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Hotels of Kaluga
A hotel in Kaluga is an establishment that provides lodging paid on a short-term basis. Facilities provided may range from a basic bed and storage for clothing, to luxury features like en-suite bathrooms. Larger in Kaluga hotels may provide additional guest facilities such as a swimming pool, business centre, childcare, conference facilities and social function services. Hotel rooms in Kaluga are usually numbered (or named in some smaller hotels and B&Bs) to allow guests to identify their room. Some Kaluga hotels offer meals as part of a room and board arrangement. Hotel operations vary in size, function, and cost. Most Kaluga hotels and major hospitality companies that operate hotels in Kaluga have set widely accepted industry standards to classify hotel types. General categories include the following:
Upscale luxury hotels in Kaluga
An upscale full service hotel facility in Kaluga that offers luxury amenities, full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and the highest level of personalized and professional service. Luxury Kaluga hotels are normally classified with at least a Four Diamond or Five Diamond status or a Four or Five Star rating depending on classification standards.
Full service hotels in Kaluga
Full service Kaluga hotels often contain upscale full-service facilities with a large volume of full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and a variety of on-site amenities such as swimming pools, a health club, children's activities, ballrooms, on-site conference facilities, etc.
Historic inns and boutique hotels in Kaluga
Boutique hotels of Kaluga are smaller independent non-branded hotels that often contain upscale facilities of varying size in unique or intimate settings with full service accommodations. Kaluga boutique hotels are generally 100 rooms or less. Some historic inns and boutique hotels in Kaluga may be classified as luxury hotels.
Focused or select service hotels in Kaluga
Small to medium-sized hotel establishments that offer a limited amount of on-site amenities that only cater and market to a specific demographic of Kaluga travelers, such as the single business traveler. Most Kaluga focused or select service hotels may still offer full service accommodations but may lack leisure amenities such as an on-site restaurant or a swimming pool.
Economy and limited service hotels in Kaluga
Small to medium-sized Kaluga hotel establishments that offer a very limited amount of on-site amenities and often only offer basic accommodations with little to no services, these facilities normally only cater and market to a specific demographic of travelers, such as the budget-minded Kaluga traveler seeking a "no frills" accommodation. Limited service Kaluga hotels often lack an on-site restaurant but in return may offer a limited complimentary food and beverage amenity such as on-site continental breakfast service.
Guest houses and B&Bs in Kaluga
A bed and breakfast in Kaluga is a small lodging establishment that offers overnight accommodation and inclusive breakfast. Usually, Kaluga bed and breakfasts are private homes or family homes offering accommodations. The typical Kaluga B&B has between 4 and 11 rooms, with 6 being the average. Generally, guests are accommodated in private bedrooms with private bathrooms, or in a suite of rooms including an en suite bathroom. Some homes have private bedrooms with a bathroom which is shared with other guests. Breakfast is served in the bedroom, a dining room, or the host's kitchen. Often the owners of guest house themselves prepare the breakfast and clean the rooms.
Hostels in Kaluga
Kaluga hostels provide budget-oriented, sociable accommodation where guests can rent a bed, usually a bunk bed, in a dormitory and share a bathroom, lounge, and sometimes a kitchen. Rooms can be mixed or single-sex, although private rooms may also be available. Hostels are often cheaper for both the operator and occupants; many Kaluga hostels have long-term residents whom they employ as desk agents or housekeeping staff in exchange for experience or discounted accommodation.
Apartment hotels, extended stay hotels in Kaluga
Extended stay hotels are small to medium-sized Kaluga hotels that offer longer term full service accommodations compared to a traditional hotel. Extended stay hotels may offer non-traditional pricing methods such as a weekly rate that cater towards travelers in need of short-term accommodations for an extended period of time. Similar to limited and select service hotels, on-site amenities are normally limited and most extended stay hotels in Kaluga lack an on-site restaurant.
Timeshare and destination clubs in Kaluga
Kaluga timeshare and destination clubs are a form of property ownership also referred to as a vacation ownership involving the purchase and ownership of an individual unit of accommodation for seasonal usage during a specified period of time. Timeshare resorts in Kaluga often offer amenities similar that of a Full service hotel with on-site restaurant(s), swimming pools, recreation grounds, and other leisure-oriented amenities. Destination clubs of Kaluga on the other hand may offer more exclusive private accommodations such as private houses in a neighborhood-style setting.
Motels in Kaluga
A Kaluga motel is a small-sized low-rise lodging establishment similar to that of a limited service hotel, but with direct access to individual rooms from the car park. Common during the 1950s and 1960s, motels were often located adjacent to a major road, where they were built on inexpensive land at the edge of towns or along stretches of highways. They are still useful in less populated areas of Kaluga for driving travelers, but the more populated an area becomes the more hotels fill the need. Many of Kaluga motels which remain in operation have joined national franchise chains, rebranding themselves as hotels, inns or lodges.
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Kaluga (Russian: Калуга; IPA: [kɐˈluɡə]) is a city and the administrative center of Kaluga Oblast, Russia, located on the Oka River 150 kilometers (93 mi) southwest of Moscow. Population: 324,698 (2010 Census); 334,751 (2002 Census); 311,319 (1989 Census).
Kaluga, founded in the mid-14th century as a border fortress on the southwestern borders of the Grand Duchy of Moscow, first appears in the historical record in chronicles in the 14th century as Koluga; the name comes from Old Russian kaluga - "bog, quagmire". In the Middle Ages Kaluga was a minor settlement owned by the Princes Vorotynsky. The ancestral home of these princes lies southwest of the modern city.
On 19 January 1777 the Kaluga drama theatre opened its first theatrical season, established with the direct participation of the Governor-General M. N. Krechetnikov.
Kaluga is connected to Moscow by a railway line and by the ancient roadway, the Kaluga Road (now partly within Moscow (as Starokaluzhskoye Shosse - the Old Kaluga Highway), partly the A101 road). This road offered Napoleon his favored escape route from the Moscow trap in the fall of 1812. But General Kutuzov repelled Napoleon's advances in this direction and forced the retreating French army onto the old Smolensk road, previously devastated by the French during their invasion of Russia.
On several occasions during the Russian Empire Kaluga was the residence of political exiles and prisoners such as the last Crimean khan Şahin Giray (1786), the Kyrgyz sultan Arigazi-Abdul-Aziz (1828), the Georgian princess Thecla (1834–1835), and the Avar leader Imam Shamil (1859–1868).
Kaluga was briefly occupied by the German army in Operation Barbarossa during the climactic Battle of Moscow. It was occupied from October 12, 1941 to December 30, 1941.
In 1944 the Soviet Government used its local military buildings to intern hundreds of Polish POWs-soldiers of the Polish Underground Home Army-whom the advancing Soviet front had arrested by in the Vilno area.
Kaluga: Administrative and municipal status
Kaluga is the administrative center of the oblast. Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with seventy-two rural localities, incorporated as the City of Kaluga-an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, the City of Kaluga, together with one rural locality in Ferzikovsky District (the selo of Novozhdamirovo), is incorporated as Kaluga Urban Okrug.
In Kaluga, Kaluga Turbine Plant is located, is part of the company Power Machines; Kaluga Machine Works manufactures track machines for railways, plant a foreign company MACO Door & Window.
In recent years Kaluga has become one center of the Russian automotive industry, with a number of foreign companies opening assembly plants in the area:
On November 28, 2007, Volkswagen Group opened a new assembly plant in Kaluga, which has been further expanded by 2009. The investment has reached more than 500 million Euro. The plant currently assembles the Volkswagen Passat, Škoda Fabia and Škoda Rapid.
On October 15, 2007, the Volvo Group broke ground on a new truck assembly plant, that was inaugurated on January 19, 2009. The plant has a yearly capacity of 10,000 Volvo and 5,000 Renault trucks.
On December 12, 2007, PSA Peugeot Citroën announced its decision to build a new assembly plant in Kaluga. By March 2010 the plant was operational, building Peugeot 308s for the Russian market and would also produce Citroën and Mitsubishi models.
To ensure the production cars were built factories companies Continental AG, Magna International, Benteler International, Visteon.
The city is served by the Grabtsevo Airport. Since 1899, there is a railway connection between Kaluga and Moscow.
Public transportation is represented by the trolleybuses, buses, and marshrutkas (routed taxis).
BKM-321 low-floor trolleybus
Kaluga has a humid temperate continental (Köppen climate classification: Dfb), with warm and humid summers; and long, cold and snowy winters. Winter extreme records can be as low as −45 °C (−49 °F), while summer heat may reach up +40 °C (104 °F), but usually it's about between −5 °C (23 °F) and −20 °C (−4 °F) during winter and between 15 °C (59 °F) and 30 °C (86 °F) during summer in Kaluga.
Climate data for Kaluga, Russia (period 1961–1990)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
"www.meteoinfo.ru". Retrieved 3 September 2012.
Kaluga: Notable people
Kaluga is known for its most famous resident, Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, a rocket science pioneer who worked here as a school teacher. The Tsiolkovsky State Museum of the History of Cosmonautics in Kaluga is dedicated to his theoretical achievements and their practical implementations for modern space research, hence the motto on the city's coat of arms: "The Cradle of Space Exploration".
Other notable people include:
Pafnuty Chebyshev, mathematician
Alexander Gretchaninov, Russian-American composer
Jonah of Hankou
Valery Kobelev, ski jumper
Pavel Popovich, cosmonaut, the only person to receive two honorary citizenships of Kaluga (1962 and 1964)
Nikolay Skvortsov, swimmer
Kaluga: Twin towns and sister cities
Main article: List of twin towns and sister cities in Russia
Kaluga is twinned with:
Suhl, Germany (1969);
Lahti, Finland (1998);
/ Tiraspol, Transnistria/Moldova (2005);
Panorama, Greece (2011);
Minsk, Belarus (2015);
Binzhou, China (2015);
In addition to this, Kaluga has nine cooperating cities and towns:
Binningen, Switzerland (1992);
Clearwater, United States (1992);
Xianyang, China (2000);
Tula, Russia (2002);
Oryol, Russia (2003);
Smolensk, Russia (2003);
Leszno, Poland (2004);
Chemnitz, Germany (2007);
Makhachkala, Russia (2012);
Kaluga. Main Square
Kaluga. Polman House
Kaluga Region Drama Theatre building
Kaluga. Eastern archway at the Administration Building
Kaluga. Moscow State Technical University (local branch)
Kaluga. Region administration
Trolleybus in Kaluga
Charter of Kaluga Oblast
День города перенесли в Калуге Калужский перекрёсток, 22 апреля 2015
Руководить Калугой до выборов будет Константин Горобцов
Representative bodies of the municipality City of Kaluga
Калуги стало больше Калужский перекрёсток, 14 апреля 2011
Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2010 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the population.
Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №271-ФЗ от 03 июля 2016 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #271-FZ of July 03, 2016 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
Из фразы Гагарина в столице сделали артобъект
Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities-Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014.
Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014.
E.M. Pospelov, Geograficheskie nazvaniya mira (Moscow: Russkie slovari, 1998), p. 181.
Škoda Annual Report 2014
Volvo Truck starts production at Kaluga plant, Just-auto.com, January 19, 2009
New Volvo Group assembly plant in Kaluga, Volvo Group corporate news, October 15, 2007
PSA Peugeot Citroën to Build Plant in Kaluga, Russia, PSA Peugeot Citroën press release, December 12, 2007
"RIA Novosti 26 March 2010". En.rian.ru. 2010-03-26. Retrieved 2014-02-24.
"Train Station in Kaluga" (in Russian). Nnov-airport.ru. Retrieved 2014-02-24.
"Ими гордится Калуга ("They Bring Pride to Kaluga")" (in Russian). Kaluga: Office of the Affairs of the Mayor of Kaluga. Retrieved 2009-10-01.
"Patengemeinden". Binningen.ch. February 9, 2014. Retrieved February 24, 2014.
Законодательное Собрание Калужской области. №473 27 марта 1996 г. «Устав Калужской области», в ред. Закона №681-ОЗ от 27 февраля 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в Устав Калужской области». Опубликован: "Весть", №79, 9 апреля 1996 г. (Legislative Assembly of Kaluga Oblast. #473 March 27, 1996 Charter of Kaluga Oblast, as amended by the Law #681-OZ of February 27, 2015 On Amending the Charter of Kaluga Oblast. ).
Законодательное Собрание Калужской области. Закон №7-ОЗ от 28 декабря 2004 г. «Об установлении границ муниципальных образований, расположенных на территории административно-территориальных единиц "Бабынинский район", "Боровский район", "Дзержинский район", "Жиздринский район", "Жуковский район", "Износковский район", "Козельский район", "Малоярославецкий район", "Мосальский район", "Ферзиковский район", "Хвастовичский район", "город Калуга", "город Обнинск", и наделении их статусом городского поселения, сельского поселения, городского округа, муниципального района», в ред. Закона №620-ОЗ от 29 сентября 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Калужской области "Об установлении границ муниципальных образований, расположенных на территории административно-территориальных единиц "Бабынинский район", "Боровский район", "Дзержинский район", "Жиздринский район", "Жуковский район", "Износковский район", "Козельский район", "Малоярославецкий район", "Мосальский район", "Ферзиковский район", "Хвастовичский район", "город Калуга", "город Обнинск", и наделении их статусом городского поселения, сельского поселения, городского округа, муниципального района"». Вступил в силу после официального опубликования, за исключением положений о муниципальном образовании "Город Калуга", для которых установлены иные сроки вступления в силу. Опубликован: "Весть", №402–404, 29 декабря 2004 г. (Legislative Assembly of Kaluga Oblast. Law #7-OZ of December 28, 2004 On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations Located on the Territory of the Administrative-Territorial Units of "Babyninsky District", "Borovsky District", "Dzerzhinsky District", "Zhizdrinsky District", "Zhukovsky District", "Iznoskovsky District", "Kozelsky District", "Maloyaroslavetsky District", "Mosalsky District", "Ferzikovsky District", "Khvastovichsky District", "City of Kaluga", "City of Obninsk", and on Granting Them the Status of an Urban Settlement, Rural Settlement, Urban Okrug, Municipal District, as amended by the Law #620-OZ of September 29, 2014 On Amending the Law of Kaluga Oblast "On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations Located on the Territory of the Administrative-Territorial Units of "Babyninsky District", "Borovsky District", "Dzerzhinsky District", "Zhizdrinsky District", "Zhukovsky District", "Iznoskovsky District", "Kozelsky District", "Maloyaroslavetsky District", "Mosalsky District", "Ferzikovsky District", "Khvastovichsky District", "City of Kaluga", "City of Obninsk", and on Granting Them the Status of an Urban Settlement, Rural Settlement, Urban Okrug, Municipal District". Effective as of after the official publication, with the exception of the clauses regarding the municipal formation of the "City of Kaluga", for which different dates of taking effect are specified.).
Kaluga: External links
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kaluga.
Official website of Kaluga
(in Russian) Official website of Kaluga
Article in German about Kaluga plant
Official website of the Konstantin Tsiolkovsky State Museum of the History of Cosmonautics
Pictures of Kaluga and its surroundings
Administrative divisions of Kaluga Oblast
Administrative center: Kaluga
Cities and towns
BNF: cb15891338v (data)
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