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Hotels of Jeddah

A hotel in Jeddah is an establishment that provides lodging paid on a short-term basis. Facilities provided may range from a basic bed and storage for clothing, to luxury features like en-suite bathrooms. Larger in Jeddah hotels may provide additional guest facilities such as a swimming pool, business centre, childcare, conference facilities and social function services. Hotel rooms in Jeddah are usually numbered (or named in some smaller hotels and B&Bs) to allow guests to identify their room. Some Jeddah hotels offer meals as part of a room and board arrangement. Hotel operations vary in size, function, and cost. Most Jeddah hotels and major hospitality companies that operate hotels in Jeddah have set widely accepted industry standards to classify hotel types. General categories include the following:

Upscale luxury hotels in Jeddah
An upscale full service hotel facility in Jeddah that offers luxury amenities, full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and the highest level of personalized and professional service. Luxury Jeddah hotels are normally classified with at least a Four Diamond or Five Diamond status or a Four or Five Star rating depending on classification standards.

Full service hotels in Jeddah
Full service Jeddah hotels often contain upscale full-service facilities with a large volume of full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and a variety of on-site amenities such as swimming pools, a health club, children's activities, ballrooms, on-site conference facilities, etc.

Historic inns and boutique hotels in Jeddah
Boutique hotels of Jeddah are smaller independent non-branded hotels that often contain upscale facilities of varying size in unique or intimate settings with full service accommodations. Jeddah boutique hotels are generally 100 rooms or less. Some historic inns and boutique hotels in Jeddah may be classified as luxury hotels.

Focused or select service hotels in Jeddah
Small to medium-sized hotel establishments that offer a limited amount of on-site amenities that only cater and market to a specific demographic of Jeddah travelers, such as the single business traveler. Most Jeddah focused or select service hotels may still offer full service accommodations but may lack leisure amenities such as an on-site restaurant or a swimming pool.

Economy and limited service hotels in Jeddah
Small to medium-sized Jeddah hotel establishments that offer a very limited amount of on-site amenities and often only offer basic accommodations with little to no services, these facilities normally only cater and market to a specific demographic of travelers, such as the budget-minded Jeddah traveler seeking a "no frills" accommodation. Limited service Jeddah hotels often lack an on-site restaurant but in return may offer a limited complimentary food and beverage amenity such as on-site continental breakfast service.

Guest houses and B&Bs in Jeddah
A bed and breakfast in Jeddah is a small lodging establishment that offers overnight accommodation and inclusive breakfast. Usually, Jeddah bed and breakfasts are private homes or family homes offering accommodations. The typical Jeddah B&B has between 4 and 11 rooms, with 6 being the average. Generally, guests are accommodated in private bedrooms with private bathrooms, or in a suite of rooms including an en suite bathroom. Some homes have private bedrooms with a bathroom which is shared with other guests. Breakfast is served in the bedroom, a dining room, or the host's kitchen. Often the owners of guest house themselves prepare the breakfast and clean the rooms.

Hostels in Jeddah
Jeddah hostels provide budget-oriented, sociable accommodation where guests can rent a bed, usually a bunk bed, in a dormitory and share a bathroom, lounge, and sometimes a kitchen. Rooms can be mixed or single-sex, although private rooms may also be available. Hostels are often cheaper for both the operator and occupants; many Jeddah hostels have long-term residents whom they employ as desk agents or housekeeping staff in exchange for experience or discounted accommodation.

Apartment hotels, extended stay hotels in Jeddah
Extended stay hotels are small to medium-sized Jeddah hotels that offer longer term full service accommodations compared to a traditional hotel. Extended stay hotels may offer non-traditional pricing methods such as a weekly rate that cater towards travelers in need of short-term accommodations for an extended period of time. Similar to limited and select service hotels, on-site amenities are normally limited and most extended stay hotels in Jeddah lack an on-site restaurant.

Timeshare and destination clubs in Jeddah
Jeddah timeshare and destination clubs are a form of property ownership also referred to as a vacation ownership involving the purchase and ownership of an individual unit of accommodation for seasonal usage during a specified period of time. Timeshare resorts in Jeddah often offer amenities similar that of a Full service hotel with on-site restaurant(s), swimming pools, recreation grounds, and other leisure-oriented amenities. Destination clubs of Jeddah on the other hand may offer more exclusive private accommodations such as private houses in a neighborhood-style setting.

Motels in Jeddah
A Jeddah motel is a small-sized low-rise lodging establishment similar to that of a limited service hotel, but with direct access to individual rooms from the car park. Common during the 1950s and 1960s, motels were often located adjacent to a major road, where they were built on inexpensive land at the edge of towns or along stretches of highways. They are still useful in less populated areas of Jeddah for driving travelers, but the more populated an area becomes the more hotels fill the need. Many of Jeddah motels which remain in operation have joined national franchise chains, rebranding themselves as hotels, inns or lodges.

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Travelling and vacation in Jeddah

Clockwise from top left:  King Road Tower, Jeddah Flagpole, Old Jeddah, Jeddah seafront, King Fahd's Fountain, King Abdullah Sports City, Jeddah Light, nightview
Clockwise from top left:
King Road Tower, Jeddah Flagpole, Old Jeddah, Jeddah seafront, King Fahd's Fountain, King Abdullah Sports City, Jeddah Light, nightview
Nickname(s): The Bride of the Red Sea
Motto: Jeddah Is Different
Jeddah is located in Saudi Arabia
Location of Jeddah within Saudi Arabia
Coordinates:  / 21.54333; 39.17278  / 21.54333; 39.17278
Country Saudi Arabia
Region Makkah (Mecca)
Established From the 6th century BC
• City Mayor Hani Abu Ras
• City Governor Mish'al Al-Saud
• Provincial Governor Khaled Al-Faisal
• City 1,600 km (600 sq mi)
• Urban 1,686 km (651 sq mi)
• Metro 47 km (18 sq mi)
Elevation 12 m (39 ft)
Population (2014)
• City 3,976,000
• Density 2,500/km (6,400/sq mi)
Time zone AST (UTC+3)
• Summer (DST) AST (UTC)
Postal Code (5 digit codes beginning with 23; e.g. 23434)
Area code(s) +966-12
Website www.jeddah.gov.sa/english/index.php
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Official name Historic Jeddah, the Gate to Makkah
Criteria Cultural: (ii), (iv), (vi) Edit this on Wikidata
Reference 1361
Inscription 2014 (38th Session)
[edit on Wikidata]

Jeddah (sometimes spelled Jiddah or Jedda; English: /ˈɛdə/; Arabic: جدة‎‎ Ğidda Hejazi pronunciation: [ˈd͡ʒɪd.da]) is a city in the Hijaz Tihamah region on the coast of the Red Sea and is the major urban center of western Saudi Arabia. It is the largest city in Makkah Province, the largest sea port on the Red Sea, and the second-largest city in Saudi Arabia after the capital city, Riyadh. With a population of about 4 million people (as of 2014), Jeddah is an important commercial hub in Saudi Arabia.

Jeddah is the principal gateway to Mecca, Islam's holiest city, which able-bodied Muslims are required to visit at least once in their lifetime. It is also a gateway to Medina, the second holiest place in Islam.

Economically, Jeddah is focusing on further developing capital investment in scientific and engineering leadership within Saudi Arabia, and the Middle East. Jeddah was independently ranked fourth in the Africa – Mid-East region in terms of innovation in 2009 in the Innovation Cities Index.

Jeddah is one of Saudi Arabia's primary resort cities and was named a Gamma world city by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network (GaWC). Given the city's close proximity to the Red Sea, fishing and seafood dominates the food culture unlike other parts of the country. The city has been labeled as "different" by the majority of Saudis in an effort to promote tourism in the city, that had been previously perceived as "most open" city in Saudi Arabia.

Jeddah: Etymology and spelling

There are at least two explanations for the etymology of the name Jeddah, according to Jeddah Ibn Al-Qudaa'iy, the chief of the Quda'a clan. The more common account has it that the name is derived from جدة Jaddah, the Arabic word for "grandmother". According to eastern folk belief, the tomb of Eve (  / 21.49194; 39.19000), considered the grandmother of humanity, is located in Jeddah. The tomb was sealed with concrete by religious authorities in 1975 due to some Muslims praying at the site.

Ibn Battuta (1304–1368), the Berber traveler, visited Jeddah during his world trip. He wrote the name of the city into his diary as "Jiddah".

The British Foreign Office and other branches of the British government used the older spelling of "Jedda", contrary to other English-speaking usage, but in 2007, it changed to the spelling "Jeddah".

T. E. Lawrence felt that any transcription of Arabic names into English was arbitrary. In his book, Revolt in the Desert, Jeddah is spelled three different ways on the first page alone.

On official Saudi maps and documents, the city name is transcribed "Jeddah", which is now the prevailing usage.

Jeddah: History

Jeddah, mid-1800s
Jeddah in 1938

Some archaeologists' studies suggest the existence of inhabitants in the region now known as Jeddah since the Stone Age seeing as they found some artifacts and 'Thamoudian' writings in Wadi (valley) Breiman east of Jeddah and Wadi Boib northeast of Jeddah. Some historians trace its founding to the tribe of Bani Quda'ah, who inhabited it after the collapse of Sad (dam) Ma'rib in 115 BC. Some believe that Jeddah had been inhabited before the tribe of Bani Quda'ah by fishermen in the Red Sea, who considered it a center from which they sailed out into the sea as well as a place for relaxation and well-being. According to some accounts, the history of Jeddah dates back to early times before Alexander the Great, who visited the city between 323 and 356 BC.

Jeddah: Pre-Islam

Excavations in the old city suggest that Jeddah was founded as a fishing hamlet in 522 BC by the Yemeni Quda'a tribe (بني قضاعة), who left central Yemen to settle in Makkah after the destruction of the Marib Dam in Yemen.

Other archaeological studies have shown that the area was settled earlier by people in the Stone Age, as some Thamudi scripts were excavated in Wadi Briman (وادي بريمان), east of the city, and Wadi Boweb (وادي بويب), northwest of the city. The city of Jeddah was an important port during Nabataeans frankincense trade .The oldest Mashrabiya was found in jeddah dates back to pre Islamic era .

Jeddah: Rashidun Caliphate

Jeddah first achieved prominence around AD 647, when the third Muslim Caliph, Uthman Ibn Affan (عثمان بن عفان), turned it into a port making it the port of Makkah instead of Al Shoaiba port south west of Mecca. In AD 703 Jeddah was briefly occupied by pirates from the Kingdom of Axum. Jeddah has been established as the main city of the historic Hijaz province and a historic port for pilgrims arriving by sea to perform their Hajj pilgrimage in Mecca.

Jeddah: Umayyad Caliphate

Umayyads have inherited the entire Rashidun Caliphate including Hejaz and ruled from 661AD to 750AD. No historic records mentions important events have taken place in Jeddah during this period of history.

However, Jeddah has remained as key civilian harbor, serving fishermen and sea travelling pilgrims to Hajj. it is also believed that Sharifdom of Mecca; an honorary Viceroy to the holyland. was first appointed in this period of the Islamic Caliphate.

Jeddah: Abbasid Caliphate

Abbassids, the new superpower, became the new successor to the Umayyad. in 750 Abbasid Revolution successfully took control of the whole Umayyad Empire, excluding Morocco (Maghrib) and Spain (Al-Andalus). ُEven the Caliphate of Baghdad kept expanding and ruled until 1258, Hejaz only remained under Abbasid throne until 876, when Tulunids of Egypt gained control of the Emirate of Egypt, Syria, Jordon and Hejaz.

Jeddah: Tulunids and Ikhshidid Emirates

The power struggle between Tulunids and Abbasid over Hejaz has lasted for 30 years when Tulunids have finally withdrawn from Arabia in 900AD.

In 930AD, main Hejazi cities Medina,Mecca and Taif were heavily sacked by Qarmatians. However, it is not historically confirmed that Jeddah it self was attacked by Qarmatians too.

However, Ikhshidids, the new power in Egypt took control of Hejaz in early 935. No historic records details the even during Ikhshidids rule of Hejaz. Jeddah was still unfortified and without walls at this point of time.

Jeddah: Fatimid Caliphate

In the 969 AD, the Fatimids from Algeria took control in Egypt from the Ikhshidid dynasty and expanded their empire to the surrounding regions, including The Hijaz and Jeddah. The Fatimids developed an extensive trade network in both the Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean through the Red Sea. Their trade and diplomatic ties extended all the way to China and its Song Dynasty, which eventually determined the economic course of Tihamah during the High Middle Ages.

Jeddah: Ayyubid Empire

After Saladin's conquest of Jerusalem, in 1171 he proclaimed himself sultan of Egypt, after dissolving the Fatimid Caliphate upon the death of al-Adid, thus establishing the Ayyubid dynasty. Ayyubid conquests in Hejaz included Jeddah, which joined the Ayyubid Empire in 1177 during the leadership of Sharif Ibn Abul-Hashim Al-Thalab (1094–1201). During their relatively short-lived tenure, the Ayyubids ushered in an era of economic prosperity in the lands they ruled and the facilities and patronage provided by the Ayyubids led to a resurgence in intellectual activity in the Islamic world. This period was also marked by an Ayyubid process of vigorously strengthening Sunni Muslim dominance in the region by constructing numerous madrasas (Islamic schools) in their major cities. Jeddah attracted Muslim sailors and merchants from Sindh, Southeast Asia and East Africa, and other distant regions.

Jeddah: Mamluk Sultanate

In 1254, following events in Cairo and the dissolution of the Ayyubid Empire, Hijaz became a part of the Mamluk Sultanate. The Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama, having found his way around the Cape and obtained pilots from the coast of Zanzibar in AD 1497, pushed his way across the Indian Ocean to the shores of Malabar and Calicut, attacked fleets that carried freight and Muslim pilgrims from India to the Red Sea, and struck terror into the surrounding potentates. The Princes of Gujarat and Yemen turned for help to Egypt. Sultan Al-Ashraf Qansuh al-Ghawri accordingly fitted out a fleet of 50 vessels under his Admiral, Hussein the Kurd. Jeddah was soon fortified with a stone wall, using forced labor, as a harbor of refuge from the Portuguese, allowing Arabia and the Red Sea to be protected. Parts of the city wall still survive today in the old city. Even though the Portuguese were successfully repelled from the city, fleets in the Indian Ocean were at their mercy. This was evidenced by the Battle of Diu between the Portuguese and the Arab Mamluks. The Portuguese soldiers' cemetery can still be found within the old city today and is referred to as the site of the Christian Graves.

Jeddah: Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman admiral Selman Reis defended Jeddah against a Portuguese attack in 1517.

In 1517, the Ottoman Turks conquered the Mamluk Sultanate in Egypt and Syria, during the reign of Selim I. As territories of the Mamluk Sultanate, the Hijaz, including Jeddah and the holy city of Mecca, passed into Ottoman possession. The Ottomans rebuilt the weak walls of Jeddah in 1525 following their victory over the Lopo Soares de Albergaria's Armada in the Red Sea. The new Turkish wall included six watchtowers and six city gates. They were constructed to defend against the Portuguese attack. Of the six gates, the Gate of Mecca was the eastern gate and the Gate of Al-Magharibah, facing the port, was the western gate. The Gate of Sharif faced south. The other gates were the Gate of Al-Bunt, Gate of Al-Sham (also called Gate of Al-Sharaf) and Gate of Medina, facing north. The Turks also built The Qishla of Jeddah, a small castle for the city soldiers. In the 19th century these seven gates were minimized into four giant gates with four towers. These giant gates were the Gate of Sham to the north, the Gate of Mecca to the east, the Gate of Sharif to the south, and the Gate of Al-Magharibah on the sea side.

Ahmed Al-Jazzar, the Ottoman military man mainly known for his role in the Siege of Acre, spent the earlier part of his career at Jeddah. In Jeddah in 1750, he killed some seventy rioting nomads in retaliation for the killing of his commander, Abdullah Beg, earning him the nickname "Jezzar" (butcher).

On 15 June 1858, rioting in the city, believed to have been instigated by a former police chief in reaction to British policy in the Red Sea, led to the massacre of 25 Christians, including the British and French consuls, members of their families, and wealthy Greek merchants. The British frigate HMS Cyclops, anchored at port, bombarded the city for two days and restored law and order.

Jeddah: First Saudi State and Ottoman–Saudi War

In 1802, Nejdi forces conquered both Mecca and Jeddah from the Ottomans. When Sharif Ghalib Efendi informed Sultan Mahmud II of this, the Sultan ordered his Egyptian viceroy Muhammad Ali Pasha to retake the city. Muhammad Ali successfully regained the city in the Battle of Jeddah in 1813.

Jeddah: World War I and the Hashemite Kingdom

Mohammed Abu Zenada, one of the Chiefs of Jeddah and the advisor to the Sharif during the surrender to King Abdulaziz Ibn Saud in 1925

During World War I, Sharif Hussein bin Ali declared a revolt against the Ottoman Empire, seeking independence from the Ottoman Turks and the creation of a single unified Arab state spanning from Aleppo in Syria to Aden in Yemen.

King Hussein declared the Kingdom of Hejaz. Later, Hussein was involved in war with Ibn Saud, who was the Sultan of Nejd. Hussein abdicated following the fall of Mecca, in December 1924, and his son Ali bin Hussein became the new king.

Jeddah: Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

King Abdulaziz sitting with Abdullah Ali Reda on the day he entered Jeddah in 1925
New Corniche of Coastline in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Coastline of the city of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Jeddah is considered a big Islamic tourist destination in Saudi Arabia, and it is the most cosmopolitan part of the country with much diversity in its expat population.

A few months later, Ibn Saud, whose clan originated in the central Nejd province, conquered Medina and Jeddah via an agreement with Jeddans following the Second Battle of Jeddah. He deposed Ali bin Hussein, who fled to Baghdad, eventually settling in Amman, Jordan, where his descendants became part of its Hashemite royalty.

As a result, Jeddah came under the sway of the Al-Saud dynasty in December 1925. In 1926, Ibn Saud added the title King of Hejaz to his position of Sultan of Nejd. Today, Jeddah has lost its historical role in peninsular politics after Jeddah fell within the new province of Makkah, whose provincial capital is the city of Mecca.

From 1928 to 1932, the new Khuzam Palace was built as the new residence of King Abdul Aziz in Jeddah. The palace lies south of the old walled city and was constructed under the supervision of the engineer Mohammed bin Awad bin Laden. After 1963, the palace was used as a royal guest house; since 1995, it has housed the Regional Museum of Archaeology and Ethnography.

The remaining walls and gates of the old city were demolished in 1947. A fire in 1982 destroyed some ancient buildings in the old town center, called Al-Balad, but much is still preserved despite the commercial interest to tear down old houses (Naseef House, Gabil House) and build modern high-rise buildings. A house-by-house survey of the old districts was made in 1979, showing that some 1000 traditional buildings still existed, though the number of structures with great historic value was far less. In 1990, a Jeddah Historical Area Preservation Department was founded.

The modern city has expanded wildly beyond its old boundaries. The built-up area expanded mainly to the north along the Red Sea coastline, reaching the new airport during the 1990s and since edging its way around it toward the Ob'hur Creek, some 27 km (17 mi) from the old city center.

Jeddah: Geography

Map of Jeddah from OpenStreetMap

Jeddah is located in Saudi Arabia's Red Sea coastal plain (called Tihamah). Jeddah lies in the Hijazi Tihama (Arabic: تهامة الحجاز) region which is in the lower Hijaz mountains. Historically, politically and culturally, Jeddah was a major city of Hejaz Vilayet, the Kingdom of Hejaz and other regional political entities according to Hijazi history books. It is the 100th largest city in the world by land area.

Jeddah: Climate

Jeddah features a tropical arid climate (BWh) under Koppen's climate classification. Unlike other Saudi Arabian cities, Jeddah retains its warm temperature in winter, which can range from 15 °C (59 °F) at dawn to 28 °C (82 °F) in the afternoon. Summer temperatures are extremely hot, often breaking the 43 °C (109 °F) mark in the afternoon and dropping to 30 °C (86 °F) in the evening. Summers are also quite steamy, with dew points often exceeding 27 °C (80 °F), particularly in September. Rainfall in Jeddah is generally sparse, and usually occurs in small amounts in November and December. Heavy thunderstorms are common in winter. The thunderstorm of December 2008 was the largest in recent memory, with rain reaching around 80 mm (3 in). The lowest temperature ever recorded in Jeddah was 9.8 °C (49.6 °F) on February 10, 1993. The highest temperature ever recorded in Jeddah was 52.0 °C (125.6 °F) on June 22, 2010.

Dust storms happen in summer and sometimes in winter, coming from the Arabian Peninsula's deserts or from North Africa.

Climate data for Jeddah (1985-2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 35.0
Average high °C (°F) 29.0
Daily mean °C (°F) 24.5
Average low °C (°F) 20.3
Record low °C (°F) 11.0
Average rainfall mm (inches) 9.9
Average relative humidity (%) 60 60 60 57 56 58 53 59 67 66 65 63 60
Source: Jeddah Regional Climate Center
Jeddah mean sea temperature
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
26.3 °C (79.3 °F) 25.7 °C (78.3 °F) 25.8 °C (78.4 °F) 26.8 °C (80.2 °F) 28.1 °C (82.6 °F) 29.0 °C (84.2 °F) 30.6 °C (87.1 °F) 31.6 °C (88.9 °F) 31.1 °C (88.0 °F) 30.7 °C (87.3 °F) 29.1 °C (84.4 °F) 27.9 °C (82.2 °F)

Jeddah: Economy

Mall of Arabia is the largest shopping mall in Jeddah.

Jeddah has long been a port city. Even before being designated the port city for Mecca, Jeddah was a trading hub for the region. In the 19th century, goods such as mother-of-pearl, tortoise shells, frankincense, and spices were routinely exported from the city. Apart from this, many imports into the city were destined for further transit to the Suez, Africa, or Europe. Many goods passing through Jeddah could not even be found in the city or even in Arabia.

All of the capitals of the Middle East and North Africa are within two hours flying distance of Jeddah, making it the second commercial center of the Middle East after Dubai.

Also, Jeddah's industrial district is the fourth largest industrial city in Saudi Arabia after Riyadh, Jubail and Yanbu.

Jeddah: King Abdullah Street

King Abdullah Street is one of the most important streets in Jeddah and runs from King Fahd Road by the waterfront in the west of Jeddah to the eastern end of the city. It is famous for hosting numerous corporate offices and commercial developments.

Jeddah: Tahliyah Street

Tahaliyah Street is an important fashion and shopping street in central Jeddah. It contains many upscale department stores and boutiques. It has been renamed "Prince Mohammad bin Abdul Aziz Road" by the government, but this official name is not widely used.

Jeddah: Madina Road

Madina Road is one of the most important streets in Jeddah. It links the South districts with the North, and it contains most of the companies main offices and showrooms.

Jeddah: Culture

Jeddah: Religious significance

A woman from Jeddah in traditional clothing, 1873.

Most citizens are Sunni Muslims. The government, courts and civil and criminal laws enforce a moral code established by Shari'ah. A very small minority of Saudi citizens are Shia Muslims, and there is also a large foreign workforce that is forbidden to follow their non-Islamic religions even privately, but this is little enforced.

The city has over 1,300 mosques. The law does not allow other religions' buildings, books, icons and expressions of faith. However, private religious observance not involving Muslims nor offending public order and morality is sometimes tolerated.

Since the 7th century, Jeddah has hosted millions of Muslim pilgrims from all over the world on their way to Hajj. This merge with pilgrims has a major impact on the society, religion, and economy of Jeddah. It also brings an annual risk of illness, known by locals as the 'hajji disease', a general term for various viral maladies.

Jeddah: Cultural projects and foundations with a branch in Jeddah

  • Encyclopaedia of Makkah and Madinah
  • Saqifat al-Safa Trust

Jeddah: Cuisine

Saudi Kabsa

Jeddah's multi-ethnic citizenry has influenced Jeddah's traditional cuisine.

As in other Saudi cities, the Nejdi dish Kabsa is popular among the people of Jeddah, often made with chicken instead of lamb meat. The Yemeni dish Mandi is also popular as a lunch meal. Jeddah cuisine is popular as well and dishes like Mabshoor, Mitabbak, Foul, Areika, Hareisa, Kabab Meiroo, Shorabah Hareira (Hareira soup), Migalgal, Madhbi (chicken grilled on stone), Madfun (literally meaning "buried"), Magloobah, Kibdah, Manzalah (usually eaten at Eid ul-Fitr), Ma'asoob, Magliya (a local version of falafel), Saleeig (a local dish made of milk rice), hummus, Biryani, Ruz Kabli, Ruz Bukhari, and Saiyadyia can be acquired in many traditional restaurants around the city, such as Althamrat, Abo-Zaid, Al-Quarmooshi, Ayaz, and Hejaziyat.

The famous Yemen food Ma'soub, fahsa and egg beans are also popular in Jeddah.

Grilled meat dishes such as shawarma, kofta and kebab have a good market in Jeddah. During Ramadan, sambousak and ful are especially popular at the evening iftar meal. These dishes are found in Lebanese, Syrian, and Turkish restaurants.

The most popular local fast food chain, begun in 1974, is Al Baik, with branches in Jeddah and the neighbouring cities of Makkah, Madinah and Yanbu. Their main dish is broasted (broiled and roasted) chicken, commonly known by Jeddans as "Broast", and a variety of seafood. Other local fast food restaurants have sprung up, like Al Tazaj, which serves seasoned grilled chicken (called Farooj) and a side of Tahina with onion and spices. Foultameez serves Foul and Tameez as fast food; Kudu and Herfy serve Western fast food; Halawani serves local variants of Shawerma; and Shawermatak has pioneered drive-through sales of Shawerma. Another popular fast-food chain is Hot and Crispy, an Arabic franchise popular for their spiced curly fries.

Indian, Bangladeshi, Pakistani and other Asian foods are also popular. Italian, French and American restaurants are also to be found.

Jeddah: Open-air art

During the oil boom in the late 1970s and 1980s, there was a focused civic effort to bring art to Jeddah's public areas. As a result, Jeddah contains a large number of modern open-air sculptures and works of art, typically situated in roundabouts, making the city one of the largest open-air art galleries in the world. Sculptures include works by Jean/Hans Arp, César Baldaccini, Alexander Calder, Henry Moore, Joan Miró and Victor Vasarely. They often depict traditional Saudi items such as coffee pots, incense burners, palm trees, etc. The fact that Islamic tradition prohibits the depiction of living creatures, notably the human form, has made for some very creative, as well as bizarre, modern art. These include a giant geometry set, a giant bicycle, and a huge block of concrete with several cars protruding from it at odd angles. A monumental sculpture by Aref Rayess is devoted to Allah (God).

Jeddah: Museums and collections

There are about a dozen museums or collections in Jeddah, with varied educational aims and professionalism. These include the Jeddah Regional Museum of Archaeology and Ethnography run by the Deputy Ministry of Antiquities and Museums, the Jeddah Municipal Museum, the Nasseef House, the Humane Heritage Museum, the private Abdul Rauf Hasan Khalil Museum and the private Arts Heritage Museum.

Jeddah: Media

Jeddah is served by four major Arabic-language newspapers, Asharq Al-Awsat, Al Madina, Okaz, and Al Bilad, as well as two major English-language newspapers, the Saudi Gazette and Arab News. Okaz and Al-Madina are the primary newspapers of Jeddah and some other Saudi cities, with over a million readers; their focus is mainly local.

Internet blogs specifically informative of locality are abundant in Jeddah, catering mostly to the widespread expatriate population. Of these are constituted websites that have garnered international acclaim for informativeness, such as Jeddah Blog, the recipient of the Bronze Expat Blog Award in 2012 and the Gold Award in 2013 Other amateur websites catering to specific topics in the region exist as well.

Jeddah represents the largest radio and television market in Saudi Arabia. Television stations serving the city area include Saudi TV1, Saudi TV2, Saudi TV Sports, Al Ekhbariya, the ART channels network and hundreds of cable, satellite and other specialty television providers.

The Jeddah TV Tower is a 250 m (820 ft) high television tower with an observation deck.

Jeddah: Accent

The Jeddah region's distinctive speech pattern is called the Hejazi dialect; it is among the most recognizable accents within the Arabic language.

Jeddah: Cityscape

Skyline of Al-Balad (Jeddah Downtown)
Buildings in Old Jeddah

Jeddah: Old Jeddah

The Old City with its traditional multistory buildings and merchant houses has lost ground to more modern developments. Nonetheless, the Old City contributes to Saudi cultural identity, preserving traditional buildings

Jeddah: Resorts and hotels

The city has many popular resorts, including Durrat Al-Arus, Al-Nawras Mövenpick resort at the Red Sea Corniche, Crystal Resort, Radisson Blu, The Signature Al Murjan Beach Resort, Al Nakheel Village, Sands, and Sheraton Abhur. Many are renowned for their preserved Red Sea marine life and offshore coral reefs.

Jeddah: Consulates

One of two consulates of the United States of America in Saudi Arabia is located in Jeddah, along with consulates for 67 other countries such as Afghanistan, the United Kingdom, Indonesia, France, Germany, Greece, Turkey, Philippines, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Italy, Russia and People's Republic of China, as well as countries of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and the Arab League states.

Jeddah: Landmarks

Bab Makkah

Jeddah: King Fahd's Fountain

King Fahd's Fountain in Jeddah.

King Fahd's Fountain was built in the 1980s, can be seen from a great distance and, at 312 metres (1,024 ft), is the highest water jet in the world according to the Guinness World Records. The fountain was donated to the City of Jeddah by the late King Fahd bin Abdul Aziz, after whom it was named.

Jeddah: Al-Jawhara Stadium

Is a new stadium launched in 2014, located north of Jeddah, is used mostly for football, reaching a full capacity of 62,241 spectators. It is the largest stadium in Jeddah, and the second largest in Saudi Arabia.

Jeddah: NCB Tower

Built in 1983 and believed to be the highest tower in Saudi Arabia during the 1980s, with a height of over 235 m (771 ft), the National Commercial Bank was Saudi Arabia's first bank.

Jeddah: IDB Tower

The Islamic Development Bank is a multilateral development financing institution. It was founded by the first conference of Finance Ministers of the Organisation of the Islamic Conference (OIC, now the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation), convened 18 December 1973. The bank officially began its activities on 20 October 1975.

Jeddah: Jeddah Municipality Tower

This is the headquarters of the metropolitan area of Jeddah. The municipality's new building is one of Jeddah's tallest.

Jeddah: Jeddah Tower

This proposed tower, formerly known as the Kingdom Tower, is being built in Jeddah by Prince Al-Waleed bin Talal and will stand 1-kilometre (0.62 mi) tall. Upon its completion, it will be the tallest skyscraper in the world. The building has been scaled down from its initial 1.6 km (1 mi) proposal, since the ground proved unsuitable for a building that tall, to a height of at least 1,000 metres (3,280.84 ft) (the exact height is being kept private while in development, similar to the Burj Khalifa), which, at about one kilometre (0.62 miles), would still make it by far the tallest building or structure in the world to date, standing at least 173 m (568 ft) taller than the Burj Khalifa in Dubai. Construction began in April 2013 and is scheduled for completion in 2019.

Jeddah: King Road Tower

King Road Tower is a commercial and office building, the external walls of which are used to show commercials. The building also has a helipad on its roof. King Road Tower has the largest LED display in the world on its walls.

Jeddah: Al Jawharah Tower

Al Jawharah Tower is a residential high-rise under construction. It became the third-tallest structure in Jeddah when completed in 2014.

Jeddah: Jeddah Flagpole

The world's tallest flagpole

The King Abdullah Square on the intersection of Andalus Road with King Abdullah Road has the world's tallest flagpole. It is 171 metres (561 feet) high and the Saudi flag atop it weighs 570 kilograms (1,260 pounds). On the 84th Saudi Arabia National Day, September 23, 2014, the flagpole hoisted a huge Saudi flag before a crowd of thousands. The flagpole succeeded Dushanbe Flagpole as the tallest flagpole in the world.

Jeddah: Entrance of Mecca

Quran Gate, Entrance to Makkah, Makkah Gate
Entry Gate of Makkah, Quran Gate On Makkah Mukkarram Road
Entry Gate of Makkah, Quran Gate On Makkah Mukkarram Road

The Mecca Gate, named the "Quran Gate", is located on the Makkah Mukkarram road of the Jeddah - Mecca Highway. It is the entrance to Mecca and the birthplace of Muhammad. The gate signifies the boundary of the haram area of the city of Mecca, where non-Muslims are prohibited to enter.

The gate was designed in 1979 by an Egyptian architect, Samir Elabd, for the architectural firm IDEA Center. The structure is that of a book, representing the Quran, sitting on a rehal, or book stand.

Jeddah: Education

Jeddah: Schools, colleges and universities

As of 2005, Jeddah had 849 public and private schools for male students and another 1,179 public and private schools for female students. The medium of instruction in both public and private schools is typically Arabic, with emphasis on English as a second language. However, some private schools administered by foreign entities conduct classes in English.

As of 2005 Jeddah had four Philippine international schools, with two more scheduled to open shortly afterward.

Jeddah's universities and colleges include the following:

Laboratories at King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST)
  • King Abdulaziz University
  • King Abdullah University of Science and Technology
  • Arab Open University
  • Dar Al-Hekma College
  • Effat University
  • University of Business and Technology (UBT)
  • Teacher's College
  • Jeddah College of Technology
  • Jeddah Private College
  • College of Health Care
  • College of Telecom & Electronics
  • College of Community
  • Private College of Business
  • Ibn Sina National College for Medical Studies
  • Batterjee Medical College
  • Prince Sultan College of Tourism
  • Prince Sultan Aviation Academy
  • Islamic Fiqh Academy
  • Jeddah Institute for Speech and Hearing
  • Saudi German Institute for Nursing

Jeddah is also home to several primary, intermediate and secondary schools such as:

Pakistan International School Jeddah (PISJ)
  • Jeddah Knowledge International School
  • American International School of Jeddah
  • Jeddah International School
  • Zahrat Al-Sahraa International school (ZSIS)
  • Cedar International School
  • British International School of Jeddah (Continental, BISJ)
  • École Française Internationale de Djeddah
  • German International School Jeddah
  • Al-Thager Model School
  • International Indian School Jeddah (IISJ)
  • Pakistan International School Jeddah (PISJ)
  • DPS Jeddah Al-Falah International School
  • International Philippine School in Jeddah
  • Jeddah Japanese School
  • Korean International School of Jeddah (KISJ; 젯다한국국제학교)
  • Al-Waha International School
  • Beladi International School Jeddah
  • Yusr International School
  • Al-Afaq International School
  • Manarat Jeddah Schools
  • Gharnatah International School
  • Al Wurood International School Jeddah [AWIS]
  • Bangladesh International School Jeddah (BISESJ)
  • Bader International School
  • Nobles International School
  • Dauha Al Uloom International School (DAUISJ)
  • Al-Fath Schools
  • al-aqsa private schools
  • Dar Al-Fikr Schools (DAF)
  • Al-Fanar School Jeddah
  • Dar Al-Thikr Schools
  • Hala International School (HIS)
  • Jeddah International Turkish School (JITS)
  • Jeddah Prep and Grammar School (JPGS)
  • Al Hamraa Girls' School
  • Building Blocks (private school)
  • Dar Jana International School (DJIS)
  • Al Mawarid International School Jeddah [AMIS]
  • Pioneer International School
  • Duaa International School Jeddah (DISJ)
  • Nhaond School
  • Number 18 High School
  • Number 25 Secondary School
  • Tuletelah High school
  • Bangladesh International School And College(Bangla Section) Jeddah (BISCJ)
  • Al-Afkar International School
  • Waad Academy School

Jeddah: Libraries

The central library at King Abdulaziz University(main branch) is a five story building that has a large collection of Arabic and English language books, rare books and documents as well as access to several online databases. It is open for public access and allows borrowing of books after requesting a library card. Saturdays are dedicated for female visitors.

King Abdul Aziz Public Library is a philanthropic institution which was founded and supported by the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques King Abdullah Bin Abdulaziz, Chairman of its Board of Directors. Established in 1985, the library was officially opened by the King on 27 February 1987. It emphasises Islamic and Arabic heritage and history of the Kingdom. The library is divided into three branches (men's, women's, and children's).

The limited number of libraries is criticized by the public. As a result, King Abdullah, Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques, has approved the King Abdullah Project for the Development of Public Libraries, and approximately SAR150 million is budgeted to be spent.

Jeddah: Sports

The city is home to the 2015 Saudi Arabian basketball Champion Al-Ittihad Jeddah, which plays its home games in the Prince Abdullah Al-Faisal Basketball Arena.

Jeddah: Transport

King Abdulaziz International Airport
Jeddah Seaport
King Abdullah Street

Jeddah: Airport

Jeddah is served by King Abdulaziz International Airport. The airport has four passenger terminals. One is the Hajj Terminal, a special outdoor terminal covered by large white tents, which was constructed to handle the more than two million pilgrims who pass through the airport during the Hajj season. The Southern Terminal is used for Saudia and Flynas (As of 15 April 2015, these are the only airlines based in Saudi Arabia) flights, while the Northern Terminal serves foreign airlines. A plan for the extension of the airport is being developed. The Royal Terminal is a special terminal reserved for VIPs, foreign kings and presidents, and the Saudi Royal Family. A portion of the airport, King Abdullah Air Base, was used by Coalition B-52 heavy bombers during Operation Desert Storm in 1991.

Jeddah: Seaport

The Jeddah Seaport is the 32nd busiest seaport in the world as of 2008. It handles the majority of Saudi Arabia's commercial movement.

Jeddah: Roads and rails

Highway 40, which begins in Jeddah, connects the city to Mecca, Riyadh and Dammam on the east coast. Jeddah does not have any rapid transit system, but a rail system connecting the city to Riyadh is now under construction. The Haramain High Speed Rail Project will provide a connection to Mecca and Medina. There is a contracted plan to build an extensive light metro system known as the Jeddah Metro, throughout the city by 2020. Jeddah's main highways run parallel to each other.

Jeddah: Issues and challenges

The city is challenged by pollution, weak sewage systems, a weak storm drain system that led to massive floodings, heavy traffic, epidemics, and water shortages.

Pollution and environment
Air pollution is a problem for Jeddah, particularly on hot summer days. The city has experienced bush fires, landfill fires, and pollution from the two industrial zones in the north and the south of the metropolitan area. A water treatment factory and the seaport also contribute to water pollution. Much of the seafront, however, is considered to be safe and clean. Ramboll has acted as Environmental Consultant on the Jeddah Environmental Impact Assessment as well as the Jeddah Environmental Social Masterplan.

On 6 December 2004, a group of five men associated with the terrorist group Al-Qaeda (Al-Qaeda Organization in the Arabian Peninsula) conducted a daring, mid-day attack on the U.S. Consulate, which killed five Consulate workers. The group was led by Fayez ibn Awwad Al-Jeheni, a former member of Saudi religious police. Two other assailants were subsequently identified by the Saudi authorities as residents of Jeddah's Al-Jamia suburb and other slums on Saudi Arabia's increasingly urbanised west coast. Buildings were attacked, hostages taken and used as human shields, and the U.S. and non-U.S. staff were under siege, although the chancery/consular section building itself was never penetrated. Closed circuit video feeds documented that the Saudi security personnel assigned to protect the facility fled when the vehicle holding the terrorists pulled up to the front gate and ran past the Delta barrier. Inside the compound, however, an armed Saudi security guard employed by the embassy shot and killed one terrorist before being fatally shot himself.

The attackers spread and ignited a flammable liquid on the front of the chancery building, and opened fire on the front doors, both of which actions did not have any penetrating effect. The Consulate's U.S. Marines released tear gas in front of the chancery building, but the terrorists had already left that location. More than an hour later, Saudi special forces made it through traffic and, along with others from their unit who arrived in a helicopter, fought to retake the compound. Two of the terrorists were killed in the final fight, with another dying later in hospital and the final militant being captured alive. Four Saudi special forces and a further 10 hostages were wounded in the crossfire.

The five Foreign Service National employees who died during the terrorist attack were Ali Yaslem Bin Talib, Imad e-Deen Musa Ali, Romeo de la Rosa, Mohammed Baheer Uddin and Jaufar Sadik. The casualties came from Yemen, Sudan, Philippines, India and Sri Lanka.

The attack underscores the ongoing vulnerabilities of Westerners to threats and terrorist actions in Jeddah and environs. In a communiqué posted in online publications such as Sawt al-Jihad (Voice of Jihad) and Mu'askar al-Battar (Al-Battar Training Camp), Al-Qaeda hinted at the symbolic nature of the U.S. Consulate attack, stating: "Know that the Mujahideen are determined to continue on their path, and they will not be weakened by what has happened to them."

Terrorist activities have persisted from 2004 to the present day. In 2004 there was an unsuccessful shooting attack on a US Marine visiting the Saudi American Bank and an attempt to simultaneously explode car bombs at Saudi American Bank and Saudi British Bank branches in Jeddah on the anniversary of the 2001 "9-11" terrorist attacks on the U.S. On 26 August 2012, a spokesman for the Interior Ministry announced that terrorists were arrested in Jeddah who had been preparing explosives for attacks within the kingdom.

Roads and highways within and exiting the city are frequently clogged with traffic. Mass transit is rare and planning is nascent; most Jeddawi adults have at least one car. Motorcycles are rare on the roads, further impacting the traffic patterns. Days immediately preceding and following the holy days are particularly noisome and cost hundreds of thousands many hours because of traffic jams. The Saudi Gazette reports that there is a plan in the works to tackle the traffic issue. A reported 3 billion Saudi Riyals will be put into constructing flyovers and underpasses in an effort to expedite traffic. The plan is scheduled to take about five years from its start to finish.

Prior to the construction of a waste treatment plant, Jeddah's waste water was disposed of by either discharge into the sea or via absorption into deep underground pits. As the city grew, a proper waste management plant was created and the built up part of the city was connected with a sewer system by the 1970s. However, even with the ever-increasing population, the original sewer system has hardly been expanded. The original plant cannot cope with the amount of waste inundating it daily. As a result, some untreated sewage is discharged directly into the sea and the entire northern part of the city remains completely unconnected to the sewage system, instead relying on septic tanks. This has been responsible for the large number of sewage tankers.

In late 2011, a storm drainage system was built in the south Jeddah area (similar to that of the Los Angeles storm drain) to reduce the risk of floods.

Jeddah: 2009 Jeddah floods

A tunnel in King Abdullah St. was filled with water during the 2009 floods.

On 25 November 2009, heavy floods affected the city and other areas of Makkah Province. The floods were described by civil defence officials as the worst in 27 years. As of 26 November 2009, 77 people were reported to have been killed, and more than 350 were missing. Some roads were under a metre (three feet) of water on 26 November, and many of the victims were believed to have drowned in their cars. At least 3,000 vehicles were swept away or damaged. The death toll was expected to rise as flood waters receded, allowing rescuers to reach stranded vehicles.

A tunnel in King Abdullah St. was filled with water during the 2011 floods.

Jeddah: 2011 Jeddah floods

On 26 January 2011, again, heavy floods affected the city and other areas of Makkah Province. The cumulative rainfall exceeded the 90 mm (3.5 in) recorded in four hours during the 25 November 2009 flash floods. Streets including Palestine Street, Madinah Road and Wali Al-Ahad Street were either flooded or jammed with traffic. Cars were seen floating in some places. Meanwhile, eyewitnesses told local newspaper Arab News that East Jeddah was swamped and floodwater was rushing west towards the Red Sea, turning streets into rivers once again.

Jeddah: 2015 Jeddah floods

On 17 November 2015, heavy floods affected the city. Streets affected by the flood include Palestine Street, Madinah Road and many others. Cars were seen burning, and many trees fell as a result of the violent flood. 3 deaths were also reported. 2 of the fatalities (including a child) were hit by lightning while crossing a street.

Jeddah: Districts

Metropolitan Jeddah comprises 137 districts: (transliterated from Arabic)

  1. Al-Murjan
  2. Al-Basateen
  3. Al-Mohamadiya
  4. Ash-Shati
  5. An-Nahda
  6. An-Naeem
  7. An-Nozha
  8. Az-Zahraa
  9. As-Salamah
  10. Al-Bawadi
  11. Ar-Rabwa
  12. As-Safa
  13. Al-Khalidiya
  14. Ar-Rawdha
  15. Al-Faysaliya
  16. Al-Andalus
  17. Al-Aziziya
  18. Ar-Rihab
  19. Al-Hamraa
  20. Al-Mosharafa
  21. Ar-Roweis
  22. Ash-Sharafiya
  23. Bani Malik
  24. Al-Woroud
  25. An-Naseem
  26. Al-Baghdadiya Ash-Sharqiya
  27. Al-Amariya
  28. Al-Hindawiya
  29. As-Saheifa
  30. Al-Kandra
  31. As-Sulaimaniya
  32. Al-Thaalba
  33. As-Sabeel
  34. Al-Qurayat
  35. Gholail
  36. An-Nozla Al-Yamaniya
  37. Al-Nozla Ash-Sharqiya
  38. Al-Taghr
  39. Al-Jamaa
  40. Madayin Al-Fahad
  41. Ar-Rawabi
  42. Al-Wazeeriya
  43. Petromin
  44. Al-Mahjar
  45. Prince Abdel Majeed
  46. Obhour Al-Janobiya
  47. Al-Marwa
  48. AL-Fayhaa
  49. King Abdul Al-Aziz University
  50. Al-Baghdadiya Al-Gharbiya
  51. Al-Balad
  52. Al-Ajwad
  53. Al-Manar
  54. As-Samer
  55. Abruq Ar-Roghama
  56. Madinat As-Sultan
  57. Um Hablain
  58. Al-Hamdaniya
  59. Al-Salhiya
  60. Mokhatat Al-Aziziya
  61. Mokhatat Shamal Al-Matar
  62. Mokhatat Ar-Riyadh
  63. Mokhatat Al-Huda
  64. Braiman
  65. Al-Salam
  66. Al-Mostawdaat
  67. Al-Montazahat
  68. Kilo 14
  69. Al-Harazat
  70. Um As-Salam
  71. Mokhtat Zahrat Ash-Shamal
  72. Al-Majid
  73. Gowieza
  74. Al-Gozain
  75. Al-Kuwait
  76. Al-Mahrogat
  77. Al-Masfa
  78. Al-Matar Al-Gadeem (old airport)
  79. Al-Bokhariya
  80. An-Nour
  81. Bab Shareif
  82. Bab Makkah
  83. Bahra
  84. Al-Amir Fawaz
  85. Wadi Fatma
  86. Obhour Shamaliya
  87. At-Tarhil (deportation)
  88. Al-Iskan Al-janoubi
  89. At-Tawfeeq
  90. Al-Goaid
  91. Al-Jawhara
  92. Al-Jamoum
  93. Al-Khumra
  94. Ad-Difaa Al-Jawi (Air Defense)
  95. Ad-Dageeg
  96. Ar-Robou
  97. Ar-Rabie
  98. Ar-Rehaily
  99. As-Salmiya
  100. As-Sanabil
  101. As-Sinaiya (Bawadi)
  102. Industrial City (Mahjar)
  103. Al-Adl
  104. Al-Olayia
  105. Al-Faihaa
  106. Al-Karanteena
  107. Al-Ajaweed
  108. Al-Ahmadiya
  109. Al-Mosadiya
  110. East Al-Khat As-Sarei
  111. Kilo 10
  112. King Faisal Navy Base
  113. Kilo 7
  114. Kilo 45
  115. King Faisal Guard City
  116. Kilo 11
  117. Thowal
  118. Kilo 13
  119. Al-Makarona
  120. Al-Layth
  121. Al-Gonfoda
  122. Rabegh
  123. Kilo 8
  124. Kilo 5
  125. Kilo 2
  126. Al-Mokhwa
  127. National Guard Residence
  128. As-Showag
  129. Air Defense Residence
  130. Al-Morsalat
  131. Ash-Shoola
  132. Al-Corniche
  133. Al-Waha
  134. Mokhatat Al-Haramain
  135. Kholais
  136. Al-Rhmanya
  137. Al-Belly

Jeddah: Twin towns – sister cities

Jeddah has 35 sister cities (or "twin towns") which are selected based on economic, cultural and political criteria.

  • Poland Gorzów Wielkopolski, Poland
  • United States Los Angeles, United States
  • Turkey Adana, Turkey
  • Tunisia Tunis, Tunisia
  • Egypt Alexandria, Egypt
  • Kazakhstan Almaty, Kazakhstan
  • Jordan Amman, Jordan
  • Iran Tabriz, Iran
  • Bangladesh Chittagong, Bangladesh
  • Azerbaijan Baku, Azerbaijan
  • Egypt Cairo, Egypt
  • Morocco Casablanca, Morocco
  • Turkey Istanbul, Turkey
  • Indonesia Jakarta, Indonesia
  • Indonesia Surabaya, Indonesia
  • Indonesia Pekanbaru, Indonesia
  • Indonesia Medan, Indonesia
  • Malaysia Johor Bahru, Malaysia
  • Malaysia Kuching, Malaysia
  • Pakistan Karachi, Pakistan
  • Russia Kazan, Russia
  • Spain Marbella, Spain
  • Turkmenistan Mary, Turkmenistan
  • United Arab Emirates Dubai, United Arab Emirates
  • Ukraine Odessa, Ukraine
  • Algeria Oran, Algeria
  • Kyrgyzstan Osh, Kyrgyzstan
  • Bulgaria Plovdiv, Bulgaria
  • Japan Shimonoseki, Japan
  • Russia Saint Petersburg, Russia
  • Taiwan Taipei, Taiwan
  • China Xi'an, People's Republic of China

Jeddah: See also

  • Bibliography of the history of Jeddah
  • List of cities and towns in Saudi Arabia

Jeddah: Notes

  1. "Abu Ras promises new Jeddah". Saudigazette.com.sa. 2010-08-19. Retrieved 2011-04-17.
  2. "Population". Statistical Yearbook 50 (2014). Central Department Of Statistics & Information. Retrieved 21 February 2016.
  3. http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1361.
  4. http://ae.zawya.com/story.cfm/sidZAWYA20100727050049/comment
  5. "2thinknow Innovation Cities™ Emerging 11 Index 2009 - Middle East, Africa and Former USSR States | 2009". Innovation-cities.com. 2009-11-12. Retrieved 2011-04-17.
  6. Jayussi, Salma; Manṣūr Ibrāhīm Ḥāzimī; ʻIzzat ibn ʻAbd al-Majīd Khaṭṭāb Beyond the Dunes I B Tauris & Co Ltd (28 April 2006), p. 295. ISBN 978-1-85043-972-1 [1]
  7. Ibn Battota's Safari. Tuhfat Al-Nothaar Fe Gharaa'ib Al-Amsaar. Chapter: "From Cairo to Hejaz to Tunisia again". ISBN 9953-34-180-X
  8. British Embassy website
  9. "Lost in translation." Brian Whitaker. Guardian (UK). 10 June 2002.
  10. https://www.jeddah.gov.sa/english/JeddahCity/History/index.php
  11. History of Jeddah. Ministry of Hajj.
  12. "صحيفة عكاظ - جدة اليوم.. والعم وهيب". Okaz.com.sa. Retrieved 2011-04-17.
  13. alalamonline (2010-03-10). "Alamlam Online". alalamonline.net. Retrieved 2013-08-13.
  14. Cooper, Tom (2015-04-19). Wings over Ogaden. Helion and Company. p. 5. ISBN 9781909982383. Retrieved 16 February 2016.
  15. صحيفة عكاظ (2012-06-05). "صحيفة عكاظ - مقبرة النصارى". Okaz.com.sa. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
  16. "History of Arabia." Britannica.com.
  17. Makkah Gate in Jeddah. AsiaRooms.com.
  18. Caudill, Mark A. (2006). Twilight in the kingdom : understanding the Saudis. Westport, Conn.: Praeger Security International. p. 133. ISBN 9780275992521.
  19. Bosworth, C. Edmund (2007). Historic cities of the Islamic world. Leiden: Brill. p. 223. ISBN 9789004153882. Retrieved 6 August 2015.
  20. Leaflet for Khuzam Palace Jeddah, Deputy Ministry of Antiquities & Museums
  21. "Preserving Jeddah's Historic Buildings." Saudi Arabia, Winter 1999, Volume 15, Number 4. Information Office, Royal Embassy of Saudi Arabia.
  22. The Biet Nassif in Jeddah at www.asiarooms.com
  23. "Climate Normals for Jeddah". Jeddah Regional Climate Center. Retrieved 1 February 2013.
  24. "Climate Data for Saudi Arabia". Jeddah Regional Climate Center. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
  25. "Monthly Jeddah water temperature chart". Seatemperatures.org. Retrieved 2014-01-20.
  26. Al-Sha'afi, Muhammad (1990). Foreign Trade of Juddah: During the Ottoman Period 1840-1916. King Saud University.
  27. Commerce of Jeddah. Saudi Arabian Water & Power Forum.
  28. Report about number of mosques. Al-Sharq Al-Awsat Newspaper.
  29. "Al Baik fast food". Albaik.com. Retrieved 2015-03-04.
  30. Museums in Jeddah at www.asiarooms.com
  31. "Expat Blog Awards 2013". Jeddah Blog. Retrieved 24 May 2015.
  32. Photograph of King Fahd Fountain at treklens.com
  33. Khan, Ghazanfar Ali; Abbas, Maher (3 August 2011). "Kingdom Holding to build world’s tallest tower in Jeddah". Arab News. Archived from the original on August 9, 2011. Retrieved 10 August 2011.
  34. AFP (13 March 2008). "Saudi mile-high tower plan raises bar". The Australian. Retrieved 3 August 2011.
  35. "Kingdom Tower: Tallest of the tall". The Chicago Tribune. 2 August 2011. Retrieved 2 August 2011.
  36. Saudi Gazette, "Saudi flag flies high on world’s tallest flagpole", Saudi Gazette, 2014-06-01
  37. IDEA Center Projects – Makkah Gate
  38. Statistical summary of education in Saudi Arabia. Statistical Information Department of the Ministry of Education.
  39. Salud, Francis R. "2 More Filipino Schools to Open in Jeddah" (Archive). Arab News. Thursday 7 March 2005. Retrieved on 5 November 2015.
  40. "Home." Korean International School of Jeddah (젯다한국국제학교). Retrieved on September 21, 2015. "주소 : P.O.BOX 4322, Jeddah 21491, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia."
  41. "Deanship of Library Affairs".
  42. "King Abdul Aziz Library". Kapl.org.sa. 1987-02-27. Archived from the original on 2013-09-17. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
  43. Saudi Gazette. "King gives the go-ahead to develop public libraries". Saudi Gazette. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
  44. Ittihad captures Saudi basketball crown Saudi Gazette, 1 June 2016. Accessed 9 June 2016
  45. "Al Rajhi wins Makkah - Madinah civils contract". Railway Gazette International. 2009-02-09.
  46. "Jeddah Metro project will be ready by 2020". Saudi Gazette. 10 August 2014. Retrieved 6 April 2015 – via Al Arabiya.
  47. "Urban liveability calls for urgent action". Retrieved 27 February 2017.
  48. "JTIC Briefing:". Retrieved 24 May 2015.
  49. "2005 Jeddah ARB Recommended "Remote Safe Areas" for Embassies – Upgrades Coming … Or Maybe Not « Diplopundit". Diplopundit. Retrieved 24 May 2015.
  50. "1st Anniversary of Attack on US Consulate - Rasheed's World". Retrieved 24 May 2015.
  51. "Saudi cleric condemns consulate attack - World news - NBC News". msnbc.com. Retrieved 24 May 2015.
  52. "Terror Attack on U.S. Consulate Jeddah « Diplopundit". Retrieved 24 May 2015.
  53. "Terrorism – Saudi Arabia - SUSRIS". Retrieved 24 May 2015.
  54. "LexisNexis News". LexisNexis. Retrieved 29 August 2012.
  55. Al-Siqqiqui, Saoud. "SR3b to tackle Jeddah traffic over five years". Saudi Gazette. Retrieved 11 April 2011.
  56. Vincent, Peter (2003). "Jeddah's Environmental Problems". Geographical Review. The Geographical Review. 93 (3): 394. doi:10.1111/j.1931-0846.2003.tb00039.x.
  57. "Saudi Arabian floods kill 77, leave scores missing". Agence France Presse. 26 November 2009. Retrieved 2009-11-26.
  58. "Saudi Arabia floods leave 48 dead". BBC News. 26 November 2009. Retrieved 26 November 2009.
  59. Anqawi, Ayman (26 November 2009). "Flooding kills 77 in Jeddah, Thousands of pilgrims stranded on highway". Saudi Gazette. Retrieved 2009-11-26
  60. Alawi, Ibrahim; Al-Harthi, Eid (27 November 2009). "King orders aid for victims, Death toll in Jeddah flooding hits 77". Saudi Gazette. Retrieved 2009-11-27
  61. Al-Zahrani, Saleh (26 November 2009). "Damage may top SR1 billion". Saudi Gazette. Retrieved 2009-11-27
  62. Humaidan, Muhammad (27 November 2009). "Jeddah flood death toll reaches 77". Arab News. Retrieved 2009-11-27
  63. http://english.alarabiya.net/en/News/middle-east/2015/11/17/Saudi-crisis-center-urges-all-Jeddah-residents-to-remain-indoors-.html
  64. Burak Sansal (2006-11-20). "Sister cities of Istanbul". Greatistanbul.com. Retrieved 2011-04-17.
  65. "Sister cities of Taipei". Protocol.taipei.gov.tw. Retrieved 2011-04-17.

Jeddah: References

  • Farsi, Hani M.S. (Mohamed Said). Jeddah: city of art: the sculptures and monuments. London: Stacey International, 1991. ISBN 0-905743-66-0
  • Facey, William & Grant, Gillian. Saudi Arabia by the First Photographers. ISBN 0-905743-74-1
  • Tarabulsi, Mohammed Yosuf. Jeddah: A Story of a City. Riyadh: King Fahd National Library, 2006. ISBN 9960-52-413-2
  • John F. Keane. Six months in the Hejaz : journeys to Makkah and Madinah 1877-1989. Manchester: Barzan Publishing, 2006. ISBN 0-9549701-1-X
  • Al-Khaldi, Ibrahim. The Bedouin Photographer - Al-Mosawwir Al-Badawi. Kuwait, 2004.
  • Badr El-Hage. Saudi Arabia : caught in time 1861-1939. Published by Garnet, Reading, 1997. ISBN 1-85964-090-7
  • Captain G. S. Froster. A trip Across the Peninsula - Rehla Abr Al-Jazeera. Mombai, India, 1866.
  • From Bullard to Mr Chamberlain. Jeddah, 1925 Feb. (No.# secrets) - Archived Post.
  • Al-Rehani. Nejd and Its Followers.
  • Al-Turki, Thuraya. Jeddah: Um Al-Rakha wal Sheddah. Published by Dar Al-Shrooq.
  • Al-Harbi, Dalal. King Abdulaziz and his Strategies to deal with events : Events of Jeddah. King Abdulaziz National Library, 2003. ISBN 9960-624-88-9
  • Didier, Charles. Séjour Chez Le Grand-Cherif De La Mekke. Librairie De L. Hachette et, Rue Pierre.
  • Didier, Charles. Rehla Ela Al-Hejaz: A trip to Hejaz. Translated from "Séjour Chez Le Grand-Cherif De La Mekke" into Arabic. Paris, 1854. ISBN 9960-677-14-1
  • Municipality of Jeddah Official municipality website (in Arabic)
  • Principality of Jeddah Official Jeddah principality website (in Arabic)
  • City of Jeddah Official website (in English)
  • About Jeddah Informational website about Jeddah (in English)
  • Jeddah Jobs Jobs in Jeddah
  • Jeddah City Guide Jeddah City Guide
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