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In order to book an accommodation on Isle of Man enter the proper dates and do the hotel search. If needed, sort the found Isle of Man hotels by price, star rating, property type, guest rating, hotel features, hotel theme or hotel chain. Then take a look at the found hotels on Isle of Man map to estimate the distance from the main Isle of Man attractions and sights. You can also read the guest reviews of Isle of Man hotels and see their ratings.

When a hotel search on Isle of Man is done, please select the room type, the included meals and the suitable booking conditions (for example, "Deluxe double room, Breakfast included, Non-Refundable"). Press the "View Deal" ("Book Now") button. Make your booking on a hotel booking website and get the hotel reservation voucher by email. That's it, a perfect hotel on Isle of Man is waiting for you!

Hotels of Isle of Man

A hotel on Isle of Man is an establishment that provides lodging paid on a short-term basis. Facilities provided may range from a basic bed and storage for clothing, to luxury features like en-suite bathrooms. Larger on Isle of Man hotels may provide additional guest facilities such as a swimming pool, business centre, childcare, conference facilities and social function services. Hotel rooms on Isle of Man are usually numbered (or named in some smaller hotels and B&Bs) to allow guests to identify their room. Some Isle of Man hotels offer meals as part of a room and board arrangement. Hotel operations vary in size, function, and cost. Most Isle of Man hotels and major hospitality companies that operate hotels on Isle of Man have set widely accepted industry standards to classify hotel types. General categories include the following:

Upscale luxury hotels on Isle of Man
An upscale full service hotel facility on Isle of Man that offers luxury amenities, full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and the highest level of personalized and professional service. Luxury Isle of Man hotels are normally classified with at least a Four Diamond or Five Diamond status or a Four or Five Star rating depending on classification standards.

Full service hotels on Isle of Man
Full service Isle of Man hotels often contain upscale full-service facilities with a large volume of full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and a variety of on-site amenities such as swimming pools, a health club, children's activities, ballrooms, on-site conference facilities, etc.

Historic inns and boutique hotels on Isle of Man
Boutique hotels of Isle of Man are smaller independent non-branded hotels that often contain upscale facilities of varying size in unique or intimate settings with full service accommodations. Isle of Man boutique hotels are generally 100 rooms or less. Some historic inns and boutique hotels on Isle of Man may be classified as luxury hotels.

Focused or select service hotels on Isle of Man
Small to medium-sized hotel establishments that offer a limited amount of on-site amenities that only cater and market to a specific demographic of Isle of Man travelers, such as the single business traveler. Most Isle of Man focused or select service hotels may still offer full service accommodations but may lack leisure amenities such as an on-site restaurant or a swimming pool.

Economy and limited service hotels on Isle of Man
Small to medium-sized Isle of Man hotel establishments that offer a very limited amount of on-site amenities and often only offer basic accommodations with little to no services, these facilities normally only cater and market to a specific demographic of travelers, such as the budget-minded Isle of Man traveler seeking a "no frills" accommodation. Limited service Isle of Man hotels often lack an on-site restaurant but in return may offer a limited complimentary food and beverage amenity such as on-site continental breakfast service.

Guest houses and B&Bs on Isle of Man
A bed and breakfast on Isle of Man is a small lodging establishment that offers overnight accommodation and inclusive breakfast. Usually, Isle of Man bed and breakfasts are private homes or family homes offering accommodations. The typical Isle of Man B&B has between 4 and 11 rooms, with 6 being the average. Generally, guests are accommodated in private bedrooms with private bathrooms, or in a suite of rooms including an en suite bathroom. Some homes have private bedrooms with a bathroom which is shared with other guests. Breakfast is served in the bedroom, a dining room, or the host's kitchen. Often the owners of guest house themselves prepare the breakfast and clean the rooms.

Hostels on Isle of Man
Isle of Man hostels provide budget-oriented, sociable accommodation where guests can rent a bed, usually a bunk bed, in a dormitory and share a bathroom, lounge, and sometimes a kitchen. Rooms can be mixed or single-sex, although private rooms may also be available. Hostels are often cheaper for both the operator and occupants; many Isle of Man hostels have long-term residents whom they employ as desk agents or housekeeping staff in exchange for experience or discounted accommodation.

Apartment hotels, extended stay hotels on Isle of Man
Extended stay hotels are small to medium-sized Isle of Man hotels that offer longer term full service accommodations compared to a traditional hotel. Extended stay hotels may offer non-traditional pricing methods such as a weekly rate that cater towards travelers in need of short-term accommodations for an extended period of time. Similar to limited and select service hotels, on-site amenities are normally limited and most extended stay hotels on Isle of Man lack an on-site restaurant.

Timeshare and destination clubs on Isle of Man
Isle of Man timeshare and destination clubs are a form of property ownership also referred to as a vacation ownership involving the purchase and ownership of an individual unit of accommodation for seasonal usage during a specified period of time. Timeshare resorts on Isle of Man often offer amenities similar that of a Full service hotel with on-site restaurant(s), swimming pools, recreation grounds, and other leisure-oriented amenities. Destination clubs of Isle of Man on the other hand may offer more exclusive private accommodations such as private houses in a neighborhood-style setting.

Motels on Isle of Man
A Isle of Man motel is a small-sized low-rise lodging establishment similar to that of a limited service hotel, but with direct access to individual rooms from the car park. Common during the 1950s and 1960s, motels were often located adjacent to a major road, where they were built on inexpensive land at the edge of towns or along stretches of highways. They are still useful in less populated areas of Isle of Man for driving travelers, but the more populated an area becomes the more hotels fill the need. Many of Isle of Man motels which remain in operation have joined national franchise chains, rebranding themselves as hotels, inns or lodges.

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Travelling and vacation on Isle of Man

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For the racehorse, see Isle of Man (horse).
Isle of Man
Mannin, Ellan Vannin
Flag of Isle of Man
Coat of arms of Isle of Man
Flag Coat of arms
Motto: "Quocunque Jeceris Stabit" (Latin)
"Whithersoever you throw it, it will stand"
Anthem: "O Land of Our Birth"
"Arrane Ashoonagh dy Vannin" (Manx)
Royal anthem: "God Save the Queen"
Location of the  Isle of Man  (red)in the British Isles  (red & grey)
Location of the Isle of Man (red)

in the British Isles (red & grey)

Status Crown dependency
Capital
and largest settlement
Douglas (Doolish)
 / 54.150; -4.483
Official languages English, Manx
Demonym Manx
Government Parliamentary democratic constitutional monarchy with a de facto non-partisan democracy
• Lord of Mann
Elizabeth II
Lieutenant Governor
Sir Richard Gozney
• Chief Minister
Howard Quayle
Legislature Tynwald
• Upper house
Legislative Council
• Lower house
House of Keys
Establishment 1765
Area
• Total
572 km (221 sq mi) (178th)
• Water (%)
0
Population
• 2011 census
84,497
• Density
148/km (383.3/sq mi) (78th)
GDP (PPP) 2010 estimate
• Total
£4.1 billion (162nd)
• Per capita
$53,800 (11th/12th)
Gini 41
medium
HDI (2010) 0.849
very high · 14th
Currency Manx pound (official)
Pound sterling (also used) (GBP)
Time zone GMT (UTC)
• Summer (DST)
WEST (UTC+1)
Date format dd/mm/yyyy (AD)
Drives on the left
Calling code
ISO 3166 code IM
Internet TLD .im

The Isle of Man (/ˈmæn/; Manx: Mannin [ˈmanɪn] or Ellan Vannin [ˈɛlʲən ˈvanɪn]), also known simply as Mann, is a self-governing crown dependency in the Irish Sea between England and Northern Ireland. The head of state is Queen Elizabeth II, who holds the title of Lord of Mann. The Lord of Mann is represented by a Lieutenant Governor. Foreign relations and defence are the responsibility of the British Government.

The island has been inhabited since before 6500 BC. Gaelic cultural influence began in the 5th century and the Manx language, a branch of the Gaelic languages, emerged. In 627, Edwin of Northumbria conquered the Isle of Man along with most of Mercia. In the 9th century, Norsemen established the Kingdom of the Isles. Magnus III, King of Norway, was also known as King of Mann and the Isles between 1099 and 1103.

In 1266, the island became part of Scotland under the Treaty of Perth, after being ruled by Norway. After a period of alternating rule by the kings of Scotland and England, the island came under the feudal lordship of the English Crown in 1399. The lordship revested into the British Crown in 1765, but the island never became part of the Kingdom of Great Britain or its successor the United Kingdom: it retained its status as an internally self-governing Crown dependency.

Isle of Man: Name

The Manx name of the Isle of Man is Ellan Vannin: ellan (Manx pronunciation: [ɛlʲən]) is a Manx word meaning 'island'; Mannin (IPA: [manɪn]) appears in the genitive case as Vannin (IPA: [vanɪn]), with initial consonant mutation, hence Ellan Vannin, "Island of Mann". The short form often used in English, Mann, is derived from the Manx Mannin, though sometimes the name is written as Man. The earliest recorded Manx form of the name is Manu or Mana.

The Old Irish form of the name is Manau or Mano. Old Welsh records named it as Manaw, also reflected in Manaw Gododdin, the name for an ancient district in north Britain along the lower Firth of Forth. The oldest known reference to the island calls it Mona, in Latin (Julius Caesar, 54 BC); in the 1st century CE, Pliny the Elder records it as Monapia or Monabia, and Ptolemy (2nd century) as Monœda (Mοναοιδα, Monaoida) or Mοναρινα (Monarina), in Koine Greek. Later Latin references have Mevania or Mænavia (Orosius, 416 CE), and Eubonia or Eumonia by Irish writers. It is found in the Sagas of Icelanders as Mön.

The name is probably cognate with the Welsh name of the island of Anglesey, Ynys Môn, usually derived from a Celtic word for 'mountain' (reflected in Welsh mynydd, Breton menez, and Scottish Gaelic monadh), from a Proto-Celtic *moniyos.

The name was at least secondarily associated with that of Manannán mac Lir in Irish mythology (corresponding to Welsh Manawydan fab Llŷr). In the earliest Irish mythological texts, Manannán is a king of the otherworld, but the 9th-century Sanas Cormaic identifies a euhemerised Manannán as "a famous merchant who resided in, and gave name to, the Isle of Man". Later, a Manannán is recorded as the first king of Mann in a Manx poem (dated 1504).

Isle of Man: History

Main article: History of the Isle of Man
The Braaid in central Isle of Man, with remnants of a Celtic-Norse roundhouse and two longhouses, c. AD 650–950

The island was cut off from the surrounding islands around 8000 BC and colonisation took place by sea some time before 6500 BC. The first residents were hunter gatherers and fishermen. Examples of their tools are kept at the Manx Museum.

The Kingdom of the Isles about the year 1100.

The Neolithic Period marked the beginning of farming, and megalithic monuments began to appear such as Cashtal yn Ard near Maughold, King Orry's Grave at Laxey, Meayll Circle near Cregneash, and Ballaharra Stones at St John's. There were also the local Ronaldsway and Bann cultures.

During the Bronze Age, burial mounds became smaller. Bodies were put in stone-lined graves with ornamental containers. The Bronze Age burial mounds created long-lasting markers around the countryside.

The ancient Romans knew of the island and called it Insula Manavia although it is uncertain whether they conquered the island. Around the fifth century, large-scale migration from Ireland precipitated a process of Gaelicisation evidenced by Ogham inscriptions, giving rise to the Manx language, which is a Goidelic language closely related to Irish and Scottish Gaelic.

Vikings arrived at the end of the 8th century. They established Tynwald and introduced many land divisions that still exist. In 1266 King Magnus VI of Norway ceded the islands to Scotland in the Treaty of Perth; but Scotland's rule over Mann did not become firmly established until 1275, when the Manx were defeated in the Battle of Ronaldsway, near Castletown.

In 1290 King Edward I of England sent Walter de Huntercombe to take possession of Mann. It remained in English hands until 1313, when Robert Bruce took it after besieging Castle Rushen for five weeks. A confused period followed when Mann was sometimes under English rule and sometimes Scottish, until 1346, when the Battle of Neville's Cross decided the long struggle between England and Scotland in England's favour.

English rule was delegated to a series of lords and magnates. The Tynwald passed laws concerning the government of the island in all respects and had control over its finances, but was subject to the approval of the Lord of Mann.

In 1866, the Isle of Man obtained a nominal measure of Home Rule.

Isle of Man: Geography

The Calf of Man seen from Cregneash
Main article: Geography of the Isle of Man
See also: List of islands of the Isle of Man and Biota of the Isle of Man

The Isle of Man is located in the middle of the northern Irish Sea, almost equidistant from England, Northern Ireland, Scotland (closest), and Wales (farthest). It is 52 kilometres (32 mi) long and, at its widest point, 22 kilometres (14 mi) wide. It has an area of around 572 square kilometres (221 sq mi). Besides the island of Mann itself, the political unit of the Isle of Man includes some nearby small islands: the seasonally inhabited Calf of Man, Chicken Rock on which stands an unmanned lighthouse, St Patrick's Isle and St Michael's Isle. The last two of these are connected to the main island by permanent roads/causeways.

Ranges of hills in the north and south are separated by a central valley. The northern plain, by contrast, is relatively flat, consisting mainly of deposits from glacial advances from western Scotland during colder times. There are more recently deposited shingle beaches at the northernmost point, the Point of Ayre. The island has one mountain higher than 600 metres (2,000 ft), Snaefell, with a height of 620 metres (2,034 ft). According to an old saying, from the summit one can see six kingdoms: those of Mann, Scotland, England, Northern Ireland, Wales, and Heaven. Some versions add a seventh kingdom, that of the Sea, or Neptune.

Isle of Man: Population

Map of the Isle of Man
Further information: Manx people

At the 2011 census, the Isle of Man was home to 84,497 people, of whom 27,938 resided in the island's capital, Douglas and 9,273 in the adjoining village of Onchan. The population rose 5.5% between the 2006 and 2011 censuses. By country of birth, those born in the Isle of Man were the largest group (48.1%), while those born in the United Kingdom were the next largest group at 42.2% (35.9% in England, 3.2% in Scotland, 2% in Northern Ireland and 1.1% in Wales), 1.9% in the Republic of Ireland and 0.2% in the Channel Islands. The remaining 7.5% were born elsewhere in the world, with 2.4% coming from EU countries (other than the UK and Ireland). The census also reported 1,823 people who claim a knowledge of the Manx language.

Isle of Man: Census

The Isle of Man Full Census, last held in 2016, has been a decennial occurrence since 1821, with interim censuses being introduced from 1966. It is separate from, but similar to, the Census in the United Kingdom.

The 2001 census was conducted by the Economic Affairs Division of the Isle of Man Treasury, under the authority of the Census Act 1929.

Isle of Man: Biosphere Reserve

In March 2016 the Isle of Man became the first entire country to be adopted into UNESCO's Network of Biosphere Reserves

Isle of Man: Climate

The Isle of Man has a temperate oceanic climate (Köppen Cfb). Average rainfall is higher than averaged over the territory of the British Isles, because the Isle of Man is far enough from Ireland for the prevailing south-westerly winds to accumulate moisture. Average rainfall is highest at Snaefell, where it is around 1,900 millimetres (75 in) a year. At lower levels it can be around 800 millimetres (31 in) a year. The highest recorded temperature was 28.9 °C (84.0 °F) at Ronaldsway on 12 July 1983.

Climate data for Isle of Man (Ronaldsway)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 8.2
(46.8)
7.9
(46.2)
9.2
(48.6)
11.1
(52)
14.1
(57.4)
16.3
(61.3)
18.1
(64.6)
18.1
(64.6)
16.3
(61.3)
13.6
(56.5)
10.9
(51.6)
8.9
(48)
12.8
(55)
Average low °C (°F) 3.9
(39)
3.4
(38.1)
4.4
(39.9)
5.4
(41.7)
7.7
(45.9)
10.2
(50.4)
12.2
(54)
12.4
(54.3)
11.1
(52)
8.9
(48)
6.3
(43.3)
4.5
(40.1)
7.6
(45.7)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 82.6
(3.252)
57.5
(2.264)
65.5
(2.579)
55.7
(2.193)
50.9
(2.004)
58.1
(2.287)
56.2
(2.213)
65.3
(2.571)
75.3
(2.965)
102.5
(4.035)
103.1
(4.059)
91.8
(3.614)
864.4
(34.031)
Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm) 14.0 10.6 11.8 9.9 9.7 9.8 9.0 10.8 11.1 14.1 15.2 13.9 140.1
Mean monthly sunshine hours 54.1 77.9 115.9 171.2 227.6 203.4 197.4 184.9 138.9 103.6 63.5 46.0 1,584.6
Source: Met Office

Isle of Man: Government

A composite satellite image of the Isle of Man
Main article: Isle of Man Government

The United Kingdom is responsible for the island's defence and ultimately for good governance, and for representing the island in international forums, while the island's own parliament and government have competence over all domestic matters.

Isle of Man: Socio-political structure

See also: Manx law

The island's parliament, Tynwald, is claimed to have been in continuous existence since 979 or earlier, purportedly making it the oldest continuously governing body in the world, though evidence supports a much later date. Tynwald is a bicameral or tricameral legislature, comprising the House of Keys (directly elected by universal suffrage with a voting age of 16 years) and the Legislative Council (consisting of indirectly elected and ex-officio members). These two bodies meet together in joint session as Tynwald Court.

The executive branch of government is the Council of Ministers, which is composed of members of Tynwald. It is headed by the Chief Minister, currently (2016) Howard Quayle MHK.

Vice-regal functions of the Head of State are performed by a Lieutenant Governor.

Isle of Man: External relations and security

Main article: External relations of the Isle of Man

Isle of Man: Defence

Under British law, the Isle of Man is not part of the United Kingdom. However, the UK takes care of its external and defence affairs, and retains paramount power to legislate for the island. There are no independent military forces on the Isle of Man, although HMS Ramsey is affiliated with the town of the same name. From 1938 to 1955 there was the Manx Regiment of the British Territorial Army, which saw extensive action during the Second World War. In 1779, the Manx Fencible Corps, a fencible regiment of three companies, was raised; it was disbanded in 1783 at the end of the American War of Independence. Later, the Royal Manx Fencibles was raised at the time of the French Revolutionary Wars and Napoleonic Wars. The 1st Battalion (of 3 companies) was raised in 1793. A 2nd Battalion (of 10 companies) was raised in 1795, and it saw action during the Irish Rebellion of 1798. The regiment was disbanded in 1802. A third body of Manx Fencibles was raised in 1803 to defend the Island during the Napoleonic Wars and to assist the Revenue. It was disbanded in 1811. In 2015 a multi-capability recruiting and training unit of the British Army Reserve was established in Douglas.

Isle of Man: Emergency services

The Isle of Man Government maintains five emergency services. These are:

  • Isle of Man Constabulary (police)
  • Isle of Man Coastguard
  • Isle of Man Fire and Rescue Service
  • Isle of Man Ambulance Service
  • Isle of Man Civil Defence Corps

All of these services are controlled directly by the Isle of Man Government, and are independent of the United Kingdom. Nonetheless, the Isle of Man Constabulary voluntarily submits to inspection by the British inspectorate of police, and the Isle of Man Coastguard contracts Her Majesty's Coastguard (UK) for air-sea rescue operations.

Isle of Man: Citizenship

The cover of an Isle of Man passport
Main article: Manx passport

Citizenship in the Isle of Man is governed by British law. Passports issued by the Isle of Man Passport Office say "British Islands – Isle of Man" on the cover but the nationality status stated on the passport is simply "British Citizen". Although Manx passport holders are British citizens, because the Isle of Man is not part of the European Union, people born on the Island without a parent or grandparent either born, naturalised, registered or resident for more than five consecutive years in the United Kingdom do not have the same rights as other British citizens with regard to employment and establishment in the EU. Isle of Man passports can be issued to any British citizen in the Isle of Man (whether or not that person has "Manx status" as an Isle of Man worker under the local Isle of Man employment laws). They can also be issued to Manx-connected British citizens residing in Britain or either of the other Crown Dependencies.

Isle of Man: European Union

The Isle of Man holds neither membership nor associate membership of the European Union, and thus did not take part in the 2016 referendum on the UK's EU membership. Protocol 3 of the UK's Act of Accession to the Treaty of Rome included the Isle of Man within the EU's customs area, allowing for trade in Manx goods without tariffs throughout the EU. However, there are still limitations on the movement of capital and services.

EU citizens are entitled to travel and reside, but not work, in the island without restriction. And Manx citizens-without the hereditary qualification outlined above-are similarly restricted from working in the EU.

Isle of Man: Commonwealth of Nations

The Isle of Man is not itself a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. By virtue of its relationship with the United Kingdom, it takes part in several Commonwealth institutions, including the Commonwealth Parliamentary Association and the Commonwealth Games. The Government of the Isle of Man has made calls for a more integrated relationship with the Commonwealth, including more direct representation and enhanced participation in Commonwealth organisations and meetings, including Commonwealth Heads of Government Meetings. The Chief Minister of the Isle of Man has said: "A closer connection with the Commonwealth itself would be a welcome further development of the Island's international relationships"

Isle of Man: Politics

Isle of Man local authorities and sheadings
Main article: Politics of the Isle of Man
See also: List of political parties in the Isle of Man and Elections in the Isle of Man

Most Manx politicians stand for election as independents rather than as representatives of political parties. Though political parties do exist, their influence is not nearly as strong as in the United Kingdom.

There are two political parties in the Isle of Man. The Liberal Vannin Party (established 2006) has three seats in the House of Keys; they promote greater Manx independence and more accountability in Government. The Manx Labour Party is the other: they hold two seats in the Legislative Council.

A number of pressure groups also exist on the island. Mec Vannin advocate the establishment of a sovereign republic. The Positive Action Group campaign for three key elements to be introduced into the governance of the island: open accountable government, rigorous control of public finances, and a fairer society.

Isle of Man: Local government

Main article: Local government in the Isle of Man

Local government on the Isle of Man is based partly on the island's 17 ancient parishes. There are two types of local authorities:

  • a corporation for the Borough of Douglas, and bodies of commissioners for the town districts of Castletown, Peel and Ramsey, and
  • the village districts of Kirk Michael, Onchan, Port Erin and Port St Mary, and the 14 "parish districts" (those parishes or parts of parishes which do not fall within the districts previously mentioned). Local authorities are under the supervision of the Isle of Man Government's Department of Local Government and the Environment (DOLGE).

Isle of Man: Demographics

Main article: Demographics of the Isle of Man

Isle of Man: Education

Main article: Education in the Isle of Man

Public education is under the Department of Education and Children. Thirty-four primary schools, five secondary schools, and the University College Isle of Man function under the department.

Isle of Man: Economy

Main article: Economy of the Isle of Man

The Isle of Man is a low-tax economy with no capital gains tax, wealth tax, stamp duty, or inheritance tax and a top rate of income tax of 20%. A tax cap is in force; the maximum amount of tax payable by an individual is £120,000 or £240,000 for couples if they choose to have their incomes jointly assessed. The £120,000 tax cap equates to an assessable income of £589,550. Personal income is assessed and taxed on a total worldwide income basis rather than a remittance basis. This means that all income earned throughout the world is assessable for Manx tax rather than only income earned in or brought into the Island.

The rate of corporation tax is 0% for almost all types of income; the only exceptions are that the profits of banks are taxed at 10%, as is rental (or other) income from land and buildings situated on the Isle of Man.

Peel is the island's main fishing port

Offshore banking, manufacturing, and tourism form key sectors of the economy. Agriculture and fishing, once the mainstays of the economy, now make declining contributions to the island's Gross Domestic Product (GDP).

Trade takes place mostly with the United Kingdom. The island is in customs union with the UK, and related revenues are pooled and shared under the Common Purse Agreement. This means that the Isle of Man cannot have the lower excise revenues on alcohol and other goods that are enjoyed in the Channel Islands.

The Manx government promotes island locations for making films by contributing to the production costs. Since 1995, over 80 films have been made on the island. The policy has been criticized as unsustainable. Since 2007, the Isle of Man government invested £34 million in the film industry but recouped only £6.3 million, representing a loss of over £27 million.

The Isle of Man Government Lottery operated from 1986 to 1997. Since 2 December 1999 the island has participated in the United Kingdom National Lottery. The island is the only jurisdiction outside the United Kingdom where it is possible to play the UK National Lottery. Since 2010 it has also been possible for projects in the Isle of Man to receive national lottery Good Causes Funding. The good causes funding is distributed by the Manx Lottery Trust. Tynwald receives the 12p lottery duty for tickets sold in the Island.

Tourist numbers peaked in the first half of the 20th century, prior to the boom in cheap travel to Southern Europe that also saw the decline of tourism in many similar English seaside resorts. The Isle of Man tourism board has recently invested in "Dark Sky Discovery" sites to diversify its tourism industry. It is expected that dark skies will generally be nominated by the public across the UK. However, the Isle of Man tourism board tasked someone from their team to nominate 27 places on the island as a civil task. This cluster of the highest quality "Milky Way" sites is now well promoted within the island. This government push has effectively given the island a headstart in the number of recognised Dark Sky sites. However, this has created a distorted view when compared to the UK where this isn't promoted on a national scale. There, Dark Sky sites are expected to be nominated over time by the public across a full cross section of national town, city and countryside locations rather than en masse by government departments.

In 2017 an office of The International Stock Exchange was opened to provide a boost for the island's finance industry.

Isle of Man: Communications

Main article: Communications on the Isle of Man

The main telephone provider on the Isle of Man is Manx Telecom. At present, the island has two mobile operators: Manx Telecom, previously known as Manx Pronto, and Sure. For a short time, Cloud9 operated as a third mobile operator on the island, but has since withdrawn. Broadband internet services are available through four local providers which are Wi-Manx, Domicilium, Manx Computer Bureau and Manx Telecom. The island does not have its own ITU country code, but is accessed via the British country code (+44) and the island's telephone numbers are part of the British telephone numbering plan with local dialling codes 01624 for landlines and 07524, 07624 and 07924 for mobiles.

In 1996, the Isle of Man Government obtained permission to use the .im national top-level domain (TLD) and has ultimate responsibility for its use. The domain is managed on a daily basis by Domicilium, an island-based internet service provider.

In December 2007, the Manx Electricity Authority and its telecommunications subsidiary, e-llan Communications commissioned the laying of a new fibre-optic link that connects the island to a worldwide fibre-optic network.

The Isle of Man has three radio stations: Manx Radio, Energy FM and 3 FM.

There is no insular television service, and local transmitters retransmit British mainland digital broadcasts via the free-to-air digital terrestrial service Freeview. Isle of Man is part of the regions served by BBC North West for BBC One and BBC Two television services, and Granada Television for ITV.

Many television services are available by satellite, such as Sky, and Freesat from the group of satellites at 28.2° east, as well as services from a range of other satellites around Europe such as the Astra satellites at 19.2° east and Hotbird.

The Isle of Man has three newspapers, all weeklies, and all owned by Isle of Man Newspapers, a division of the Edinburgh media company Johnston Press. The Isle of Man Courier (distribution 36,318) is free and distributed to homes on the island. The other two newspapers are Isle of Man Examiner (circulation 13,276) and the Manx Independent (circulation 12,255).

Postal services are the responsibility of Isle of Man Post, which took over from the British General Post Office in 1973.

Isle of Man: Transport

Main article: Transport in the Isle of Man
Sea Terminal front façade

The island has a total of 688 miles (1,107 km) of public roads, all of which are paved. There is no overriding national speed restriction; only local speed limits are set and some roads have no speed limit. Rules for reckless driving and most other driving regulations are enforced in a manner similar to the UK. One proposal currently under consideration by the Isle of Man Government to improve road safety is the introduction of compulsory vehicle tests (similar to MOT tests in the UK). There is a comprehensive bus network, operated by the government owned bus operator Bus Vannin.

The Isle of Man Sea Terminal in Douglas has frequent ferries to and from Heysham as well as frequent summer ferries to and from Liverpool, with a more restricted timetable operating in winter. There are also limited summer-only services to and from Belfast and Dublin. The Dublin route also operates at Christmas. In conjunction with the Isle of Man TT a limited number of sailings operate to and from Larne in Northern Ireland. All ferries are operated by the Isle of Man Steam Packet Company.

The only commercial airport on the island is the Isle of Man Airport at Ronaldsway. There are scheduled and chartered flights to numerous airports in the United Kingdom and Ireland, as well as further afield. The Irish operator Aer Arann entered a code-sharing agreement with Abu Dhabi airliner Etihad Airways in 2009, which allows the booking of one-ticket journeys from the Isle of Man. The oldest horse tram transport in the world is located on the sea front in the capital, Douglas. It was founded in 1876.

The island used to have an extensive narrow-gauge railway system, both steam-operated and electric, but the majority of the steam railway tracks were taken out of service many years ago, and the track removed. Currently there is a steam railway between Douglas and Port Erin, an electric railway between Douglas and Ramsey and an electric mountain railway which climbs Snaefell.

Isle of Man: Space commerce

The Isle of Man has become a centre for emerging private space travel companies. A number of the competitors in the Google Lunar X Prize, a $30 million competition for the first privately funded team to send a robot to the Moon, are based on the Island. The team summit for the X Prize was held on the Island in October 2010. In 2010 the Island was named the fifth most likely nation to reach the moon next. In January 2011 two research space stations owned by Excalibur Almaz arrived on the Island and were kept in an aircraft hangar at the airfield at the former RAF Jurby located near Jurby.

Isle of Man: Culture

Main article: Culture of the Isle of Man

The culture of the Isle of Man is often promoted as being influenced by its Celtic, and to a lesser extent its Norse, origins. Proximity to the UK, popularity as a UK tourist destination in Victorian times, and immigration to and from Britain have meant that British influence has been dominant since the Revestment period. Revival campaigns have attempted to preserve the surviving vestiges of Manx culture after a long period of Anglicisation, and some increased interest in the Manx language, history and musical tradition has been the result.

Isle of Man: Language

Main articles: Manx language and Manx English
A bilingual sign in the Isle of Man featuring Manx Gaelic and English

The official languages of the Isle of Man are, since 1985, Manx and English. Manx has traditionally been spoken but is now considered "critically endangered".

Manx is a Goidelic Celtic language and is one of a number of insular Celtic languages spoken in the British Isles. Manx has been officially recognised as a legitimate autochthonous regional language under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, ratified by the United Kingdom on 27 March 2001 on behalf of the Isle of Man government.

Manx is closely related to Irish and Scottish Gaelic.

In Manx, the greetings moghrey mie (good morning) and fastyr mie (good afternoon) can be heard. As in Irish and Scottish Gaelic, the concepts of "evening" and "afternoon" are referred to with one word. Another term used in Manx is traa dy liooar, meaning "time enough", this represents a stereotypical view of the Manx attitude to life.

Isle of Man: Symbols

A sculpture of the Manx triskelion as seen in front of Ronaldsway Airport terminal.

For centuries, the island's symbol has been the so-called "three legs of Mann" (Manx: Tree Cassyn Vannin), a triskelion of three legs conjoined at the thigh. The Manx triskelion, which dates with certainty to the late 13th century, is of uncertain origin. It has been suggested that its origin lies in Sicily, an island which has been associated with the triskelion since ancient times.

The symbol appears in the island's official flag and official coat of arms, as well as its currency. The Manx triskelion may be reflected in the island's motto, Latin: Quocunque jeceris stabit, which appears as part of the island's coat of arms. The Latin motto translates into English as "whichever way you throw, it will stand" or "whithersoever you throw it, it will stand". It dates to the late 17th century when it is known to have appeared on the island's coinage. It has also been suggested that the motto originally referred to the poor quality of coinage which was common at the time-as in "however it is tested it will pass".

The ragwort or cushag is the Manx national flower.

Isle of Man: Religion

Peel Cathedral.
See also: Diocese of Sodor and Man

The predominant religious tradition of the island is Christianity. Before the Protestant Reformation, the island had a long history as part of Catholic Christendom, and in the years following the Reformation, the religious authorities on the island, and later the population of the island, accepted the religious authority of the British monarchy and the Church of England. It has also come under the influence of Irish religious tradition. The island forms a separate diocese called Sodor and Man, which once comprised the medieval kingdom of Man and the Isles ("Suðreyjar" in Old Norse). It now consists of 16 parishes, and since 1541 has formed part of the Province of York.

Other Christian churches also operate on the Isle of Man. The second largest denomination is the Methodist Church, whose Isle of Man District is close in numbers to the Anglican diocese. There are eight Roman Catholic parish churches, included in the Catholic Archdiocese of Liverpool, as well as a presence of Eastern Orthodox Christians. Additionally there are five Baptist churches, four Pentecostal churches, the Salvation Army, a ward of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, two congregations of Jehovah's Witnesses, two United Reformed churches, as well as other Christian churches. There is a small Muslim community, with its own mosque in Douglas, and there is also a small Jewish community.

Isle of Man: Myth, legend and folklore

Peel Castle

In Manx mythology, the island was ruled by Manannán who would draw his misty cloak around the island to protect it from invaders. One of the principal folk theories about the origin of the name Mann is that it is named after Manannán.

In the Manx tradition of folklore, there are many stories of mythical creatures and characters. These include the Buggane, a malevolent spirit who, according to legend, blew the roof off St Trinian's Church in a fit of rage; the Fenodyree; the Glashtyn; and the Moddey Dhoo, a ghostly black dog who wandered the walls and corridors of Peel Castle.

The Isle of Man is also said to be home to fairies, known locally as the little folk or themselves. There is a famous Fairy Bridge and it is said to be bad luck if one fails to wish the fairies good morning or afternoon when passing over it. It used to be a tradition to leave a coin on the bridge to ensure good luck. Other types of fairies are the Mi'raj and the Arkan Sonney.

An old Irish story tells how Lough Neagh was formed when Ireland's legendary giant Fionn mac Cumhaill (commonly anglicised to Finn McCool) ripped up a portion of the land and tossed it at a Scottish rival. He missed, and the chunk of earth landed in the Irish Sea, thus creating the island.

Peel Castle has been proposed as a possible location of the Arthurian Avalon or as the location of the Grail Castle, site of Lancelot's encounter with the sword bridge of King Melegaunt.

One of the most often repeated myths is that people found guilty of witchcraft were rolled down Slieau Whallian, a hill near St John's, in a barrel. However this is a 19th-century legend which in turn is a Scottish legend which in turn is a German legend. It never happened. Separately, a witchcraft museum was opened at the Witches Mill, Castletown in 1951. There has never actually been a witches' coven on that site; the myth was only created with the opening of the museum.

Isle of Man: Music

Main article: Music of the Isle of Man

The music of the Isle of Man reflects Celtic, Norse and other influences, including from its neighbours, Scotland, Ireland, England and Wales. A wide range of music is performed on the island, such as rock, blues, jazz and pop. However, its traditional folk music has undergone a revival since the 1970s, starting with a music festival called Yn Çhruinnaght in Ramsey. This was part of a general revival of the Manx language and culture after the death of the last native speaker of Manx in 1974. The Isle of Man was mentioned in the Who song "Happy Jack" as the homeland of the song's titular character, who is always in a state of ecstasy, no matter what happens to him.

Isle of Man: Food

In the past the basic national dish of the island was spuds and herrin, boiled potatoes and herring. This plain dish was supported by the subsistence farmers of the island, who crofted the land and fished the sea for centuries. A more recent claim for the title of national dish could be the ubiquitous chips, cheese and gravy. This dish, which is similar to poutine, is found in most of the island's fast-food outlets, and consists of thick cut chips, covered in shredded Cheddar cheese and topped with a thick gravy.

Seafood has traditionally accounted for a large proportion of the local diet. Although commercial fishing has declined in recent years, local delicacies include Manx kippers (smoked herring) which are produced by the smokeries in Peel on the west coast of the island, albeit mainly from North Sea herring these days. The smokeries also produce other specialities including smoked salmon and bacon.

Crab, lobster and scallops are commercially fished, and the Queen Scallop (Queenies) is regarded as a particular delicacy, with a light, sweet flavour. Cod, ling and mackerel are often angled for the table, and freshwater trout and salmon can be taken from the local rivers and lakes, supported by the government fish hatchery at Cornaa on the east coast.

Cattle, sheep, pigs and poultry are all commercially farmed; Manx lamb from the hill farms is a popular dish. The Loaghtan, the indigenous breed of Manx sheep, has a rich, dark meat that has found favour with chefs, featuring in dishes on the BBC's MasterChef series.

Manx cheese has also found some success, featuring smoked and herb-flavoured varieties, and is stocked by many of the UK's supermarket chains. Manx cheese took bronze medals in the 2005 British Cheese Awards, and sold 578 tonnes over the year. Manx cheddar has been exported to Canada where it is available in some supermarkets.

Beer is brewed on a commercial scale by Okells Brewery, which was established in 1850 and is the island's largest brewer; and also by Bushy's Brewery and the Hooded Ram Brewery. The Isle of Man's Pure Beer Act of 1874, which resembles the German Reinheitsgebot is still in effect: under this Act, brewers may only use water, malt, sugar and hops in their brews.

Isle of Man: Sport

Main article: Sport in the Isle of Man

The Isle of Man is represented as a nation in the Commonwealth Games and the Island Games and hosted the IV Commonwealth Youth Games in 2011. Manx athletes have won three gold medals at the Commonwealth Games, including the one by cyclist Mark Cavendish in 2006 in the Scratch race. The Island Games were first held on the island in 1985, and again in 2001.

Isle of Man teams and individuals participate in many sports both on and off the island including rugby union, football, gymnastics, field hockey, netball, Taekwondo, bowling, Obstacle Course Racing and cricket. It being an island, many types of watersports are also popular with residents.

Isle of Man: Motorcycle racing

For more details on this topic, see Isle of Man TT.

The main international event associated with the island is the Isle of Man Tourist Trophy race, colloquially known as "The TT", which began in 1907. It takes place in late May and early June. The TT is now an international road racing event for motorcycles, which used to be part of the World Championship, and is long considered to be one of the "greatest motorcycle sporting events of the world". Taking place over a two-week period, it has become a festival for motorcycling culture, makes a huge contribution to the island's economy and has become part of Manx identity. For many, the Isle carries the title "road racing capital of the world".

The Manx Grand Prix is a separate motorcycle event for amateurs and private entrants that uses the same 60.70 km (37.72 mi) Snaefell Mountain Course in late August and early September.

Isle of Man: Cammag

Main article: Cammag

Prior to the introduction of football at the beginning of the 20th century, Cammag was the island's national sport. It is similar to the Irish hurling and the Scottish game of shinty. Nowadays there is an annual match at St John's.

Isle of Man: Cinema

The Isle of Man has two cinemas. The Broadway Cinema is located in the Government-owned and -run Villa Marina and Gaiety Theatre complex. It has a capacity of 154 and also doubles as a conference venue.

The Palace Cinema is located next to the derelict Castle Mona hotel and is operated by the Sefton Group. It has two screens: Screen One holds 293 customers, while Screen Two is smaller with a capacity of just 95. It was extensively refurbished in August 2011.

Isle of Man: Manx animals

Main articles: Manx cat, Manx Loaghtan, and Extinct animals from the Isle of Man
Manx Loaghtan Sheep are bred on the island for their meat.

There are two domestic animals specifically connected to the Isle of Man, though they are also found elsewhere.

The Manx cat is a breed of cat noted for having a genetic mutation that causes it to have a shortened tail. The length of this tail can range from a few inches, known as a "stumpy", to being completely nonexistent, or "rumpy". Manx cats display a range of colours and usually have somewhat longer hind legs compared to most cats. The cats have been used as a symbol of the Isle of Man on coins and stamps and at one time the Manx government operated a breeding centre to ensure the continuation of the breed.

The Manx Loaghtan sheep is a breed native to the island. It has dark brown wool and four, or sometimes six horns. The meat is considered to be a delicacy. There are several flocks on the island and others have been started in England and Jersey.

Isle of Man: See also

  • Outline of the Isle of Man
  • History of the Isle of Man
  • Towns in the Isle of Man

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  81. Carpenter, Rachel N. (2011). "Mind Your P's and Q's: Revisiting the Insular Celtic hypothesis through working towards an original phonetic reconstruction of Insular Celtic" (PDF). Retrieved 17 September 2011.
  82. Kelly, Phil. "Manx today by Phil Kelly". BBC. Retrieved 17 September 2011.
  83. Davies, Alan (2007). An Introduction to Applied Linguistics (2nd The Manx ed.). Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 978-0-7486-3354-8.
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  121. "Farming the Manx Loaghtan sheep", BBC Isle of Man/Ellan Vannin, 16 November 2009, accessed 21 February 2017

Isle of Man: Bibliography

  • Moore, Arthur William (1903). Manx Names (Revised Cheap ed.). London: Elliot Stock (published 1906).
  • Sacheverell, William (1859). Cumming, Joseph George, ed. An Account of the Isle of Man. Douglas: The Manx Society.
  • Waldron, George (1726). Harrison, William, ed. A Description of the Isle of Man. Douglas: The Manx Society (published 1865).

Isle of Man: Further reading

  • Russel, G. (1988). "Distribution and development of some Manx epiphyte populations". Helgolander Meeresunters. 42 (42): 477–492. Bibcode:1988HM.....42..477R. doi:10.1007/BF02365622.
  • Goodwin Sarah (2011). A Brief History of the Isle of Man. Surrey: Loaghtan Books. ISBN 978-1-908060-00-6.
  • Geographic data related to Isle of Man at OpenStreetMap
  • CIA World Factbook – Listing for the Isle of Man
  • Isle of Man News
  • Isle of Man (European Union) passport description in PRADO
  • Manx Government A comprehensive site covering many aspects of Manx life from fishing to financial regulation
  • Isle of Man Airport
  • Information on the work and duties of Members of the House of Keys
  • Images of the Isle of Man at the English Heritage Archive

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