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Hotels of Kayseri

A hotel in Kayseri is an establishment that provides lodging paid on a short-term basis. Facilities provided may range from a basic bed and storage for clothing, to luxury features like en-suite bathrooms. Larger in Kayseri hotels may provide additional guest facilities such as a swimming pool, business centre, childcare, conference facilities and social function services. Hotel rooms in Kayseri are usually numbered (or named in some smaller hotels and B&Bs) to allow guests to identify their room. Some Kayseri hotels offer meals as part of a room and board arrangement. Hotel operations vary in size, function, and cost. Most Kayseri hotels and major hospitality companies that operate hotels in Kayseri have set widely accepted industry standards to classify hotel types. General categories include the following:

Upscale luxury hotels in Kayseri
An upscale full service hotel facility in Kayseri that offers luxury amenities, full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and the highest level of personalized and professional service. Luxury Kayseri hotels are normally classified with at least a Four Diamond or Five Diamond status or a Four or Five Star rating depending on classification standards.

Full service hotels in Kayseri
Full service Kayseri hotels often contain upscale full-service facilities with a large volume of full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and a variety of on-site amenities such as swimming pools, a health club, children's activities, ballrooms, on-site conference facilities, etc.

Historic inns and boutique hotels in Kayseri
Boutique hotels of Kayseri are smaller independent non-branded hotels that often contain upscale facilities of varying size in unique or intimate settings with full service accommodations. Kayseri boutique hotels are generally 100 rooms or less. Some historic inns and boutique hotels in Kayseri may be classified as luxury hotels.

Focused or select service hotels in Kayseri
Small to medium-sized hotel establishments that offer a limited amount of on-site amenities that only cater and market to a specific demographic of Kayseri travelers, such as the single business traveler. Most Kayseri focused or select service hotels may still offer full service accommodations but may lack leisure amenities such as an on-site restaurant or a swimming pool.

Economy and limited service hotels in Kayseri
Small to medium-sized Kayseri hotel establishments that offer a very limited amount of on-site amenities and often only offer basic accommodations with little to no services, these facilities normally only cater and market to a specific demographic of travelers, such as the budget-minded Kayseri traveler seeking a "no frills" accommodation. Limited service Kayseri hotels often lack an on-site restaurant but in return may offer a limited complimentary food and beverage amenity such as on-site continental breakfast service.

Guest houses and B&Bs in Kayseri
A bed and breakfast in Kayseri is a small lodging establishment that offers overnight accommodation and inclusive breakfast. Usually, Kayseri bed and breakfasts are private homes or family homes offering accommodations. The typical Kayseri B&B has between 4 and 11 rooms, with 6 being the average. Generally, guests are accommodated in private bedrooms with private bathrooms, or in a suite of rooms including an en suite bathroom. Some homes have private bedrooms with a bathroom which is shared with other guests. Breakfast is served in the bedroom, a dining room, or the host's kitchen. Often the owners of guest house themselves prepare the breakfast and clean the rooms.

Hostels in Kayseri
Kayseri hostels provide budget-oriented, sociable accommodation where guests can rent a bed, usually a bunk bed, in a dormitory and share a bathroom, lounge, and sometimes a kitchen. Rooms can be mixed or single-sex, although private rooms may also be available. Hostels are often cheaper for both the operator and occupants; many Kayseri hostels have long-term residents whom they employ as desk agents or housekeeping staff in exchange for experience or discounted accommodation.

Apartment hotels, extended stay hotels in Kayseri
Extended stay hotels are small to medium-sized Kayseri hotels that offer longer term full service accommodations compared to a traditional hotel. Extended stay hotels may offer non-traditional pricing methods such as a weekly rate that cater towards travelers in need of short-term accommodations for an extended period of time. Similar to limited and select service hotels, on-site amenities are normally limited and most extended stay hotels in Kayseri lack an on-site restaurant.

Timeshare and destination clubs in Kayseri
Kayseri timeshare and destination clubs are a form of property ownership also referred to as a vacation ownership involving the purchase and ownership of an individual unit of accommodation for seasonal usage during a specified period of time. Timeshare resorts in Kayseri often offer amenities similar that of a Full service hotel with on-site restaurant(s), swimming pools, recreation grounds, and other leisure-oriented amenities. Destination clubs of Kayseri on the other hand may offer more exclusive private accommodations such as private houses in a neighborhood-style setting.

Motels in Kayseri
A Kayseri motel is a small-sized low-rise lodging establishment similar to that of a limited service hotel, but with direct access to individual rooms from the car park. Common during the 1950s and 1960s, motels were often located adjacent to a major road, where they were built on inexpensive land at the edge of towns or along stretches of highways. They are still useful in less populated areas of Kayseri for driving travelers, but the more populated an area becomes the more hotels fill the need. Many of Kayseri motels which remain in operation have joined national franchise chains, rebranding themselves as hotels, inns or lodges.

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Travelling and vacation in Kayseri

Metropolitan municipality
Top: Kadir Has Stadium, 2nd left: Sivas Avenue, 2nd right: Atatürk Statue and the city walls of Kayseri in the background, 3rd: Tekin business district and Oto Park, Bottom left: Kayseri Castle at night, Bottom right: Kayseray.
Top: Kadir Has Stadium, 2nd left: Sivas Avenue, 2nd right: Atatürk Statue and the city walls of Kayseri in the background, 3rd: Tekin business district and Oto Park, Bottom left: Kayseri Castle at night, Bottom right: Kayseray.
Kayseri is located in Turkey
Location of Kayseri, Turkey
Coordinates:  / 38.733; 35.483  / 38.733; 35.483
Country Turkey
Region Central Anatolia
Province Kayseri
• Mayor Mustafa Çelik (AKP)
Elevation 1,050 m (3,440 ft)
Population (2014)
• Metropolitan municipality 1,061,942
• Metro 1,322,376
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
• Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Postal code 38x xx
Area code(s) (+90) 352
Licence plate 38
Website www.kayseri.bel.tr

Kayseri (Turkish pronunciation: [ˈkajseɾi]) is a large and industrialised city in Central Anatolia, Turkey. It is the seat of Kayseri Province. The city of Kayseri, as defined by the boundaries of Kayseri Metropolitan Municipality, is structurally composed of five metropolitan districts, the two core districts of Kocasinan and Melikgazi, and since 2004, also Hacılar, İncesu and Talas.

Kayseri is located at the foot of the extinct volcano Mount Erciyes that towers 3,916 metres (12,848 feet) over the city. The city is often cited in the first ranks among Turkey's cities that fit the definition of Anatolian Tigers.

The city retains a number of historical monuments, including several from the Seljuk period. While it is generally visited en route to the international tourist attractions of Cappadocia, Kayseri has many visitor's attractions by its own right: Seljuk and Ottoman era monuments in and around the city centre, Mount Erciyes as a trekking and alpinism centre, Zamantı River as a rafting centre, the historic sites of Kültepe, Ağırnas, Talas and Develi, to name a few. Kayseri is served by Erkilet International Airport and is home to Erciyes University.

According to the Turkish Statistical Institute, as of 2011 the city of Kayseri had a population of 844,656; while Kayseri Province had a population of 1,234,651.

Kayseri: Etymology

Kayseri was originally called Mazaka or Mazaca by the Hattians and was known as such to Strabo, during whose time it was the capital of the Roman province of Cilicia, known also as Eusebia at the Argaeus (Εὐσέβεια ἡ πρὸς τῶι Ἀργαίωι in Greek), after Ariarathes V Eusebes, King of Cappadocia (163–130 BC). The name was changed again by Archelaus (d. 17 AD), last King of Cappadocia (36 BC–14 AD) and a Roman vassal, to "Caesarea in Cappadocia" (to distinguish it from other cities with the name Caesarea in the Roman Empire) in honour of Caesar Augustus, upon his death in 14 AD. When the Muslim Arabs arrived, they adapted the pronunciation to their writing resulting in Kaisariyah (note that letter C in classical Latin was pronounced K), and this eventually became Kayseri when the Seljuk Turks took control of the city in circa 1080, remaining as such ever since.

Kayseri: History

Door detail from the Seljuk era Hunat Hatun Mosque and Külliye, built in 1238 by Sultana Hunat Hatun, wife of the Anatolian Seljuk Sultan Alaeddin Keykubad I and mother of Sultan Gıyaseddin Keyhüsrev II.

Kayseri: Ancient History

The city has been continuously inhabited since perhaps c. 3000 BC with the establishment of the ancient trading colony at Kültepe (Ash Mountain) which is associated with the Hittites. The city has always been a vital trade centre as it is located on major trade routes, particularly along what was called the Great Silk Road. Kültepe, one of the oldest cities in Asia Minor, lies nearby.

As Mazaca, the city served as the residence of the kings of Cappadocia. In ancient times, it was on the crossroads of the trade routes from Sinope to the Euphrates and from the Persian Royal Road that extended from Sardis to Susa during the over 200 years of Achaemenid Persian rule. In Roman times, a similar route from Ephesus to the East also crossed the city.

The city stood on a low spur on the north side of Mount Erciyes (Mount Argaeus in ancient times). Only a few traces of the ancient site survive in the old town.

Kayseri: Hellenistic Times

The city was the centre of a satrapy under Persian rule until it was conquered by Perdikkas, one of the generals of Alexander the Great when it became the seat of a transient satrapy by another of Alexander's former generals, Eumenes of Cardia. The city was subsequently passed to the Seleucid empire after the battle of Ipsus but became once again the centre of an autonomous Greater Cappadocian kingdom under Ariarathes III of Cappadocia in around 250 BC. In the ensuing period, the city came under the sway of Hellenistic influence, and was given the Greek name of Eusebia in honor of the Cappadocian king Ariarathes V Eusebes Philopator of Cappadocia (163–130 BC). The new name of Caesarea, by which it has since been known, was given to it by the last Cappadocian King Archelaus or perhaps by Tiberius.

Kayseri: Roman and Byzantine Rule

The city passed under formal Roman rule in 17 BC.

Decorated ceramic bowl from the Hittite period found in Kültepe
Walls of the Seljuk era Sahabiye Medresesi, built in 1267 by the Seljuk vizier Sahip Ata Fahreddin Ali.

Caesarea was destroyed by the Sassanid king Shapur I after his victory over the Emperor Valerian I in AD 260. At the time it was recorded to have around 400,000 inhabitants. The city gradually recovered, and became home to several early Christian saints: saints Dorothea and Theophilus the martyrs, Gregory of Nazianzus, Gregory of Nyssa and Basil of Caesarea. In the 4th century, bishop Basil established an ecclesiastic centre on the plain, about one mile to the northeast, which gradually supplanted the old town. It included a system of almshouses, an orphanage, old peoples' homes, and a leprosarium (leprosy hospital). The city's bishop, Thalassius, attended the Second Council of Ephesus and was suspended from the Council of Chalcedon

A Notitia Episcopatuum composed during the reign of Byzantine Emperor Heraclius in about 640 lists 5 suffragan dioceses of the metropolitan see of Caesarea. A 10th-century list gives it 15 suffragans. In all the Notitiae Caesarea is given the second place among the metropolitan sees of the patriarchate of Constantinople, preceded only by Constantinople itself, and its archbishops were given the title of protothronos, meaning "of the first see" (after that of Constantinople). More than 50 first-millennium archbishops of the see are known by name, and the see itself continued to be a residential see of the Eastern Orthodox Church until 1923, when by order of the Treaty of Lausanne all members of that Church(Greeks)were deported from what is now Turkey. Caesarea was also the seat of an Armenian diocese. No longer a residential bishopric, Caesarea in Cappadocia is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see of the Armenian Catholic Church and the Melkite Catholic Church.

Kayseri city walls in 2006

A portion of Basil's new city was surrounded with strong walls, and it was turned into a fortress by Justinian. Caesarea in the 9th century became a Byzantine administrative centre as the capital of the Byzantine Theme of Charsianon.

Kayseri: Islamic Era

The Arab general (and later the first Umayyad Caliph) Muawiyah invaded Cappadocia and took Caesarea from the Byzantines temporarily in 647. The city was called Kaisariyah (قيصرية) by the Arabs, and later Kayseri (قیصری) by Seljuk Turks, when it was captured by Alp Arslan in 1067. The forces of the latter demolished the city and massacred its population. The shrine of Saint Basil was also sacked after the fall of the city. As a result, the city remained uninhabited for the next half century. Later, during 1074–1178 the area came under the control of the Danishmendids and rebuilt the city in 1134. The Anatolian Seljuk Sultanate controlled the city during the period 1178–1243 and became one of their most prominent centers, until it fell to the Mongols in 1243. Within the walls lies the greater part of Kayseri, rebuilt between the 13th and 16th centuries. Kayseri was successively ruled by Eretnids. The city finally became Ottoman in 1515. It was sanjak center initially in Rum Eyalet (1515–1521), finally in Ankara Vilayet (Founded as Bozok Eyalet) (1839–1923).

View of the city walls from Cumhuriyet Square, with an equestrian statue of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk in the foreground.

Thus, there were three golden-age periods for Kayseri. The first, dating to 2000 BC, was when the city was a trade post between the Assyrians and the Hittites. The second golden age came during the Roman rule (1st to 11th centuries). The third golden age was during the reign of Seljuks (1178–1243), when the city was the second capital of the state.

The 1500-year-old Kayseri Castle, built initially by the Byzantines, and expanded by the Seljuks and Ottomans, is still standing in good condition in the central square of the city. The short-lived Seljuk rule left a large number of historic landmarks; historic buildings such as the Hunad Hatun Mosque complex, Kilij Arslan Mosque, The Grand Mosque and Gevher Nesibe Hospital. The Grand Bazaar dates from the latter part of the 1800s, but the adjacent caravanserai (where merchant traders gathered before forming a caravan) dates from around 1500. The town's older districts (which were filled with ornate mansion-houses mostly dating from the 18th and 19th centuries) were subjected to wholesale demolitions starting in the 1970s.

Kayseri prayer rug, Anatolia Turkey

The city is famous for its carpet sellers, and carpets and rugs can be purchased ranging from new to 50 or more years old.

The building that hosts the Kayseri lyceum was arranged to host the Turkish Grand National Assembly during the Turkish War of Independence when the Greek army had advanced very close to Ankara, the base of the Turkish National Movement.

A panoramic view of the city center, with Tekin business district and Oto Park in the foreground.

Kayseri: Modern era

Kayseri: Climate

Kayseri has a cold semi-arid climate, Köppen climate classification (BSk) with cold, snowy winters and hot, dry summers with cool nights due to Kayseri's high elevation. Rainfall occurs mostly during the spring, early summer and late autumn.

Climate data for Kayseri (1960–2012)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 18.0
Average high °C (°F) 4.1
Daily mean °C (°F) −1.8
Average low °C (°F) −7.0
Record low °C (°F) −31.4
Average precipitation mm (inches) 33.6
Average rainy days 11.6 11.6 12.3 13.5 13.5 8.4 2.8 2.4 4.2 7.9 9.3 11.6 109.1
Average snowy days 9 9 6 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 8 36
Average relative humidity (%) 76 72 62 58 56 50 44 44 47 58 69 77 59.4
Mean monthly sunshine hours 89.9 112 151.9 183 254.2 309 362.7 350.3 270 201.5 138 80.6 2,503.1
Source #1: Devlet Meteoroloji İşleri Genel Müdürlüğü
Source #2: Weather2

Kayseri: Political structure

The city of Kayseri consists of the following metropolitan districts:

Metropolitan districts of Kayseri

Kayseri: Economy

Mount Erciyes near Kayseri is a popular destination for winter sports.

Kayseri received notable public investments in the 1920s and 1930s. Sumer Textile and Kayseri Tayyare Fabrikasi (airplane manufacturer) were set up here during the post Republican Era with the help of German and particularly Russian experts. The latter manufactured the first aircraft "made in Turkey" in the 1940s. After the 1950s, the city suffered from a decrease in the amount of public investment. It was, however, during the same years that Kayseri businessmen and merchants became transformed into countrywide capitalists. Families such as Sabancı, Has, Dedeman, Hattat, Kurmel, Özyeğin, Karamanlargil and Özilhan who started out as small-scale merchants in the city of Kayseri became prominent actors in the Turkish economy. These families set up their headquarters in cities such as Istanbul and Adana, nevertheless often coming back to Kayseri to invest.

Sivas Avenue in Kayseri

Thanks to the economic liberalisation policies introduced in the 1980s, a new wave of merchants and industrialists from Kayseri joined their predecessors. Most of these new industrialists choose Kayseri as base of their operations. As a consequence of better infrastructures, the city achieved a remarkable industrial growth since 2000 and is one of the key cities that characterises the class of Anatolian Tigers, with a favourable environment present especially for small and medium enterprises.

The pace of growth of the city was so fast that in 2004 the city applied to the Guinness Book of World Records for the most new manufacturing industries started in a single day: 139 factories. Kayseri also has emerged as one of the most successful furniture-making hub in Turkey earned more than a billion dollars in export revenues in 2007.

Kayseri Free Zone established in 1998, today has more than 43 companies with an investment of 140 million dollars. The Zone's main business activities including; production, trading, warehouse management, mounting and demounting, assembly-disassembly, merchandising, maintenance and repair, engineering workshops, office and workplace rental, packing-repacking, banking and insurance, leasing, labelling and exhiption facilities. Kayseri FTZ with cost of $8 per square meter is one of the lowest cost land free zones in the world.

Some social scientists trace this economic success to a modernist Islamic outlook referred to as "Islamic Calvinism" which they say is taking root in Kayseri.

Kayseri: Transport

Kayseray LRT
Erkilet International Airport
Kadir Has Sports Arena

The city is served by Erkilet International Airport and the International Air Transport Association symbol for the airport is ASR. The airport is a short distance from the centre of Kayseri. There are several flights per day to Istanbul, Turkey's premium air transportation hub. Since the air transportation industry in Turkey is growing quickly, new flights from Kayseri to several other localities inside and outside Turkey are soon to be expected.

Kayseri is connected to the rest of country with railway service. There are four trains per day to Ankara. To the east there are two branches: one to Kars, and another to Tatvan on the west shore of Lake Van.

As the city is located in central Turkey, car and bus transportation are highly efficient. It takes approximately three hours to reach Ankara, approximately three hours to Mediterranean shores and 45 minutes to Cappadocia. The symbol of the city, Mount Erciyes, which is a notable ski centre in winters and accessible for trekking in summertime, is at only 30 minutes' drive from the city centre.

The transportation within the city relies mainly on buses, and personal vehicles. A light rail transit (LRT) system called Kayseray was constructed and completed by the end of 2009.

Kayseri: Sports

The city has two professional football teams competing in the top-flight of Turkish football: Kayserispor and Kayseri Erciyesspor, both playing in the Spor Toto Super League, making Kayseri one of the only two cities having more than one team in Spor Toto Süper Lig 2013–14, the other being Istanbul. Kayserispor is the only Turkish team to have won the UEFA Intertoto Cup, in 2006.

The Erciyes Ski Resort at Mount Erciyes is one of the largest ski resorts in Turkey.

Kayseri: Sports venues

  • Kadir Has Stadium is a new generation post-modern stadium, it is located in the outskirts of the city. The all-seater stadium has the capacity of 33,000 spectators and it is totally covered. It is shared by the two Kayserian football clubs, as before, and the Kadir Has Stadium is the new home for both teams. The stadium and surrounding sports complex are served by the light-rail system, Kayseray, making access to the complex easier for traveling locals. It was completed in early 2009. The inauguration of stadium was made with a Kayserispor – Fenerbahce league match. Kadir Has Stadium was one of the 8 host stadiums of the 2013 FIFA U-20 World Cup, The stadium hosted the opening ceremony followed by the opening match between Cuba versus the Republic of Korea.
  • Kadir Has Sports Arena is an indoor arena complex, which was opened in 2008. It has a seating capacity of 7,200 people. Together with Kadir Has Stadium, it is a part of the Kayseri Kadir Has Sports Complex, one of the newest sports complexes in Turkey. The arena was one of the venues of the 2010 FIBA World Championship.
A panoramic view of the Kadir Has Stadium in Kayseri.

Kayseri: Education

Kayseri High School (Kayseri Lisesi), established in 1893, is one of the oldest high schools in Turkey. Küçükçalık Anatolian High School (Nuh Mehmet Küçükçalık Anadolu Lisesi), established in 1984, which is providing education in English, is among the first ones in Turkey. Kılıçarslan is a private high school in Kayseri, In 2000, it became a sister school with Anatolia College in Thessaloniki. TED Kayseri College in Kocasinan district of the city a Private, non-profit, co-educational kindergarten, primary, junior high, and high school is the third largest school in TED, since its foundation in 1966 thousands of students have graduated from the school.

Kayseri is home to 2 state and 1 private universities.

  • Abdullah Gül University a newly established state university. AGU is the first state university in Turkey to have, as part of its constitution, legal provision for support by a foundation whose entire efforts are solely dedicated to the work of the University. The university started enrolling students in 2013.
  • Erciyes University is the largest university in the city founded in 1978 and is a continuation of a number of schools founded in 1206 and 1956. currently serving with 13 faculties, 6 colleges and 7 vocational schools. The university employs more than 3100 academic and administrative personnel and enrolls 41,225 students. The university is highly developed and thus well organised compared to the standards of Turkey.
  • Nuh Naci Yazgan University is a private university founded in 2009 with 4 faculties, 2 colleges and 1 vocational school.

Kayseri: Cuisine

Manti, a popular dish in Kayseri

Kayseri is renowned for its culinary specialities such as mantı, pastırma and sucuk. Mantı is the most popular dish in Kayseri for the local people and tourists. Another speciality is stuffed zucchini flowers made with Köfte, garlic and spices. Nevzine is a traditional dessert.

Kayseri: Images from Kayseri

Kayseri: Notable people from Kayseri

Kayseri: International relations

Kayseri: Twin towns - Sister cities

Kayseri is twinned with:


  • Germany Krefeld, Germany
  • Russia Nalchik, Russia
  • Germany Saarbrücken, Germany
  • Hungary Miskolc, Hungary
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina


  • Syria Homs, Syria
  • Pakistan Sialkot, Pakistan
  • South Korea Yongin, South Korea

Kayseri: See also

  • Anatolian Tigers

Kayseri: References

  1. "Turkey: Major cities and provinces". citypopulation.de. Retrieved 2015-02-08.
  2. ESI. "Islamic Calvinists: Change and Conservatism in Central Anatolia" (PDF). European Stability Initiative, Berlin. Retrieved 2005-09-19.
  3. 2011
  4. "Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu".
  5. Everett-Heath, John (2005). "Kayseri". Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2007-12-11.
  7. Tore Kjeilen (2005-10-17). "Kayseri – LookLex Encyclopaedia". Lexicorient.com. Retrieved 2012-08-13.
  8. Richard Price, Michael Gaddis The Acts of the Council of Chalcedon, Volume 1 p31.
  9. Richard Price, Michael Gaddis, The Acts of the Council of Chalcedon, Volume 1 p36.
  10. Heinrich Gelzer, Ungedruckte und ungenügend veröffentlichte Texte der Notitiae episcopatuum, in: Abhandlungen der philosophisch-historische classe der bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1901, p. 536, nº 77–82, and pp. 551–552, nnº 106–121.
  11. Pius Bonifacius Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae Catholicae, Leipzig 1931, p. 440
  12. Michel Lequien, Oriens christianus in quatuor Patriarchatus digestus, Paris 1740, Vol. I, coll. 367–390
  13. Raymond Janin, v. 2. Césarée de Cappadoce, in Dictionnaire d'Histoire et de Géographie ecclésiastiques, vol. XII, Paris 1953, coll. 199–203
  14. "Caesarea". Catholic Encyclopedia.
  15. Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2013 ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), p. 867
  16. Ostrogorsky, George. History of the Byzantine State. New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 1969. Pg 116.
  17. Ash, John (2006). A Byzantine journey ([2. ed.] ed.). London: Tauris Parke Paperbacks. p. 167. ISBN 9781845113070. In that year the Turks captured Caesarea, the chief city of eastern Cappadocia, burnt it to the ground, massacred its inhabitants and descrated the great shrine of Saint Basil.
  18. Vaughan, Louis Bréhier ; translated by Margaret (1977). The life and death of Byzantium. Amsterdam: North-Holland Pub. Co. p. 193. ISBN 9780720490084. In the spring of 1067 he invaded the Pontus and penetrated as far as Caesarea in Cappadocia which he demolished
  19. Speros Vryonis, The Decline of Medieval Hellenism in Asia Minor and the Process of Islamization from the Eleventh through the Fifteenth Century' (University of California Press, 1971), p. 155
  20. www.virtualani.org. "Armenian Architecture – VirtualANI – The Traditional Houses of Kayseri".
  21. "İl ve İlçelerimize Ait İstatistiki Veriler- Meteoroloji Genel Müdürlüğü". Dmi.gov.tr. Retrieved 2012-08-13.
  22. "December Climate History for Kayseri | Local | Turkey". Myweather2.com. Retrieved 2012-08-13.
  23. "KAYSER -Kayseri Serbest Bölgesi".
  24. "Chronology of all ESI publications – Reports – ESI". Esiweb.org. 2005-09-19. Retrieved 2012-08-13.
  25. Tore Kjeilen (2005-10-17). "Kayseri – LookLex Encyclopaedia". I-cias.com. Retrieved 2012-08-13.
  26. "Mostar Gradovi prijatelji" [Mostar Twin Towns]. Grad Mostar [Mostar Official City Website] (in Bosnian). Archived from the original on 2013-10-30. Retrieved 2017-02-21.
  27. http://www.nation.com.pk/pakistan-news-newspaper-daily-english-online/Regional/Lahore/15-Jan-2010/Punjab-Turkey-sign-four-MoUs
  • Official Government Web Site
  • Kayseri and major sights in hundreds of pictures
  1. "December 2013 address-based calculation of the Turkish Statistical Institute as presented by citypopulation.de".
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