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Hotels of Khajuraho

A hotel in Khajuraho is an establishment that provides lodging paid on a short-term basis. Facilities provided may range from a basic bed and storage for clothing, to luxury features like en-suite bathrooms. Larger in Khajuraho hotels may provide additional guest facilities such as a swimming pool, business centre, childcare, conference facilities and social function services. Hotel rooms in Khajuraho are usually numbered (or named in some smaller hotels and B&Bs) to allow guests to identify their room. Some Khajuraho hotels offer meals as part of a room and board arrangement. Hotel operations vary in size, function, and cost. Most Khajuraho hotels and major hospitality companies that operate hotels in Khajuraho have set widely accepted industry standards to classify hotel types. General categories include the following:

Upscale luxury hotels in Khajuraho
An upscale full service hotel facility in Khajuraho that offers luxury amenities, full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and the highest level of personalized and professional service. Luxury Khajuraho hotels are normally classified with at least a Four Diamond or Five Diamond status or a Four or Five Star rating depending on classification standards.

Full service hotels in Khajuraho
Full service Khajuraho hotels often contain upscale full-service facilities with a large volume of full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and a variety of on-site amenities such as swimming pools, a health club, children's activities, ballrooms, on-site conference facilities, etc.

Historic inns and boutique hotels in Khajuraho
Boutique hotels of Khajuraho are smaller independent non-branded hotels that often contain upscale facilities of varying size in unique or intimate settings with full service accommodations. Khajuraho boutique hotels are generally 100 rooms or less. Some historic inns and boutique hotels in Khajuraho may be classified as luxury hotels.

Focused or select service hotels in Khajuraho
Small to medium-sized hotel establishments that offer a limited amount of on-site amenities that only cater and market to a specific demographic of Khajuraho travelers, such as the single business traveler. Most Khajuraho focused or select service hotels may still offer full service accommodations but may lack leisure amenities such as an on-site restaurant or a swimming pool.

Economy and limited service hotels in Khajuraho
Small to medium-sized Khajuraho hotel establishments that offer a very limited amount of on-site amenities and often only offer basic accommodations with little to no services, these facilities normally only cater and market to a specific demographic of travelers, such as the budget-minded Khajuraho traveler seeking a "no frills" accommodation. Limited service Khajuraho hotels often lack an on-site restaurant but in return may offer a limited complimentary food and beverage amenity such as on-site continental breakfast service.

Guest houses and B&Bs in Khajuraho
A bed and breakfast in Khajuraho is a small lodging establishment that offers overnight accommodation and inclusive breakfast. Usually, Khajuraho bed and breakfasts are private homes or family homes offering accommodations. The typical Khajuraho B&B has between 4 and 11 rooms, with 6 being the average. Generally, guests are accommodated in private bedrooms with private bathrooms, or in a suite of rooms including an en suite bathroom. Some homes have private bedrooms with a bathroom which is shared with other guests. Breakfast is served in the bedroom, a dining room, or the host's kitchen. Often the owners of guest house themselves prepare the breakfast and clean the rooms.

Hostels in Khajuraho
Khajuraho hostels provide budget-oriented, sociable accommodation where guests can rent a bed, usually a bunk bed, in a dormitory and share a bathroom, lounge, and sometimes a kitchen. Rooms can be mixed or single-sex, although private rooms may also be available. Hostels are often cheaper for both the operator and occupants; many Khajuraho hostels have long-term residents whom they employ as desk agents or housekeeping staff in exchange for experience or discounted accommodation.

Apartment hotels, extended stay hotels in Khajuraho
Extended stay hotels are small to medium-sized Khajuraho hotels that offer longer term full service accommodations compared to a traditional hotel. Extended stay hotels may offer non-traditional pricing methods such as a weekly rate that cater towards travelers in need of short-term accommodations for an extended period of time. Similar to limited and select service hotels, on-site amenities are normally limited and most extended stay hotels in Khajuraho lack an on-site restaurant.

Timeshare and destination clubs in Khajuraho
Khajuraho timeshare and destination clubs are a form of property ownership also referred to as a vacation ownership involving the purchase and ownership of an individual unit of accommodation for seasonal usage during a specified period of time. Timeshare resorts in Khajuraho often offer amenities similar that of a Full service hotel with on-site restaurant(s), swimming pools, recreation grounds, and other leisure-oriented amenities. Destination clubs of Khajuraho on the other hand may offer more exclusive private accommodations such as private houses in a neighborhood-style setting.

Motels in Khajuraho
A Khajuraho motel is a small-sized low-rise lodging establishment similar to that of a limited service hotel, but with direct access to individual rooms from the car park. Common during the 1950s and 1960s, motels were often located adjacent to a major road, where they were built on inexpensive land at the edge of towns or along stretches of highways. They are still useful in less populated areas of Khajuraho for driving travelers, but the more populated an area becomes the more hotels fill the need. Many of Khajuraho motels which remain in operation have joined national franchise chains, rebranding themselves as hotels, inns or lodges.

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Travelling and vacation in Khajuraho

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"Khajuraho" redirects here. For the town, see Khajuraho (town). For the constituency, see Khajuraho (Lok Sabha constituency).
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Khajuraho Group of Monuments
Name as inscribed on the World Heritage List
Kandariya mahadev.jpg
Location Chhatarpur, Madhya Pradesh, India
Type Cultural
Criteria i, iii
Reference 240
UNESCO region World Heritage Site, South Asia
Coordinates  / 24.85; 79.93  / 24.85; 79.93
Inscription history
Inscription 1986 (10th Session)
Khajuraho Group of Monuments is located in India
Khajuraho Group of Monuments
Location in Madhya Pradesh state of India
Khajuraho Group of Monuments is located in Madhya Pradesh
Khajuraho Group of Monuments
Location in Madhya Pradesh state of India

The Khajuraho Group of Monuments is a group of Hindu and Jain temples in Madhya Pradesh, India, about 175 kilometres (109 mi) southeast of Jhansi. They are one of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in India. The temples are famous for their nagara-style architectural symbolism and their erotic sculptures.

Most Khajuraho temples were built between 950 and 1050 by the Chandela dynasty. Historical records note that the Khajuraho temple site had 85 temples by the 12th century, spread over 20 square kilometers. Of these, only about 25 temples have survived, spread over 6 square kilometers. Of the various surviving temples, the Kandariya Mahadeva Temple is decorated with a profusion of sculptures with intricate details, symbolism and expressiveness of ancient Indian art.

The Khajuraho group of temples were built together but were dedicated to two religions, Hinduism and Jainism, suggesting a tradition of acceptance and respect for diverse religious views among Hindus and Jains in the region.

Khajuraho Group of Monuments: Location

The Khajuraho monuments are located in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh, in Chhatarpur district, about 620 kilometres (385 mi) southeast of New Delhi. The temples are near a small town also known as Khajuraho, with a population of about 20,000 people (2001 Census).

Khajuraho is served by Civil Aerodrome Khajuraho (IATA Code: HJR), with services to Delhi, Agra, Varanasi and Mumbai. The site is also linked by the Indian Railways service, with the railway station located approximately six kilometres from the entrance to the monuments .

The monuments are about 10 kilometres off the east-west National Highway 75, and about 50 kilometres from the city of Chhatarpur, which is connected to the state capital Bhopal by the SW-NE running National Highway 86.

The 10th century Bhand Deva Temple in Rajasthan was built in the style of the Khajuraho monuments and is often referred to as 'Little Khajuraho'.

Khajuraho Group of Monuments: History

The Khajuraho group of monuments was built during the rule of the Rajput Chandela dynasty. The building activity started almost immediately after the rise of their power, throughout their kingdom to be later known as Bundelkhand. Most temples were built during the reigns of the Hindu kings Yashovarman and Dhanga. Yashovarman's legacy is best exhibited by The Lakshmana Temple. Vishvanatha temple best highlights King Dhanga's reign. The largest and currently most famous surviving temple is Kandariya Mahadeva built in the reign of King Ganda from 1017-1029 CE. The temple inscriptions suggest many of the currently surviving temples were complete between 970 and 1030 CE, with further temples completed during the following decades.

The Khajuraho temples were built about 35 miles from the medieval city of Mahoba, the capital of the Chandela dynasty, in the Kalinjar region. In ancient and medieval literature, their kingdom has been referred to as Jijhoti, Jejahoti, Chih-chi-to and Jejakabhukti.

Khajuraho was mentioned by Abu Rihan-al-Biruni, the Persian historian who accompanied Mahmud of Ghazni in his raid of Kalinjar in 1022 CE; he mentions Khajuraho as the capital of Jajahuti. The raid was unsuccessful, and a peace accord was reached when the Hindu king agreed to pay a ransom to Mahmud of Ghazni to end the attack and leave.

Khajuraho temples were in active use through the end of 12th century. This changed in the 13th century, after the army of Delhi Sultanate, under the command of the Muslim Sultan Qutb-ud-din Aibak, attacked and seized the Chandela kingdom. About a century later, Ibn Battuta, the Moroccan traveller in his memoirs about his stay in India from 1335 to 1342 CE, mentioned visiting Khajuraho temples, calling them “Kajarra” as follows:

Until the 12th century, Khajuraho was under Hindu kings and featured 85 temples. Central India was seized by Delhi Sultanate in 13th century. Under Muslim rule, some temples were destroyed and the rest left in neglect. Ruins of some old temples (above) are still visible.

...near (Khajuraho) temples, which contain idols that have been mutilated by the Moslems, live a number of yogis whose matted locks have grown as long as their bodies. And on account of extreme asceticism they are all yellow in colour. Many Moslems attend these men in order to take lessons (yoga) from them.

- Ibn Battuta, about 1335 CE, Riḥlat Ibn Baṭūṭah, Translated by Arthur Cotterell

Central Indian region, where Khajuraho temples are, remained in the control of many different Muslim dynasties from 13th century through the 18th century. In this period, some temples were desecrated, followed by a long period when they were left in neglect. In 1495 CE, for example, Sikandar Lodi’s campaign of temple destruction included Khajuraho. The remoteness and isolation of Khajuraho protected the Hindu and Jain temples from continued destruction by Muslims. Over the centuries, vegetation and forests overgrew, took over the temples.

In the 1830s, local Hindus guided a British surveyor, T.S. Burt, to the temples and they were thus rediscovered by the global audience. Alexander Cunningham later reported, few years after the rediscovery, that the temples were secretly in use by yogis and thousands of Hindus would arrive for pilgrimage during Shivaratri celebrated annually in February or March based on a lunar calendar. In 1852, Maisey prepared earliest drawings of the Khajuraho temples.

The name Khajuraho, or Kharjuravāhaka, is derived from ancient Sanskrit (kharjura, खर्जूर means date palm, and vāhaka, वाहक means "one who carries" or bearer). Local legends state that the temples had two golden date-palm trees as their gate (missing when they were rediscovered). Desai states that Kharjuravāhaka also means scorpion bearer, which is another symbolic name for deity Shiva (who wears snakes and scorpion garlands in his fierce form).

Cunningham’s nomenclature and systematic documentation work in 1850s and 1860s have been widely adopted and continue to be in use. He grouped the temples into the Western group around Lakshmana, Eastern group around Javeri, and Southern group around Duladeva.

Khajuraho is one of the four holy sites linked to deity Shiva (the other three are Kedarnath, Kashi and Gaya). Its origin and design is a subject of scholarly studies. Shobita Punja has proposed that the temple’s origin reflect the Hindu mythology in which Khajuraho is the place where Shiva got married; with Raghuvamsha verse 5.53, Matangeshvara honoring ‘’Matanga’’, or god of love.

Khajuraho Group of Monuments: Description

Sections and orientation of Khajuraho temples.

The temple site is within Vindhya mountain range in central India. An ancient local legend held that Hindu deity Shiva and other gods enjoyed visiting the dramatic hill formation in Kalinjar area. The center of this region is Khajuraho, set midst local hills and rivers. The temple complex reflects the ancient Hindu tradition of building temples where gods love to play.

The temples are clustered near water, another typical feature of Hindu temples. The current water bodies include Sib Sagar, Khajur Sagar (also called Ninora Tal) and Khudar Nadi (river). The local legends state that the temple complex had 64 water bodies, of which 56 have been physically identified by archeologists so far.

All temples, except one (Chaturbhuja) face sunrise - another symbolic feature that is predominant in Hindu temples. The relative layout of temples integrate masculine and feminine deities and symbols highlight the interdependence. The art work symbolically highlight the four goals of life considered necessary and proper in Hinduism - dharma, kama, artha and moksha.

Of the surviving temples, 6 are dedicated to Shiva and his consorts, 8 to Vishnu and his affinities, 1 to Ganesha, 1 to Sun god, 3 to Jain Tirthankars. For some ruins, there is insufficient evidence to assign the temple to specific deities with confidence.

An overall examination of site suggests that the Hindu symbolic mandala design principle of square and circles is present each temple plan and design. Further, the territory is laid out in three triangles that converge to form a pentagon. Scholars suggest that this reflects the Hindu symbolism for three realms or trilokinatha, and five cosmic substances or panchbhuteshvara. The temple site highlights Shiva, the one who destroys and recycles life, thereby controlling the cosmic dance of time, evolution and dissolution.

The temples have a rich display of intricately carved statues. While they are famous for their erotic sculpture, sexual themes cover less than 10% of the temple sculpture. Further, most erotic scene panels are neither prominent nor emphasized at the expense of the rest, rather they are in proportional balance with the non-sexual images. The viewer has to look closely to find them, or be directed by a guide. The arts cover numerous aspects of human life and values considered important in Hindu pantheon. Further, the images are arranged in a configuration to express central ideas of Hinduism. All three ideas from Āgamas are richly expressed in Khajuraho temples - Avyakta, Vyaktavyakta and Vyakta.

The Beejamandal temple is under excavation. It has been identified with the Vaidyanath temple mentioned in the Grahpati Kokalla inscription.

Of all temples, the Matangeshvara temple remains an active site of worship. It is another square grid temple, with a large 2.5 metres (8.2 ft) high and 1.1 metres (3.6 ft) diameter lingam, placed on a 7.6 metres (25 ft) diameter platform.

The most visited temple, Kandariya Mahadev, has an area of about 6,500 square feet and a shikhara (spire) that rises 116 feet.

Main article: Jain temples of Khajuraho

The Jain temples are located on east-southeast region of Khajuraho monuments. Chausath jogini temple features 64 jogini, while Ghantai temple features bells sculptured on its pillars.

Khajuraho Group of Monuments: Architecture of the temples

The layout plan of Kandariya Mahadeva Temple. It uses the 64 pada grid design. Smaller Khajuraho temples use the 9, 16, 36 or 49 grid mandala plan.

Khajuraho temples, like almost all Hindu temple designs, follow a grid geometrical design called vastu-purusha-mandala. This design plan has three important components - Mandala means circle, Purusha is universal essence at the core of Hindu tradition, while Vastu means the dwelling structure.

The design lays out a Hindu temple in a symmetrical, concentrically layered, self-repeating structure around the core of the temple called garbhagriya, where the abstract principle Purusha and the primary deity of the temple dwell. The shikhara, or spire, of the temple rises above the garbhagriya. This symmetry and structure in design is derived from central beliefs, myths, cardinality and mathematical principles.

The circle of mandala circumscribe the square. The square is considered divine for its perfection and as a symbolic product of knowledge and human thought, while circle is considered earthly, human and observed in everyday life (moon, sun, horizon, water drop, rainbow). Each supports the other. The square is divided into perfect 64 sub-squares called padas.

Most Khajuraho temples deploy the 8x8 (64) padas grid Manduka Vastupurushamandala, with pitha mandala the square grid incorporated in the design of the spires. The primary deity or lingas are located in the grid’s Brahma padas.

Khajuraho temples use the 8x8 (64) Vastupurusamandala Manduka grid layout plan (left) found in Hindu temples. Above the temple’s brahma padas is a Shikhara (Vimana or Spire) that rises symmetrically above the central core, typically in a circles and turning-squares concentric layering design (right) that flows from one to the other as it rises towards the sky.

The architecture is symbolic and reflects the central Hindu beliefs through its form, structure and arrangement of its parts. The mandapas as well as the arts are arranged in the Khajuraho temples in a symmetric repeating patterns, even though each image or sculpture is distinctive in its own way. The relative placement of the images are not random but together they express ideas, just like connected words form sentences and paragraphs to compose ideas. This fractal pattern that is common in Hindu temples. Various statues and panels have inscriptions. Many of the inscriptions on the temple walls are poems with double meanings, something that the complex structure of Sanskrit allows in creative compositions.

All Khajuraho temples, except one, face sunrise, and the entrance for the devotee is this east side.

An illustration of Khajuraho temple Spires (Shikhara, Vimana) built using concentric circle and rotating-squares principle. Four spires (left) are shown above, while the inside view of one Shikara ceiling (right) shows the symmetric layout.

Above the vastu-purusha-mandala of each temple is a superstructure with a dome called Shikhara (or Vimana, Spire). Variations in spire design come from variation in degrees turned for the squares. The temple Shikhara, in some literature, is linked to mount Kailash or Meru, the mythical abode of the gods.

In each temple, the central space typically is surrounded by an ambulatory for the pilgrim to walk around and ritually circumambulate the Purusa and the main deity. The pillars, walls and ceilings around the space, as well as outside have highly ornate carvings or images of the four just and necessary pursuits of life - kama, artha, dharma and moksa. This clockwise walk around is called pradakshina.

Larger Khajuraho temples also have pillared halls called mandapa. One near the entrance, on the east side, serves as the waiting room for pilgrims and devotees. The mandapas are also arranged by principles of symmetry, grids and mathematical precision. This use of same underlying architectural principle is common in Hindu temples found all over India. Each Khajuraho temple is distinctly carved yet also repeating the central common principles in almost all Hindu temples, one which Susan Lewandowski refers to as “an organism of repeating cells”.

Khajuraho Group of Monuments: Construction

The temples are grouped into three geographical divisions: western, eastern and southern.

The Khajuraho temples are made of sandstone, with a granite foundation that is almost concealed from view. The builders didn't use mortar: the stones were put together with mortise and tenon joints and they were held in place by gravity. This form of construction requires very precise joints. The columns and architraves were built with megaliths that weighed up to 20 tons. Some repair work in the 19th Century was done with brick and mortar; however these have aged faster than original materials and darkened with time, thereby seeming out of place.

The Khajuraho and Kalinjar region is home to superior quality of sandstone, which can be precision carved. The surviving sculpture reflect fine details such as strands of hair, manicured nails and intricate jewelry.

While recording the television show Lost Worlds (History Channel) at Khajuraho, Alex Evans recreated a stone sculpture under 4 feet that took about 60 days to carve in an attempt to develop a rough idea how much work must have been involved. Roger Hopkins and Mark Lehner also conducted experiments to quarry limestone which took 12 quarrymen 22 days to quarry about 400 tons of stone. They concluded that these temples would have required hundreds of highly trained sculptors.

Khajuraho Group of Monuments: Chronology

The Khajuraho group of temples belong to Vaishnavism school of Hinduism, Saivism school of Hinduism and Jainism - nearly a third each. Archaeological studies suggest all three types of temples were under construction at about the same time in late 10th century, and in use simultaneously. Will Durant states that this aspect of Khajuraho temples illustrates the tolerance and respect for different religious viewpoints in the Hindu and Jain traditions. In each group of Khajuraho temples, there were major temples surrounded by smaller temples - a grid style that is observed to varying degrees in Hindu temples in Angkor Wat, Parambaran and South India.

The largest surviving Saiva temple is Khandarya Mahadeva, while the largest surviving Vaishnava group includes Chaturbhuja and Ramachandra.

Kandariya Mahadeva Temple plan is 109 ft in length by 60 ft, and rises 116 ft above ground and 88 ft above its own floor. The central padas are surrounded by three rows of sculptured figures, with over 870 statues, most being half life size (2.5 to 3 feet). The spire is a self repeating fractal structure.

Sequence Modern Temple name Religion Deity Completed by
(CE)
Image
1 Chausath Yogini Hinduism Devi, 64 Yoginis 885 Khajuraho,Chausath-Yogini-Tempel2.jpg
2 Brahma Hinduism Vishnu 925
3 Lalgun Mahadev Hinduism Shiva 900 India-5696 - Flickr - archer10 (Dennis).jpg
4 Matangeshwar Hinduism Shiva 1000 India-5772 - Flickr - archer10 (Dennis).jpg
5 Varaha Hinduism Vishnu 950 India-5595 - Flickr - archer10 (Dennis).jpg
6 Lakshmana Hinduism Vaikuntha Vishnu 939 India-5679 - Flickr - archer10 (Dennis).jpg
7 Parshvanatha Jainism Parshvanatha 954 Le temple de Parshvanath (Khajuraho) (8638423582).jpg
8 Vishvanatha Hinduism Shiva 999 India-5749 - Visvanatha Temple - Flickr - archer10 (Dennis).jpg
9 Devi Jagadambi Hinduism Devi, Parvati 1023 Khajuraho Devi Jagadambi Temple 2010.jpg
10 Chitragupta Hinduism Sun, Chitragupta 1023 India-5707 - Flickr - archer10 (Dennis).jpg
11 Kandariya Mahadeva (Largest temple) Hinduism Shiva 1029 Temple at Khajuraho, Madhya Pradesh, India.jpg
12 Vamana Hinduism Vamana 1062 Khajuraho Vaman Temple 2010.jpg
13 Adinath Jain Temple Jainism Adinatha 1027 Adinath Jain Temple Khajuraho 12.jpg
14 Javeri Hinduism Vishnu 1090 Javari Temple, Khajuraho.jpg
15 Chaturbhuja Hinduism Vishnu 1110 Khajuraho Chaturbhuja Temple.jpg
16 Duladeo (Duladeva) Hinduism Shiva 1125 Khajuraho Dulhadeo 2010.jpg
17 Ghantai Jainism Adinatha 960 A ruin, pillars at Khajuraho, India.jpg
18 Vishnu-Garuda Hinduism Vishnu 1000
19 Ganesha Hinduism Shiva 1000
20 Hanuman Hinduism Hanuman 922 Hanuman Inscription at Khajuraho.jpg
21 Mahishasuramardini Hinduism Mahishasuramardini 995 Khajuraho India, Lakshman Temple, Sculpture 10.JPG
22 Shantinatha temple Jainism Shantinatha 1027 Jain group of temples - Khajuraho 09.jpg

Khajuraho Group of Monuments: Arts and sculpture

Khajuraho temples are famous for their erotic arts. These constitute about 10% of total art displayed at the monuments.
Erotic sculptures

The Khajuraho temples feature a variety of art work, of which 10% is sexual or erotic art outside and inside the temples. Some of the temples that have two layers of walls have small erotic carvings on the outside of the inner wall. Some scholars suggest these to be tantric sexual practices. Other scholars state that the erotic arts are part of Hindu tradition of treating kama as an essential and proper part of human life, and its symbolic or explicit display is common in Hindu temples. James McConnachie, in his history of the Kamasutra, describes the sexual-themed Khajuraho sculptures as "the apogee of erotic art":

"Twisting, broad-hipped and high breasted nymphs display their generously contoured and bejewelled bodies on exquisitely worked exterior wall panels. These fleshy apsaras run riot across the surface of the stone, putting on make-up, washing their hair, playing games, dancing, and endlessly knotting and unknotting their girdles....Beside the heavenly nymphs are serried ranks of griffins, guardian deities and, most notoriously, extravagantly interlocked maithunas, or lovemaking couples."

Over 90% of the art work at the temple is about daily life and symbolic values in ancient Indian culture.

The temples have several thousand statues and art works, with Kandarya Mahadeva Temple alone decorated with over 870. Some 10% of these iconographic carvings contain sexual themes and various sexual poses. A common misconception is that, since the old structures with carvings in Khajuraho are temples, the carvings depict sex between deities; however the kama arts represent diverse sexual expressions of different human beings. The vast majority of arts depict various aspects the everyday life, mythical stories as well as symbolic display of various secular and spiritual values important in Hindu tradition. For example, depictions show women putting on makeup, musicians making music, potters, farmers, and other folks in their daily life during the medieval era. These scenes are in the outer padas as is typical in Hindu temples.

There is iconographic symbolism embedded in the arts displayed in Khajuraho temples. Core Hindu values are expressed in multitude of ways. Even the Kama scenes, when seen in combination of sculptures that precede and follow, depict the spiritual themes such as moksha. In the words of Stella Kramrisch,

This state which is “like a man and woman in close embrace” is a symbol of moksa, final release or reunion of two principles, the essence (Purusha) and the nature (Prakriti).

- Stella Kramrisch, 1976

The Khajuraho temples represent one expression of many forms of arts that flourished in Rajput kingdoms of India from 8th through 10th century CE. For example, contemporary with Khajuraho were the publications of poems and drama such as Prabodhacandrodaya, Karpuramanjari, Viddhasalabhanjika and Kavyamimansa. Some of the themes expressed in these literary works are carved as sculpture in Khajuraho temples. Some sculptures at the Khajuraho monuments dedicated to Vishnu include the Vyalas, which are hybrid imaginary animals with lions body, and are found in other Indian temples. Some of these hybrid mythical art work include Vrik Vyala (hybrid of wolf and lion) and Gaja Vyala (hybrid of elephant and lion). These Vyalas may represent syncretic, creative combination of powers innate in the two.

Khajuraho Group of Monuments: Tourism and cultural events

Temples layout map – Khajuraho Group of Monuments.

The temples in Khajuraho are broadly divided into three parts : the Eastern group, the Southern Group and the Western group of temples of which the Western group alone has the facility of an Audio guided tour wherein the tourists are guided through the seven eight temples. There is also an audio guided tour developed by the Archaeological Survey of India which includes a narration of the temple history and architecture.

The Khajuraho Dance Festival is held every year in February. It features various classical Indian dances set against the backdrop of the Chitragupta or Vishwanath Temples.

The Khajuraho temple complex offers a light and sound show every evening. The first show is in English language and the second one in Hindi. It is held in the open lawns in the temple complex, and has received mixed reviews.

The Madhya Pradesh Tourism Development has set up kiosks at the Khajuraho railway station, with tourist officers to provide information for Khajuraho visitors.

Khajuraho Group of Monuments: See also

  • List of megalithic sites
  • Jain temples of Khajuraho
  • Ajanta Caves
  • Badami Chalukya architecture
  • Western Chalukya architecture
  • Hindu temple
  • Madan Kamdev
  • Hemvati
  • Kama Sutra
  • Kamashastra

Khajuraho Group of Monuments: References

  1. "World Heritage Day: Five must-visit sites in India".
  2. Khajuraho Group of Monuments UNESCO World Heritage Site
  3. Philip Wilkinson (2008), India: People, Place, Culture and History, Buy book ISBN 978-1405329040, pp 352-353
  4. Gopal, Madan (1990). K.S. Gautam, ed. India through the ages. Publication Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. p. 179.
  5. Devangana Desai (2005), Khajuraho, Oxford University Press, Sixth Print, Buy book ISBN 978-0-19-565643-5
  6. James Fergusson, Norther or Indo-Aryan Style - Khajuraho History of Indian and Eastern Architecture, Updated by James Burgess and R. Phene Spiers (1910), Volume II, John Murray, London
  7. "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2004-06-16. Retrieved 2008-11-01.
  8. Khajuraho airport AAI, Govt of India
  9. G.S. Ghurye, Rajput Architecture, Buy book ISBN 978-8171544462, Reprint Year: 2005, pp 19-24
  10. Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books. ISBN 9789380607344.
  11. also called Erakana
  12. Mitra (1977), The early rulers of Khajuraho, Buy book ISBN 978-8120819979
  13. J. Banerjea (1960), Khajuraho, Journal of the Asiatic Society, Vol. 2-3, pp 43-47
  14. phonetically translated from Arabic sometimes as “Kajwara”
  15. Director General of Archaeology in India (1959), Archaeological Survey of India, Ancient India, Issues 15-19, pp 45-46 (Archived: University of Michigan)
  16. Arthur Cotterell (2011), Asia: A Concise History, Wiley, Buy book ISBN 978-0470825044, pp 184-185
  17. Michael D. Willis, An Introduction to the Historical Geography of Gopakṣetra, Daśārṇa, and Jejākadeśa, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. 51, No. 2 (1988), pp. 271-278; See also K.R. Qanungo (1965), Sher Shah and his times, Orient Longmans, OCLC 175212, pp 423-427
  18. Trudy King et al., Asia and Oceania: International Dictionary of Historic Places, Buy book ISBN 978-1884964046, Routledge, pp 468-470
  19. Alain Daniélou (2011), A Brief History of India, Buy book ISBN 978-1594770296, pp 221-227
  20. Louise Nicholson (2007), India, National Geographic Society, Buy book ISBN 978-1426201448, see Chapter on Khajuraho
  21. Krishna Deva (1990), Temples of Khajuraho, 2 Volumes, Archaelogical Survey of India, New Delhi
  22. kharjUra Sanskrit English Dictionary, Koeln University, Germany
  23. vAhaka Sanskrit English Dictionary, Koeln University, Germany
  24. Devangana Desai (1996), Chapter 7 - Puns and Enigmatic Language in Sculpture in The Religious Imagery of Khajuraho, Project for Indian Cultural Studies, Columbia University Archives
  25. Rana Singh (2007), Landscape of sacred territory of Khajuraho, in City Society and Planning (Editors: Thakur, Pomeroy, et al), Volume 2, Buy book ISBN 978-8180694585, Chapter 18
  26. Shobita Punja (1992), Divine Ecstasy - The Story of Khajuraho, Viking, New Delhi, Buy book ISBN 978-0670840274
  27. Stella Kramrisch, The Hindu Temple, Vol 1, Motilal Banarsidass, Buy book ISBN 978-81-208-0222-3
  28. Ibn Battuta in his 1335 CE memoirs on Delhi Sultanate mentioned the temples to be near a mile long lake, modern water bodies are much smaller and separate lagoons; Director General of Archaeology in India (1959), Archaeological Survey of India, Ancient India, Issues 15-19, pp 45-46 (Archived: University of Michigan)
  29. The number 64 is considered sacred in Hindu temple design and very common design basis; it is symbolic as it is both a square of 8 and a cube of 4.
  30. Brahma temple is 19 feet square; Kandariya Mahadev has a four fused square grid; Matangeshvara temple is a 64 grid square; etc. See G.S. Ghurye, Rajput Architecture, Buy book ISBN 978-8171544462, Reprint Year: 2005, pp 19-25; and V.A. Smith (1879), “Observations on some Chandel Antiquities”, Asiatic Society of Bengal, Vol. 48, Part 1, pp 291-297
  31. D Desai (1996), The religious imagery of Khajuraho, Project for Indian Cultural Studies, Buy book ISBN 978-8190018418
  32. Desai states that Khajuraho and Orissa Hindu temples are distinctive in giving erotic kama images the same weight as others and by assigning important architectural position; in contrast, surviving sculpture from temples of Gujarat, Maharashtra and Mysore show that there kama and sexual images were assigned to insignificant parts of the temple; Meister suggests that this aspect of eroticism in temple design and equal weight reflects evolution of design ideas among Hindu artisans, with temples built in later medieval centuries placing equal weight and balance to kama; see Meister, Michael (1979). "Juncture and Conjunction: Punning and Temple Architecture". Artibus Asiae. 41 (2–3): 226–234. doi:10.2307/3249517. JSTOR 3249517.
  33. Edmund Leach, The Harvey Lecture Series. The Gatekeepers of Heaven: Anthropological Aspects of Grandiose Architecture, Journal of Anthropological Research, Vol. 39, No. 3 (Autumn, 1983), pp 243-264
  34. Bettina Bäumer, A review, Artibus Asiae, Vol. 59, No. 1/2 (1999), pp. 138-140
  35. James Fergusson, Jaina Architecture - Khajuraho History of Indian and Eastern Architecture, Updated by James Burgess and R. Phene Spiers (1910), Volume II, John Murray, London
  36. Meister, Michael W. (April–June 1979). "Maṇḍala and Practice in Nāgara Architecture in North India". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 99 (2): 204–219. doi:10.2307/602657. JSTOR 602657.
  37. Meister, Michael (1983). "Geometry and Measure in Indian Temple Plans: Rectangular Temples". Artibus Asiae. 44 (4): 266–296. doi:10.2307/3249613. JSTOR 3249613.
  38. Susan Lewandowski, The Hindu Temple in South India, in Buildings and Society: Essays on the Social Development of the Built Environment, Anthony D. King (Editor), Buy book ISBN 978-0710202345, Routledge, pp 68-69
  39. Stella Kramrisch (1976), The Hindu Temple Volume 1, Buy book ISBN 81-208-0223-3
  40. Meister, Michael W. (March 2006). "Mountain Temples and Temple-Mountains: Masrur". Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians. 65 (1): 26–49. doi:10.2307/25068237. JSTOR 25068237.
  41. Meister, Michael W. (Autumn 1986). "On the Development of a Morphology for a Symbolic Architecture: India". RES: Anthropology and Aesthetics. Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology (12): 33–50. JSTOR 20166752.
  42. Devangana Desai, Khajuraho, Oxford University Press Paperback (Sixth impression 2005) Buy book ISBN 978-0-19-565643-5
  43. Rian et al (2007), Fractal geometry as the synthesis of Hindu cosmology in Kandariya Mahadev Temple, Khajuraho, Building and Environment, Vol 42, Issue 12, pp 4093-4107, doi:10.1016/j.buildenv.2007.01.028
  44. Trivedi, K. (1989). Hindu temples: models of a fractal universe. The Visual Computer, 5(4), 243-258
  45. Susan Lewandowski, The Hindu Temple in South India, in Buildings and Society: Essays on the Social Development of the Built Environment, Anthony D. King (Editor), Buy book ISBN 978-0710202345, Routledge, Chapter 4
  46. V.A. Smith, “Observations on some Chandel Antiquities”, Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Volume 48, pp 290-291
  47. "Lost Worlds of the Kama Sutra" History channel
  48. "Lost Worlds of the Kama Sutra," History Channel
  49. Lehner, Mark (1997) The Complete Pyramids, London: Thames and Hudson. Buy book ISBN 0-500-05084-8. pp. 202–225
  50. Will Durant (1976), Our Oriental Heritage - The Story of Civilization, Buy book ISBN 978-0671548001, Simon & Schuster
  51. From inscription or estimated from other evidence
  52. Cunningham in Archaeological Survey Reports noted that one of two Hanuman statues bears an inscription of 868 CE
  53. Rabe (2000), Secret Yantras and Erotic Display for Hindu Temples, Tantra in Practice (Editor: David White), Buy book ISBN 978-8120817784, Chapter 25, pp 434-446
  54. See:
  55. "Khajuraho". Liveindia.com. Retrieved on 2014-07-14.
  56. Alain Danielou (2001), The Hindu Temple: Deification of Eroticism, Buy book ISBN 978-0892818549
  57. George Michell, The Hindu Temple: An Introduction to Its Meaning and Forms, University of Chicago Press, Buy book ISBN 978-0226532301, pp 117-123 and pp 56-58
  58. L. H. Gray, Journal of American Society, Vol. 27
  59. H.M. Woodward (1989), The Lakṣmaṇa Temple, Khajuraho, and Its Meanings, Ars Orientalis, Vol. 19, pp. 27-48
  60. Smith, David (January 1, 2013). "Monstrous Animals on Hindu Temples, with Special Reference to Khajuraho": 27–43. doi:10.1558/rosa.v7i1-3.27. Retrieved February 9, 2015.
  61. The Lakṣmaṇa Temple, Khajuraho, and Its Meanings, Hiram W. Woodward, Jr., Ars Orientalis, Vol. 19, (1989), pp. 27-48
  62. Tourists to Khajuraho will now have an audio compass The Times of India (August 25, 2011)
  63. Khajuraho Festival of Dances

Khajuraho Group of Monuments: Further reading

  • M.R. Anand and Stella Kramrisch, Homage to Khajuraho, OCLC 562891704
  • Alain Daniélou, The Hindu Temple: Deification of Eroticism, Buy book ISBN 978-0892818549
  • Prasenjit Dasgupta, Khajuraho, Patralekha, Kolkata, 2014
  • Devangana Desai, The Religious Imagery of Khajuraho, Franco-Indian Research P. Ltd. (1996) Buy book ISBN 81-900184-1-8
  • Devangana Desai, Khajuraho, Oxford University Press Paperback (Sixth impression 2005) Buy book ISBN 978-0-19-565643-5
  • Phani Kant Mishra, Khajuraho: With Latest Discoveries, Sundeep Prakashan (2001) Buy book ISBN 81-7574-101-5
  • L. A. Narain, Khajuraho: Temples of Ecstasy. New Delhi: Lustre Press (1986)

Khajuraho travel guide from Wikivoyage

  • Khajuraho Group of Monuments UNESCO
  • Archaeological Survey of India, Bhopal Division
  • R. Nath Mughal Architecture Image Collection, Images of Khajuraho - University of Washington Digital Collection
Source of information: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. We're not responsible for the content of this article and your use of this information. Disclaimer
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