is the first Islamic community in all of Germany to be recognized as such. The continental Baha'i House of Worship for Europe is located in the village of Langenhain in the town of Hofheim near Frankfurt.

Hesse: Fine arts

The former state capital, Darmstadt, has been a centre of art nouveau and modern architecture since 1914, Frankfurt am Main is cultural centre of international magnitude and the northern Hesse city of Kassel is home of the five-yearly documenta, a modern art exhibition. Hesse has four major opera houses, the most important being the Frankfurt am Main Opera House. Through its Cultural Investment Programme, Hesse supports the renovation and promotion of historical sites and it promotes the documenta, a world-wide art exhibition held every five years in Kassel. The Hessian Ministry of the Arts supports numerous independent cultural initiatives, organisations, and associations as well as artists from many fields including music, literature, theatre and dance, cinema and the new media, graphic art, and exhibitions. International cultural projects aim to further relations with European partners.

Hesse: TV and radio stations

The Hessian state broadcasting corporation is called HR (Hessischer Rundfunk). HR is a member of the federal ARD broadcasting association. HR provides a statewide TV programme as well as a range of regional radio stations (HR 1, HR 2, HR 3, HR 4, you fm and HR info). Besides the state run HR, privately run TV stations exist and are an important line of commerce. Among the commercial radio stations that are active in Hesse Hit Radio FFH, Planet Radio, Harmony FM, Radio BOB and Main FM are the most popular.

Hesse: Economy

With Hesse's largest city Frankfurt am Main being home of the European Central Bank (ECB), the German Bundesbank and the Frankfurt Stock Exchange, Hesse is home to the financial capital of mainland Europe. Furthermore, Hesse has always been one of the largest and healthiest economies in Germany. Its GDP in 2013 exceeded 236 billion Euros (about 316 bn US$). This makes Hesse itself one of the largest economies in Europe and the 38th largest in the world. According to GDP-per-capita figures, Hesse is the wealthiest State (after the City-states Hamburg and Bremen) in Germany with approx. $52.500 US.

The Rhine-Main Region has the second largest industrial density in Germany after the Ruhr area. The main economic fields of importance are the chemical and pharmaceutical industries with Sanofi, Merck, Heraeus, Messer Griesheim and Degussa. In the mechanical and automotive engineering field Opel in Rüsselsheim is worth mentioning. Frankfurt is crucial as a financial center, with both the European Central Bank and the Deutsche Bundesbank's headquarters located there. Numerous smaller banks and Deutsche Bank, Commerzbank, KfW Bank, DZ Bank are also headquartered in Frankfurt, with the offices of several international banks also being housed there. Frankfurt is also the location of the most important German stock exchange, the Frankfurt Stock Exchange. Insurance companies have settled mostly in Wiesbaden. The city's largest private employer is the R+V Versicherung, with about 3,900 employees, other major employers are DBV-Winterthur, the SV SparkassenVersicherung and the Delta Lloyd Group. The leather industry is predominantly settled in Offenbach. Frankfurt Airport is the largest employer in Germany with more than 70.000 employees. Companies with an international reputation are located outside the Rhine-Main region in Wetzlar.. There the center of the optical, electrical and precision engineering industries Leitz, Leica, Minox, Hensoldt (Zeiss) and Buderus and Brita with several plants in central Hesse. In the east Fulda there is the rubber plant (Fulda Reifen). In northern Hesse, in Baunatal, Volkswagen AG has a large factory that manufactures spare parts. Bombardier has a large plant that manufactures Locomotives in Kassel.

In August 2008 there were 199,573 people unemployed in Hesse. The unemployment rate is thus 6.4% (August 2007: 7.6%). With 3.8% the Hochtaunuskreis has the lowest rate, while the independent city of Kassel has the highest rate nationally with 12.1%.

Hesse: Traffic and public transportation

Hesse has one of the best transportation networks in Europe. Many trans-European and German motorways, high-speed train, and waterways lines cross Hesse. Frankfurt International Airport is Germany's largest and Europe's third-largest airport (after London Heathrow and Paris-Charles de Gaulle). Frankfurt (Main) Hauptbahnhof is Germany's second-busiest railway station by passengers but the busiest in terms of traffic.

Hesse: Road transport

Hesse has a dense highway network with a total of 24 motorways. The internationally important motorway routes through Hesse are the A3, A5, and A7. Close to the airport of Frankfurt is the Frankfurter Kreuz, Germany's busiest and one of Europe's busiest motorway junctions, where the motorways A3 (Arnhem-Cologne-Frankfurt-Nuremberg-Passau) and A5 (Hattenbach-Frankfurt-Karlsruhe-Basel) intersect. The A5 becomes as wide as four lanes in each direction near the city of Frankfurt am Main. During the rush-hour, it is possible to use the emergency lanes on the A3 and A5 motorway in the Rhine-Main Region. The effect is that the motorways have four lanes in each direction. Other major leading Hesse highways are the A4, the A44, the A45, the Federal Highway A66 and the A67. There are also a number of smaller motorways and major trunk roads, some of which are dual carriageways.

Hesse: Railway transport

Hesse has access to many major rail lines, including the high-speed lines Cologne–Frankfurt and Hanover–Würzburg. Besides, other north-south connections traverse major east-west routes from Wiesbaden and Mainz to Frankfurt and from Hanau and Aschaffenburg to Fulda and Kassel. The Frankfurt Central Station is the most important hub for German trains.

The region around Frankfurt has the S-Bahn Rhein-Main with an extensive S-Bahn-network, which is complemented many regional train connections. In the rest of the country, the rail network is less extensive. In the northern part of Hesse exists since 2007 the RegioTram, a tram-train-concept similar to the Karlsruhe model.

Hesse: Air transport

Frankfurt Airport is by far the largest airport in Germany with more than 57 million passengers each year and among the world's ten largest. Not far from the Airport towards the south is the Frankfurt Egelsbach Airport which is frequented by general aviation planes. The DFS (German air traffic control) has its headquarters in Langen. Situated in Northern Hesse Kassel Calden Airport, whose expansion is planned, has however only regional importance. There are also a number of sports airfields. Low-cost airlines, especially Ryanair, uses Frankfurt-Hahn Airport as a major base. The airport is actually located about 100 km from Frankfurt in the neighbor state of Rhineland-Palatinate.

Hesse: References

Hesse: Notes

  1. "Bevölkerung der hessischen Gemeinden". Hessisches Statistisches Landesamt (in German). August 2016.
  2. https://www.helaba.de/en/DieHelaba/MaerkteUndAnalysen/ResearchUndVolkswirtschaft/Bundeslaender/Downloads/20140402-ZahlenundFakten.pdf
  3. "State population". Portal of the Federal Statistics Office Germany (in German). Retrieved 2014-03-27.
  4. https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/Hesse
  5. European Commission English Style Guide, http://ec.europa.eu/translation/writing/style_guides/english/style_guide_en.pdf
  6. Clay 125-27, 137-39.
  7. Clay 120.
  8. Clay 132-37.
  9. Clay 143-55.
  10. Rau 141.
  11. Clay 157-58.
  12. Charles W. Ingrao, The Hessian Mercenary State: Ideas, Institutions, and Reform under Frederick II, 1760-1785 (2003)
  13. "Hessen - 60 stolze Jahre - Zeittafel 1945/1946". Archived from the original on 2006-10-17. Retrieved 2006-12-01.
  14. "Our State". State of Hesse. Retrieved 14 April 2011.
  15. State of Hessen. Foreign representation offices. [1] Retrieved June 30, 2014
  16. [2] 31 Dec. 2014 German Statistical Office. Zensus 2014: Bevölkerung am 31. Dezember 2014
  17. Hessisches Ministerium der Justiz, für Integration und Europa: „Wie hast du´s mit der Religion?“ Eine repräsentative Umfrage zu Religionszugehörigkeit und Religiosität in Hessen 2013
  18. Der Islam gehört nun offiziell zu Deutschland (Islam is a part of Germany now, quoting a famous speech of President Christian Wulff, by Freia Peters, Die Welt 2013
  19. State of Hessen Website - Art and Culture [3] Retrieved July 21, 2015
  20. "Bruttoinlandsprodukt". Volkswirtschaftliche Gesamtrechnungen (in German). Hessisches Statistisches Landesamt. 2012. Retrieved 27 March 2013.
  21. See the list of countries by GDP (nominal).

Hesse: Bibliography

  • Clay, John-Henry (2010). In the Shadow of Death: Saint Boniface and the Conversion of Hessia, 721-54. Brepols. ISBN 9782503531618.
  • Rau, Reinhold (1968). Briefe des Bonifatius, Willibalds Leben des Bonifatius; Nebst Einigen Zeitgenössischen Dokumenten. Ausgewählte Quellen zur Deutschen Geschichte des Mittelalters (in German). IVb. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft.
  • Official government portal (English version)
  • Wiki about Hesse in Hessian language
  • "Hesse". Catholic Encyclopedia.
  • Geographic data related to Hesse at OpenStreetMap
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