La Rochelle, France
Hotels

Online hotels booking in La Rochelle
Tickets

Cheapest tickets to La Rochelle
Car Hire

Cheap and easy car hire in La Rochelle
Info

Detailed description of La Rochelle
Goods

La Rochelle related books and other goods

Best prices on La Rochelle hotel booking and tickets to La Rochelle, France

One of the latest offers is an unique opportunity to instantly find the lowest prices on La Rochelle hotels and book a best hotel in La Rochelle saving up to 80%! You can do it quickly and easily with HotelsCombined, a world's leading free hotel metasearch engine that allows to search and compare the rates of all major hotel chains, top travel sites, and leading hotel booking websites, including Booking.com, Hotels.com, Agoda.com, etc. The hotel price comparison service HotelsCombined means cheap La Rochelle hotel booking, lowest prices on hotels in La Rochelle and airline tickets to La Rochelle, France!

La Rochelle Hotels Comparison & Online Booking

▪ Lowest prices on La Rochelle hotels booking
▪ The discounts on La Rochelle hotels up to 80%
▪ No booking fees on La Rochelle hotels
▪ Detailed description & photos of La Rochelle hotels
▪ Trusted ratings and reviews of La Rochelle hotels
▪ Advanced La Rochelle hotel search & comparison
▪ All La Rochelle hotels on the map
▪ Interesting sights of La Rochelle

What's important: you can compare and book not only La Rochelle hotels and resorts, but also villas and holiday cottages, inns and B&Bs (bed and breakfast), condo hotels and apartments, timeshare properties, guest houses and pensions, campsites (campgrounds), motels and hostels in La Rochelle. If you're going to La Rochelle save your money and time, don't pay for the services of the greedy travel agencies. Instead, book the best hotel in La Rochelle online, buy the cheapest airline tickets to La Rochelle, and rent a car in La Rochelle right now, paying the lowest price! Besides, here you can buy the La Rochelle related books, guidebooks, souvenirs and other goods.

By the way, we would recommend you to combine your visit to La Rochelle with other popular and interesting places of France, for example: Nord-Pas-de-Calais, Chamonix, Annecy, Provence, Aquitaine, Marseille, Antibes, Chambéry, Portes du Soleil, Cannes, Mandelieu-la-Napoule, Morzine, Les Arcs, Rouen, La Rochelle, Bayonne, Saint-Tropez, Carcassonne, Honfleur, Le Havre, Périgueux, Burgundy, Toulouse, Arles, Saint-Gervais-les-Bains, Val Thorens, Limoges, Saint-Malo, Bonifacio, Deauville, Corsica, Aix-en-Provence, Trouville-sur-Mer, Normandy, Cabourg, Courchevel, Val-d'Isère, French Alps, Les Gets, Saint-Martin-de-Belleville, The Three Valleys, La Plagne, Briançon, Méribel, Paradiski, Calvi, Fréjus, Bordeaux, Montpellier, Ajaccio, Île-de-France, Biarritz, Alsace, Tignes, Versailles, Menton, Beaune, Dunkirk, Lourdes, Cassis, Rhône-Alpes, Calais, Dijon, Reims, Cagnes-sur-Mer, Le Grau-du-Roi, Strasbourg, Colmar, Nîmes, Avoriaz, Grenoble, Megève, Paris, Perpignan, French Riviera, Saint-Rémy-de-Provence, Lille, Nantes, Porto-Vecchio, Lyon, Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer, Narbonne, La Ciotat, Avignon, Les Menuires, Brittany, Besançon, Pas-de-Calais, Canet-en-Roussillon, etc.

How to Book a Hotel in La Rochelle

In order to book an accommodation in La Rochelle enter the proper dates and do the hotel search. If needed, sort the found La Rochelle hotels by price, star rating, property type, guest rating, hotel features, hotel theme or hotel chain. Then take a look at the found hotels on La Rochelle map to estimate the distance from the main La Rochelle attractions and sights. You can also read the guest reviews of La Rochelle hotels and see their ratings.

When a hotel search in La Rochelle is done, please select the room type, the included meals and the suitable booking conditions (for example, "Deluxe double room, Breakfast included, Non-Refundable"). Press the "View Deal" ("Book Now") button. Make your booking on a hotel booking website and get the hotel reservation voucher by email. That's it, a perfect hotel in La Rochelle is waiting for you!

Hotels of La Rochelle

A hotel in La Rochelle is an establishment that provides lodging paid on a short-term basis. Facilities provided may range from a basic bed and storage for clothing, to luxury features like en-suite bathrooms. Larger in La Rochelle hotels may provide additional guest facilities such as a swimming pool, business centre, childcare, conference facilities and social function services. Hotel rooms in La Rochelle are usually numbered (or named in some smaller hotels and B&Bs) to allow guests to identify their room. Some La Rochelle hotels offer meals as part of a room and board arrangement. Hotel operations vary in size, function, and cost. Most La Rochelle hotels and major hospitality companies that operate hotels in La Rochelle have set widely accepted industry standards to classify hotel types. General categories include the following:

Upscale luxury hotels in La Rochelle
An upscale full service hotel facility in La Rochelle that offers luxury amenities, full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and the highest level of personalized and professional service. Luxury La Rochelle hotels are normally classified with at least a Four Diamond or Five Diamond status or a Four or Five Star rating depending on classification standards.

Full service hotels in La Rochelle
Full service La Rochelle hotels often contain upscale full-service facilities with a large volume of full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and a variety of on-site amenities such as swimming pools, a health club, children's activities, ballrooms, on-site conference facilities, etc.

Historic inns and boutique hotels in La Rochelle
Boutique hotels of La Rochelle are smaller independent non-branded hotels that often contain upscale facilities of varying size in unique or intimate settings with full service accommodations. La Rochelle boutique hotels are generally 100 rooms or less. Some historic inns and boutique hotels in La Rochelle may be classified as luxury hotels.

Focused or select service hotels in La Rochelle
Small to medium-sized hotel establishments that offer a limited amount of on-site amenities that only cater and market to a specific demographic of La Rochelle travelers, such as the single business traveler. Most La Rochelle focused or select service hotels may still offer full service accommodations but may lack leisure amenities such as an on-site restaurant or a swimming pool.

Economy and limited service hotels in La Rochelle
Small to medium-sized La Rochelle hotel establishments that offer a very limited amount of on-site amenities and often only offer basic accommodations with little to no services, these facilities normally only cater and market to a specific demographic of travelers, such as the budget-minded La Rochelle traveler seeking a "no frills" accommodation. Limited service La Rochelle hotels often lack an on-site restaurant but in return may offer a limited complimentary food and beverage amenity such as on-site continental breakfast service.

Guest houses and B&Bs in La Rochelle
A bed and breakfast in La Rochelle is a small lodging establishment that offers overnight accommodation and inclusive breakfast. Usually, La Rochelle bed and breakfasts are private homes or family homes offering accommodations. The typical La Rochelle B&B has between 4 and 11 rooms, with 6 being the average. Generally, guests are accommodated in private bedrooms with private bathrooms, or in a suite of rooms including an en suite bathroom. Some homes have private bedrooms with a bathroom which is shared with other guests. Breakfast is served in the bedroom, a dining room, or the host's kitchen. Often the owners of guest house themselves prepare the breakfast and clean the rooms.

Hostels in La Rochelle
La Rochelle hostels provide budget-oriented, sociable accommodation where guests can rent a bed, usually a bunk bed, in a dormitory and share a bathroom, lounge, and sometimes a kitchen. Rooms can be mixed or single-sex, although private rooms may also be available. Hostels are often cheaper for both the operator and occupants; many La Rochelle hostels have long-term residents whom they employ as desk agents or housekeeping staff in exchange for experience or discounted accommodation.

Apartment hotels, extended stay hotels in La Rochelle
Extended stay hotels are small to medium-sized La Rochelle hotels that offer longer term full service accommodations compared to a traditional hotel. Extended stay hotels may offer non-traditional pricing methods such as a weekly rate that cater towards travelers in need of short-term accommodations for an extended period of time. Similar to limited and select service hotels, on-site amenities are normally limited and most extended stay hotels in La Rochelle lack an on-site restaurant.

Timeshare and destination clubs in La Rochelle
La Rochelle timeshare and destination clubs are a form of property ownership also referred to as a vacation ownership involving the purchase and ownership of an individual unit of accommodation for seasonal usage during a specified period of time. Timeshare resorts in La Rochelle often offer amenities similar that of a Full service hotel with on-site restaurant(s), swimming pools, recreation grounds, and other leisure-oriented amenities. Destination clubs of La Rochelle on the other hand may offer more exclusive private accommodations such as private houses in a neighborhood-style setting.

Motels in La Rochelle
A La Rochelle motel is a small-sized low-rise lodging establishment similar to that of a limited service hotel, but with direct access to individual rooms from the car park. Common during the 1950s and 1960s, motels were often located adjacent to a major road, where they were built on inexpensive land at the edge of towns or along stretches of highways. They are still useful in less populated areas of La Rochelle for driving travelers, but the more populated an area becomes the more hotels fill the need. Many of La Rochelle motels which remain in operation have joined national franchise chains, rebranding themselves as hotels, inns or lodges.

Why HotelsCombined

HotelsCombined is the leading hotel metasearch engine founded in 2005, with headquarters in Sydney, Australia. It is widely recognized as the world's best hotel price comparison site and has won many of the most prestigious tourism industry awards. The site operates in over 40 languages, handles 120 different currencies and aggregates more than 2 million deals from hundreds of travel sites and hotel chains. The number of users counts more than 300,000 people a year with over $1,000,000,000 in estimated total cost of hotel reservations.

The main purpose of HotelsCombined hotel price comparison service is to help the travelers in finding a perfect accommodation option in La Rochelle at the best price, eliminating the need to manually analyze hundreds of hotel booking sites and thousands of price offers. Through the partnership with the most popular hotel booking websites, online travel agencies and hotel chains, HotelsCombined allows its users to search for and compare the current rates on La Rochelle hotels in a single search. It also provides an aggregated summary of hotel reviews and ratings from external sites.

The HotelsCombined's advanced technology allows to instantly find the available La Rochelle hotels and process the offers of all leading travel websites, including Booking.com, Hotels.com, Agoda.com and many others (AccorHotels.com, AirAsiaGo.com, Amoma.com, AsiaTravel.com, BestWestern.com, Budgetplaces.com, EasyToBook.com, Elvoline.com, Expedia.com, Getaroom.com, Hilton.com, Homestay.com, Hotel.de, HotelClub.com, HotelsClick.com, HotelTravel.com, Housetrip.com, ihg.com, Interhome.com, Jovago.com, LateRooms.com, NH-Hotels.com, OnHotels.com, Otel.com, Prestigia.com, Skoosh.com, Splendia.com, Superbreak.com, Tiket.com, etc.). Due to the fast and easy-to-use search system you get the rates on available La Rochelle hotels and book a preferable hotel on a website providing the lowest price.

All La Rochelle Hotels & Hostels Online

HotelsCombined is ideal for those interested in La Rochelle, France, HotelsCombined, Trivago, sale on the hotel booking site HotelsCombined, discount coupons on the hotel booking site HotelsCombined, best rates on La Rochelle hotels, low prices on La Rochelle hotels, best hotel in La Rochelle, best La Rochelle hotel, discounted La Rochelle hotel booking, online La Rochelle hotel reservation, La Rochelle hotels comparison, hotel booking in La Rochelle, luxury and cheap accomodation in La Rochelle, La Rochelle inns, La Rochelle B&Bs, bed and breakfast in La Rochelle, condo hotels and apartments in La Rochelle, bargain La Rochelle rentals, cheap La Rochelle vacation rentals,La Rochelle pensions and guest houses, cheap hotels and hostels of La Rochelle, La Rochelle motels, dormitories of La Rochelle, dorms in La Rochelle, La Rochelle dormitory rooms, lowest rates on hotels in La Rochelle, hotel prices comparison in La Rochelle, travel to La Rochelle, vacation in La Rochelle, trip to La Rochelle, trusted hotel reviews of La Rochelle, sights and attractions of La Rochelle, La Rochelle guidebook, La Rochelle guide, hotel booking in La Rochelle, etc.

Many people are also interested in the France, tours to La Rochelle, travel company in La Rochelle, travel agency in La Rochelle, excursions in La Rochelle, tickets to La Rochelle, airline tickets to La Rochelle, La Rochelle hotel booking, La Rochelle hostels, dormitory of La Rochelle, dorm in La Rochelle, La Rochelle dormitory, La Rochelle airfares, La Rochelle airline tickets, La Rochelle tours, La Rochelle travel, must-see places in La Rochelle, La Rochelle Booking.com, La Rochelle hotels Trivago, La Rochelle Expedia, La Rochelle Airbnb, La Rochelle TripAdvisor, Hotels Combined La Rochelle, HotelsCombined La Rochelle, La Rochelle hotels and hostels, FR hotels and hostels, Black Friday on the hotel booking site HotelsCombined, Cyber Monday on the hotel booking site HotelsCombined, New Year's and Christmas sale HotelsCombined, hotelscombined.en, HotelsCombined.en, HotelsCombined.en, and so on.

While others are looking for the hotelscombined.com, Горад Ла-Рашэль, La Rošelis, ラ・ロシェル, লা রোচ্যাল, Ля-Рошель, La-Rošel', לה רושל, Ла-Рошель, La Rochelle, 拉罗歇尔, La Rochèla, لروشل, Ля-Рашэль, ลารอแชล, لا روشيل, Arroxela, Լա Ռոշել, Larošela, 라로셸, لا روشیل, ལ་རོ་ཅེ་ལེ།, La Rochelle (Charente-Maritime), Rupella, ლა-როშელი, La Roşel, Ла Рошел, La Rochelle, Charente-Maritime, Ar Roc'hell, لا روشل, Λα Ροσέλ. A lot of people have already booked the hotels in La Rochelle on the hotel booking site HotelsCombined. Don't hesitate, go for it!

Travelling and vacation in La Rochelle

.
For other uses, see La Rochelle (disambiguation).
La Rochelle
Old harbour of La Rochelle
Old harbour of La Rochelle
Coat of arms of La Rochelle
Coat of arms
La Rochelle is located in France
La Rochelle
La Rochelle
Coordinates:  / 46.1591; -1.1517  / 46.1591; -1.1517
Country France
Region Nouvelle-Aquitaine
Department Charente-Maritime
Arrondissement La Rochelle
Intercommunality La Rochelle
Government
• Mayor (2014–2020) Jean-François Fountaine
Area 28.43 km (10.98 sq mi)
Population (2012) 80,014
• Density 2,800/km (7,300/sq mi)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
• Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
INSEE/Postal code 17300 /17000
Elevation 0–28 m (0–92 ft)
(avg. 4 m or 13 ft)

French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.

La Rochelle (French pronunciation: ​[la ʁɔ.ʃɛl]) is a city in southwestern France and a seaport on the Bay of Biscay, a part of the Atlantic Ocean. It is the capital of the Charente-Maritime department.

The city is connected to the Île de Ré by a 2.9-kilometre (1.8-mile) bridge completed on 19 May 1988. Its harbour opens into a protected strait, the Pertuis d'Antioche.

La Rochelle: History

See also: Timeline of La Rochelle

La Rochelle: Antiquity

Coastline around La Rochelle in Roman times.

The area of La Rochelle was occupied in antiquity by the Gallic tribe of the Santones, who gave their name to the nearby region of Saintonge and the city of Saintes.

The Romans subsequently occupied the area, where they developed salt production along the coast as well as wine production, which was then re-exported throughout the Empire. Roman villas have been found at Saint-Éloi and at Les Minimes, as well as salt evaporation ponds dating from the same period.

La Rochelle: Foundation

La Rochelle was founded during the 10th century and became an important harbour in the 12th century. The establishment of La Rochelle as a harbour was a consequence of the victory of Duke Guillaume X of Aquitaine over Isambert de Châtelaillon in 1130 and the subsequent destruction of his harbour of Châtelaillon. In 1137, Guillaume X to all intents and purposes made La Rochelle a free port and gave it the right to establish itself as a commune. Fifty years later Eleanor of Aquitaine upheld the communal charter promulgated by her father, and for the first time in France, a city mayor was appointed for La Rochelle, Guillaume de Montmirail. Guillaume was assisted in his responsibilities by 24 municipal magistrates, and 75 notables who had jurisdiction over the inhabitants. Under the communal charter, the city obtained many privileges, such as the right to mint its own coins, and to operate some businesses free of royal taxes, factors which would favour the development of the entrepreneurial middle-class (bourgeoisie).

La Rochelle: Plantagenet rule (1154–1224)

Left image: Vauclair castle was built by the English in 1185.
Right image: Remnants of Vauclair castle, Place de Verdun, La Rochelle.

Eleanor married Henry Plantagenet in 1152, who became king of England as Henry II in 1154, thus putting La Rochelle under Plantagenet rule, until Louis VIII captured it in the 1224 Siege of La Rochelle. During the Plantagenet control of the city in 1185, Henry II had the Vauclair castle built, remains of which are still visible in the Place de Verdun.

Left image: Cour de la Commanderie in La Rochelle, ancient location of the Templars' headquarters.
Right image: Original Templar cross, Cour de la Commanderie.

The main activities of the city were in the areas of maritime commerce and trade, especially with England, the Netherlands and Spain. In 1196, a wealthy bourgeois named Alexandre Auffredi sent a fleet of seven ships to Africa to tap the riches of the continent. He went bankrupt and went into poverty as he waited for the return of his ships, but they finally returned seven years later filled with riches.

La Rochelle: Knights Templar

The Knights Templar had a strong presence in La Rochelle since before the time of Eleanor of Aquitaine, who exempted them from duties and gave them mills in her 1139 Charter. La Rochelle was for the Templars their largest base on the Atlantic Ocean, and where they stationed their main fleet. From La Rochelle, they were able to act as intermediaries in trade between England and the Mediterranean. A popular thread of conspiracy theory originating with Holy Blood, Holy Grail has it that the Templars used a fleet of 18 ships which had brought Jacques de Molay from Cyprus to La Rochelle to escape arrest in France. The fleet allegedly left laden with knights and treasures just before the issue of the warrant for the arrest of the Order in October 1307.

La Rochelle: Hundred Years' War

During the Hundred Years' War in 1360, following the Treaty of Bretigny La Rochelle again came under the rule of the English monarch. La Rochelle however expelled the English in June 1372, following the naval Battle of La Rochelle, between Castilian-French and English fleets. The French and Spanish decisively defeated the English, securing French control of the Channel for the first time since the Battle of Sluys in 1340. The naval battle of La Rochelle was one of the first cases of the use of handguns on warships, which were deployed by the French and Spanish against the English. Having recovered freedom, La Rochelle refused entry to Du Guesclin, until Charles V recognized the privileges of the city in November 1372.

In 1402, the French adventurer Jean de Béthencourt left La Rochelle and sailed along the coast of Morocco to conquer the Canary islands.

Until the 15th century, La Rochelle was to be the largest French harbour on the Atlantic coast, dealing mainly in wine, salt and cheese.

La Rochelle: French Wars of Religion

Main article: French Wars of Religion
Left image: Remains of Reformation iconoclasm, Clocher Saint-Barthélémy, La Rochelle.
Right image: Remains of iconoclasm, Eglise Saint-Sauveur, La Rochelle.

During the Renaissance, La Rochelle adopted Protestant ideas. Calvinism started to be propagated in the region of La Rochelle, resulting in its suppression through the establishment of Cours présidiaux tribunals by Henry II. An early result of this was the burning at the stake of two "heretics" in La Rochelle in 1552. Conversions to Calvinism however continued, due to a change of religious beliefs, but also to a desire for political independence on the part of the local elite, and a popular opposition to royal expenses and requisitions in the building projects to fortify the coast against England.

On the initiative of Gaspard de Coligny, the Calvinists attempted to colonize the New World to find a new home for their religion, with the likes of Pierre Richier and Jean de Léry. After the short-lived attempt of France Antarctique, they failed to establish a colony in Brazil, and finally resolved to make a stand in La Rochelle itself. Pierre Richier became "Ministre de l'église de la Rochelle" ("Minister of the Church of La Rochelle") when he returned from Brazil in 1558, and was able to considerably increase the Huguenot presence in La Rochelle, from a small base of about 50 souls who had been secretly educated in the Lutheran faith by Charles de Clermont the previous year. He has been described, by Lancelot Voisin de La Popelinière, as "le père de l'église de La Rochelle" ("The Father of the Church of La Rochelle").

Protestant "Grand Temple" of La Rochelle, built on the Place du Château, modern Place de Verdun, in 1600–1603. Accidentally burned down in 1687.

La Rochelle was the first French city, with Rouen, to experience iconoclastic riots in 1560, at the time of the suppression of the Amboise conspiracy, before the riots spread to many other cities. Further cases of Reformation iconoclasm were recorded in La Rochelle from 30 May 1562, following the Massacre of Vassy. Protestants pillaged churches, destroyed images and statues, and also assassinated 13 Catholic priests in the Tower of the Lantern.

From 1568, La Rochelle became a centre for the Huguenots, and the city declared itself an independent Reformed Republic on the model of Geneva. During the subsequent period, La Rochelle became an entity that has been described as a "state within a state". This led to numerous conflicts with the Catholic central government. The city supported the Protestant movement of William of Orange in the Netherlands, and from La Rochelle the Dutch under Louis of Nassau and the Sea Beggars were able to raid Spanish shipping.

In 1571 the city of La Rochelle suffered a naval blockade by the French Navy under the command of Filippo di Piero Strozzi and Antoine Escalin des Aimars, a former protagonist of the Franco-Ottoman alliance. The city was finally besieged during the Siege of La Rochelle (1572-1573) during the French Wars of Religion, following the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre in August 1572, and occurred at the same time as other sieges of Protestant cities such as the Siege of Sancerre. The conflict ended with the 1573 Peace of La Rochelle, which restricted the Protestant worship to the three cities of Montauban, Nîmes and La Rochelle. Pierre Richier died in La Rochelle in 1580.

La Rochelle: Huguenot rebellions

Main article: Huguenot rebellions
La Rochelle in 1628. Detail of Claude Lorrain Le siège de La Rochelle.

Under Henry IV, and under the regency of his son Louis XIII, the city enjoyed a certain freedom and prosperity. However, La Rochelle entered into conflict with the authority of the adult Louis, beginning with a 1622 revolt. A fleet from La Rochelle fought a royal fleet of 35 ships under Charles, Duke of Guise, in front of Saint-Martin-de-Ré, but was defeated on 27 October 1622, leading to the signing of the Peace of Montpellier.

La Rochelle: Revolt of Soubise (1625)

Main article: Capture of Ré island

In 1625, a new Huguenot revolt led by Duke Henri de Rohan and his brother Soubise led to the Capture of Ré island by the forces of Louis XIII. Soubise conquered large parts of the Atlantic coast, but the supporting fleet of La Rochelle was finally defeated by Montmorency, as was Soubise with 3,000 when he led a counter-attack against the royal troops who had landed on the island of Ré.

La Rochelle: Siege of La Rochelle (1627–1628)

Main article: Siege of La Rochelle
Cardinal Richelieu at the Siege of La Rochelle, Henri Motte, 1881.

Following these events, Louis XIII and his Chief Minister Cardinal Richelieu declared the suppression of the Huguenot revolt the first priority of the kingdom. The English came to the support of La Rochelle, starting an Anglo-French War, by sending a major expedition under the Duke of Buckingham. The expedition however ended in a fiasco for England with the Siege of Saint-Martin-de-Ré. Meanwhile, cannon shots were exchanged on 10 September 1627 between La Rochelle and Royal troops. This resulted in the Siege of La Rochelle in which Cardinal Richelieu blockaded the city for 14 months, until the city surrendered and lost its mayor and its privileges.

Expulsion from La Rochelle of 300 Protestant families in November 1661, Jan Luiken (1649–1712).

The remaining Protestants of La Rochelle suffered new persecutions, when 300 families were again expelled in November 1661, the year Louis XIV came to power. The reason for the expulsions was that Catholics deeply resented a degree of revival of Protestant ownership of property within the city.

The growing persecution of the Huguenots culminated with the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes by Louis XIV in 1685. Many Huguenots emigrated, founding such cities as New Rochelle in the vicinity of today's New York in 1689. La Rochelle, and the siege of 1627 form much of the backdrop to the later chapters of Alexandre Dumas, père's classic novel, The Three Musketeers.

La Rochelle: La Rochelle and the New World

Further information: France-Americas relations
La Rochelle slave ship Le Saphir ex-voto, 1741.
La Rochelle harbour in 1762. Joseph Vernet. Musée de la Marine.

Because of its western location, which saved days of sailing time, La Rochelle enjoyed successful fishing in the western Atlantic and trading with the New World, which served to counterbalance the disadvantage of not being at the mouth of a river (useful for shipping goods to and from the interior). Its Protestant ship-owning and merchant class prospered in the 16th century until the Wars of Religion devastated the city.

The period following the wars was a prosperous one, marked by intense exchanges with the New World (Nouvelle France in Canada, and the Antilles). La Rochelle became very active in triangular trade with the New World, dealing in the slave trade with Africa, sugar trade with plantations of the West Indies, and fur trade with Canada. This was a period of high artistic, cultural and architectural achievements for the city.

Robert de La Salle departed from La Rochelle, France, on 24 July 1684, with the aim of setting up a colony at the mouth of the Mississippi, eventually establishing Fort Saint Louis in Texas.

The city eventually lost its trade and prominence during the decades spanning the Seven Years' War, the French revolution and the Napoleonic Wars. During that period France lost many of the territorial possessions which it had had in the new World, and also saw a strong decrease in its sea power in the continuing conflicts with Britain, ultimately diminishing the role of such harbours as La Rochelle. After abolitionist movements led by such people as Samuel de Missy, the slave trade of La Rochelle ended with the onset of the French Revolution and the war with England in the 1790s, the last La Rochelle slave ship, the Saint-Jacques being captured in 1793 in the Gulf of Guinea. In February 1794, the National Assembly legislated the Universal Emancipation decree, which effectively freed all colonial slaves.

In 1809, the Battle of the Basque Roads took place near La Rochelle, in which a British fleet defeated the French Atlantic Fleet.

La Rochelle: La Rochelle faience

Faience of La Rochelle with Chinese figures, 18th century. Musée d'Orbigny-Bernon.
Further information: French porcelain and Orientalism in early modern France

La Rochelle became one of the French centres for faience in the end of the 18th century. Bernard Palissy was born in the region and had some bearing in this development. During the 18th century, its style was greatly influenced by Chinese themes and Japanese Kakiemon-type designs. Many of these ceramics can be viewed at the Musée d'Orbigny-Bernon.

La Rochelle: 19th century

In 1864, the harbour of La Rochelle (area of the "Bassin à flot" behind the water locks), was the site for the maiden dive experiments of the first mechanically-powered submarine in the World, Plongeur, commanded by Marie-Joseph-Camille Doré, a native of La Rochelle.

La Rochelle: Second World War

Further information: Allied siege of La Rochelle
U-boat pens in the harbour of La Rochelle (2007).

During the Second World War, Germany established a submarine naval base at La Pallice (the main port of La Rochelle).

A German stronghold, La Rochelle was the last French city to be liberated at the end of the war. The Allied siege of La Rochelle took place between 12 September 1944, and 7 May 1945; the stronghold, including the islands of Ré and Oléron, was held by 20,000 German troops under a German vice-admiral Ernst Schirlitz. Following negotiations by the French Navy frigate captain Meyer, and the general German capitulation on 7 May, French troops entered La Rochelle on 8 May.

The submarine base became the setting for parts of the movie Das Boot; the U-boat scenes in Raiders of the Lost Ark were also shot in La Rochelle. The base is featured in the computer game Commandos 2: Men of Courage.

La Rochelle: Geography

La Rochelle: Geology

La Rochelle seen from Spot Satellite
The limestone cliffs around La Rochelle reveal the Jurassic geology of the area

The bedrock of La Rochelle and surrounding areas is composed of layers of limestone dating back to the Sequanian stage (upper Oxfordian stage) of the Jurassic period (circa 160 million years ago), when a large part of France was submerged. Many of these layers are visible in the white cliffs that border the sea, which contain many small marine fossils. Layers of thick white rock, formed during period of relatively warm seas, alternate with highly fragile layers containing sand and remains of mud, formed during colder periods, and with layers containing various corals, that were formed during warmer, tropical times. The limestone thus formed is traditionally used as the main building material throughout the region.

The area of La Pointe du Chay about 5 km (3 mi) from La Rochelle is a popular cliff area for leisurely geological surveys.

La Rochelle: Climate

Under Köppen’s climate classification, La Rochelle features an Oceanic climate. Although at the same latitude as Montreal in Canada or the Kuril islands in Russia, the area is quite mild throughout the year due to the influence of the Gulf Stream waters, and insolation is remarkably high, in fact, the highest in Western France including sea resorts much further in the south such as Biarritz. La Rochelle seldom experiences very cold or very hot weather. These specific conditions – summer dry and sunny, winter mild and wet – have led to the establishment of a Mediterranean-type vegetation cohabiting with more continental and oceanic types of vegetation.

Climate data for La Rochelle, France
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 15.4
(59.7)
17.8
(64)
24.8
(76.6)
29.0
(84.2)
32.5
(90.5)
37.1
(98.8)
36.5
(97.7)
39.4
(102.9)
34.2
(93.6)
30.1
(86.2)
20.7
(69.3)
18.7
(65.7)
39.4
(102.9)
Average high °C (°F) 9.1
(48.4)
10.2
(50.4)
13.0
(55.4)
15.4
(59.7)
19.2
(66.6)
22.4
(72.3)
24.5
(76.1)
24.6
(76.3)
22.2
(72)
18.1
(64.6)
12.9
(55.2)
9.7
(49.5)
16.8
(62.2)
Average low °C (°F) 3.8
(38.8)
3.7
(38.7)
5.9
(42.6)
7.6
(45.7)
11.1
(52)
14.0
(57.2)
16.1
(61)
16.0
(60.8)
13.4
(56.1)
10.9
(51.6)
6.8
(44.2)
4.3
(39.7)
9.5
(49.1)
Record low °C (°F) −7.3
(18.9)
−8.1
(17.4)
−9.2
(15.4)
−2.2
(28)
3.1
(37.6)
4.9
(40.8)
8.8
(47.8)
9.4
(48.9)
4.7
(40.5)
0.7
(33.3)
−5.4
(22.3)
−8.4
(16.9)
−9.2
(15.4)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 72.9
(2.87)
56.2
(2.213)
52.6
(2.071)
63.9
(2.516)
56.4
(2.22)
39.7
(1.563)
42.1
(1.657)
42.5
(1.673)
59.3
(2.335)
92.6
(3.646)
93.6
(3.685)
87.2
(3.433)
759.0
(29.882)
Average precipitation days 12.0 9.0 9.7 10.3 9.1 6.7 6.6 6.3 7.4 11.8 12.4 12.6 113.9
Average snowy days 1.0 0.9 0.5 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.9 3.7
Average relative humidity (%) 87 84 80 78 79 77 76 77 79 83 86 88 81.2
Mean monthly sunshine hours 84 111 174 212 239 272 305 277 218 167 107 85 2,251
Source #1: Meteo France
Source #2: Infoclimat.fr (humidity, snowy days, and sun 1961–1990)

La Rochelle: Population

Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1821 12,327 -
1831 14,629 +18.7%
1836 14,857 +1.6%
1841 16,720 +12.5%
1846 17,465 +4.5%
1851 16,507 −5.5%
1856 16,175 −2.0%
1861 18,904 +16.9%
1866 18,710 −1.0%
1872 19,506 +4.3%
1876 19,583 +0.4%
1881 22,464 +14.7%
1886 23,829 +6.1%
1891 26,808 +12.5%
1896 28,376 +5.8%
1901 31,559 +11.2%
1906 33,858 +7.3%
1911 36,371 +7.4%
1921 39,770 +9.3%
1926 41,521 +4.4%
1931 45,043 +8.5%
1936 47,737 +6.0%
1945 48,923 +2.5%
1954 58,799 +20.2%
1962 66,590 +13.3%
1968 73,347 +10.1%
1975 75,367 +2.8%
1982 75,840 +0.6%
1990 76,094 +0.3%
1999 76,584 +0.6%
2008 75,822 −1.0%

La Rochelle: Today

Panoramic picture of the harbour towers at night.

The city has beautifully maintained its past architecture, making it one of the most picturesque and historically rich cities on the Atlantic coast. This helped develop a strong tourism industry.

La Rochelle possesses a commercial deep water harbour, named La Pallice. The large submarine pens built during World War II still stand there, although they are not in use. La Pallice is equipped with oil unloading equipment, and mainly handles tropical wood. It is also the location of the fishing fleet, which was moved from the old harbour in the centre of the city during the 1980s.

La Rochelle also maintains strong links with the sea by harbouring the largest marina for pleasure boats in Europe at Les Minimes, and a rather rich boat-building industry.

La Rochelle has a very big aquarium, and a small botanical garden (the Jardin des plantes de La Rochelle).

The Calypso, the ship used by Jacques-Yves Cousteau as a mobile laboratory for oceanography, and which was sunk after a collision in the port of Singapore (1996) is now on display (sadly rotting) at the Maritime Museum of La Rochelle.

One of the biggest music festivals in France, "FrancoFolies", takes place each summer in La Rochelle, where Francophone musicians come together for a week of concerts and celebration. 2004 marked the 20th anniversary of this event. The French Socialist Party has held its annual summer convention (Université d'été) in La Rochelle since 1983.

La Rochelle is the setting for the best-selling series of French language textbooks in the UK, titled Tricolore. The central character, Martine Dhome, lives with her family at the fictional address of 12, rue de la République.

La Rochelle: Tourism

Harbour towers at night

La Rochelle's main feature is the "Vieux Port" ("Old Harbour"), which is at the heart of the city, picturesque and lined with seafood restaurants. The city walls are open to an evening promenade. The old town has been well preserved. From the harbour, boating trips can be taken to the Île d'Aix and Fort Boyard (home to the internationally famous TV show of the same name). Nearby Île de Ré is a short drive to the North. The countryside of the surrounding Charente-Maritime is very rural and full of history (Saintes). To the North is Venise Verte, a marshy area of country, criss-crossed with tiny canals and a popular resort for inland boating. Inland is the country of Cognac and Pineau. The attractive Île de Ré is accessible via a bridge from La Rochelle.

La Rochelle: Transport

La Rochelle and its region are served by the international La Rochelle - Île de Ré Airport, which has progressively developed over the last 5 years. Currently, it is the largest airport in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region. The train station Gare de La Rochelle offers connections to Bordeaux, Nantes, Poitiers, Paris and several regional destinations.

OFP La Rochelle is a freight railway serving the port.

La Rochelle launched one of the first successful bicycle sharing systems in 1974.

La Rochelle: Education

The city has more than 10,000 students each year. The University of La Rochelle was established in 1993. Together with the École supérieure de commerce de la rochelle (La Rochelle Business School), they are the famous institutions of higher education of La Rochelle (7,000 and 3,500 students respectively).

La Rochelle: Landmarks

The Tour de la Lanterne in La Rochelle, fully under scaffolding. January 1, 2015
  • Orbigny-Bernon Museum
  • Muséum d'histoire naturelle de La Rochelle
  • Saint-Louis Cathedral

La Rochelle: Notable people

La Rochelle: Born in La Rochelle

  • François-Maurice Allotte de La Fuÿe, numismatist
  • Antoine Albeau, windsurfer
  • Jacques Nicolas Billaud-Varenne, politician and revolutionary
  • Aimé Bonpland, botanist
  • William-Adolphe Bouguereau, painter
  • Jean-Loup Chrétien, astronaut
  • John Theophilus Desaguliers, physician and mathematician
  • Guy-Victor Duperre, admiral
  • Jean Duvignaud, writer
  • Eugène Fromentin, writer and painter
  • Nicolas Gargot de La Rochette, governor of Placentia
  • Bernard Giraudeau, actor and director
  • Jean Guiton, mayor during the Siege of La Rochelle
  • Grégory Havret, professional golfer
  • Guy Laroche, fashion designer
  • Samuel de Missy, abolitionist
  • Fabrice Neaud, artist and cartoonist
  • Pierre-Jean-Baptiste Nougaret (1742–1823), writer, playwright
  • Victor Prevost, photographer
  • Paul Ramadier, politician and member of the French Resistance
  • René-Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur, scientist
  • Winshluss, artist and cartoonist
  • Etienne Trudeau, ancestor of Canadian Prime Ministers Pierre Trudeau and Justin Trudeau
  • Jean-Louis Raduit de Souches, German Imperial Field Marshal
  • Michel Boudrot (Boudreau, Boudreaux) Judge and Lieutenant General, Lieutenant-général et juge en chef de Port-Royal, Governor General, laboureur, lieutenand general civil et criminel e Port Royal., Lieutenant général en Acadie, Lt. General Of Port Royal

La Rochelle: Lived in La Rochelle

  • Colette Besson, sprinter
  • Saint Louis de Montfort
  • Alcide d'Orbigny, botanist
  • Marie Louise Trichet
  • Georges Simenon, author
  • Jean-Paul Sartre

La Rochelle: Sport

Stade Rochelais are a professional rugby union team in the Top 14 league. They play their home matches at Stade Marcel-Deflandre.

Since 1991 the city has annually hosted the Marathon de La Rochelle, the second most popular marathon of France and an international-level race which featured 10,000 participants in 2010.

La Rochelle: International relations

La Rochelle: Twin towns – Sister cities

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in France

La Rochelle is twinned with:

  • Germany Lübeck, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, since 1988
  • United States New Rochelle, New York, United States, since 1910
  • Israel Acre, Israel, since 1972
  • Morocco Essaouira, Morocco, since 1999
  • Portugal Santiago de Figueiró, Portugal, since 2003
  • Karelia Petrozavodsk, Karelia, Russia, since 1973

La Rochelle: See also

  • Communes of the Charente department

La Rochelle: References

  1. Reformation in La Rochelle: tradition and change in early modern Europe by Judith Chandler Pugh Meyer p.19 [1]
  2. Bradshaw's illustrated travellers' hand book in [afterw.] to France by George Bradshaw [2]
  3. Malcolm Barber. The new knighthood. Google Books. p. 26. Retrieved 15 April 2010.
  4. The history of the Knights Templars by Charles Greenstreet Addison, p.15]
  5. Evelyn Lord. The Knights Templar in Britain. Google Books. p. 120,155. Retrieved 15 April 2010.
  6. Karen Rall. The Templars and the Grail. Google Books. p. 26. Retrieved 15 April 2010.
  7. Tim Wallace-Murphy. Templars in America. Google Books. p. 17. Retrieved 15 April 2010.
  8. Bernard Brodie. From crossbow to H-bomb. Google Books. p. 64. Retrieved 15 April 2010.
  9. Canary Islands by Sarah Andrews,Josephine Quintero p.25
  10. City on the ocean sea: La Rochelle, 1530–1650 by Kevin C. Robbins p.120ff
  11. Fortress of the soul: violence, metaphysics, and material life by Neil Kamil p.133 [3]
  12. War Against the Idols: The Reformation of Worship from Erasmus to Calvin by Carlos M. N. Eire p.279
  13. Fortress of the soul: violence, metaphysics, and material life by Neil Kamil p.148 [4]
  14. Fortress of the soul: violence, metaphysics, and material life by Neil Kamil p.149 [5]
  15. Richard MacKenney. "The City State, 1500-1700" Humanities Press International, 1989. (originally released by the University of Michigan) Buy book ISBN 0391035983 p 13
  16. The rise and fall of Renaissance France, 1483–1610 by Robert Jean Knecht p.355 [6]
  17. The Counter-Reformation and price revolution, 1559–1610 Richard Bruce Wernham p.288 [7]
  18. Memoirs of Maximilian de Béthune, duke of Sully. Google Books. p. 20. Retrieved 15 April 2010.
  19. Denis Vaugeois. Champlain. Google Books. p. 22. Retrieved 15 April 2010.
  20. Penny cyclopaedia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge Page 268 [8]
  21. Fortress of the soul: violence, metaphysics, and material life ..., Volume 2004 Neil Kamil p.584
  22. Kurlansky, Mark. Cod: A Biography of the Fish That Changed the World. Walker and Co., New York, 1997 pp. 51–52. Buy book ISBN 0-8027-1326-2.
  23. James E. Bruseth. From a watery grave. Google Books. Retrieved 15 April 2010.
  24. The French Atlantic: Travels in Culture and History by Bill Marshall p.59-60
  25. Tin Enamelled Pottery Edwin Atlee Barber p.23
  26. The Grove encyclopedia of decorative arts, Volume 1 by Gordon Campbell p.19
  27. "Heavily potted plates with crude red and green Chinese figures were made in large numbers " in Collecting European delft and faience Diana Imber, Praeger, 1968, p.60
  28. "The industry only really started to flourish in La Rochelle towards the middle of the 18th century (...) new everyday vessels were decorated "au petit feu" with flowers and Chinese figures then in fashion." Cahiers de la céramique du verre et des arts du feu, Issues 41–45 Musée national de céramique (France). Société des amis du Musée national de céramique, 1968
  29. La Rochelle touristic board at the "Pointe du Chay"
  30. "Données climatiques de la station de La Rochelle" (in French). Meteo France. Retrieved December 16, 2014.
  31. "Climat Poitou-Charentes" (in French). Meteo France. Retrieved December 16, 2014.
  32. "Normes et records 1961-1990: La Rochelle Aérodrome (17) - altitude 22m" (in French). Infoclimat. Retrieved December 17, 2014.
  33. "A textbook love affair?". BBC News Magazine. 2009-06-16. Retrieved 2013-04-21.
  34. "Actualité Transport > Le port de La Rochelle lance ses trains avec ECR". Retrieved 31 October 2010.
  35. Vazel, Pierre-Jean (2011-11-28). Komen breaks La Rochelle record with 2:07:13. IAAF. Retrieved on 2011-11-30.
  36. "La Rochelle: Twin towns". www.ville-larochelle.fr. Retrieved 7 November 2009.
  • City council website
Source of information: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. We're not responsible for the content of this article and your use of this information. Disclaimer
no
+ Abkhazia
+ Afghanistan
+ Albania
+ Algeria
+ Andorra
+ Angola
+ Anguilla
+ Antigua And Barbuda
+ Argentina
+ Armenia
+ Aruba
+ Australia
+ Austria
+ Azerbaijan
+ Bahamas
+ Bahrain
+ Bangladesh
+ Barbados
+ Belarus
+ Belgium
+ Belize
+ Benin
+ Bermuda
+ Bhutan
+ Bolivia
+ Bosnia and Herzegovina
+ Botswana
+ Brazil
+ British Virgin Islands
+ Brunei
+ Bulgaria
+ Burkina Faso
+ Burundi
+ Cambodia
+ Cameroon
+ Canada
+ Cape Verde
+ Caribbean Netherlands
+ Cayman Islands
+ Chad
+ Chile
+ China
+ Colombia
+ Costa Rica
+ Croatia
+ Cuba
+ Curaçao
+ Cyprus
+ Czech Republic
+ Democratic Republic of the Congo
+ Denmark
+ Djibouti
+ Dominican Republic
+ Ecuador
+ Egypt
+ El Salvador
+ Equatorial Guinea
+ Eritrea
+ Estonia
+ Ethiopia
+ Faroe Islands
+ Fiji
+ Finland
+ France
+ French Guiana
+ French Polynesia
+ Gabon
+ Gambia
+ Georgia
+ Germany
+ Ghana
+ Gibraltar
+ Greece
+ Guadeloupe
+ Guam
+ Guatemala
+ Guinea
+ Guyana
+ Haiti
+ Honduras
+ Hong Kong
+ Hungary
+ Iceland
+ India
+ Indonesia
+ Iran
+ Iraq
+ Ireland
+ Isle of Man
+ Israel
+ Italy
+ Ivory Coast
+ Jamaica
+ Japan
+ Jordan
+ Kazakhstan
+ Kenya
+ Kiribati
+ Kongo
+ Kosovo
+ Kuwait
+ Kyrgyzstan
+ Laos
+ Latvia
+ Lebanon
+ Lesotho
+ Libya
+ Liechtenstein
+ Lithuania
+ Luxembourg
+ Macau
+ Macedonia
+ Madagascar
+ Malawi
+ Malaysia
+ Maldives
+ Mali
+ Malta
+ Martinique
+ Mauritania
+ Mauritius
+ Mexico
+ Moldova
+ Monaco
+ Mongolia
+ Montenegro
+ Morocco
+ Mozambique
+ Myanmar
+ Namibia
+ Nepal
+ Netherlands
+ New Zealand
+ Nicaragua
+ Nigeria
+ North Korea
+ Northern Mariana Islands
+ Norway
+ Oman
+ Pakistan
+ Palau
+ Palestine
+ Panama
+ Papua New Guinea
+ Paraguay
+ Peru
+ Philippines
+ Poland
+ Portugal
+ Puerto Rico
+ Qatar
+ Romania
+ Russia
+ Rwanda
+ Réunion
+ Saint Barthélemy
+ Saint Kitts and Nevis
+ Saint Lucia
+ Saint Martin
+ Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
+ Samoa
+ San Marino
+ Saudi Arabia
+ Senegal
+ Serbia
+ Seychelles
+ Sierra Leone
+ Singapore
+ Sint Maarten
+ Slovakia
+ Slovenia
+ Solomon Islands
+ South Africa
+ South Korea
+ Spain
+ Sri Lanka
+ Sudan
+ Suriname
+ Swaziland
+ Sweden
+ Switzerland
+ Syria
+ Taiwan
+ Tajikistan
+ Tanzania
+ Thailand
+ Togo
+ Tonga
+ Trinidad and Tobago
+ Tunisia
+ Turkey
+ Turkmenistan
+ Turks and Caicos Islands
+ U.S. Virgin Islands
+ Uganda
+ Ukraine
+ United Arab Emirates
+ United Kingdom
+ United States
+ Uruguay
+ Uzbekistan
+ Vanuatu
+ Vatican City
+ Venezuela
+ Vietnam
+ Yemen
+ Zambia
+ Zimbabwe
Vacation: Popular Goods
Popular Goods
Clothing
Tops
Trousers & shorts
Skirts
Dresses
Suits
Uniforms
Outerwear
Underwear
Lingerie
Footwear
Headwear
Nightwear
Swimsuits
Accessories

Cosmetics
Perfumery
Skin care
Hygiene products

Jewellery
Watches
Gemstones

Home appliances
Interior design
Furniture
Bedding
Linens
Plumbing
Lamps
Hand tools
Gardening tools
Building materials

Culinary (Cooking)
Foods
Vegetables
Fruits
Beverages
Condiments
Food preparation appliances
Cooking appliances
Cooking utensils
Kitchenware
Crockery
Cookware & bakeware

Toys
Children's clothing

Electronics
Activity trackers
Audio electronics
Apple electronics
Batteries
BlackBerry
Computer hardware
Computer peripherals
Consumer electronics
Digital electronics
iPhone
GPS
Laptops (notebooks)
Mobile phones
Musical instruments
Optical devices
Photography equipment
PlayStation
Rechargeable batteries
Radio
Satellite navigation
Smartphones
Smartwatches
Tablet computers
Television
Video game consoles
Wearable computers
Wireless
Xbox

Sports
Sports equipment
Sports clothing

Travel
Tourism
Tourism by country
Capitals
Tourist attractions
Airlines
Low-cost airlines
Airports
Airliners
Hotels
Tourism companies
Travel websites
Cruise lines
Cruise ships
Travel gear
Luggage
Camping equipment
Hiking equipment
Fishing equipment

Automobiles
Auto accessories
Automotive electronics
Auto parts
Auto chemicals
Tires

Software
Windows software
Mac OS software
Linux software
Android software
IOS software
Access Control Software
Business Software
Communication Software
Computer Programming
Digital Typography Software
Educational Software
Entertainment Software
Genealogy Software
Government Software
Graphics Software
Health Software
Industrial Software
Knowledge Representation Software
Language Software
Legal Software
Library & Info Science Software
Multimedia Software
Music Software
Personal Info Managers
Religious Software
Scientific Software
Simulation Software
System Software
Transportation Software
Video games, PC games

Finance
Advertising
Accounting
Auditing
Business
Banking
Credit
Credit cards
Currency
Debt
E-commerce
Economics
Employment
Financial markets
Forex
Human resource management
Insurance
Investment
Labor
Law
Loans
Management
Marketing
Money
Mortgage
Payment systems
Pensions
Philanthropy
Property
Real estate
Securities
Stationery
Taxation
Universities & colleges

Books
Films
Music

Health
Dietary supplements
Diets
Medical equipment
Vitamins
Weight loss

All trademarks, service marks, trade names, product names, and logos appearing on the site are the property of their respective owners.
© 2011-2017 Maria-Online.com ▪ DesignHosting