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Hotels of Jalalabad

A hotel in Jalalabad is an establishment that provides lodging paid on a short-term basis. Facilities provided may range from a basic bed and storage for clothing, to luxury features like en-suite bathrooms. Larger in Jalalabad hotels may provide additional guest facilities such as a swimming pool, business centre, childcare, conference facilities and social function services. Hotel rooms in Jalalabad are usually numbered (or named in some smaller hotels and B&Bs) to allow guests to identify their room. Some Jalalabad hotels offer meals as part of a room and board arrangement. Hotel operations vary in size, function, and cost. Most Jalalabad hotels and major hospitality companies that operate hotels in Jalalabad have set widely accepted industry standards to classify hotel types. General categories include the following:

Upscale luxury hotels in Jalalabad
An upscale full service hotel facility in Jalalabad that offers luxury amenities, full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and the highest level of personalized and professional service. Luxury Jalalabad hotels are normally classified with at least a Four Diamond or Five Diamond status or a Four or Five Star rating depending on classification standards.

Full service hotels in Jalalabad
Full service Jalalabad hotels often contain upscale full-service facilities with a large volume of full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and a variety of on-site amenities such as swimming pools, a health club, children's activities, ballrooms, on-site conference facilities, etc.

Historic inns and boutique hotels in Jalalabad
Boutique hotels of Jalalabad are smaller independent non-branded hotels that often contain upscale facilities of varying size in unique or intimate settings with full service accommodations. Jalalabad boutique hotels are generally 100 rooms or less. Some historic inns and boutique hotels in Jalalabad may be classified as luxury hotels.

Focused or select service hotels in Jalalabad
Small to medium-sized hotel establishments that offer a limited amount of on-site amenities that only cater and market to a specific demographic of Jalalabad travelers, such as the single business traveler. Most Jalalabad focused or select service hotels may still offer full service accommodations but may lack leisure amenities such as an on-site restaurant or a swimming pool.

Economy and limited service hotels in Jalalabad
Small to medium-sized Jalalabad hotel establishments that offer a very limited amount of on-site amenities and often only offer basic accommodations with little to no services, these facilities normally only cater and market to a specific demographic of travelers, such as the budget-minded Jalalabad traveler seeking a "no frills" accommodation. Limited service Jalalabad hotels often lack an on-site restaurant but in return may offer a limited complimentary food and beverage amenity such as on-site continental breakfast service.

Guest houses and B&Bs in Jalalabad
A bed and breakfast in Jalalabad is a small lodging establishment that offers overnight accommodation and inclusive breakfast. Usually, Jalalabad bed and breakfasts are private homes or family homes offering accommodations. The typical Jalalabad B&B has between 4 and 11 rooms, with 6 being the average. Generally, guests are accommodated in private bedrooms with private bathrooms, or in a suite of rooms including an en suite bathroom. Some homes have private bedrooms with a bathroom which is shared with other guests. Breakfast is served in the bedroom, a dining room, or the host's kitchen. Often the owners of guest house themselves prepare the breakfast and clean the rooms.

Hostels in Jalalabad
Jalalabad hostels provide budget-oriented, sociable accommodation where guests can rent a bed, usually a bunk bed, in a dormitory and share a bathroom, lounge, and sometimes a kitchen. Rooms can be mixed or single-sex, although private rooms may also be available. Hostels are often cheaper for both the operator and occupants; many Jalalabad hostels have long-term residents whom they employ as desk agents or housekeeping staff in exchange for experience or discounted accommodation.

Apartment hotels, extended stay hotels in Jalalabad
Extended stay hotels are small to medium-sized Jalalabad hotels that offer longer term full service accommodations compared to a traditional hotel. Extended stay hotels may offer non-traditional pricing methods such as a weekly rate that cater towards travelers in need of short-term accommodations for an extended period of time. Similar to limited and select service hotels, on-site amenities are normally limited and most extended stay hotels in Jalalabad lack an on-site restaurant.

Timeshare and destination clubs in Jalalabad
Jalalabad timeshare and destination clubs are a form of property ownership also referred to as a vacation ownership involving the purchase and ownership of an individual unit of accommodation for seasonal usage during a specified period of time. Timeshare resorts in Jalalabad often offer amenities similar that of a Full service hotel with on-site restaurant(s), swimming pools, recreation grounds, and other leisure-oriented amenities. Destination clubs of Jalalabad on the other hand may offer more exclusive private accommodations such as private houses in a neighborhood-style setting.

Motels in Jalalabad
A Jalalabad motel is a small-sized low-rise lodging establishment similar to that of a limited service hotel, but with direct access to individual rooms from the car park. Common during the 1950s and 1960s, motels were often located adjacent to a major road, where they were built on inexpensive land at the edge of towns or along stretches of highways. They are still useful in less populated areas of Jalalabad for driving travelers, but the more populated an area becomes the more hotels fill the need. Many of Jalalabad motels which remain in operation have joined national franchise chains, rebranding themselves as hotels, inns or lodges.

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Travelling and vacation in Jalalabad

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For other uses, see Jalalabad (disambiguation).
Jalalabad
جلال آباد
A panoramic view of a section of Jalalabad
Jalalabad Bridge Jalalabad Cricket Stadium
Pashtunistan Square Mosque in Jalalabad
Governor's House in Jalalabad Building on a main road
From top left to right: A panoramic view of a section of Jalalabad; Jalalabad Bridge; Jalalabad Cricket Stadium; Pashtunistan Square; Mosque in Jalalabad; Governor's House in Jalalabad; Building on a main road.
Jalalabad is located in Afghanistan
Jalalabad
Location in Afghanistan
Coordinates:  / 34.43417; 70.44778  / 34.43417; 70.44778
Country Afghanistan
Province Nangarhar Province
Founded 1570
Government
• Mayor Hamidullah Afghan
Elevation 575 m (1,886 ft)
Population (2014)
• City 356,275
• Urban 356,274
Time zone UTC+4:30

Jalalabad /əˈlæləˌbæd/ (Pashto/Persian: جلال آباد‎‎ Jalālābād), formerly called Adina Pur (Pashto: آدينه پور‎) as documented by the 7th century Hsüan-tsang, is a city in eastern Afghanistan. Located at the junction of the Kabul River and Kunar River near the Laghman valley, Jalalabad is the capital of Nangarhar province. It is linked by approximately 155 kilometres (95 mi) of highway with Kabul to the west. Jalalabad is the second-largest city in eastern Afghanistan as well as the centre of its social and business activity because of its border to Pakistan which is the main source of products to all of Afghanistan. Major industries include papermaking, as well as agricultural products including oranges, rice and sugarcane. Jalalabad is one of the leading trading centres with neighbouring Pakistan. The city of Jalalabad has a population of 356,274 (in 2015). it has 6 districts and a total land area of 12,796 Hectares. The total number of dwellings in this city are 39,586.

Jalalabad: History

See also: History of Afghanistan

Jalalabad: Mauryan Empire

Main article: Mauryan Empire

The Jalalabad territory fell to the Maurya Empire (322–185 BCE), which was led by Chandragupta Maurya. The Mauryas introduced Jainism, Hinduism and Buddhism to the region, and were planning to capture more areas of Central Asia until they faced local Greco-Bactrian forces. Seleucus is said to have agreed a peace treaty with Chandragupta by giving control of the territory south of the Hindu Kush to the Mauryas upon intermarriage and receipt of 500 elephants.

Maurya Empire under Ashoka the Great

Alexander took these away from the Indo-Aryans and established settlements of his own, but Seleucus Nicator gave them to Sandrocottus (Chandragupta), upon terms of intermarriage and of receiving in exchange 500 elephants.

- Strabo, 64 BCE–24 CE

Some time after, as he was going to war with the generals of Alexander, a wild elephant of great bulk presented itself before him of its own accord, and, as if tamed down to gentleness, took him on its back, and became his guide in the war, and conspicuous in fields of battle. Sandrocottus, having thus acquired a throne, was in possession of India, when Seleucus was laying the foundations of his future greatness; who, after making a league with him, and settling his affairs in the east, proceeded to join in the war against Antigonus. As soon as the forces, therefore, of all the confederates were united, a battle was fought, in which Antigonus was slain, and his son Demetrius put to flight.

- Junianus Justinus
Newly excavated Buddhist stupa at Mes Aynak in Logar Province of Afghanistan. Similar stupas have been discovered in neighboring Ghazni Province, including in the northern Samangan Province.

Having consolidated power in the northwest, Chandragupta pushed east towards the Nanda Empire. Afghanistan's significant ancient tangible and intangible Buddhist heritage is recorded through wide-ranging archeological finds, including religious and artistic remnants. Buddhist doctrines are reported to have reached as far as Balkh even during the life of the Buddha (563 BCE to 483 BCE), as recorded by Husang Tsang.

In this context a legend recorded by Husang Tsang refers to the first two lay disciples of Buddha, Trapusa and Bhallika responsible for introducing Buddhism in that country. Originally these two were merchants of the kingdom of Balhika, as the name Bhalluka or Bhallika probably suggests the association of one with that country. They had gone to India for trade and had happened to be at Bodhgaya when the Buddha had just attained enlightenment.

Faxian visited and worshiped the sacred Buddhist sites such as of The Shadow of the Buddha in Nagarhara (modern Jalalabad). In 630 AD Xuan Zang, the famous Chinese Buddhist monk, visited Jalalabad and a number of other locations nearby. The city was a major center of Gandhara's Greco-Buddhist culture in the past until it was conquered by Muslim Arabs in the 11th century. However, not everyone converted to Islam at that period as some still refused to accept it. In Hudud-al-Alam, written in 982 CE, there is reference to a village near Jalalabad where the local king used to have many Hindu, Muslim and Afghan wives.

The region became part of the Afghan Ghaznavid Empire in the 10th century, during the Indian invasions by Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni. Later, it was controlled by the successor Ghurids until the Mongols invaded the area. It then became part of the Timurids.

The modern city gained prominence during the reign of Babur, founder of the Mughal Empire. Babur had chosen the site for this city which was built by his grandson Jalal-uddin Mohammad Akbar in 1560.

The Battle of Jellalabad in 1842 was an Afghan siege of the isolated British outpost at Jellalabad (now Jalalabad) about 130 kilometres (80 mi) east of Kabul. The siege was lifted after five months when a British counterattack routed the Afghans, driving them back to Kabul. The outpost was no more than a wide place in the road with a fort, held by about 2,000 troops under General Sir Robert Sale. After the massacre of the British force during their retreat from Kabul in January 1842, Jellallabad was surrounded by Afghan forces which launched a series of attacks on the force. The British managed to beat off the assaults, and even captured 300 sheep from the besieging force when rations ran short. Eventually, after five months under siege, Sale mounted an attack against the Afghan forces, captured their main camp, baggage, stores, guns, and horses and the Afghans fled to Kabul. The defence of Jellalabad made heroes of the 13th Foot. It is reported that as the regiment marched back through India to return to Britain every garrison fired a ten-gun salute in its honour. Queen Victoria directed that the regiment be made light Infantry, carry the additional title of "Prince Albert's Own" and wear a badge depicting the walls of the town with the word “Jellalabad" visible.

The original name of Jalalabad was Adinapur. It was renamed as Jalalabad in the last decade of the sixteenth century, in honour of the son of Pir Roshan, Jalala, who was fighting the Mughals in the Waziristan area. It remained part of the Mughal Empire until around 1738 when Persian king Nader Shah and his Afsharid forces from Khorasan came to take over control. Nader Shah was accompanied by the young Ahmad Shah Durrani, founder of the modern state of Afghanistan, who would re-conquer the area in 1747 after becoming the new ruler of the Afghans. He used the city while going back and forth during his nine military campaigns into India.

The city was invaded by Ranjit Singh and his Sikh army in the early 19th century, but they were quickly chased out a few days later by Afghan forces of the Durrani Empire. The British forces invaded Jalalabad in 1838, during the First Anglo-Afghan War. In the 1842 Battle of Jellalabad, Akbar Khan besieged the British troops on their way to Jalalabad. In 1878, during the Second Anglo-Afghan War, the British again invaded and set up camps in Jalalabad but withdrew two years later.

Market in Jalalabad in 1969

Jalalabad is considered one of the most important cities of the Pashtun culture. Seraj-ul-Emarat, the residence of Amir Habibullah and King Amanullah was destroyed in 1929 when Habibullah Kalakani rose to power; the other sanctuaries however, retain vestiges of the past. The mausoleum of both rulers is enclosed by a garden facing Seraj-ul-Emart.

From 1978 to early 1990s, the city served as a strategic location for the pro-Soviet Democratic Republic of Afghanistan. It fell to the Mujahideen in 1992 when they were on their way to capture Kabul. It was conquered by the Taliban in September 1996, becoming part of the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan. During Operation Enduring Freedom after the September 11 attacks in the United States, the city was invaded and fell to US-backed Afghan forces.

Since late 2001, the military of Afghanistan and the United States armed forces have established a number of bases, with the one at Jalalabad Airport being the largest. The Afghan National Police is in control of security while the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) also has a heavy presence in and around the city. In early 2011, the U.S. Embassy in Kabul announced that it plans to establish a consulate in Jalalabad. As is the case with other Afghan cities, occasional suicide attacks by militants have taken place in recent years.

Jalalabad: Demographics

See also: Demographics of Afghanistan

The city population is estimated to be 356,274 in year 2015.

Nearly all residents of Jalalabad are Muslim, followers of Sunni Islam. The city is home to one of Afghanistan's few Hindu temples, the Darga Hindu Temple on Chowk Omomi Street, founded by Darga Mathara Das in c. 1084 AD.

Jalalabad: Land Use

Jalalabad is the Regional Hub in eastern Afghanistan, close to the border with Pakistan. Agriculture is the predominant land use at 44%, higher density of dwellings is found in Districts 1-5 and vacant plots are largely clustered in District 6. Districts 1-6 all have a grid network of roads.

Jalalabad: Climate

Jalalabad's climate is hot desert (Köppen: BWh). The city's climate has close resemblance to that of Arizona in the United States. It receives six to eight inches (152 to 203 mm) of rainfall per annum which are limited to winter and the months of spring. Frosts are not common, and during the summer, the mercury can reach a maximum of 120 °F (49 °C).

The north and southwestern parts of the city which has lower elevation are welcoming places to winds from the north and west cooling the parts in summer months. Jalalabad has the highest relative humidity in summer compared to other Afghan cities. However the moderate temperatures of winter has led to various people down the history establishing their settlements in the city.

Climate data for Jalalabad
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 25.0
(77)
28.8
(83.8)
34.5
(94.1)
40.5
(104.9)
45.4
(113.7)
47.5
(117.5)
44.7
(112.5)
42.4
(108.3)
41.2
(106.2)
38.2
(100.8)
32.4
(90.3)
25.4
(77.7)
47.5
(117.5)
Average high °C (°F) 15.9
(60.6)
17.9
(64.2)
22.5
(72.5)
28.3
(82.9)
34.7
(94.5)
40.4
(104.7)
39.3
(102.7)
38.0
(100.4)
35.2
(95.4)
30.5
(86.9)
23.3
(73.9)
17.5
(63.5)
28.63
(83.52)
Daily mean °C (°F) 8.5
(47.3)
10.9
(51.6)
16.3
(61.3)
21.9
(71.4)
27.7
(81.9)
32.7
(90.9)
32.8
(91)
31.9
(89.4)
28.1
(82.6)
22.2
(72)
14.9
(58.8)
9.5
(49.1)
21.45
(70.61)
Average low °C (°F) 2.9
(37.2)
5.6
(42.1)
10.5
(50.9)
15.3
(59.5)
19.8
(67.6)
24.7
(76.5)
26.7
(80.1)
26.2
(79.2)
21.4
(70.5)
14.4
(57.9)
6.9
(44.4)
3.5
(38.3)
14.83
(58.68)
Record low °C (°F) −14.1
(6.6)
−9.5
(14.9)
−1.0
(30.2)
6.1
(43)
10.6
(51.1)
13.5
(56.3)
19.0
(66.2)
17.5
(63.5)
11.0
(51.8)
2.7
(36.9)
−4.5
(23.9)
−5.5
(22.1)
−14.1
(6.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 18.1
(0.713)
24.3
(0.957)
39.2
(1.543)
36.4
(1.433)
16.0
(0.63)
1.4
(0.055)
6.9
(0.272)
7.7
(0.303)
8.3
(0.327)
3.2
(0.126)
8.3
(0.327)
12.1
(0.476)
181.9
(7.162)
Average rainy days 4 5 8 8 4 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 39
Average relative humidity (%) 61 60 62 59 47 40 52 58 56 55 58 63 55.9
Mean monthly sunshine hours 180.9 182.7 207.1 227.8 304.8 339.6 325.9 299.7 293.6 277.6 231.0 185.6 3,056.3
Source: NOAA (1964-1983)

Jalalabad: Flora and Fauna

Jalalabad is home to a large number of fruits. Various types of citrus fruits like orange, tangerine, grapefruit, lemon, lime grow in gardens as well as in orchards. The orange trees yield a crop only once in three years. The narindj variety of orange is the most common one which has yellow skin and its taste is a combination of orange and grapefruit. The grapefruits grown here have a diameter of eight or nine inches. Per year 1800 tonnes of pomegranates, 334 tones of grapes, and 7750 tones of mulberries are produced in Jalalabad. The fruits are either sold in local markets or transported to Kabul markets from where they are exported. The second most common crop is local vatani variety of sugarcane. It contains 15% sugar by weight.

Jalalabad: Transportation

See also: Transport in Afghanistan
An Afghan Air Force Mi-17 helicopter comes in for a landing at Jalalabad Airport in October 2011.

The Jalalabad Airport was built for dual-use, civilian and military. It is designed to serve the population of Nangarhar Province and neighboring province for domestic flights. The airport is currently used by NATO-led forces, including the Afghan Air Force, and houses large number of ISAF forces. The airport is also used as one of the launching and monitoring spots of drone attacks in Pakistan.

There are proposals for the establishment of Afghanistan's rail network linking Jalalabad with Pakistan Railways, allowing for increased trade of goods, people and commerce between the two countries.

Jalalabad is connected by main roads with the Afghan capital of Kabul, the city of Peshawar in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, and several nearby Afghan cities and towns. All trade between Afghanistan and Pakistan passes through this city. The highway between Jalalabad and Kabul was resurfaced in 2006, reducing the transit time between these two important cities. This highway is considered to be one of the most dangerous in the world because of the large number of accidents. An improvement in the road networks between Jalalabad and Peshawar has also been proposed, with the intention of widening the existing road and improving security to attract more tourists and allow for safer passage of goods between to the two countries.

Jalalabad: Places of interest

Sherzai Cricket Stadium (under construction)
Mausoleum of King Amanullah Khan

Jalalabad is considered one of the most beautiful cities of Afghanistan. It has plenty of greenery and water. About 15 kilometers from Jalalabad, a new city called Ghazi Amanullah Khan Town is under development. Named after King Amanullah Khan, it is said to be the first, the biggest and the most modern city in the history of Afghanistan.

Jalalabad is considered the capital of Afghan cricket, with many of the national players coming from the surrounding areas. Construction has begun near the city on one of Afghanistan's cricket stadiums. It is hoped that this ground will serve the domestic competition and attract international teams.

  • Airports
    • Jalalabad Airport

Jalalabad Airport (IATA: JAA, ICAO: OAJL) is located 5 kilometres (3 mi) southeast of Jalalabad city in Afghanistan. This airport is currently being used only for military purposes and sometimes the United Nations' aircraft use this airport. It is occupied and maintained by the United States Armed Forces. They operate out of Forward Operating Base Fenty, which is adjacent to Jalalabad Airport. The Afghan Air Force (AAF) and members of the International Security Assistance Force also use the airport.

    • New Jalalabad Airport

Hamidullah Qaderi, Minister of Transport and Civil Aviation of Afghanistan, announced in April 2009 the construction of a new civilian airport in the Gambiri area northwest of Jalalabad. The new airport will be constructed with financial assistance from the United States.

  • Foreign consulates

India and Pakistan operate their consulate here for trade, military and political links.

Jalalabad is located in Afghanistan
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Uzbekistan
Zaranj
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Indian and Pakistani embassy and consulates in Afghanistan in red
  • Stadiums
    • Sherzai Cricket Stadium (under construction)
    • National Football Stadium

The province is represented in domestic cricket competitions by the Nangarhar province cricket team. National team member Hamid Hasan was born in the province and he currently represents Afghanistan in international cricket. The Ghazi Amanullah Khan International Cricket Stadium is the first international standard cricket stadium in Afghanistan. It is located in the Ghazi Amanullah Khan Township, about 15 kilometres south-east of Jalalabad in Nangarhar Province.[1] Construction on the stadium began in March 2010 when the foundation stone was laid by Minister of Finance and president of the Afghanistan Cricket Board, Omar Zakhilwal.[2] The project, which was developed on 30 acres of land donated by the developer constructing the Ghazi Amanullah Khan Township,[3] cost up the first phase of construction $1.8 million. The first phase, which took one year to complete, included the completion of the stadium itself.[2] The remainder of the phases will see the construction of a pavilion, accommodation for players and administrative buildings.[2] The stadium, which has a capacity of 14,000, was completed before the national team and under-19 team left for Canada and the Under-19 Cricket World Cup Qualifier in Ireland respectively. The two sides inaugurated the stadium in a Twenty20 match.[2] It is hoped that the stadium will be able to attract international teams to play Afghanistan, who currently have One Day International status until at least 2013.

  • Mausoleums
    • Mausoleum of King Amanullah Khan
    • Mausoleum of Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan
    • Mausoleum of Mohammad Gul Khan Momand
  • Mosques
  • Hospitals

Jalalabad district has three big hospitals: Fatumatu Zahra, Medical Hospital of Nangarhar, and the General Hospital of Public Health. The General Hospital of Public Health is one of the largest in the country.[8] As of July 24, 2004, polio (NSL3) has been identified and reported in the Jalalabad district area. This specific case has been linked to others reported in the past due to the highly transient and mobile population.[9]

  • Universities
    • Nangarhar University

Nangarhar University (Pashto: د ننګرهار پوهنتون) is a government-funded higher learning institution in Jalalabad, Afghanistan. It is the second largest university in Afghanistan.[2] It has approximately 25 faculty and 3,500 students.[3] Nangarhar University was established in 1962 as a medical college.[4] It was later merged with other local colleges to become a full-fledged university. It now houses faculties in agriculture, engineering, education, medicine, theology, pedagogy, political science and veterinary medicine.

Nangarhar consists of many faculties including engineering, political science, economics, teachers' training, veterinary, and computer science. Nangarhar Medical Faculty (NMF) is the second largest medical school in Afghanistan. They also take part in an e-learning program organized by Afghans Next Generation e-Learning.

The nearest village within walking distance of Jalalabad is Ghouchak.

Jalalabad: Sister cities

San Diego, California, USA

Jalalabad: See also

  • Battle of Jellalabad
  • Gul Agha Sherzai
  • Jalalabad Airport
  • Fazal Haq Mujahid
  • Provincial Reconstruction Team
  • International Security Assistance Force

Jalalabad: References

  1. "The State of Afghan Cities report 2015". Archived from the original on 2015-10-31.
  2. http://www.mrrd.gov.af/nabdp/Provincial%20Profiles/Nangarhar%20PDP%20Provincial%20profile.pdf
  3. "Jalālābād". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2011-08-15.
  4. "The State of Afghan Cities report2015". Archived from the original on 2015-10-31.
  5. "The State of Afghan Cities report 2015".
  6. "The State of Afghan Cities report2015".
  7. Nancy Hatch Dupree / Aḥmad ʻAlī Kuhzād (1972). "An Historical Guide to Kabul - The Name". American International School of Kabul. Archived from the original on 2010-08-30. Retrieved 2010-09-18.
  8. Historiarum Philippicarum libri XLIV, XV.4.19
  9. Puri, Baij Nath (1987). Buddhism in central Asia. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. p. 352. ISBN 81-208-0372-8. Retrieved 2010-11-03.
  10. Kuwayama, Shoshin. "The Hephthalites in Tokharistan and Northwest India". In Liu, Xinru. India and Central Asia. Permanent Black. p. 240. ISBN 8178243474.
  11. Vogelsang, Willem (2002). The Afghans. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-631-19841-3.
  12. Adamec, Ludwig W. (2011). Historical Dictionaries of Asia, Oceania, and the Middle East : Historical Dictionary of Afghanistan. Scarecrow Press. p. 264. ISBN 9780810878150.
  13. Gazetteer of the Peshawar District 1897-98 Page 55
  14. Naadem, Bashir Ahmad (February 24, 2011). "US to open consulates in more provinces". Pajhwok Afghan News. Retrieved 2011-08-15.
  15. "The State of Afghan Cities report 2015". Archived from the original on 2015-10-31.
  16. Singh, Pritpal (1 May 2013). "Mission Afghanistan".
  17. "The State of Afghan Cities report 2015".
  18. "The State of Afghan Cities report 2015".
  19. Michel, p.29
  20. Michel, p.30
  21. "Jalal Abad Climate Normals 1964-1983". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved December 25, 2012.
  22. Michel, p.32
  23. Michel, p.33
  24. "Work on Jalalabad railways station launched". Pajhwok Afghan News. 3 January 2013. Retrieved 2013-01-04.
  25. "On Afghan Road, Scenes of Beauty and Death"
  26. "Ghazi Amanullah Khan City". najeebzarab.af. 2009. Retrieved 2011-08-15.

Jalalabad: Notes

  • Aloys Arthur Michel. The Kabul, Kunduz, and Helmand Valleys and the National Economy of Afghanistan: A Study of Regional Resources and the Comparative Advantages of Development. National Academies.

Jalalabad: Further reading

  • Edward Balfour (1885), "Jalalabad", Cyclopaedia of India (3rd ed.), London: B. Quaritch
  • "Jalalabad", The Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.), New York: Encyclopædia Britannica, 1910, OCLC 14782424
  • Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art & Architecture. Oxford University Press. 2009.
  • Ghazi Amanullah Khan City on YouTube
  • The Silk Road Journey With Xuanzang By Sally Hovey Wriggins
  • "Jalalabad". Islamic Cultural Heritage Database. Istanbul: Organization of Islamic Cooperation, Research Centre for Islamic History, Art and Culture. Archived from the original on 2013-06-15.
Source of information: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. We're not responsible for the content of this article and your use of this information. Disclaimer
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