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Hotels of Leiden

A hotel in Leiden is an establishment that provides lodging paid on a short-term basis. Facilities provided may range from a basic bed and storage for clothing, to luxury features like en-suite bathrooms. Larger in Leiden hotels may provide additional guest facilities such as a swimming pool, business centre, childcare, conference facilities and social function services. Hotel rooms in Leiden are usually numbered (or named in some smaller hotels and B&Bs) to allow guests to identify their room. Some Leiden hotels offer meals as part of a room and board arrangement. Hotel operations vary in size, function, and cost. Most Leiden hotels and major hospitality companies that operate hotels in Leiden have set widely accepted industry standards to classify hotel types. General categories include the following:

Upscale luxury hotels in Leiden
An upscale full service hotel facility in Leiden that offers luxury amenities, full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and the highest level of personalized and professional service. Luxury Leiden hotels are normally classified with at least a Four Diamond or Five Diamond status or a Four or Five Star rating depending on classification standards.

Full service hotels in Leiden
Full service Leiden hotels often contain upscale full-service facilities with a large volume of full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and a variety of on-site amenities such as swimming pools, a health club, children's activities, ballrooms, on-site conference facilities, etc.

Historic inns and boutique hotels in Leiden
Boutique hotels of Leiden are smaller independent non-branded hotels that often contain upscale facilities of varying size in unique or intimate settings with full service accommodations. Leiden boutique hotels are generally 100 rooms or less. Some historic inns and boutique hotels in Leiden may be classified as luxury hotels.

Focused or select service hotels in Leiden
Small to medium-sized hotel establishments that offer a limited amount of on-site amenities that only cater and market to a specific demographic of Leiden travelers, such as the single business traveler. Most Leiden focused or select service hotels may still offer full service accommodations but may lack leisure amenities such as an on-site restaurant or a swimming pool.

Economy and limited service hotels in Leiden
Small to medium-sized Leiden hotel establishments that offer a very limited amount of on-site amenities and often only offer basic accommodations with little to no services, these facilities normally only cater and market to a specific demographic of travelers, such as the budget-minded Leiden traveler seeking a "no frills" accommodation. Limited service Leiden hotels often lack an on-site restaurant but in return may offer a limited complimentary food and beverage amenity such as on-site continental breakfast service.

Guest houses and B&Bs in Leiden
A bed and breakfast in Leiden is a small lodging establishment that offers overnight accommodation and inclusive breakfast. Usually, Leiden bed and breakfasts are private homes or family homes offering accommodations. The typical Leiden B&B has between 4 and 11 rooms, with 6 being the average. Generally, guests are accommodated in private bedrooms with private bathrooms, or in a suite of rooms including an en suite bathroom. Some homes have private bedrooms with a bathroom which is shared with other guests. Breakfast is served in the bedroom, a dining room, or the host's kitchen. Often the owners of guest house themselves prepare the breakfast and clean the rooms.

Hostels in Leiden
Leiden hostels provide budget-oriented, sociable accommodation where guests can rent a bed, usually a bunk bed, in a dormitory and share a bathroom, lounge, and sometimes a kitchen. Rooms can be mixed or single-sex, although private rooms may also be available. Hostels are often cheaper for both the operator and occupants; many Leiden hostels have long-term residents whom they employ as desk agents or housekeeping staff in exchange for experience or discounted accommodation.

Apartment hotels, extended stay hotels in Leiden
Extended stay hotels are small to medium-sized Leiden hotels that offer longer term full service accommodations compared to a traditional hotel. Extended stay hotels may offer non-traditional pricing methods such as a weekly rate that cater towards travelers in need of short-term accommodations for an extended period of time. Similar to limited and select service hotels, on-site amenities are normally limited and most extended stay hotels in Leiden lack an on-site restaurant.

Timeshare and destination clubs in Leiden
Leiden timeshare and destination clubs are a form of property ownership also referred to as a vacation ownership involving the purchase and ownership of an individual unit of accommodation for seasonal usage during a specified period of time. Timeshare resorts in Leiden often offer amenities similar that of a Full service hotel with on-site restaurant(s), swimming pools, recreation grounds, and other leisure-oriented amenities. Destination clubs of Leiden on the other hand may offer more exclusive private accommodations such as private houses in a neighborhood-style setting.

Motels in Leiden
A Leiden motel is a small-sized low-rise lodging establishment similar to that of a limited service hotel, but with direct access to individual rooms from the car park. Common during the 1950s and 1960s, motels were often located adjacent to a major road, where they were built on inexpensive land at the edge of towns or along stretches of highways. They are still useful in less populated areas of Leiden for driving travelers, but the more populated an area becomes the more hotels fill the need. Many of Leiden motels which remain in operation have joined national franchise chains, rebranding themselves as hotels, inns or lodges.

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Travelling and vacation in Leiden

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Leiden
City and Municipality
The Oude Rijn in Leiden appears as a gracht
The Oude Rijn in Leiden appears as a gracht
Flag of Leiden
Flag
Coat of arms of Leiden
Coat of arms
Highlighted position of Leiden in a municipal map of South Holland
Location in South Holland
Coordinates:  / 52.167; 4.483  / 52.167; 4.483
Country Netherlands
Province South Holland
Government
• Body Municipal council
• Mayor Henri Lenferink (PvdA)
Area
• Municipality 23.27 km (8.98 sq mi)
• Land 21.95 km (8.47 sq mi)
• Water 1.32 km (0.51 sq mi)
Elevation 0 m (0 ft)
Population (Municipality, February 2017; Urban and Metro, May 2014)
• Municipality 121,249
• Density 5,524/km (14,310/sq mi)
• Urban 258,923
• Metro 344,299
Demonym(s) Leidenaar
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
• Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postcode 2300–2334
Area code 071
Website Official website

Leiden (/ˈldən/; Dutch pronunciation: [ˈlɛi̯.də(n)]; in English and archaic Dutch also Leyden) is a city and municipality in the Dutch province of South Holland. The municipality of Leiden has a population of 122,915, but the city forms one densely connected agglomeration with its suburbs Oegstgeest, Leiderdorp, Voorschoten and Zoeterwoude with 206,647 inhabitants. The Netherlands Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) further includes Katwijk in the agglomeration which makes the total population of the Leiden urban agglomeration 270,879, and in the larger Leiden urban area also Teylingen, Noordwijk, and Noordwijkerhout are included with in total 348,868 inhabitants. Leiden is located on the Oude Rijn, at a distance of some 20 kilometres (12 miles) from The Hague to its south and some 40 km (25 mi) from Amsterdam to its north. The recreational area of the Kaag Lakes (Kagerplassen) lies just to the northeast of Leiden.

A university city since 1575, Leiden houses Leiden University, the oldest university of the Netherlands, and Leiden University Medical Center. Leiden is a city with a rich cultural heritage, not only in science, but also in the arts. One of the world's most famous painters, Rembrandt, was born and educated in Leiden. Other famous Leiden painters include Lucas van Leyden, Jan van Goyen and Jan van Steen. The city has been one of Europe's most prominent scientific centres for more than four centuries. Modern scientific medical research and teaching started in the early 18th century in Leiden with Boerhaave. Many important scientific discoveries have been made here, giving rise to Leiden’s motto: ‘City of Discoveries’.

Leiden University is one of Europe’s top universities, it boasts thirteen Nobel Prize winners, it is a member of the League of European Research Universities and positioned highly in all international academic rankings. It is twinned with Oxford, the location of the United Kingdom's oldest university. Leiden University and Leiden University of Applied Sciences (Leidse Hogeschool) together have around 35,000 students. Leiden is a typical university city, university buildings are scattered throughout the city and the many students from all over the world give the city a bustling, vivid and international atmosphere.

Leiden: History

Historical population
Year Pop. ±% p.a.
1398 5,000 -
1497 11,000 +0.80%
1514 14,250 +1.53%
1574 12,456 −0.22%
1581 12,144 −0.36%
1622 44,745 +3.23%
1632 44,000 −0.17%
1665 67,000 +1.28%
1732 70,000 +0.07%
1750 38,105 −3.32%
1795 30,955 −0.46%
Source: , pp. 112–114

Leiden was formed on an artificial hill (today called the Burcht van Leiden) at the confluence of the rivers Oude and Nieuwe Rijn (Old and New Rhine). In the oldest reference to this, from circa 860, the settlement was called Leithon. The name is said to be from Germanic *leitha- "canal".

Leiden has in the past erroneously been associated with the Roman outpost Lugdunum Batavorum. This particular castellum was thought to be located at the Burcht of Leiden, and the city's name was thought to be derived of the Latin name Lugdunum. However the castellum was in fact closer to the town of Katwijk, whereas the Roman settlement near modern-day Leiden was called Matilo.

Windmill museum De Valk

The landlord of Leiden, situated in a stronghold on the hill (motte), was initially subject to the Bishop of Utrecht but around 1100 the burgraves became subject to the county of Holland. This county got its name in 1101 from a domain near the stronghold: Holtland or Holland.

Leiden was sacked in 1047 by Emperor Henry III. Early 13th century, Ada, Countess of Holland took refuge here when she was fighting in a civil war against her uncle, William I, Count of Holland. He besieged the stronghold and captured Ada.

Leiden received city rights in 1266. In 1389, its population had grown to about 4,000 persons.

Leiden: Siege of 1420

In 1420, during the Hook and Cod wars, Duke John III of Bavaria along with his army marched from Gouda in the direction of Leiden in order to conquer the city since Leiden did not pay the new Count of Holland Jacqueline, Countess of Hainaut, his niece and only daughter of Count William VI of Holland.

Burgrave Filips of Wassenaar and the other local noblemen of the Hook faction assumed that the duke would besiege Leiden first and send small units out to conquer the surrounding citadels. But John of Bavaria chose to attack the citadels first.

He rolled the cannons with his army but one which was too heavy went by ship. By firing at the walls and gates with iron balls the citadels fell one by one. Within a week John of Bavaria conquered the castles of Poelgeest, Ter Does, Hoichmade, de Zijl, ter Waerd, Warmond and de Paddenpoel.

On 24 June the army appeared before the walls of Leiden. On 17 August 1420, after a two-month siege the city surrendered to John of Bavaria. The burgrave Filips of Wassenaar was stripped of his offices and rights and lived out his last years in captivity.

Leiden: 16th to 18th centuries

Relief of Leiden (1574), painting by Otto van Veen. Inundated meadows allow the Dutch fleet access to the Spanish infantry positions.
17th-century houses along the Herengracht
Korenbrug
The 1852 Sijthoff printing office, Leiden
Leiden's west gate, the Morspoort
Leiden's east gate, the Zijlpoort
The Singel at night, showing the chimney of the Light Factory

Leiden flourished in the 16th and 17th century. At the close of the 15th century the weaving establishments (mainly broadcloth) of Leiden were very important, and after the expulsion of the Spaniards Leiden cloth, Leiden baize and Leiden camlet were familiar terms. In the same period, Leiden developed an important printing and publishing industry. The influential printer Christoffel Plantijn lived there at one time. One of his pupils was Lodewijk Elzevir (1547–1617), who established the largest bookshop and printing works in Leiden, a business continued by his descendants through 1712 and the name subsequently adopted (in a variant spelling) by contemporary publisher Elsevier.

In 1572, the city sided with the Dutch revolt against Spanish rule and played an important role in the Eighty Years' War. Besieged from May until October 1574 by the Spanish, Leiden was relieved by the cutting of the dikes, thus enabling ships to carry provisions to the inhabitants of the flooded town. As a reward for the heroic defence of the previous year, the University of Leiden was founded by William I of Orange in 1575. Yearly on 3 October, the end of the siege is still celebrated in Leiden. Tradition tells that the citizens were offered the choice between a university and a certain exemption from taxes and chose the university. The siege is notable also for being the first instance in Europe of the issuance of paper money, with paper taken from prayer books being stamped using coin dies when silver ran out.

Leiden is also known as the place where the Pilgrims (as well as some of the first settlers of New Amsterdam) lived (and operated a printing press) for a time in the early 17th century before their departure to Massachusetts and New Amsterdam in the New World.

In the 17th century, Leiden prospered, in part because of the impetus to the textile industry by refugees from Flanders. While the city had lost about a third of its 15,000 citizens during the siege of 1574, it quickly recovered to 45,000 inhabitants in 1622, and may have come near to 70,000 circa 1670. During the Dutch Golden Era, Leiden was the second largest city of Holland, after Amsterdam. Particularly due to the work by Herman Boerhaave (1668–1738), it played a crucial role in the establishment of modern chemistry and medicine.

From the late 17th century onwards Leiden slumped, mainly due to the decline of the cloth industries. In the beginning of the 19th century the baize manufacture was altogether given up, although industry remained central to Leiden economy. This decline is painted vividly by the fall in population. The population of Leiden had sunk to 30,000 between 1796 and 1811, and in 1904 was 56,044.

From the 17th to the early 19th century, Leiden was the publishing place of one of the most important contemporary journals, Nouvelles Extraordinaires de Divers Endroits, known also as Gazette de Leyde.

Leiden: 19th and 20th centuries

On 12 January 1807, a catastrophe struck the city when a boat loaded with 17,400 kilograms (38,360 pounds) of gunpowder blew up in the middle of Leiden. 151 persons were killed, over 2,000 were injured and some 220 homes were destroyed. King Louis Bonaparte personally visited the city to provide assistance to the victims. Although located in the centre of the city, the area destroyed remained empty for many years. In 1886 the space was turned into a public park, the Van der Werff park.

In 1842, the railroad from Leiden to Haarlem was inaugurated and one year later the railway to Den Haag was completed, resulting in some social and economic improvement. Perhaps the most important piece of Dutch history contributed by Leiden was the Constitution of the Netherlands. Johan Rudolf Thorbecke (1798–1872) wrote the Dutch Constitution in April 1848 in his house at Garenmarkt 9 in Leiden.

Leiden's reputation as the "city of books" continued through the 19th century with the establishment of publishing dynasties by Evert Jan Brill and Albertus Willem Sijthoff. Sijthoff, who rose to prominence in the trade of translated books, wrote a letter in 1899 to Queen Wilhelmina regarding his opposition to becoming a signatory to the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works. He felt that international copyright restrictions would stifle the Dutch publishing industry.

Leiden grew 12-fold in size between 1896 and 1981, annexing land from neighboring municipalities

Leiden began to expand beyond its 17th-century moats around 1896 and the number of citizens surpassed 50,000 in 1900. After 1920, new industries were established in the city, such as the canning and metal industries. During World War II, Leiden was hit hard by Allied bombardments. The areas surrounding the railway station and Marewijk were almost completely destroyed.

Leiden: Leiden today

The city's biggest and most popular annual festival is celebrated at 3 October and is called simply 3 Oktober. The people of Leiden celebrate the end of the Spanish siege of 1574. It typically takes place over the course of two to three days (usually two but three if there's a Sunday involved) and includes parades, a hutspot feast, historical reenactments, a funfair and other events. The city has recently started to host the Leiden International Film Festival, the fastest growing festival of its type in the Netherlands.

Leiden has important functions as a shopping and trade centre for communities around the city. The University of Leiden is famous for its many discoveries including Snells law (by Willebrord Snellius), the famous Leyden jar, a capacitor made from a glass jar, invented in Leiden by Pieter van Musschenbroek in 1746. Another development was in cryogenics: Heike Kamerlingh Onnes (1913 Nobel prize winner in physics) liquefied helium for the first time (1908) and later managed to reach a temperature of less than one degree above the absolute minimum. Albert Einstein also spent some time at Leiden University during his early to middle career.

The city also houses the Eurotransplant, the international organization responsible for the mediation and allocation of organ donation procedures in Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and Slovenia. Leiden also houses the headquarters of Airbus Group, a global pan-European aerospace and defence corporation and a leading defence and military contractor worldwide. The group includes Airbus, the leading manufacturer of commercial aircraft worldwide.

Leiden: Rivers, canals and parks

The two branches of the Oude Rijn, which enter Leiden on the east, unite in the centre of the city. The city is further intersected by numerous small canals with tree-bordered quays. On the west side of the city, the Hortus Botanicus and other gardens extend along the old Singel, or outer canal. The Leidse Hout park, which contains a small deer park, lies on the northwest border with Oegstgeest. The Van der Werf Park is named after the mayor Pieter Adriaansz. van der Werff (nl), who defended the city against the Spaniards in 1574. The city was beleaguered for months and many died from famine. The open space for the park was formed by the accidental explosion of a ship loaded with gunpowder in 1807, which destroyed hundreds of houses, including that of the Elsevier family of printers.

Leiden: Buildings of interest

Because of the economic decline from the end of the 17th until the middle of the 19th century, much of the 16th- and 17th-century city centre is still intact. It is the second largest 17th-century town centre in the Netherlands, the largest being Amsterdam's city centre.

A hundred buildings in the centre are decorated with large murals of poetry, part of a wall poem project active from 1992, and still ongoing.

Leiden: Fortifications

At the strategically important junction of the two arms of the Oude Rijn stands the old castle de Burcht, a circular tower built on an earthen mound. The mound probably was a refuge against high water before a small wooden fortress was built on top of it in the 11th century. The citadel is a so-called motte-and-bailey castle. Of Leiden's old city gates only two are left, the Zijlpoort and the Morspoort, both dating from the end of the 17th century. Apart from one small watch tower on the Singel nothing is left of the town's city walls. Another former fortification is the Gravensteen. Built as a fortress in the 13th century it has since served as house, library and prison. Presently it is one of the University's buildings.

Leiden: Churches

Hooglandse Kerk, Leiden

The chief of Leiden's numerous churches are the Hooglandse Kerk (or the church of St Pancras, built in the 15th century and containing a monument to Pieter Adriaansz. van der Werff) and the Pieterskerk (church of St Peter (1315)) with monuments to Scaliger, Boerhaave and other famous scholars. From a historical perspective the Marekerk is interesting too. Arent van 's Gravesande designed that church in 1639. Other fine examples of his work in Leiden are in the Stedelijk Museum De Lakenhal (the municipal museum of fine arts), and the Bibliotheca Thysiana. The growing city needed another church and the Marekerk was the first Protestant church to be built in Leiden (and in Holland) after the Reformation. It is an example of Dutch Classicism. In the drawings by Van 's Gravesande the pulpit is the centrepiece of the church. The pulpit is modelled after the one in the Nieuwe Kerk at Haarlem (designed by Jacob van Campen). The building was first used in 1650, and is still in use. The Heilige Lodewijkkerk is first catholic church in Leiden that was built after the Reformation. This church was given to the Catholics after the gunpowder explosion in 1807, which killed 150 inhabitants and destroyed a large part of the city centre. The 'Waalse Kerk' (Breestraat 63) was originally part of the Katharina Hospital. In 1584 it became the church of Protestant refugees from the Southern Netherlands (Brugge) and France. Later churches in the centre include the St. Joseph in expressionistic style.

Leiden: University buildings

The 1860 Leiden Observatory, after restoration (2013)

The city centre contains many buildings that are in use by the University of Leiden. The Academy Building is housed in a former 16th-century convent. Among the institutions connected with the university are the national institution for East Indian languages, ethnology and geography; the botanical gardens, founded in 1587; the observatory (1860); the museum of antiquities (Rijksmuseum van Oudheden); and the ethnographical museum, of which P. F. von Siebold's Japanese collection was the nucleus (Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde). This collection is now housed in a separate museum called the SieboldHuis. The Bibliotheca Thysiana occupies an old Renaissance building of the year 1655. It is especially rich in legal works and vernacular chronicles. Noteworthy are also the many special collections at Leiden University Library among which those of the Society of Dutch Literature (1766) and the collection of casts and engravings. In recent years the university has built the Leiden Bio Science Park at the city's outskirts to accommodate the Science departments.

De Waag (1900)

Leiden: Other buildings

  • Stadhuis (City Hall), a 16th-century building that was badly damaged by a fire in 1929 but has its Renaissance façade designed by Lieven de Key still standing
  • Gemeenlandshuis van Rijnland (1596, restored in 1878)
  • De Waag (weigh house in Dutch), built by Pieter Post
  • Gravensteen – a former 15th century jail at the Gerecht square (former court-house)
  • Stedelijk Gymnasium (aka Latijnse School) – the old gymnasium (1599)
  • Stadstimmerwerf – the city carpenter's yard and wharf (1612), both built by Lieven de Key (c. 1560–1627)
  • Heilige Geest Weeshuis (a former Holy Spirit Orphanage) – a complex of 16th century buildings.
  • Molen de Valk – a corn-grinding windmill, now home to a museum (1743)
  • Pesthuis, which was built during 1657–1661 at that time just outside the city for curing patients suffering the bubonic plague. However, after it was built the feared disease did not occur in the Netherlands anymore so it was never used for its original purpose. The building has been used as a military hospital, prison, national asylum and army museum. It now serves as the entrance of Naturalis, one of the largest natural history museums in the world.

Leiden: Public transport

Topographic map image of Leiden (city), Sept. 2014

Bus transport in Leiden is provided by Arriva.

Railway stations within the municipality of Leiden are:

  • Leiden Centraal
  • Leiden Lammenschans
  • De Vink

Leiden is on the planned route of the RijnGouweLijn, the Netherlands' first Light rail project. This project has, however been shelved for the foreseeable time.

Leiden: Notable inhabitants

See also People from Leiden

The following is a selection of important Leidenaren throughout history:

  • William II, 1228–1256, count of Holland, later also king of Germany.
  • Cornelius Engelbrechtszoon, 1468–1533, painter.
  • Lucas van Leyden, 1494–1533, engraver and painter.
  • John of Leiden, 1509–1536, leader of the Anabaptist Münster Rebellion.
  • Charles de L'Écluse, 1526–1609, botanist, director of Leiden's Hortus Botanicus, where his cultivation of tulips led to the Dutch tulip industry.
  • Pieter Adriaansz. van der Werff (nl), 1529–1604, mayor of Leiden during the Spanish Siege.
  • Ludolph van Ceulen, 1540–1610, mathematician, computed Pi.
  • William Brewster, 1567–1644, pilgrim.
  • Willebrord Snell, 1580–1626, astronomer and mathematician.
  • William Bradford, 1590–1657, pilgrim, leader of the American Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts.
  • Jan van Goyen, 1596–1656, painter.
  • Rembrandt van Rijn, 1606–1669, painter.
  • Love Brewster, 1611–1650/1, pilgrim.
  • Frans Post, 1612–1680, painter.
  • Gerard Dou, 1613–1675, painter.
  • Pieter de Ring, ca 1615–1660, painter
  • Jan Steen, 1626–1679, painter.
  • Gabriel Metsu, 1629–1667, painter.
  • Herman Boerhaave, 1668–1738, humanist and physician.
  • Johann Bachstrom, 1688–1742, writer, scientist and Lutheran theologian.
  • Bernhard Siegfried Albinus, 1697–1770, anatomist.
  • Gottfried van Swieten, 1733–1803, diplomat, friendship and collaboration with several great composers.
  • Philipp Franz Bathasar von Siebold, 1796–1866, physician, collector, 'Japanologist'.
  • Johannes Diderik van der Waals, 1837–1923, physicist.
  • Jan Elias Kikkert, 1843–1925, watercolorist.
  • Hendrik Lorentz, 1853–1928, physicist.
  • Heike Kamerlingh Onnes, 1853–1926, physicist.
  • Willem Einthoven, 1860–1927, physician, physiologist.
  • Pieter Zeeman, 1865–1943, physicist.
  • Willem de Sitter, 1872–1934, mathematician, physicist, astronomer.
  • Albert Einstein, 1879–1955, lecturer/researcher at Leiden University, various dates between 1916 and 1930.
  • Paul Ehrenfest, 1880–1933, physicist.
  • Theo van Doesburg, 1883–1931, painter, architect, writer.
  • Jan Hendrik Oort, 1900–1992, astronomer.
  • Marinus van der Lubbe, 1909–1934, accused of setting fire to the Reichstag in Berlin.
  • Hendrik Casimir, 1909–2000, physicist.
  • Nina Foch, 1924–2008, actress/ acting teacher.
  • Jouke de Vries, 1960, professor at Leiden University and runner-up candidate for the PVDA elections in 2002 (lost to Wouter Bos).
  • Armin van Buuren, 1976, producer/DJ, DJ Magazine's # 1 DJ 2007–2010 & 2012.
  • Carice van Houten, 1976, singer and film/television actress
  • Dyro, 1992, producer/DJ, DJ Magazine's #30 DJ 2013, #27 DJ 2014 & 2015 and #93 DJ 2016.
  • Buurtpoes Bledder, 2011–2013, Cat covered by national media for his exploits around the city.

Leiden: International relations

Leiden: Twin cities – sister cities

Leiden is twinned with:

  • Juigalpa, Nicaragua
  • Krefeld, Germany
  • Oxford, United Kingdom
  • Toruń, Poland
  • Buffalo City, South Africa

Leiden: Miscellaneous

Eastern gate 'Zijlpoort' at the Singel
  • The coat of arms of Leiden is two red keys, crossed in an X-shape on a white background. These keys are those to the gates of heaven held by St.Peter, for whom a large church in the city centre is named. Because of this coat of arms, Leiden is referred to as the "Sleutelstad" ("the key city").
  • For a time Leiden held the title "The Coldest Place on Earth" because of the developments in cryogenics in a laboratory there. Heike Kamerlingh Onnes (1913 Nobel prize winner in physics) liquefied helium for the first time (1908), and later managed to reach a temperature of less than one degree above Absolute zero.
  • The Norwegian cheese "nøkkelost" ("key cheese") is named after the keys in coat of arms of Leyden, as it is a variation of Leyden cheese.
  • The following places and things are named after this city:
    • Leyden, New York, USA
    • Leyden, Massachusetts, USA
    • Leyden High School District 212 in Franklin Park, Illinois, USA.
    • Leiden scale, for measuring extreme low temperatures.
    • Factor V Leiden is named after the city of Leiden where it was discovered in 1994.
    • The Leyden jar, a capacitor made from a glass jar, was invented here by Pieter van Musschenbroek in 1746. It was actually first invented by Ewald Georg von Kleist the year before, but the name "Leyden jar" stuck.
  • Leiden's Stadhuis (Town Hall) has a poem in the form of a cryptogram on its façade that records the date 1574 in Roman numerals, the year of the "Black Famine" or Spanish siege (W equals two Vs):
The poem on Leiden's Stadhuis

Nae zWarte HVnger-noot
GebraCht had tot de doot
bInaest zes-dVIzent MensChen;

aLst god den heer Verdroot
gaf hI Vns Weder broot
zo VeeL WI CVnsten WensChen.

(Dutch: "When the Black Famine had brought to the death nearly six thousand persons, then God the Lord repented, and gave bread again as much as we could wish".)

Leiden: Sports

  • Zorg en Zekerheid Leiden is the basketball club of Leiden. In 2011 and 2013 they won the National Title, in 2010 and 2012 the National Cup and in 2011 and 2012 the National Super Cup. The club also played in the FIBA EuroChallenge and reached the Second Round (Best 16) in 2011/2012.

Leiden: See also

  • Leiden Classical A distributed computing project
  • Oudt Leyden, former Michelin starred restaurant
  • Wireless Leiden

Leiden: References

Leiden: Citations

  1. "College van burgemeester en wethouders" [Board of mayor and aldermen] (in Dutch). Gemeente Leiden. Retrieved 8 August 2013.
  2. "Kerncijfers wijken en buurten" [Key figures for neighbourhoods]. CBS Statline (in Dutch). CBS. 2 July 2013. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
  3. "Postcodetool for 2312AT". Actueel Hoogtebestand Nederland (in Dutch). Het Waterschapshuis. Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 8 August 2013.
  4. "Bevolkingsontwikkeling; regio per maand" [Population growth; regions per month]. CBS Statline (in Dutch). CBS. 7 April 2017. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
  5. "Bevolkingsontwikkeling; regio per maand" [Population growth; regions per month]. CBS Statline (in Dutch). CBS. 26 June 2014. Retrieved 24 July 2014.
  6. "Online Etymology Dictionary".
  7. Jona Lendering. "Towns in Germania Inferior: Lugdunum (Brittenburg)". Livius.org. Retrieved 11 June 2010.
  8. John E. Sandrock. "Siege Notes - Windows To The Past" (PDF). thecurrencycollector.com. Retrieved 9 June 2016.
  9. "The New York Genealogical and Biographical Society – Access Denied". Newyorkfamilyhistory.org. Retrieved 11 June 2010.
  10. [1] Archived 2 November 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
  11. "The Pilgrim Press". Pilgrimhall.org. 18 May 2005. Retrieved 11 June 2010.
  12. "The Dutch Door to America". Americanheritage.com. April 1999. Retrieved 28 November 2011.
  13. "History: Leiden, city of books". Burgersdijk & Niermans. Retrieved 29 August 2010.
  14. "The Netherlands and the Berne Convention". The Publishers' circular and booksellers' record of British and foreign literature, Vol. 71. Sampson Low, Marston & Co. 1899. p. 597. Retrieved 29 August 2010.
  15. Film & Television Coll Europe. Routledge. 2012. p. 315. ISBN 978-1-135-10295-1.
  16. Dawson, Nick (28 September 2013). "Leiden International Film Festival Announces New US Indie Competition". Filmmaker Magazine. Retrieved 8 October 2013.
  17. Fihn, Stephan (2005), "Poetry on the Wall", in Garg, Anu, Another Word A Day: An All-new Romp Through Some Of The Most Unusual And Intriguing Words In English, John Wiley & Sons, p. 59, ISBN 978-0-471-71845-1
  18. Khouw, Ida Indawati (15 July 2001), "Leiden, the Dutch city of poems", Jakarta Post
  19. "10 Best Spots in Leiden". visitleiden.nl. 18 March 2016.
  20. "404". lodewijkparochie.nl. Archived from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 9 June 2016.
  21. Hein van Woerden (eindred.): Lodewijk in Leiden. Geschiedenis van kerk en orgel. Leiden, Parochie van de Heilige Lodewijk, 2005.
  22. Gallery, Saatchi. "Naturalis – National Museum of Natural History :: The Saatchi Gallery". www.saatchigallery.com. Retrieved 22 March 2016.
  23. Busways (5 July 2013). "English – Arriva".
  24. "Dood van Bledder dompelt Leiden in rouw". De Telegraaf. 9 August 2013. Retrieved 9 August 2013.
  25. "Oxford's International Twin Towns". Oxford City Council. Archived from the original on 17 August 2013. Retrieved 3 September 2013.
  26. "Miasta bliźniacze Torunia" [Toruń's twin towns]. Urząd Miasta Torunia [City of Toruń Council] (in Polish). Retrieved 22 August 2013.
  27. "Leiden Information". Orientation Week. Retrieved 5 February 2015.
  28. Gannett, Henry (1905). The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States. U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 186.
  29. Handbook to Holland (7th edition). Ward Lock. 1925. p. 92.

Leiden: Sources

See also: Bibliography of the history of Leiden
  • Lourens, Piet; Lucassen, Jan (1997). Inwonertallen van Nederlandse steden ca. 1300–1800. Amsterdam: NEHA. ISBN 9057420082.
  • Official website
  • Scenic video 'Leiden Sleutelstad' ('Leiden, city of keys') (time lapse)
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