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Hotels of Johor Bahru

A hotel in Johor Bahru is an establishment that provides lodging paid on a short-term basis. Facilities provided may range from a basic bed and storage for clothing, to luxury features like en-suite bathrooms. Larger in Johor Bahru hotels may provide additional guest facilities such as a swimming pool, business centre, childcare, conference facilities and social function services. Hotel rooms in Johor Bahru are usually numbered (or named in some smaller hotels and B&Bs) to allow guests to identify their room. Some Johor Bahru hotels offer meals as part of a room and board arrangement. Hotel operations vary in size, function, and cost. Most Johor Bahru hotels and major hospitality companies that operate hotels in Johor Bahru have set widely accepted industry standards to classify hotel types. General categories include the following:

Upscale luxury hotels in Johor Bahru
An upscale full service hotel facility in Johor Bahru that offers luxury amenities, full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and the highest level of personalized and professional service. Luxury Johor Bahru hotels are normally classified with at least a Four Diamond or Five Diamond status or a Four or Five Star rating depending on classification standards.

Full service hotels in Johor Bahru
Full service Johor Bahru hotels often contain upscale full-service facilities with a large volume of full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and a variety of on-site amenities such as swimming pools, a health club, children's activities, ballrooms, on-site conference facilities, etc.

Historic inns and boutique hotels in Johor Bahru
Boutique hotels of Johor Bahru are smaller independent non-branded hotels that often contain upscale facilities of varying size in unique or intimate settings with full service accommodations. Johor Bahru boutique hotels are generally 100 rooms or less. Some historic inns and boutique hotels in Johor Bahru may be classified as luxury hotels.

Focused or select service hotels in Johor Bahru
Small to medium-sized hotel establishments that offer a limited amount of on-site amenities that only cater and market to a specific demographic of Johor Bahru travelers, such as the single business traveler. Most Johor Bahru focused or select service hotels may still offer full service accommodations but may lack leisure amenities such as an on-site restaurant or a swimming pool.

Economy and limited service hotels in Johor Bahru
Small to medium-sized Johor Bahru hotel establishments that offer a very limited amount of on-site amenities and often only offer basic accommodations with little to no services, these facilities normally only cater and market to a specific demographic of travelers, such as the budget-minded Johor Bahru traveler seeking a "no frills" accommodation. Limited service Johor Bahru hotels often lack an on-site restaurant but in return may offer a limited complimentary food and beverage amenity such as on-site continental breakfast service.

Guest houses and B&Bs in Johor Bahru
A bed and breakfast in Johor Bahru is a small lodging establishment that offers overnight accommodation and inclusive breakfast. Usually, Johor Bahru bed and breakfasts are private homes or family homes offering accommodations. The typical Johor Bahru B&B has between 4 and 11 rooms, with 6 being the average. Generally, guests are accommodated in private bedrooms with private bathrooms, or in a suite of rooms including an en suite bathroom. Some homes have private bedrooms with a bathroom which is shared with other guests. Breakfast is served in the bedroom, a dining room, or the host's kitchen. Often the owners of guest house themselves prepare the breakfast and clean the rooms.

Hostels in Johor Bahru
Johor Bahru hostels provide budget-oriented, sociable accommodation where guests can rent a bed, usually a bunk bed, in a dormitory and share a bathroom, lounge, and sometimes a kitchen. Rooms can be mixed or single-sex, although private rooms may also be available. Hostels are often cheaper for both the operator and occupants; many Johor Bahru hostels have long-term residents whom they employ as desk agents or housekeeping staff in exchange for experience or discounted accommodation.

Apartment hotels, extended stay hotels in Johor Bahru
Extended stay hotels are small to medium-sized Johor Bahru hotels that offer longer term full service accommodations compared to a traditional hotel. Extended stay hotels may offer non-traditional pricing methods such as a weekly rate that cater towards travelers in need of short-term accommodations for an extended period of time. Similar to limited and select service hotels, on-site amenities are normally limited and most extended stay hotels in Johor Bahru lack an on-site restaurant.

Timeshare and destination clubs in Johor Bahru
Johor Bahru timeshare and destination clubs are a form of property ownership also referred to as a vacation ownership involving the purchase and ownership of an individual unit of accommodation for seasonal usage during a specified period of time. Timeshare resorts in Johor Bahru often offer amenities similar that of a Full service hotel with on-site restaurant(s), swimming pools, recreation grounds, and other leisure-oriented amenities. Destination clubs of Johor Bahru on the other hand may offer more exclusive private accommodations such as private houses in a neighborhood-style setting.

Motels in Johor Bahru
A Johor Bahru motel is a small-sized low-rise lodging establishment similar to that of a limited service hotel, but with direct access to individual rooms from the car park. Common during the 1950s and 1960s, motels were often located adjacent to a major road, where they were built on inexpensive land at the edge of towns or along stretches of highways. They are still useful in less populated areas of Johor Bahru for driving travelers, but the more populated an area becomes the more hotels fill the need. Many of Johor Bahru motels which remain in operation have joined national franchise chains, rebranding themselves as hotels, inns or lodges.

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Travelling and vacation in Johor Bahru

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Johor Bahru
City and State Capital
Other transcription(s)
• Jawi جوهر بهرو
• Simplified Chinese 新山
• Tamil ஜொஹோர் பாரு
Clockwise from top:Johor Bahru city centre, Sultan Ibrahim Building, City Rainforest, Straits of Johor view from top of the Johor–Singapore Causeway and city street.
Clockwise from top:
Johor Bahru city centre, Sultan Ibrahim Building, City Rainforest, Straits of Johor view from top of the Johor–Singapore Causeway and city street.
Flag of Johor Bahru
Flag
Official logo of Johor Bahru
Crest
Nickname(s): JB,
Bandaraya Selatan (Southern City)
Motto: Johor Bahru Bandar Raya Bertaraf Antarabangsa, Berbudaya dan Lestari (English: Johor Bahru, A City of International Standards by 2020)
Johor Bahru is located in Peninsular Malaysia
Johor Bahru
Johor Bahru
Location of Johor Bahru in Peninsular Malaysia
Coordinates:  / 1.483; 103.733  / 1.483; 103.733
Country Malaysia
State Johor
District Johor Bahru
Administrative areas
Founded 10 March 1855
(as Tanjung Puteri)
Granted municipality status 1 April 1977
Granted city status 1 January 1994
Government
• Body Johor Bahru City Council
• Mayor A. Rahim Nin
Area
• City and State Capital 220.00 km (84.94 sq mi)
Elevation 32 m (105 ft)
Population (2010)
• City and State Capital 497,067
• Urban 1,277,244 (3rd)
• Metro 1,638,219
Demonym(s) Johor Bahruans
Time zone MST (UTC+8)
• Summer (DST) Not observed (UTC+8)
Postal code 79xxx to 81xxx
Area code(s) 07
Vehicle registration J
Website mbjb.gov.my

Johor Bahru (Malaysian pronunciation: [ˈjohorˈbahru], Jawi: جوهر بهرو‎, Chinese: 新山, Tamil: ஜொஹோர் பாரு), formerly known as Tanjung Puteri or Iskandar Puteri, is the capital of the state of Johor, Malaysia. It is also the southernmost city in Peninsular Malaysia. Johor Bahru has a population of 497,097, while its metropolitan area, with a population of 1,638,219, is the third largest in the country.

Johor Bahru was founded in 1855 as Iskandar Puteri when the Sultanate of Johor came under the influence of Temenggong Daeng Ibrahim. The area was renamed "Johor Bahru" in 1862 and became the capital of the Sultanate when the Sultanate administration centre was moved there from Telok Blangah.

During the reign of Sultan Abu Bakar, there was development and modernisation within the city; with the construction of administrative buildings, schools, religious buildings, and railways connecting to Singapore. Johor Bahru was occupied by the Japanese forces from 1942 to 1945. Johor Bahru became the cradle of Malay nationalism after the war and gave birth to a political party named United Malays National Organisation (UMNO) in 1946. After the formation of Malaysia in 1963, Johor Bahru retained its status as state capital and was granted city status in 1994. A central business district was developed in the city centre during the 1990s. More development funds were channelled to the city after the introduction of Iskandar Malaysia in 2006.

Johor Bahru: Etymology

The present area of Johor Bahru was originally known as Tanjung Puteri, and was a fishing village of the Malays. Temenggong Daeng Ibrahim then renamed Tanjung Puteri to Iskandar Puteri once he arrived in the area in 1858 after acquiring the territory from Sultan Ali; before it was renamed Johor Bahru by Sultan Abu Bakar following the Temenggong's death. (The suffix "Bahru" means "new" in Malay, normally written "baru" in standard spelling today but appearing with several variants in place names, such as Kota Bharu and Indonesian Pekanbaru.) The British preferred to spell its name as Johore Bahru or Johore Bharu, but the current accepted western spelling is Johor Bahru, as Johore is only spelt Johor (without the letter "e" at the end of the word) in Malay language. The city is also spelt as Johor Baru or Johor Baharu.

The city was also once known as "Little Swatow (Shantou)" by the Chinese community in Johor Bahru, as most of Johor Bahru's Chinese residents are Teochew people whose ancestry can be traced back to Shantou, China. They arrived in the mid-1800s, during the reign of Temenggong Daeng Ibrahim.

Johor Bahru: History

Temenggong Daeng Ibrahim, founder of Tanjung Puteri, which he renamed Iskandar Puteri (present-day Johor Bahru)

Due to a dispute between the Malays and the Bugis, the Johor-Riau Empire was split in 1819 with the mainland Johor Sultanate came under the control of Temenggong Daeng Ibrahim while the Riau-Lingga Sultanate came under the control of the Bugis. The Temenggong intended to create a new administration centre for the Johor Sultanate to create a dynasty under the entity of Temenggong. As the Temenggong already had a close relationship with the British and the British intended to have control over trade activities in Singapore, a treaty was signed between Sultan Ali and Temenggong Ibrahim in Singapore on 10 March 1855. According to the treaty, Ali would be crowned as the Sultan of Johor and receive $5,000 (in Spanish dollars) with an allowance of $500 per month. In return, Ali was required to cede the sovereignty of the territory of Johor (except Kesang of Muar which would be the only territory under his control) to Temenggong Ibrahim. When both sides agreed on Temenggong acquiring the territory, he renamed it Iskandar Puteri and began to administer it from Telok Blangah in Singapore.

As the area was still an undeveloped jungle, Temenggong encouraged the migration of Chinese and Javanese to clear the land and to develop an agricultural economy in Johor. The Chinese planted the area with black pepper and gambier, while the Javanese dug parit (canals) to drain water from the land, build roads and plant coconuts. During this time, a Chinese businessman, pepper and gambier cultivator, Wong Ah Fook arrived; at the same time, Kangchu and Javanese labour contract systems were introduced by the Chinese and Javanese communities. After Temenggong's death on 31 January 1862, the town was renamed "Johor Bahru" and his position was succeeded by his son, Abu Bakar, with the administration centre in Telok Blangah being moved to the area in 1889.

Sultan Abu Bakar
Sultan Abu Bakar, recognised as the founder of the modern city of Johor Bahru
Wong Ah Fook
Wong Ah Fook, the royal builder who contributed to the early development of the city's infrastructure

Johor Bahru: British administration

In the first phase of Abu Bakar's administration, the British only recognised him as a maharaja rather than a sultan. In 1855, the British Colonial Office start to recognise his status as a Sultan after he met Queen Victoria. He managed to regain Kesang territory for Johor after a civil war with the aid of British forces and he boosted the town's infrastructure and agricultural economy. Infrastructure such as the State Mosque and Royal Palace was built with the aid of Wong Ah Fook, who had become a close patron for the Sultan since his migration during the Temenggong reign. As the Johor-British relationship improved, Abu Bakar also set up his administration under a British style and implemented a constitution known as Undang-undang Tubuh Negeri Johor (Johor State Constitution). Although the British had long been advisers for the Sultanate of Johor, the Sultanate never came under direct colonial rule of the British. The direct colonial rule only came into effect when the status of the adviser was elevated to a status similar to that of a Resident in the Federated Malay States (FMS) during the reign of Sultan Ibrahim in 1914.

In Johor Bahru, the Malay Peninsula railway extension was completed in 1909, and the completion of the Johor–Singapore Causeway, a causeway in 1923 that linked the railway and road systems between Singapore and the Malay Peninsula. Johor Bahru developed at a modest rate between the First and Second World Wars. The secretariat building-Sultan Ibrahim Building-was completed in 1940 as the British colonial government attempted to streamline the state's administration.

Johor Bahru: World War II

Japanese troops crouch in the street of Johor Bahru in their final stages of Battle of Malaya to conquest Singapore: image taken on 31 January 1942.

The continuous development of Johor Bahru was, however, halted when the Japanese under General Tomoyuki Yamashita invaded the town on 31 January 1942. As the Japanese had reached northwest Johor by 15 January, they easily captured major towns of Johor such of Batu Pahat, Yong Peng, Kluang and Ayer Hitam. The British and other Allied forces were forced to retreat towards Johor Bahru; however, following a further series of bombings by the Japanese on 29 January, the British retreated to Singapore and blew up the causeway the following day as a final attempt to stop the Japanese advancement in British Malaya. The Japanese then used the Sultan's residence of Bukit Serene Palace located in the town as their main temporary base for their future initial plans to conquest Singapore while waiting to reconnect the causeway. The Japanese chose the palace as their main base because they already knew the British would not dare to attack it as this would harm their close relationship with Johor.

A view of the causeway, after being blown up by Allied forces as a final action to counter the Japanese advancement

In less than a month, the Japanese repaired the causeway and invaded the Singapore island easily. Soon after the war ended in 1946, the town became the main hotspot for Malay nationalism in Malaya. Onn Jaafar, a local Malay politician who later became the Chief Minister of Johor, formed the United Malay National Organisation party on 11 May 1946 when the Malays expressed their widespread disenchantment over the British government's action for granting citizenship laws to non-Malays in the proposed states of the Malayan Union. An agreement over the policy was then reached in the town with Malays agreeing with the dominance of economy by the non-Malays and the Malays' dominance in political matters being agreed upon by non-Malays. Racial conflict between the Malay and non-Malays, especially the Chinese, is being provoked continuously since the Malayan Emergency.

Johor Bahru: Post-independence

After the formation of the Federation of Malaysia in 1963, Johor Bahru continued as the state capital and more development was carried out, with the town's expansion and the construction of more new townships and industrial estates. The Indonesian confrontation did not directly affect Johor Bahru as the main Indonesian landing point in Johor was in Labis. There is only one active Indonesian spy organisation in the town, known as Gerakan Ekonomi Melayu Indonesia (GEMI). They frequently engaged with the Indonesian communities living there to contribute information for Indonesian commandos until the bombing of the MacDonald House in Singapore in 1965. By the early 1990s, the town had considerably expanded in size, and was officially granted a city status on 1 January 1994. Johor Bahru City Council was formed and the city's current main square, Dataran Bandaraya Johor Bahru, was constructed to commemorate the event. A central business district was developed in the centre of the city from the mid-1990s in the area around Wong Ah Fook Street. The state and federal government channelled considerable funds for the development of the city-particularly more so after 2006, when the Iskandar Malaysia was formed.

Johor Bahru: Governance

Johor Bahru City Council

As the capital city of Johor, the city plays an important role in the economic welfare of the population of the entire state. There is one member of parliament (MP) representing the single parliamentary constituency (P.160) in the city. The city also elects two representatives to the state legislature from the state assembly districts of Tanjong Puteri and Stulang.

Johor Bahru: Local authority and city definition

The city is administered by the Johor Bahru City Council. The current mayor as of March 2016 is Haji A. Rahim Haji Nin, who took over from Dato' Haji Abdul Rahman Mohamed Dewam on 16 August 2015. Johor Bahru obtained city status on 1 January 1994. The area under the jurisdiction of the Johor Bahru City Council includes Central District, Kangkar Tebrau, Kempas, Larkin, Majidee, Maju Jaya, Mount Austin, Pandan, Pasir Pelangi, Pelangi, Permas Jaya, Rinting, Tampoi, Tasek Utara and Tebrau. This covers an area of 220 square kilometres (85 sq mi).

Johor Bahru: Geography

Tropical rainforest near the city, features an equatorial climate.

Johor Bahru is located along the Straits of Johor at the southern end of Peninsular Malaysia. It is the southernmost city in the Malay Peninsula. Originally, the city area was only 12.12 km (4.68 sq mi) in 1933 before been expanded to over 220 km (85 sq mi) in 2000.

Johor Bahru: Climate

The city has an equatorial climate with consistent temperatures, a considerable amount of rain, and high humidity throughout the course of the year. Temperatures range from 25.5 °C (77.9 °F) to 27.8 °C (82.0 °F) with an annual rainfall of around 2,000 mm (79 in), mostly from November until February. Although the climate is relatively uniform, it can change through the monsoon seasons with variation of wind speeds and direction, cloudiness, and wet and dry seasons throughout the year. There are two monsoon periods every year, the first one happens between December and February, and is known as north-east Monsoon. It is characterised by heavy rains and winds from the north-east. The second one is the south-west Monsoon, characterised by relative dryness with winds driven from the south and south-west. It occurs between June and August. There are two inter-Monsoon periods from March to May and from September to November, which are relatively calm with less rain and weaker winds.

Climate data for Johor Bahru (1974–2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 31.0
(87.8)
32.0
(89.6)
32.5
(90.5)
32.8
(91)
32.5
(90.5)
32.1
(89.8)
31.5
(88.7)
31.5
(88.7)
31.5
(88.7)
31.8
(89.2)
31.3
(88.3)
30.6
(87.1)
31.8
(89.2)
Average low °C (°F) 21.9
(71.4)
22.0
(71.6)
22.4
(72.3)
22.9
(73.2)
23.1
(73.6)
22.9
(73.2)
22.4
(72.3)
22.4
(72.3)
22.4
(72.3)
22.6
(72.7)
22.7
(72.9)
22.4
(72.3)
22.5
(72.5)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 162.6
(6.402)
139.8
(5.504)
203.4
(8.008)
232.8
(9.165)
215.3
(8.476)
148.1
(5.831)
177.0
(6.969)
185.9
(7.319)
190.8
(7.512)
217.7
(8.571)
237.6
(9.354)
244.5
(9.626)
2,355.5
(92.736)
Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm) 11 9 13 15 15 12 13 13 13 16 17 15 162
Source: World Meteorological Organisation

Johor Bahru: Demography

Sultan Abu Bakar State Mosque, the main mosque in the city.
Johor Bahru Old Chinese Temple, the main Chinese temple in the city.

Johor Bahru has an official demonym where people are commonly referred to as "Johor Bahruans". The terms "J.B-ites" and "J.B-ians" have also been used to a limited extent. People from Johor are called Johoreans.

Johor Bahru: Ethnicity and religion

The Malaysian Census in 2010 reported the population of Johor Bahru as 497,067. The city's population today is a mixture of three main races- Malays, Chinese and Indians- along with other bumiputras. Malays comprise the majority of the population at 240,323, followed by Chinese totalling 172,609, Indians totaling 33,319 and others totalling 2,957. Non-Malaysian citizens form a population of 42,585. Most of the Malays are chiefly descended from Riau Malay and Javanese people including significant minorities of ethnic Buginese and ethnic Banjarese among the majority ethnic Malay population. The Chinese mainly are from the majority Teochew, Hoklo, Hainanese and Hakka dialect groups, while the Indian community mainly consist of Tamils together with significant populations of Malayalees, Telugus and Sikh Punjabis.

The following is based on Department of Statistics Malaysia 2010 census.

Ethnic groups in Johor Bahru, 2010
Ethnicity Population Percentage
Malay 240,323 48.35%
Other Bumiputras 5,374 1.08%
Chinese 172,609 34.73%
Indian 33,319 6.70%
Others 2,957 0.59%
Non-Malaysian 42,585 8.57%
Total 497,067 100.00%

Johor Bahru: Languages

The local ethnic Malays speak the Malay language, while the language primarily spoken by the local Chinese is Mandarin Chinese. The Chinese community is represented by several dialect groups: Teochew, Hainanese, Hakka and Hokkien. The Indian community mainly speaks Tamil, Malayalam, Telugu and Punjabi. The English language (or Manglish) is also used considerably, albeit more so among the older generation, who have attended school during the British rule.

Johor Bahru: Economy

Johor Bahru as the economic centre of Johor.

Johor Bahru is one of the fastest-growing cities in Malaysia after Kuala Lumpur. It is the main commercial centre for Johor and is located in the Indonesia–Malaysia–Singapore Growth Triangle. Tertiary-based industry dominates the economy with thousands of Singaporeans and Indonesians and other international tourists visiting the city. It is the centre of financial services, commerce and retail, arts and culture, hospitality, urban tourism, plastic manufacturing, electrical and electronics and food processing. The city has a very close economic relationship with Singapore as many Singaporeans frequently visit for shopping, entertainment, and dining which increase the city income with the stronger Singapore dollar; some Singaporeans have also chosen to live in the city. Due to this, Johor Bahru's retail scene was continuously developed to meet the needs of its consumers. The main shopping districts are located within the city, with a number of large shopping malls located in the suburbs. A large numbers of the city's residents work in Singapore, where the salaries are higher than in Malaysia. The presence of Singaporean and Chinese-owned companies were also significant, with China being the fifth largest investor in Iskandar Malaysia after Singapore, the United States, Spain and Japan as of September 2014. In 2014, the sudden change of weekend rest days to Friday and Saturday from Saturday and Sunday by the Sultan of Johor had a relatively small impact to the city economy, with business especially affected. However, it boosted the tourism industry as the holidays would be able to start earlier on Sunday, attracting more tourists from Singapore. Johor Bahru is the location of numerous conferences, congress and trade fairs, such as the Eastern Regional Organisation for Planning and Housing and the World Islamic Economic Forum. The city is the first in Malaysia to practise a low-carbon economy.

Johor Bahru: Transportation

Johor Bahru: Land

Johor Bahru Sentral on the left with the highway in the right.
Larkin Sentral bus terminal

The internal roads linking different parts of the city are mostly federal roads constructed and maintained by Malaysian Public Works Department. There are five major highways linking the Johor Bahru Central Business District to outlying suburbs: Tebrau Highway and Johor Bahru Eastern Dispersal Link Expressway in the northeast, Skudai Highway in the northwest, Iskandar Coastal Highway in the west and Johor Bahru East Coast Highway in the east. Pasir Gudang Highway and the connecting Johor Bahru Parkway cross Tebrau Highway and Skudai Highway, which serve as the middle ring road of the metropolitan area. The Johor Bahru Inner Ring Road, which connects with the Sultan Iskandar customs complex, aids in controlling the traffic in and around the central business district. Access to the national expressway is provided through the North–South Expressway and Senai–Desaru Expressway. The Johor–Singapore Causeway links the city to Woodlands, Singapore with a six-lane road and a railway line terminating at the Southern Integrated Gateway. Further expansion of other major highways in the city were currently in the process to improve the city road connection.

Johor Bahru: Public transportation

Larkin Sentral, located 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) northwest of the city centre, has direct bus services to and from many destinations in West Malaysia, southern Thailand and Singapore. Two types of taxis operate in the city; the main taxi is either in red and yellow, blue, green or red while the larger, less common type is known as a limousine taxi, which is more comfortable but expensive. Most taxis in the city do not use their meter. The Johor Bahru Sentral railway station serves train services to Kuala Lumpur and Singapore. In 2015, a new shuttle train service operated by Keretapi Tanah Melayu (KTM) was launched providing transport to Woodlands in Singapore.

Johor Bahru: Air

The city is served by Senai International Airport located at the neighbouring Senai town. Five airlines, AirAsia, Firefly, Malaysia Airlines, Malindo Air and Xpress Air, provide flights internationally and domestically. The city is also supposedly to become the main hub for a newly formed airline called Flymojo in October 2015 but were postponed due to certain issues surrounding the airline.

Johor Bahru: Sea

Johor Port is located on the eastern side of the metropolitan area in the industrial area of Pasir Gudang. It is one of the country's most important seaports for commodities and mineral resources shipping, as Johor is home to a large number of major commercial plantations. The port is also the location of the majority of Malaysia's resources refineries. The Port of Tanjung Pelepas, which ranks as Malaysia's largest container port since 2004 lies in the western side of the metropolitan area. It is the 19th busiest container port in the world as of 2013. Singapore's seaports serve Johor Bahru's transportation and logistics needs as they are less than an hour's drive from the city. Boat services are also available to ports in Sumatra.

Boat services in the city.

Johor Bahru: Other utilities

Johor Bahru High Court

The city high court complex is located along Dato' Onn Road. The Sessions and Magistrate Courts is located on Ayer Molek Road, while another court for Sharia law is located on Abu Bakar Road. The Johor Police Contingent Headquarters is located on Tebrau Road. There are two district headquarters in the city, the Johor Bahru North District police headquarters in Skudai, and the Johor Bahru South District headquarters on Meldrum Road. Both also operate as police stations. There are around eleven police stations and seven police substations (Pondok Polis) in the south district while five police stations is located in the north district with six police substations. The city's north district traffic police headquarters is located along Tebrau Road while the south district is in Skudai. There is one main prison called Johor Bahru Prison located in the city along the Ayer Molek road, but this has been closed down since 9 December 2005. Other temporary lock-ups or prison cells are available in most police stations in the city like other parts of Malaysia.

Johor Bahru: Healthcare

Sultanah Aminah Hospital

There are three public hospitals, four health clinics and thirteen 1Malaysia clinics in Johor Bahru. Sultanah Aminah Hospital, which is located along Persiaran Road, is the largest public hospital in Johor Bahru as well as in Johor with 989 beds. Another government funded hospital is the Sultan Ismail Specialist Hospital with 700 beds. Regency Specialist Hospital in Masai is the largest private hospital with 218 beds. Another large private health facility is the KPJ Puteri Specialist Hospital with 158 beds. Further healthcare facilities are currently being expanded to improve healthcare services in the city.

Johor Bahru: Education

Many government or state schools are available in the city. The secondary schools include English College Johore Bahru, Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Engku Aminah, Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Sultan Ismail, Sekolah Menengah Infant Jesus Convent, Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan (Perempuan) Sultan Ibrahim and Sekolah Menengah Saint Joseph. In the district of Johor Bahru itself, there are a total of 41 secondary schools, one religious school, three vocational schools, one technical secondary school and one fully residential school. There are also a number of independent private schools in the city. These include Austin Heights, Excelsior International School, Foon Yew High School and the Sri Ara Schools. The Sri Ara Schools provide two curricula, the British-based curriculum of International General Certificate of Secondary Education (IGCSE) under Cambridge International Examinations and the National Curriculum with emphasis on the English language that leads to the Malaysian Schools Certificate. The other private universities are Raffles University Iskandar and Wawasan Open University. There are also a number of private college campuses and one polytechnic operating in the city; these are Crescendo International College, KPJ College, Olympia College, Sunway College, Taylor's College and College of Islamic Studies Johor.

Johor Bahru: Libraries

The Johor Public Library headquarters is the main library in the state, located off Yahya Awal Road. Another public library branch is the University Park in Kebudayaan Road, while there are other libraries or private libraries in schools, colleges, and universities. Two village libraries are available in the district of Johor Bahru.

Johor Bahru: Culture and leisure

Johor Bahru: Attractions and recreation spots

Johor Bahru: Cultural attractions

There are a number of cultural attractions in Johor Bahru. The Royal Abu Bakar Museum located within the Grand Palace building is the main museum in the city. The Johor Bahru Kwong Siew Heritage located in Wong Ah Fook Street housed the former Cantonese clan house that was donated by Wong Ah Fook. The Foon Yew High School houses many historical documents of the city history with a Chinese cultural heritage. The Johor Bahru Chinese Heritage Museum on Ibrahim Road includes the history of Chinese migration to Johor along with a collection of documents, photos, and other artefacts. The Arts Plaza (Plaza Seni) on the Wong Ah Fook Street features the state heritage and cultures with exhibitions of art, cultural performances, clothes, fashion accessories, travel agencies, and batik fabrics.

The Johor Art Gallery in Petrie Road is a house gallery built in 1910, known as the house for the former third Chief Minister of Johor, Abdullah Jaafar. The house features old architecture and became the centre for the collection of artefacts related to Johor's cultural history since its renovation in 2000.

Johor Bahru: Historical attractions

The Grand Palace, one of the historical buildings in the city.

The Grand Palace is one of the historical attractions in the city, and is an example of Victorian-style architecture with a garden. Figure Museum is another historical colonial building since 1886 which ever become the house for the Johor first Menteri Besar Jaafar Mohamed; it is located on the top of Smile Hill (Bukit Senyum) overlooking the Johor Straits. The English College (now Maktab Sultan Abu Bakar) established in 1914 was located close to the Sungai Chat Palace before being moved to its present location at Sungai Chat Road; some of the ruins are visible at the old site. The Sultan Ibrahim Building is another historical building in the city; built in 1936 by British architect Palmer and Turner, it was the centre of the administration of Johor as since the relocation from Telok Blangah in Singapore, the Johor government never had its own building. Before the current railway station was built, there was Johor Bahru railway station (formerly Wooden Railway) which has now been turned into a museum after serving for 100 years since the British colonial era.

The Johor Bahru railway station, served for 100 years before being replaced by the new Johor Bahru Sentral; it has now been transformed into a museum.

Sultan Abu Bakar State Mosque, located along Skudai Road, is the main and the oldest mosque in the state. It was built with a combination of Victorian, Moorish and Malay architectures. The Johor Bahru Old Chinese temple, located on the Trus Road, hosts the Gods of five Chinese dialects spoken in the city. It was built in 1875 and renovated by the Persekutuan Tiong Hua Johor Bahru (Johor Bahru Tiong Hua Association) in 1994–95 with the addition of a small L-shaped museum in one corner of the square premises. The Wong Ah Fook Mansion, the home of the late Wong Ah Fook, was a former historical attraction. It stood for more than 150 years but was demolished illegally by its owner in 2014 to make way for a commercial housing development without informing the state government. Other historical religious buildings include the Arulmigu Sri Rajakaliamman Hindu Temple, Sri Raja Mariamman Hindu Temple, Gurdwara Sahib and Church of the Immaculate Conception.

Johor Bahru: Leisure and conservation areas

Parts of the Danga Bay recreational park.

The Danga Bay is a 25 kilometres (16 mi) area of recreational waterfront. There are around 15 established golf courses, of which two offer 36-hole facilities; most of these are located within resorts. The city also features a number of paintball parks which are also used for off-road motorsports activities.

The Johor Zoo is one of the oldest zoos in Malaysia; built in 1928 covering 4 hectares (9.9 acres) of land, it was originally called "animal garden" before being handed to the state government for renovation in 1962. The zoo has around 100 species of animals, including wild cats, camels, gorillas, orangutans, and tropical birds. Visitors can participate in activities such as horse riding or using pedalos.

Johor Bahru: Other attractions

Dataran Bandaraya

Dataran Bandaraya was built after Johor Bahru was proclaimed as a city. The site features a clock tower, fountain and a large field. The Laman Tun Sri Lanang (Tun Sri Lanang Park), named after Tun Sri Lanang (Bendahara of the royal Court of the Johor Sultanate in the 16th and 17th centuries) is located in the centre of the city. The Wong Ah Fook Street is named after Wong Ah Fook. The Tam Hiok Nee Street is named after Tan Hiok Nee, who was the leader of the former Ngee Heng Kongsi, a secret society in Johor Bahru. Together with the Dhoby Street, both are part of a trail known as Old Buildings Road; they feature a mixture of Chinese and Indian heritages, reflected by their forms of ethnic business and architecture.

Johor Bahru: Shopping

KSL City Mall is the largest shopping mall in Johor Bahru.

Shopping malls in Johor Bahru include Johor Bahru City Square, Holiday Plaza, Komtar JBCC, KSL City, Plaza Pelangi, Sutera Mall, Plaza Kotaraya and Danga City Mall. New malls continue to be constructed in the city. The Mawar Handicrafts Centre, a government-funded exhibition and sales centre, is located along the Sungai Chat road and sells various batik and songket clothes. Opposite this is the Johor Area Rehabilitation Organisation (JARO) Handicrafts Centre which sells items such as hand-made cane furniture, soft toys and rattan baskets made by the physically disabled.

Johor Bahru: Entertainment

Broadway Theatre

The oldest cinema in the city is the Broadway Theatre which mostly screens Tamil and Hindi movies. There are around five new cinemas available in the city with most of them located inside shopping malls.

Johor Bahru: Sports

Tan Sri Dato' Haji Hassan Yunos Stadium

The city's main football stadium, Tan Sri Dato' Haji Hassan Yunos Stadium has a capacity of around 30,000. The stadium is the home ground of Johor Darul Ta'zim F.C., also known as JDT. In Japan, this stadium is well known as the place of "the Joy of Johor Bahru"; Japan National Football Team got the ticket to the FIFA World Cup at first in its history, by Masayuki Okano's goal in 1997.

There is also a futsal centre, known as Sports Prima, which has eight minimum-sized FIFA approved futsal courts; it is the largest indoor sports centre in the city.

Johor Bahru: Radio stations

Two radio stations have their offices in the city: Best FM (104.1) and Johor FM (101.9).

Johor Bahru: International relations

Several countries have set up their consulates in Johor Bahru, including Indonesia and Singapore. While Japan has closed its consular office since 2014.

Johor Bahru: Twin towns – Sister cities

Johor Bahru currently has six sister cities:

  • China Changzhou, China.
  • China Shantou, China.
  • China Shenzhen, China.
  • Malaysia Kuching, Malaysia.
  • Philippines Cotabato City, Philippines.
  • Turkey Istanbul, Turkey.

Johor Bahru: See also

  • Johor Bahru landmarks
  • Johor Bahru Central District

Johor Bahru: Notes

  1. Another early attack to destabilise Malaysia was done with the murder of Malay trishaw in Singapore that led to the racial conflict between Malay and Chinese there. At the first stage of the conflict, it was alleged the murder was done by a Chinese but this was however turned down when further investigation revealed the murder was actually done by Indonesian agents who had infiltrate Singapore in an attempt to weakening the unity of race there during the state was still part of Malaysia. (Drysdale, Halim and Jamie)

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Johor Bahru: Literature

  • Guinness, Patrick (1992). On the Margin of Capitalism: People and development in Mukim Plentong, Johor, Malaysia. South-East Asian social monographs. Singapore: Oxford University Press. p. 177. ISBN 978-0-19-588556-9. OCLC 231412873.
  • Lim, Patricia Pui Huen (2002). Wong Ah Fook: Immigrant, Builder and Entrepreneur. Singapore: Times Editions. ISBN 978-981-232-369-9. OCLC 52054305.
  • Oakley, Mat; Brown, Joshua Samuel (2009). Singapore: city guide. Footscray, Victoria, Australia: Lonely Planet. ISBN 978-1-74104-664-9. OCLC 440970648.
  • Winstedt, Richard Olof; Kim, Khoo Kay (1992). A History of Johore, 1365–1941. M. B. R. A. S. Reprints (6) (Reprint ed.). Kuala Lumpur: Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. ISBN 978-983-99614-6-1. OCLC 255968795.
  • John Drysdale (15 December 2008). Singapore Struggle for Success. Marshall Cavendish International Asia Pte Ltd. pp. 287–. ISBN 978-981-4677-67-7.
  • A Halim Hassan (September 2013). Meniti Impian (in Malay). Trafford Publishing. pp. 84–. ISBN 978-1-4907-0086-1.
  • Jamie Han (2014). "Communal riots of 1964". National Library Board. Archived from the original on 5 July 2015. Retrieved 5 July 2015.
  • Johor Bahru City Council
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