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In order to book an accommodation in Jinan enter the proper dates and do the hotel search. If needed, sort the found Jinan hotels by price, star rating, property type, guest rating, hotel features, hotel theme or hotel chain. Then take a look at the found hotels on Jinan map to estimate the distance from the main Jinan attractions and sights. You can also read the guest reviews of Jinan hotels and see their ratings.

When a hotel search in Jinan is done, please select the room type, the included meals and the suitable booking conditions (for example, "Deluxe double room, Breakfast included, Non-Refundable"). Press the "View Deal" ("Book Now") button. Make your booking on a hotel booking website and get the hotel reservation voucher by email. That's it, a perfect hotel in Jinan is waiting for you!

Hotels of Jinan

A hotel in Jinan is an establishment that provides lodging paid on a short-term basis. Facilities provided may range from a basic bed and storage for clothing, to luxury features like en-suite bathrooms. Larger in Jinan hotels may provide additional guest facilities such as a swimming pool, business centre, childcare, conference facilities and social function services. Hotel rooms in Jinan are usually numbered (or named in some smaller hotels and B&Bs) to allow guests to identify their room. Some Jinan hotels offer meals as part of a room and board arrangement. Hotel operations vary in size, function, and cost. Most Jinan hotels and major hospitality companies that operate hotels in Jinan have set widely accepted industry standards to classify hotel types. General categories include the following:

Upscale luxury hotels in Jinan
An upscale full service hotel facility in Jinan that offers luxury amenities, full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and the highest level of personalized and professional service. Luxury Jinan hotels are normally classified with at least a Four Diamond or Five Diamond status or a Four or Five Star rating depending on classification standards.

Full service hotels in Jinan
Full service Jinan hotels often contain upscale full-service facilities with a large volume of full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and a variety of on-site amenities such as swimming pools, a health club, children's activities, ballrooms, on-site conference facilities, etc.

Historic inns and boutique hotels in Jinan
Boutique hotels of Jinan are smaller independent non-branded hotels that often contain upscale facilities of varying size in unique or intimate settings with full service accommodations. Jinan boutique hotels are generally 100 rooms or less. Some historic inns and boutique hotels in Jinan may be classified as luxury hotels.

Focused or select service hotels in Jinan
Small to medium-sized hotel establishments that offer a limited amount of on-site amenities that only cater and market to a specific demographic of Jinan travelers, such as the single business traveler. Most Jinan focused or select service hotels may still offer full service accommodations but may lack leisure amenities such as an on-site restaurant or a swimming pool.

Economy and limited service hotels in Jinan
Small to medium-sized Jinan hotel establishments that offer a very limited amount of on-site amenities and often only offer basic accommodations with little to no services, these facilities normally only cater and market to a specific demographic of travelers, such as the budget-minded Jinan traveler seeking a "no frills" accommodation. Limited service Jinan hotels often lack an on-site restaurant but in return may offer a limited complimentary food and beverage amenity such as on-site continental breakfast service.

Guest houses and B&Bs in Jinan
A bed and breakfast in Jinan is a small lodging establishment that offers overnight accommodation and inclusive breakfast. Usually, Jinan bed and breakfasts are private homes or family homes offering accommodations. The typical Jinan B&B has between 4 and 11 rooms, with 6 being the average. Generally, guests are accommodated in private bedrooms with private bathrooms, or in a suite of rooms including an en suite bathroom. Some homes have private bedrooms with a bathroom which is shared with other guests. Breakfast is served in the bedroom, a dining room, or the host's kitchen. Often the owners of guest house themselves prepare the breakfast and clean the rooms.

Hostels in Jinan
Jinan hostels provide budget-oriented, sociable accommodation where guests can rent a bed, usually a bunk bed, in a dormitory and share a bathroom, lounge, and sometimes a kitchen. Rooms can be mixed or single-sex, although private rooms may also be available. Hostels are often cheaper for both the operator and occupants; many Jinan hostels have long-term residents whom they employ as desk agents or housekeeping staff in exchange for experience or discounted accommodation.

Apartment hotels, extended stay hotels in Jinan
Extended stay hotels are small to medium-sized Jinan hotels that offer longer term full service accommodations compared to a traditional hotel. Extended stay hotels may offer non-traditional pricing methods such as a weekly rate that cater towards travelers in need of short-term accommodations for an extended period of time. Similar to limited and select service hotels, on-site amenities are normally limited and most extended stay hotels in Jinan lack an on-site restaurant.

Timeshare and destination clubs in Jinan
Jinan timeshare and destination clubs are a form of property ownership also referred to as a vacation ownership involving the purchase and ownership of an individual unit of accommodation for seasonal usage during a specified period of time. Timeshare resorts in Jinan often offer amenities similar that of a Full service hotel with on-site restaurant(s), swimming pools, recreation grounds, and other leisure-oriented amenities. Destination clubs of Jinan on the other hand may offer more exclusive private accommodations such as private houses in a neighborhood-style setting.

Motels in Jinan
A Jinan motel is a small-sized low-rise lodging establishment similar to that of a limited service hotel, but with direct access to individual rooms from the car park. Common during the 1950s and 1960s, motels were often located adjacent to a major road, where they were built on inexpensive land at the edge of towns or along stretches of highways. They are still useful in less populated areas of Jinan for driving travelers, but the more populated an area becomes the more hotels fill the need. Many of Jinan motels which remain in operation have joined national franchise chains, rebranding themselves as hotels, inns or lodges.

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Travelling and vacation in Jinan

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 / 36.667; 116.983

Jinan
济南市
Sub-provincial city
Clockwise from top: Jinan's Skyline, Quancheng Square, Daming Lake, Furong Street, and Five Dragon Pool
Clockwise from top: Jinan's Skyline, Quancheng Square, Daming Lake, Furong Street, and Five Dragon Pool
Nickname(s): City of Springs (泉城)
Location of Jinan City within Shandong
Location of Jinan City within Shandong
Jinan is located in China
Jinan
Jinan
Location in China
Coordinates:  / 36.667; 116.983
Country China
Province Shandong
County-level divisions 10
Township divisions 146
Government
• Party Secretary Wang Wentao
• Mayor Wang Zhonglin
Area
• Sub-provincial city 8,177 km (3,157 sq mi)
• Urban 3,304 km (1,276 sq mi)
• Metro 3,304 km (1,276 sq mi)
Elevation(Airport) 23 m (75 ft)
Population (2014)
• Sub-provincial city 7,067,900
• Density 860/km (2,200/sq mi)
• Urban 4,693,700
• Urban density 1,400/km (3,700/sq mi)
Time zone China Standard (UTC+8)
Postal code 250000
Area code(s) 531
License plate prefixes 鲁A and 鲁W
GDP (2009) CNY 335.1 billion
- per capita CNY 49391
Website www.jinan.gov.cn (Chinese)
City tree: Chinese Willow; City flower: Lotus

Jinan
Jinan (Chinese characters).svg
"Jinan" in Simplified (top) and Traditional (bottom) Chinese characters
Simplified Chinese 济南
Traditional Chinese 濟南
Literal meaning "South of the Jǐ [River]"
Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu Pinyin Jǐnán
Bopomofo ㄐㄧˇ ㄋㄢˊ
Gwoyeu Romatzyh Jii'nan
Wade–Giles Chi-nan
IPA [tɕì.nǎn]
Wu
Romanization Tsinoe
Yue: Cantonese
Yale Romanization Jai-nàahm
IPA [tsɐ̌i.nȁːm]
Jyutping Zai-naam
Southern Min
Hokkien POJ Chè-lâm
Tâi-lô Tsē-lâm

Jinan, formerly romanized as Tsinan, is the capital of Shandong province in Eastern China. The area of present-day Jinan has played an important role in the history of the region from the earliest beginnings of civilization and has evolved into a major national administrative, economic, and transportation hub. The city has held sub-provincial administrative status since 1994. Jinan is often called the "Spring City" for its famous 72 artesian springs. Its population was 7,067,900 in 2014 with an urban population of 4,693,700.

Jinan: Names

The modern-day name Jinan literally means "south of the Ji (Waters)" and refers to the old Ji River that had flowed to the north of the city until the middle of the 19th century. The Ji River disappeared in 1852 when the Yellow River changed its course northwards and took over its bed. The current pronunciation of the character "Ji" with the third tone ("jǐ") was established in the late 1970s. Prior to this, it was pronounced with the fourth tone ("jì"). Older texts spell the name as "Tsinan" (Wade-Giles romanization) or "Chi-nan".

During the times of the Zhou dynasty (1045 BC to 256 BC), the city of Lixia (simplified Chinese: 历下; traditional Chinese: 歷下; pinyin: Lìxià) was the major settlement in the area. The name "Lixia" refers to the location of Jinan at the foot of Mount Li, which lies to the south of the city). Today, Lixia is the name of one of the city's districts.

The Battle of An, which was fought in the area during the Spring and Autumn period (in 589 BCE) between the states of Qi and Jin, is named for the ancient city of Ān (Chinese: ) which stood within the city limits of present-day Jinan. Marco Polo gives a brief description of Jinan under the name "Chingli" or "Chinangli". 19th and early 20th century texts frequently give the name of the city as "Tsinan Fu" where the additional "Fu" (Chinese: ) comes from the dated Chinese term for a provincial capital (Chinese: 省府).

Jinan is also referred to by the nickname "City of Springs" (Chinese: 泉城), because of the many artesian springs in the urban city centre and its surroundings.

Jinan: History

Jinan: Early history

The area of present-day Jinan has been inhabited for more than 4000 years. The Neolithic Longshan Culture was first discovered at the Chéngzǐyá (城子崖) site to the east of Jinan (Zhangqiu City) in 1928. One of the characteristic features of the Longshan Culture are the intricate wheel-made pottery pieces it produced. Most renowned is the black "egg-shell pottery" with wall thicknesses that can go below 1 millimeter.

During the Spring and Autumn period (722–481 BCE) and Warring States period (475–221 BCE), the area of Jinan was split between two states: the state of Lu in the west and the state of Qi in the east. In 685 BCE, the state of Qi started to build the Great Wall of Qi(齐长城) across Changqing county. Portions of the wall still remain today and are accessible as open air museums. Biǎn Què(扁鹊), according to the legend the earliest Chinese physician and active around 500 BCE, is said to have been a native of present-day Changqing County. Zou Yan (Chinese: 邹衍; pinyin: Zōu Yǎn, 305–240 BCE), a native of Zhangqiu City, developed the concepts of Yin-Yang and the Five Elements (阴阳五行说). Joseph Needham, a British sinologist, describes Zou as "The real founder of all Chinese scientific thought."

During the times of the Han dynasty (206 BCE – 220 CE), Jinan was the capital of the Kingdom of Jibei (济北国/濟北國; pinyin: Jǐbĕi Guó) and evolved into the cultural and economic hub of the region. The Han dynasty tomb where the last king of Jibei, Liú Kuān (刘宽/劉寬), was buried at Shuangru Mountain was excavated by archaeologists from Shandong University in 1995 and 1996. More than 2000 artifacts such as jade swords, jade masks, and jade pillows have been recovered within the 1,500 square meter excavation site, emphasizing the wealth of the city during the period. Cáo Cāo (曹操, 155 – 220 CE) was an official in Jinan before he became the de facto ruler of the Han dynasty. His son, Cao Pi, overthrew the last emperor of the Han and founded the Wei Kingdom (220 – 265 CE) of the Three Kingdoms Period.

Beginning in the 5th century CE, Buddhism flourished in Jinan. The Langgong Temple (朗公寺; pinyin: Lǎnggōng Sì, later renamed Shentong Temple, (神通寺; pinyin: Shéntōng Sì, and now in ruins) in the southern county of Licheng was one of the most important temples in northern China at that time. The same period witnessed extensive construction of Buddhist sites in the southern counties of Licheng and Changqing such as the Lingyan Temple (灵岩寺) and the Thousand-Buddha Cliff (千佛崖). In particular, a large number of cave temples were established in the hills south of Jinan.

Jinan remained the cultural center of the region during the Song dynasty (960 – 1279 CE). The Song rulers promoted Jinan to a superior prefecture in 1116 CE. Two of the most important poets of the Southern Song were both born in Jinan: Li Qingzhao (李清照, 1084–1151 CE), the most renown female poet in Chinese history, and Xin Qiji (辛弃疾, 1140–1207 CE), who was also a military leader of the Southern Song dynasty. Both poets witnessed a series of crushing defeats of the Song dynasty at the hands of the Jurchens who gained control over almost half of the Song territories and established the Jin dynasty in northern China. After Jinan came under control of the Jin dynasty, both Li Qingzhao and Xin Qiji had to abandon their homes and reflected this experience in their works.

During the Civil War that followed the proclamation of Kublai Khan as Great Khan in 1260 CE, Jinan was at the center of a rebellion by Yizhou governor Li Tan against Mongol rule in 1262 CE. The rebellion was crushed in a decisive battle that was fought not far from Jinan in late March or early April 1262 CE. After losing 4000 of his troops in the battle, Li Tan retreated to Jinan to make his last stand. After defections of his defenders had made his position untenable, Li Tan tried to commit suicide by drowning himself in Daming Lake. However, he was rescued by the Mongols in order to execute him by trampling him to death with their horses.

Despite such violent conflicts, culture in Jinan continued to thrive during the Jin (1115–1234) and Yuan (1271–1368) dynasties: One of the most renowned artists of the Yuan dynasty, Zhao Mengfu (赵孟頫, 1254–1322) was appointed to the post of governor of Jinan in 1293 and spent three years in the city. Among the extraordinary art works he completed during his stay in Jinan, the best known painting is "Autumn Colors on the Qiao and Hua Mountains" (《鹊华秋色》). Geographer Yú Qīn (于钦/于欽, 1284–1333) also served as an official in Jinan and authored his geography book Qí Chéng (齐乘) there.

Autumn Colors on the Qiao and Hua Mountains (鹊华秋色)

When Shandong Province was established under the Ming dynasty, Jinan became its capital.

In 1852, the northward shift of the Yellow River into a new bed close to the city triggered the modern expansion of Jinan. The new course of the Yellow River connected the city to the Grand Canal and regional waterways in northern Shandong and southern Hebei.

German influence in Jinan grew after the Qing dynasty ceded Qingdao to the German Empire in 1897. A German concession area was established to the west of the historical city center (in the vicinity of the Jinan Railway Station first established by the Germans). The Jiaoji (Qingdao–Jinan) railway was built by the Germans against local resistance. Discontent over the construction of the railway was one of the sources fueling the Boxer Rebellion (1899–1901). During the rebellion, foreign priests were evacuated from Jinan and Chinese Christians became a target of violence. The Jiaoji railway was completed in 1904, three years after the Boxer Rebellion had been put down, and opened the city to foreign trade. The importance of Jinan as a transportation hub was cemented with the completion of the north–south Jinpu railway from Tianjin to Pukou in 1912. Jinan became a major trading center for agricultural goods in northern China. Traded commodities included cotton, grain, peanuts, and tobacco. Jinan also developed into a major industrial center, second in importance to Qingdao in the province.

Jinan: Republican era

In 1919, after the First World War, the Japanese took over the German sphere of influence in Shandong, including control of the Jiaoji railway, and established a significant Japanese colony in Jinan. According to estimates by a contemporary Japanese government official, about 2,000 Japanese were living in Jinan in 1931, about half of whom were involved in the opium trade for which the Japanese had a loosely controlled monopoly that was exploited with the participation of Chinese traders.

During the Warlord era of the Republic of China, Zhang Zongchang, nicknamed the "Dogmeat General", ruled Shandong from Jinan for a period that lasted from April 1925 until May 1928. Zhang was unpopular for his heavy-handed rule and in particular his heavy taxation. Besides heavy taxes, he relied financially on opium to finance his periodic wars. Zhang even planned to use some of the wealth extracted from these sources for building a living shrine and a large bronze statue for himself on the shore of Daming Lake, but these plans were not realized as his rule came to an end.

In the spring of 1928, the Kuomintang's Northern Expedition reached Jinan. On May 3, 1928, clashes developed between Japanese troops stationed in Jinan and the Kuomintang troops moving into the city (Jinan Incident). Cai Gongshi, a Kuomintang emissary sent to negotiate and 16 members of his entourage were cruelly executed by the Japanese. Japanese officers placed an order to slice off his nose and ears, and to gouge out his eyes and tongue. Sixteen other members of his negotiation team were also striped naked, recklessly whipped, dragged to the back-lawn, and slaughtered by machine guns on the same day. After the incident, Japanese reinforcements were sent to Shandong and by 11 May, Japanese troops pushed the Chinese troops from the area, inflicted thousands of casualties and killed over 2000 Chinese civilians. The Japanese occupied Jinan for more than six months until they withdrew to their garrison in Tsingtao on the 28th of March 1929. When Chiang lectured a group of Chinese army cadets, he urged them to turn their energies to washing away the shame of Jinan, but to conceal their hatred until the last moment. The Kuomintang government later decreed that May 3 be designated a "National Humiliation Memorial Day."

During the Nanjing decade of the Republic of China, Han Fuju, a military commander from the warlord era who had aligned himself with the Kuomintang, was rewarded with the military governorship of Shandong, after fighting against the rebel troops of Yen Hsi-shan and his former commander Feng Yu-hsiang in the Central Plains War in 1930. He established his base in Jinan and is credited with curtailing banditry and drug trading, thereby bringing a measure of peace and prosperity to the city. However, from 1935 onwards Han was under heavy pressure from the Japanese consul in Jinan to declare Shandong an "independent state" allied with Japan.

After the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War, the Japanese invasion force crossed the Yellow River 60 km (37 mi) north-east of Jinan on December 23, 1937. Han Fuju abandoned Jinan the next day against orders to hold the city to the death. He ordered the offices of the provincial government and the Japanese consulate in Jinan to be burned down and the ensuing power vacuum led to widespread looting in the city. Japanese troops from the 10th Division of the Manchurian Area Army entered Jinan on December 27, 1937. Han Fuju was arrested and executed for disobeying orders from superior commanders and retreating on his own accord by Chiang Kai-Shek's chief of staff, General Hu Zongnan.

Monument commemorating the war dead of the battle of Jinan on Hero Hill

Jinan: After World War II

Japanese troops controlled Jinan until their defeat in 1945. After this, the Kuomintang regained short-lived control of the city during the period from 1946 to 1948. The provincial government during this time was led by Lieutenant-General Wang Yaowu, who also commanded the KMT army in the region. KMT rule over Jinan ended in September 1948 with the Battle of Jinan in which units of the People's Liberation Army under the command of Chen Yi took the city. The battle for Jinan took a decisive turn in favor of the attackers when KMT Lieutenant-General Wú Huàwén (吴化文) defected to the Communist side with about 8,000 of his troops. The most likely explanation for his defection is that he had been pressured through relatives of his who were held captive by the Communist forces. Lieutenant-General Wu had been in charge of the vital outer ring of defenses that protected the main airfield, the railroad station, and the commercial district. With these critical assets lost, the situation of the city's defenders became untenable. Following the weakening of the city's defenses, the People's Liberation Army breached the city wall and entered Jinan on September 24, 1948.

Jinan: Cultural Revolution

In March 1966, the largest among the drawn-out sequence of earthquakes that made up the Xingtai earthquake damaged about 36,000 houses in Jinan.

Entrance to Water Lily Street,a historical shopping street in Jinan.

On May 27, 1966, the Cultural Revolution started in Jinan with an article in the local newspaper "Jinan Evening News" (济南晚报) that denounced vice-governor Yu Xiu as a Bourgeois agent within the government. Starting from early June 1966, the schools in Jinan were closed down by strikes as teachers were "struggled against". At the same time, big-character posters started to appear in the city. Red Guards took to the streets of Jinan from late August 1966 onwards, damaging cultural heritage and setting up courts to prosecute perceived enemies of the revolution. In the spring of 1967, the "May 7th Incident" took place: When Zhang Chunqiao and Yao Wenyuan, both later reviled as members of the Gang of Four, visited Jinan to support the Cultural Revolution and its local leader Wang Xiao Yu, fighting erupted in the front of the provincial government between two rival factions of the Cultural Revolution, the "April 22nd Group" and Wang Xiao Yu's "April 28th Group". In the end, more than 10,000 people had been involved in the fighting. On October 11, 1967, the tallest statue of Mao Zedong in Shandong province was erected on the campus of Shandong Normal University. On September 17, 1968, a large assembly of Jinan workers celebrated the arrival of a mango fruit in the "August 1st" Meeting Hall. The fruit had been a gift to the workers in Beijing by Mao and was subsequently passed on to the workers in Jinan. In November 1968, Wang Xiao Yu began to agitate against the local army units in Jinan and Shandong Province. By then unrest due to the Cultural Revolution had severely damaged the city's governmental and industrial infrastructure, with about 80 percent of all government institutions shut down. Large public protests were staged on April 4 and 5, 1969, in which approximately 500,000 people protested the occupation of Zhenbao Island by the Soviet Union. On July 29, 1970, the leadership of the Cultural Revolution passed a resolution to make sweeping changes to the city's educational system: The liberal arts departments of Shandong University were moved to Qufu and combined with Qufu Normal College to form a new Shandong University. The biology department was moved to Tai'an and merged into the Shandong Agricultural College. The rest of the sciences were to form the Shandong Science and Technology University. Shandong Normal University was to be moved to Liaocheng. Shandong Medical College and Shandong College of Traditional Chinese Medicine were to be merged and moved to Tai'an. Shandong University was restored in its original form and the "Shandong Science and Technology University" was abolished in early 1974. The first reversals of Cultural Revolution policies started in early 1971: On May 23 of that year, the Shandong Provincial Museum was reopened after having been closed for about 5 years (since May 1966). In the next year, the Jinan Committee for the Cultural Revolution officially reverted the name changes of four city districts enacted in 1966. During the 6 years between the name change and its reversal, Lixia District had been known officially as "Hongwei", Tianqiao as "Face the Sun", Huaiyin as "East Wind", and Shizhong as "Red Flag". As the Cultural Revolution came to an end, Jinan started to receive visitors from abroad. For example, it was visited by a delegation from the United States Congress between August 8 and 11, 1975. On September 18, 1976, Mao's death was mourned by about 600,000 people at an official service in Jinan's August 1 Square.

Jinan: Post 1990s

Jinan was the host of the 11th All China Games during October 2009. These games are the selection games for the Chinese Olympic champions. For this occasion, security was heightened and a full volunteer force was out on the streets directing visitor traffic. The city conducted major renovations in its transportation and recreation services in anticipation of the Games' visitors.

Jinan: Geography and climate

Jinan and vicinities

Jinan: Geography

Baotu Spring

Jinan is located in the north-western part of Shandong province at 36° 40′ northern latitude and 116° 57′ east of Greenwich, about 400 kilometres (250 mi) south of the national capital of Beijing. It borders Liaocheng to the southwest, Dezhou to the northwest, Binzhou to the northeast, Zibo to the east, Laiwu to the southeast, and Tai'an to the south. In the relief of the region, the city occupies a transition zone between the northern foothills of the Taishan Massif to the south of the city and the valley of the Yellow River to the north. Karst aquifers in limestone formations sloping down from the south to the north give rise to many artesian springs in the city center as well as in surrounding areas.

Jinan: Climate

Jinan has a humid subtropical (Köppen: Cwa), considering a normal isotherm of −3 °C, or a humid continental climate (Köppen: Dwa), considering an isotherm of 0 °C but favoring the former, with four well-defined seasons. The city is dry and nearly rainless in spring, hot and rainy in summer, crisp in autumn and dry and cold (with little snow) in winter. The average annual temperature is 14.70 °C (58.5 °F), and the annual precipitation is around slightly above 670 millimetres (26.4 in), with a strong summer maximum, and high variability from year to year. January is the coldest and driest month, with a mean temperature of −0.4 °C (31.3 °F) and 5.7 millimetres (0.22 in) of equivalent rainfall. July is the hottest and wettest month, the corresponding numbers are 27.5 °C (81.5 °F), and 201.3 mm (7.93 in). With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 48 percent in July to 63 percent in May, the city receives 2,547 hours of bright sunshine annually.

Due to the mountains to the south of the city, temperature inversions are common, occurring on about 200 days per year. The high precipitation for northern Chinese standards, in tandem with the topography (mountains surrounding the city on three sides), leads to particularly oppressive summer weather and the city being named as a candidate for the fourth "furnace", c.e. Three Furnaces. Extremes since 1951 have ranged from −19.7 °C (−3 °F) on 17 January 1953 to 42.5 °C (109 °F) on 24 July 1955.

Climate data for Jinan (1971–2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 20.2
(68.4)
25.7
(78.3)
30.2
(86.4)
36.3
(97.3)
39.7
(103.5)
41.2
(106.2)
42.5
(108.5)
40.7
(105.3)
38.5
(101.3)
33.7
(92.7)
26.5
(79.7)
19.2
(66.6)
42.5
(108.5)
Average high °C (°F) 3.9
(39)
6.9
(44.4)
13.3
(55.9)
21.6
(70.9)
27.1
(80.8)
31.6
(88.9)
31.9
(89.4)
30.6
(87.1)
26.9
(80.4)
21.2
(70.2)
13.0
(55.4)
6.0
(42.8)
19.5
(67.1)
Daily mean °C (°F) −0.4
(31.3)
2.2
(36)
8.2
(46.8)
16.1
(61)
21.8
(71.2)
26.3
(79.3)
27.5
(81.5)
26.3
(79.3)
22.0
(71.6)
16.1
(61)
8.3
(46.9)
1.8
(35.2)
14.7
(58.5)
Average low °C (°F) −3.9
(25)
−1.6
(29.1)
3.9
(39)
11.3
(52.3)
16.8
(62.2)
21.6
(70.9)
23.6
(74.5)
22.5
(72.5)
17.7
(63.9)
11.8
(53.2)
4.5
(40.1)
−1.7
(28.9)
10.5
(51.0)
Record low °C (°F) −19.7
(−3.5)
−16.5
(2.3)
−11.3
(11.7)
−1.9
(28.6)
4.2
(39.6)
10.9
(51.6)
14.0
(57.2)
12.8
(55)
6.4
(43.5)
0.0
(32)
−10.1
(13.8)
−16
(3)
−19.7
(−3.5)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 5.7
(0.224)
8.5
(0.335)
15.3
(0.602)
27.4
(1.079)
46.6
(1.835)
78.3
(3.083)
201.3
(7.925)
170.3
(6.705)
58.5
(2.303)
36.5
(1.437)
16.2
(0.638)
8.2
(0.323)
672.8
(26.489)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 2.9 3.1 3.9 5.1 6.5 8.2 13.3 11.6 6.5 4.6 3.9 3.2 72.8
Average relative humidity (%) 53 51 47 46 51 55 72 75 64 58 56 55 56.9
Mean monthly sunshine hours 170.9 172.4 212.8 242.9 275.2 258.2 214.5 219.0 221.1 215.1 177.1 167.6 2,546.8
Percent possible sunshine 56 57 58 62 63 59 48 52 59 62 58 56 57.5
Source: China Meteorological Administration

Jinan: Air quality

7 December 2013 image from NASA's Terra Satellite of the Eastern China smog

According to the National Environmental Analysis released by Tsinghua University and The Asian Development Bank in January 2013, Jinan is one of ten most air polluted cities in the world. Also according to this report, 7 of 10 most air polluted cities are in China, including Taiyuan, Beijing, Urumqi, Lanzhou, Chongqing, Jinan and Shijiazhuang. As air pollution in China is at an all-time high, several northern cities are among the most polluted cities and has one of the worst air quality in China. Reporting on China's air quality has been accompanied by what seems like a monochromatic slideshow of the country's several cities smothered in thick smog. According to a survey made by "Global voices China" in February 2013, Jinan is among China's 10 most polluted cities, and is the only Shandong city to be on this list. Other cities on the blacklist includes major Chinese cities like Beijing, Shijiazhuang, Zhengzhou, and 6 other prefectural cities all in Hebei Province. These cities are all situated in traditional geographic subdivision of "Huabei (North China) Region".

A dense wave of smog began in the Central and Eastern part of China on 2 December 2013 across a distance of around 1,200 kilometres (750 mi), including Jinan and surrounding Shandong area. A lack of cold air flow, combined with slow-moving air masses carrying industrial emissions, collected airborne pollutants to form a thick layer of smog over the region. Officials blamed the dense pollution on lack of wind, automobile exhaust emissions under low air pressure, and coal-powered district heating system in North China region. Prevailing winds blew low-hanging air masses of factory emissions (mostly SO2) towards China's east coast.

Jinan: Administrative divisions

The sub-provincial city of Jinan has direct jurisdiction over 7 districts and 3 counties:

Map
Subdivision Simplified Chinese Hanyu Pinyin Population(2010) Area (km²) Dens. (/km²)
City Proper
Lixia District 历下区 Lìxià Qū 583,500 100.87 7475
Shizhong District 市中区 Shìzhōng Qū 570,000 280.33 2545
Huaiyin District 槐荫区 Huáiyìn Qū 370,000 151.56 3144
Tianqiao District 天桥区 Tiānqiáo Qū 485,773 258.71 2660
Suburban
Licheng District 历城区 Lìchéng Qū 849,900 1303.88 862
Changqing District 长清区 Chángqīng Qū 530,000 1208.54 478
Zhangqiu District 章丘区 Zhāngqiū Qū 1,004,000 1721.29 618
Rural
Pingyin County 平阴县 Píngyīn Xiàn 360,000 715.18 463
Jiyang County 济阳县 Jǐyáng Xiàn 520,095 1097.15 472
Shanghe County 商河县 Shānghé Xiàn 579,928 1163.19 484

These are further divided into 146 township-level divisions, including 65towns, 27 townships and 54 subdistricts.

Jinan: Economy

Skyline seen from the Thousand Buddha Mountain

With the shift of the Yellow River to a new bed right to the north of Jinan (in 1852) and the establishment of a railroad hub, the city became a major market for agricultural products from the productive farming regions to the north. Following the trade in agricultural goods, the city developed a textile and clothing industry, flour mills, oil presses, as well as factories producing paper, cement, and matches. In the 1950s, large iron and steel works as well as chemical factories were established around Jinan. The large metal works produce pig iron, ingot steel, as well as finished steel. In 2008, steel manufacturing was restructured with the formation of the Shandong Iron and Steel Group. In the 1970s, factories for the production of trucks and construction vehicles (Sinotruk) were added.

Jinan has a pool of high-quality labor resources. There are 18 universities and colleges in the city where more than 200,000 students are studying. Among the over 200 research institutes in the city, 10 are national laboratories.

The focus on technology intensive industries has transformed Jinan from a city supported by heavy industry and textiles to a city with more diverse industrial structure. Information Technology, transportation tools, home appliances, and bio-engineered products, among others, have become important components of the area's industry. Jinan's IT-related economic output was ranked to be in the fourth place nationally in 2004.

Industrial zones include:

  • Jinan High-tech Industrial Development Zone

Founded in 1991, the Jinan High-tech Industrial Development zone was one of the first of its kind approved by the State Council. The zone is located to the east of the city and covers a total planning area of 83 km (32 sq mi) that is divided into a central area covering 33 km (13 sq mi), an export processing district of 10 km (3.9 sq mi), and an eastern extension area of 40 km (15 sq mi). Since its foundation, the Jinan High-tech Industrial Development Zone has attracted enterprises as LG, Panasonic, Volvo, and Sanyo. In 2000, it joined the world science and technology association and set up a China-Ukraine High-tech Cooperation Park. The Qilu Software Park became the sister park of Bangalore park of India.

  • Jinan Export Processing Zone

The export processing zone is located in the eastern suburbs of Jinan, to the east of the Jinan High-tech Industrial Development Zone and to the north of the Jiwang highway. The distances to the Jiqing Highway and the Jinan Airport are 9 km (5.6 mi) and 18 km (11 mi) respectively.

  • Liaocheng Economic Development Zone

The China National Heavy Duty Truck Group (Sinotruk) has its headquarters in the city.

Jinan: Demographics

The Great Southern Mosque, the oldest mosque in Jinan.

In 2005, the estimated population of the entire area under the jurisdiction of Jinan City was 5.69 million, with a total of 2.54 million living in urban areas. By 2009, the total population had grown to about six million. The census in 2010 counted 6.81 million inhabitants out of which about 4.335 million were living in 6 urban districts which made up the built-up area.

The population is predominantly Han (98.3 percent), with very small portions of Hui and Manchu Chinese. Jinan has a significant Muslim community centred in the city's Muslim quarter, located to the west of the historical center.

Jinan: Culture and contemporary life

Jinan: Dialect

Local residents in the city proper, as well as in the surrounding areas, have traditionally spoken the Jinan dialect of Mandarin that is not readily understood even by native speakers of standard Mandarin. The younger people of Jinan are more likely to speak standard Mandarin, whereas many older residents retain strong local dialect elements in their speech. Nevertheless, even the younger residents of Jinan tend to retain a strong local accent and mix local vocabulary into the standardized Mandarin vocabulary. Due to the influx of migrant workers during the past decade of China's economic boom, many of the current population that are of working age are not natives of Jinan but have learned to understand the Jinan dialect

Jinan: Cuisine

Jinan has its own cuisine, the Jinan style of the Lu cuisine (Simplified Chinese: 鲁菜/ Traditional Chinese: 魯菜; pinyin: Lǔcài), one of the Eight Culinary Traditions of China. One of its features is the use of soup in its dishes. Modern cuisines in northern China -Beijing, Tianjin and the northeastern regions including Heilongjiang, Jilin and Liaoning- are all branches of Shandong cuisine.

Jinan: Shopping centers

Most shopping malls in Jinan are in the downtown area centered around Spring City Square (泉城广场) and Spring City Road (泉城路). Spring City Square was built by the municipal government beside the city moat in the early 21st century; at the center is the statue "Spring" which has become a symbol of Jinan. The square borders on the ancient city moat. It has a music fountain, a 46,000 square meter underground shopping center and a memorial hall with statues of famous people from Shandong.

Spring City Road was rebuilt at the same time that Spring City Square was created. The government's intention was to create a modern business district and yet preserve the traditional Chinese culture. Therefore, newly built shopping malls with traditional Chinese architectural styles and modern western skyscrapers can be found side-by-side along Spring City Road. Notable retail businesses are Quancheng Bookstore – the largest bookstore of the city – and Walmart (near the western end of Spring City Road). Major shopping malls along the road are the Guihe Shopping Center (贵和商厦), the Sofitel Silver Plaza, the Shimao international shopping center, and the Wanda Shopping Mall (万达集团). Parc 66 (济南恒隆广场) to the south of Spring City Road (opposite of Water Lily Street), opened in August 2011, is Jinan's largest shopping mall with seven levels of retail space and a total gross floor area of 171,000 square meters.

Jinan: Infrastructure

Jinan: Healthcare system

  • Shandong Provincial Hospital (SPH, 山东省立医院), address: 324 Jingwu Weiqi Road (  / 36.656833; 116.977694)
  • Second Hospital Attached to Shandong University (山东大学第二医院)
  • Stomatological Hospital Attached to Shandong University (山东大学附属口腔医院)
  • Central Hospital of Jinan City (济南市中心医院), address: 105 Jiefang Road (  / 36.667; 117.0417)
  • Qilu Hospital (山东大学齐鲁医院), address: 107 Wenhuaxi Road (  / 36.657111; 117.0114583)
  • Jinan No. 1 People's Hospital (济南市第一人民医院), address: 132 Daminghu Road
  • Jinan No. 2 People's Hospital (济南市第二人民医院), also known as "Eye Hospital of Jinan" (济南眼科医院)
  • Jinan No. 3 People's Hospital (济南市第三人民医院)
  • Jinan No. 4 People's Hospital (济南市第四人民医院), address: 50 Shīfàn Road
  • Jinan No. 5 People's Hospital (济南市第五人民医院), address: 447 Jīngshí Road
  • No. 456 Hospital of the People's Liberation Army (中国人民解放军第四五六医院, formerly Jinan Airforce Hospital, 空军济南医院)
  • Pediatric Hospital of Jinan City (济南市儿童医院)
  • Jinan Infectious Disease Hospital (济南市传染病医院), address: 173 Jīngshí Road (  / 36.649; 116.98805)
  • Qianfoshan Hospital (千佛山医院), address: 66 Jingshi Road (  / 36.6477889; 117.0370361)
  • Jinan military hospital 济南军区总医院

Jinan: Transportation

Jinan: Railways

CRH at Jinan Railway Station
Jinan West Railway Station

Jinan is positioned at the intersection of two major railways: The Jinghu Railway that runs from Beijing to Shanghai is the major north–south backbone of the railway system in eastern China. In Jinan, it intersects with the Jiaoji Railway that connects Jinan to the sea port of Qingdao to the east. In addition, the Hanji Railway connects Jinan to the city of Handan (Hebei Province) in the west. Within Shandong province, the Jinghu Railway connects Jinan with the cities of Dezhou, Tai'an, Jining, and Zaozhuang; the Jiaoji Railway provides a link to the cities of Zibo, Qingdao, and Weifang; the Hanji Railway serves the cities of Yancheng and Liaocheng. Central Jinan is served by the Jinan Railway Station (nearer to the center of town) and the Jinan East Railway Station (just by Daming Lake).

The Beijing–Shanghai High-Speed Railway calls at the new Jinan West Railway Station, which is outside the central metropolitan center and is in suburban western Jinan's Huaiyin District. Since it opened for public service on 30 June 2011, it has become a future hub with west-east running high speed railways to Taiyuan, Shijiazhuang and Qingdao.

Jinan: Expressways

Major expressways include China National Highway 104, China National Highway 220, and China National Highway 309. Because of Jinan's location and role as a road and rail transportation hub, the Jinan Coach Terminus has one of the largest passenger flows nationally. On peak travel days, as many as 92,000 passengers per day have been counted, on off-peak days the number is around 42,000 passengers per day.

Jinan: Airport

Jinan Yaoqiang International Airport is located about 33 km (21 mi) northeast of the city center and to the north of the town of Yaoqiang (遥墙镇) from which the name of the airport is derived. The airport is connected to the city center of Jinan by expressways. It has domestic flights to many of the major cities in China as well as to international destinations, in particular Osaka, Seoul, Bangkok and Singapore.

Jinan: Public transportation

Jinan's urban public transportation history began in 1938, and the city is now a major bus transportation hub. To ensure that buses have priority, most of the city's urban main roads have a bus lane, and Bus rapid transit signal priority measures are gradually being implemented. The Jinan urban area has more than 220 public transportation routes.

According to the properties of bus lines, Jinan's urban bus network can be divided into five categories:

  • Bus rapid transit system: The Jinan BRT has 7 routes, connected by transfer stations. As a result of the BRT's isolated central lanes, signal priority and other measures, bus speeds, as compared with conventional buses, have been greatly improved, making the BRT important urban form of public transport. However, the BRT bus dedicated lanes occupy road space, make the traffic worse, slow down the non-BRT buses, and in some congested roads create various other problems, thereby incurring some public criticism.Price:¥2.
  • Conventional buses: Also recognized as Non-air-conditioned buses.These lines comprise more than 100 routes, covering the whole city.Price:¥1.
  • Public trolleybuses: the Jinan trolleybus system, opened in 1977, once had 10 lines, but now has only four. These are Jinan important public transport routes.Price:¥1.
  • K bus lines. Operated by air-conditioned vehicles, these lines currently operate over more than 100 routes. K buses have a K on their displays to show the difference between the non-air-conditioned buses. Price:¥2.
  • Suburban and exurban buses – Operated by air-conditioned and non-air-conditioned vehicles. Most of these buses carries passengers from suburban/exurban area to urban area, while the others provide village-to-village or village-to-county service.Price:Vary from ¥1 to ¥12.
  • Student, supermarket and particular business bus lines – These are for large schools, supermarkets, business transfer students, customers, employees of private businesses. They operate side by side with the other bus systems.

Started by construction in 2013, Jinan Metro will open in 2018 and then will be extended to 3 lines toward 2030.

Jinan: Main tourist attractions

Pavilion in the 10,000 Bamboo Garden of Baotu Spring Park
The Thousand Buddha Mountain, a religious landmark in Jinan
Sacred Heart Cathedral, Jinan

Jinan is renowned across China for its numerous springs, the lakes fed by the spring water, and the weeping willows that grow along the water edges. The late-Qing author Liu E describes Jinan's cityscape in his novel "The Travels of Lao Can" (老残游记, written 1903–04, published in 1907) as "Every family has spring water, every household has a willow tree". Jinan was also the historical center of Buddhist culture for the whole province which is still manifest in the many historic sites that are left behind in its southern counties.

Jinan: Springs and lakes

Jinan is known as the "City of Springs" because of the large number of natural artesian springs. The majority of the springs, many of which have been historically listed under the "72 Famous Springs" (七十二名泉) are concentrated in the downtown district and flow north to converge in Daming Lake. The Baotu Spring Park is the most popular of the springs in the City of Jinan proper. Besides the Baotu Spring, the park contains several other springs that are listed among the "72 Famous Springs". "Bào tū" (趵突) means "jumping and leaping" in Chinese. The water in the spring pool can be seen foaming and gushing, looking like a pot of boiling water. The spring was visited by the Qianlong Emperor (1711–1799) of the Qing dynasty who declared it "the best spring under the heaven" (Chinese: 天下第一泉; pinyin: tiān xià dì yī quán). A tablet with the Emperor's handwriting "Baotu Spring" has since been erected beside the spring pool.

Not far away to the northeast of Baotu Spring Park is the Daming Lake, which, together with Baotu Spring and the Thousand-Buddha Mountain (千佛山) is often regarded as the "Three Greatest Attractions in Jinan". Other notable parks in the city include the Five Dragon Pool (五龙潭) near the Baotu Spring Park, the Black Tiger Spring (黑虎泉) on the southern city moat, and the Baimai Springs (百脉泉) of Zhangqiu City to the east of Jinan.

Jinan: Buddhist sites

Historic Buddhist sites are particularly common in Licheng County to the south-east of the city center of Jinan. The Four Gates Pagoda (四门塔), built in 661, is the oldest existing one-story stone tower in China. The pagoda houses four Buddhist statues dating from the 6th century, and the Cypress tree (九顶松) standing next to the pagoda is more than 1000 years old. Below the hill on which pagoda stands lie the remnants of the Shentong Temple (神通寺), which was founded in the 4th century but was destroyed in the wars of later dynasties. The funerary stelae of monks from the temple which date from different historic periods display remarkable artistic features. The statues in the nearby Thousand-Buddha Cliff (千佛崖) form one of the best collections of Tang dynasty Buddhist statues in the region.

The Lingyan Temple in the southern county of Changqing was one of the four most famous temples (四大名刹) of the Tang dynasty. The temple was founded during the Jin dynasty and reached its heyday during the Tang and Song dynasties. During the Tang dynasty, the famous monk Xuanzang stayed in the temple and translated Buddhist manuscripts he had brought to China from India. Many emperors in Chinese history visited the temple before they went to Mount Tai (one of China's five sacred mountains, located south of Jinan) for ceremonies. The clay sculptures of Buddhas made in the Song dynasty are considered as "The Best of China" by scholar and journalist Liang Qichao. Buddhist architectures within the temple such as pagodas and tomb stelae are among the earliest and best protected in the region.

Jinan: Museums and libraries

The Shandong Provincial Museum located at the foothill of Thousand-Buddha Mountain is the largest museum in the province. It has a large collection of natural as well as historical treasures from the whole province. The museum was established in its present form in 1982 and currently has 8 exhibition halls : "Treasures of Shandong Province"; "Stone Sculptures"; "Warship of the Ming dynasty"; "Ancient Coins"; "Art Treasures"; "Fossil Collections"; "Dinosaurs"; and "Specimens". The museum has more than 210,000 relics and specimens, making up ⅓ of the collections in museums of whole province. The Shandong Provincial Museum has been ranked No. 7 in terms of collection size among the museums of China.

The Jinan Municipal Museum is located at the south-western foot of the Thousand-Buddha Mountain, in the north of the city center. Although much smaller than the provincial museum, the municipal museum still houses a collection of more than 20,000 items, most of which were recovered in the city area.

The Shandong Provincial Library in the eastern High-tech Park (address: 2912 Second Ring East Road) is the principal library of the province and is ranked among the Top 10 Chinese libraries. As of 2004, the library had more than 5.18 million documents, many of which date back many centuries and are important sources for research on Chinese history. The library also has a large collection of western journals/books. Originally, the library was built close to Daming Lake in 1909 by the then governor of Shandong. In the late 1990s, a project was undertaken to move the library to the eastern part of the city, and it reopened in 2002 with 35 reading rooms and more than 2000 seats.

Jinan: Education

Jinan: Universities and colleges

  • Qilu Normal University (齐鲁师范学院, formerly Shandong Educational Institute: 山东教育学院)
  • Qilu University of Technology (山东轻工业学院, or Shandong Polytechnic University)
  • Shandong Architectural Institute (山东建筑大学)
  • Shandong College of Electronic Technology (山东电子职业技术学院)
  • Shandong Jiaotong University (山东交通学院)
  • Shandong Normal University (山东师范大学)
  • Shangdong Polytechnic (济南铁道职业技术学院, formerly Jinan Railway Polytechnic)
  • Shandong Sport University (山东体育学院)
  • Shandong University
  • Shandong University of Art and Design (山东工艺美术学院)
  • Shandong University of Arts (山东艺术学院)
  • Shandong University of Finance and Economics
  • Shandong University of Science and Technology, which also has campuses in Qingdao and Tai'an.
  • Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine
  • Shandong Women's University
  • University of Jinan

Jinan: Provincial high schools

  • Shandong Experimental High School
  • Jinan Foreign Language School
  • Senior High School Attached to Shandong Normal University (山东师范大学附属中学)

Jinan: Military

Jinan is the former command center for the Jinan Military Region, one of the defunct seven military regions into which the People's Liberation Army is organized. Jinan MR was considered as a strategic reserve of PLA. Jinan Military Region coverred two of China's most populous provinces, Henan and Shandong.

Jinan: Sports

The most renowned sports team in Jinan are the Shandong Golden Lions. The Shandong Golden Lions have been playing in the Chinese top basketball league for all the seasons (13 for basketball) since the league turned professional in 1995. The team's best season was 1997–1998 when it finished 3rd place. In the 2007–2008 season, the Shandong Golden Lions also reached the 3rd place at the end of the season, but they were knocked out at the first round of the playoffs.

The Shandong Luneng Football Club is the most widely known football team in Jinan. The club currently plays at the highest tier of Chinese football, the Chinese Super League. The Shandong Luneng Football Club is one of four clubs which have been playing in Chinese top football league every season since the league turned professional in 1994. Since 1994 the club has won 9 titles: Top League Champions (1999, 2006, 2008, 2010), FA Cups (1995, 1999, 2004, 2006), and CSL Cup (2004).

In 2009, Jinan hosted the 2009 National Games of China, the premier sports event at the national level in China and the first major multi-sports event held in China after the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing. The National Games' main venue was the Jinan Olympic Sports Center.

Jinan: Twin towns and sister cities

Jinan: See also

  • List of twin towns and sister cities in China
  • flagChina portal

Jinan: Notes

  1. In addition to the names in , Jinan has also been romanized as Tse-nan.

Jinan: References

Jinan: Citations

  1. "China" in the Encyclopædia Britannica, 9th ed., 1878.
  2. "Illuminating China's Provinces, Municipalities and Autonomous Regions-Shandong". PRC Central Government Official Website. 2001. Retrieved 2014-04-22.
  3. . "Jinan (Shandong) City Information". HKTDC.
  4. "中央机构编制委员会印发《关于副省级市若干问题的意见》的通知. 中编发[1995]5号". 豆丁网. 1995-02-19. Archived from the original on 2014-05-29. Retrieved 2014-05-28.
  5. 网易. "济南新72名泉评定前后". Retrieved 9 May 2016.
  6. "3-4各市人口数和总户数(2014年)-tjsql.com". www.tjsql.com. Retrieved 2016-03-06.
  7. "The Geography of China". Retrieved 9 May 2016.
  8. "Jinan". Britannica.com. Retrieved February 11, 2016.
  9. The Travels of Marco Polo – The Complete Yule-Cordier Edition, Volume II
  10. Neolithic Painted Pottery, National Museum of History, Taipeh
  11. Needham, Joseph. 1978. The Shorter Science and Civilisation in China. Colin A. Ronan, ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp.142-143 ISBN 0-521-21821-7
  12. "《第五批重点文物保护单位:汉济北王墓(古墓葬)》". 中国文明网. Retrieved 2009-10-03.
  13. "《济北王墓:一个诸侯王的身后事》". 刘国林. 大众网. Retrieved 2009-10-03.
  14. de Crespigny, p.39
  15. Morris Rossabi (1988): "Khubilai Khan: His Life and Times" Berkeley: University of California Press
  16. 斯, 李. "1904年06月01日 胶济铁路通车". www.todayonhistory.com. Retrieved 1 September 2014.
  17. "The Origins of the Boxer War". Retrieved 9 May 2016.
  18. "The Soap Opera Paradigm". Retrieved 9 May 2016.
  19. Waldron, Arthur (2003). From War to Nationalism: China's Turning Point, 1924-1925. Cambridge UP. p. 105. ISBN 978-0-521-52332-5.
  20. "Chinese Civilization". Retrieved 9 May 2016.
  21. Iriye, After Imperialism, 195-200.
  22. Iriye, After Imperialism, 199-201.
  23. Ji'nan Government (September 1, 2005). "The Year of 1928". Archived from the original on July 24, 2012. Retrieved August 16, 2013. 蔡公时用日语抗议,日兵竟将其耳鼻割去,继又挖去舌头、眼睛。日军将被缚人员的衣服剥光,恣意鞭打,然后拉至院内用机枪扫射
  24. C. Martin Wilbur, "The Nationalist Revolution: from Canton to Nanking, 1923-1928," Cambridge History of China, Volume 12 Republican China, 1912-1949 Pt I (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983), 702–706.
  25. "Orbat.com" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 March 2016. Retrieved 9 May 2016.
  26. Jay Taylor, The Generalissimo: Chiang Kai-Shek and the Struggle for Modern China (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2009), 82–83.
  27. Frank Dorn, The Sino-Japanese War, 1937-41: From Marco Polo Bridge to Pearl Harbor (New York: Macmillan, 1974), pg. 81-82
  28. Dorn, pg. 81-82
  29. Diana Lary: "Treachery, Disgrace and Death: Han Fuju and China's Resistance to Japan" War in History 2006 13 (1) 65–90
  30. Kent G. Budge. "The Pacific War Online Encyclopedia: Tsinan". Retrieved 9 May 2016.
  31. Dorn, pg. 82
  32. MacKinnon, Stephen R.; Capa, Robert (2008). Wuhan, 1938: War, Refugees, and the Making of Modern China. University of California Press. p. 18. ISBN 0-520-25445-7.
  33. Stephen MacKinnon, "The Tragedy of Wuhan, 1938", Modern Asian Studies, Vol. 30, No. 4, Special Issue: War in Modern China (October, 1996), pp. 931-943
  34. "OHINA: Province for a Poet". TIME.com. 4 October 1948. Retrieved 9 May 2016.
  35. Jinan City Government online records for 1966 (1st half)
  36. Jinan City Government online records for 1967 (1st half)
  37. Jinan City Government online records for 1967 (2nd half)
  38. Jinan City Government online records for 1968
  39. Jinan City Government online records for 1969
  40. Jinan City Government online records for 1970
  41. City Government online records for 1974
  42. Jinan City Government online records for 1971
  43. Jinan City Government online records for 1972
  44. Jinan City Government online records for 1975
  45. Jinan City Government online records for 1976
  46. http://www.11th-games.org.cn/ 11th All China Games website
  47. "Cleaner Production in China"
  48. 高温逼出新"火炉"之争 济南城热门候选_山东新闻_新闻_腾讯网 (in Chinese). QQ News. 31 July 2007. Retrieved 2013-04-27.
  49. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-03-18. Retrieved 2010-05-24.
  50. 中国气象科学数据共享服务网 Archived 2015-03-02 at the Wayback Machine.
  51. 中国气象局 国家气象信息中心 (in Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Archived from the original on 2013-03-18. Retrieved 2009-03-17.
  52. "Weather & Extreme Events: 7 of 10 Most Air-Polluted Cities Are in China". January 16, 2013. Imaginechina/Corbis. http://news.discovery.com. Retrieved 1 September 2014.
  53. Bildner, Eli (February 27, 2013). "Interactive Maps of China’s Most–and Least–Polluted Places". Global Voices China. http://newsmotion.org. Archived from the original on 3 September 2014. Retrieved 1 September 2014.
  54. "Smog Shrouds Eastern China". Earth Observatory. 10 December 2013. Retrieved 24 March 2014.
  55. "Smog and fog hit east, north China". Xinhua News Agency. 6 December 2013. Retrieved 15 May 2014.
  56. 综合本报和新华社电. "三问今冬十面"霾"伏". 人民日报海外版.
  57. "Map: Shanghai's off the charts air pollution". Greenpeace. 6 December 2013. Retrieved 24 March 2014.
  58. "Ji‘nan High-tech Industrial Development Zone". Retrieved 9 May 2016.
  59. "Ji'nan Export Processing Zone". Retrieved 9 May 2016.
  60. "Introduction CNHTC." China National Heavy Duty Truck Group. Retrieved on July 8, 2010. "The headquarters of China National Heavy Duty Truck Group Co., Ltd. (CNHTC) is located in Jinan, Shandong, P. R. China."
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  62. "Hang Lung - Home". Retrieved 9 May 2016.
  63. "Jinan welcomes high-speed rail". Retrieved 9 May 2016.
  64. Jinan Coach Terminus official website (in Chinese)
  65. "Shandong Airlines to Resume Jinan – Osaka Service from late-October 2013". Retrieved 9 May 2016.
  66. 田艳敏. "20131229济南新闻 济南轨道交通市域快线建设启动". Retrieved 9 May 2016.
  67. Original, in simplified Chinese: "家家泉水,户户垂杨". In traditional Chinese: "家家泉水,戶戶垂楊"
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  81. John Pike. "Jinan Military Region". Retrieved 9 May 2016.
  82. 11th Chinese National Games opens in Jinan. Xinhua News Agency (2009-10-17). Retrieved on 2009-10-21.

Jinan: Bibliography

  • de Crespigny, Rafe (2010). Imperial warlord : a biography of Cao Cao 155-220 AD. Leiden Boston: Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-18522-7.
  • Akira Iriye, After Imperialism: The Search for a New Order in the Far East, 1921-1931 (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1965; reprinted:Chicago: Imprint Publications, 1990): 193-205
  • Jinan Government website
  • Compass foreign business service center
  • Jinan travel guide from Wikivoyage
  • Wikisource-logo.svg "Chi-nan Fu". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911.
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