Lowest prices on Los Angeles hotels booking, United States

One of the super offers is an unique opportunity to instantly find the lowest prices on Los Angeles hotels and book a best hotel in Los Angeles saving up to 80%! You can do it quickly and easily with HotelsCombined, a world's leading free hotel metasearch engine that allows to search and compare the rates of all major hotel chains, top travel sites, and leading hotel booking websites, including Booking.com, Hotels.com, Agoda.com, etc., etc. The hotel price comparison service HotelsCombined means cheap Los Angeles hotels booking, lowest prices on hotel reservation in Los Angeles and airline tickets to Los Angeles, United States!

Los Angeles Hotels Comparison & Online Booking

▪ Lowest prices on Los Angeles hotels booking
▪ The discounts on Los Angeles hotels up to 80%
▪ No booking fees on Los Angeles hotels
▪ Detailed description & photos of Los Angeles hotels
▪ Trusted ratings and reviews of Los Angeles hotels
▪ Advanced Los Angeles hotel search & comparison
▪ All Los Angeles hotels on the map
▪ Interesting sights of Los Angeles

What's important: you can compare and book not only Los Angeles hotels and resorts, but also villas and holiday cottages, inns and B&Bs (bed and breakfast), condo hotels and apartments, timeshare properties, guest houses and pensions, campsites (campgrounds), motels and hostels in Los Angeles. If you're going to Los Angeles save your money and time, don't pay for the services of the greedy travel agencies. Instead, book the best hotel in Los Angeles online, buy the cheapest airline tickets to Los Angeles, and rent a car in Los Angeles right now, paying the lowest price! Besides, here you can buy the Los Angeles related books, guidebooks, souvenirs and other goods.

By the way, we would recommend you to combine your visit to Los Angeles with other popular and interesting places of United States, for example: Dallas, Omaha, West Virginia, Honolulu, Santa Ana, Kansas City, Wichita, Denver, Santa Cruz, Malibu, Gilbert, Newark, Glendale, Santa Rosa, Billings, Milwaukee, Maine, Montgomery, Connecticut, South Dakota, Yosemite, Fort Lauderdale, Houston, Galveston, Fayetteville, Ocean City, Waikiki, Steamboat Springs, Delaware, Stockton, Norfolk, Sarasota, Grand Rapids, Iowa, Kentucky, San Diego, Minnesota, Sacramento, San Francisco, Menlo Park, New Orleans, Fargo, Carmel-by-the-Sea, Santa Fe, Springfield, Nebraska, Santa Barbara, Naples, Modesto, Philadelphia, Arlington, Hot Springs, Spokane, Grand Canyon, Oklahoma City, Jersey City, Destin, Redwood City, Moreno Valley, Atlanta, Hawaii, Saint Paul, Park City, Berkeley, Palm Springs, Las Vegas, Mexico City, Hollywood, Sanibel, St. Louis, Fort Myers, Aspen, Palo Alto, Toledo, Virginia Beach, Little Rock, Mesa, Long Beach, Tacoma, Pittsburgh, Anaheim, Mammoth Lakes, Boca Raton, Oceanside, Cincinnati, Chicago, Des Moines, Pasadena, New Mexico, Albuquerque, Arizona, Boston, Dana Point, Clearwater, Pompano Beach, Thousand Oaks, North Dakota, Laredo, Big Bear Lake, San Jose, Key West, Texas, Manhattan, Fort Worth, Gulfport, Louisiana, North Carolina, Napa, San Antonio, Massachusetts, Maryland, Newport, Scottsdale, Squaw Valley, Yonkers, Columbus Georgia, Santa Monica, Syracuse, Tucson, Durham, Salt Lake City, Grand Teton, Indiana, Tulsa, Illinois, Marathon, Montana, Key Largo, Cheyenne, Providence, Birmingham, Rhode Island, Buffalo, Michigan, Death Valley, Boise, Raleigh, Oakland, Winston-Salem, Colorado Springs, Charlotte, Pennsylvania, Irving, Great Smoky Mountains, Chandler, Riverside, Telluride, Vermont, Tampa, South Carolina, La Jolla, St. Petersburg, Seattle, Fresno, Tennessee, Missouri, Tallahassee, Zion, Phoenix, Ann Arbor, Reno, South Lake Tahoe, Miami, Shreveport, El Paso, Daytona Beach, Sunny Isles Beach, Florida, Utah, Arkansas, Sunnyvale, Lexington, Yellowstone, Garland, Brooklyn, Beaver Creek, Biloxi, Baltimore, Palm Desert, Louisville, Fort Wayne, Colorado, Lubbock, Panama City Beach, Hialeah, Madison, Costa Mesa, West Palm Beach, Breckenridge, Juneau, Cleveland, Wisconsin, Mississippi, Jackson Mississippi, Corpus Christi, Richmond, Indianapolis, Moab, Nashville, California, Washington D.C., Chesapeake, Jacksonville, St. Augustine, Estes Park, Aurora, San Bernardino, Idaho, Monterey, Carlsbad, Alaska, Greensboro, Newport Beach, Akron, Washington, Lake Tahoe, Lahaina, New Hampshire, New York City, Cupertino, Palm Coast, Nevada, Myrtle Beach, North Las Vegas, Amarillo, Lincoln, Columbus, Georgia, Orlando, Miami Beach, Mountain View, Savannah, Rocky Mountains, Jackson Wyoming, Fontana, Rochester, Henderson, Memphis, Kansas, Fremont, Huntington Beach, Alabama, New York, Detroit, Los Angeles, Wyoming, Portland, Fort Walton Beach, Silicon Valley, Anchorage, Virginia, Austin, Ohio, Chula Vista, Minneapolis, Oklahoma, Plano, New Jersey, Oxnard, San Mateo, Pensacola, Delray Beach, Oregon, Albany, Baton Rouge, Portland, Laguna Beach, Bakersfield, etc.

How to Book a Hotel in Los Angeles

In order to book an accommodation in Los Angeles enter the proper dates and do the hotel search. If needed, sort the found Los Angeles hotels by price, star rating, property type, guest rating, hotel features, hotel theme or hotel chain. Then take a look at the found hotels on Los Angeles map to estimate the distance from the main Los Angeles attractions and sights. You can also read the guest reviews of Los Angeles hotels and see their ratings.

When a hotel search in Los Angeles is done, please select the room type, the included meals and the suitable booking conditions (for example, "Deluxe double room, Breakfast included, Non-Refundable"). Press the "View Deal" ("Book Now") button. Make your booking on a hotel booking website and get the hotel reservation voucher by email. That's it, a perfect hotel in Los Angeles is waiting for you!

Hotels of Los Angeles

A hotel in Los Angeles is an establishment that provides lodging paid on a short-term basis. Facilities provided may range from a basic bed and storage for clothing, to luxury features like en-suite bathrooms. Larger in Los Angeles hotels may provide additional guest facilities such as a swimming pool, business centre, childcare, conference facilities and social function services. Hotel rooms in Los Angeles are usually numbered (or named in some smaller hotels and B&Bs) to allow guests to identify their room. Some Los Angeles hotels offer meals as part of a room and board arrangement. Hotel operations vary in size, function, and cost. Most Los Angeles hotels and major hospitality companies that operate hotels in Los Angeles have set widely accepted industry standards to classify hotel types. General categories include the following:

Upscale luxury hotels in Los Angeles
An upscale full service hotel facility in Los Angeles that offers luxury amenities, full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and the highest level of personalized and professional service. Luxury Los Angeles hotels are normally classified with at least a Four Diamond or Five Diamond status or a Four or Five Star rating depending on classification standards.

Full service hotels in Los Angeles
Full service Los Angeles hotels often contain upscale full-service facilities with a large volume of full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and a variety of on-site amenities such as swimming pools, a health club, children's activities, ballrooms, on-site conference facilities, etc.

Historic inns and boutique hotels in Los Angeles
Boutique hotels of Los Angeles are smaller independent non-branded hotels that often contain upscale facilities of varying size in unique or intimate settings with full service accommodations. Los Angeles boutique hotels are generally 100 rooms or less. Some historic inns and boutique hotels in Los Angeles may be classified as luxury hotels.

Focused or select service hotels in Los Angeles
Small to medium-sized hotel establishments that offer a limited amount of on-site amenities that only cater and market to a specific demographic of Los Angeles travelers, such as the single business traveler. Most Los Angeles focused or select service hotels may still offer full service accommodations but may lack leisure amenities such as an on-site restaurant or a swimming pool.

Economy and limited service hotels in Los Angeles
Small to medium-sized Los Angeles hotel establishments that offer a very limited amount of on-site amenities and often only offer basic accommodations with little to no services, these facilities normally only cater and market to a specific demographic of travelers, such as the budget-minded Los Angeles traveler seeking a "no frills" accommodation. Limited service Los Angeles hotels often lack an on-site restaurant but in return may offer a limited complimentary food and beverage amenity such as on-site continental breakfast service.

Guest houses and B&Bs in Los Angeles
A bed and breakfast in Los Angeles is a small lodging establishment that offers overnight accommodation and inclusive breakfast. Usually, Los Angeles bed and breakfasts are private homes or family homes offering accommodations. The typical Los Angeles B&B has between 4 and 11 rooms, with 6 being the average. Generally, guests are accommodated in private bedrooms with private bathrooms, or in a suite of rooms including an en suite bathroom. Some homes have private bedrooms with a bathroom which is shared with other guests. Breakfast is served in the bedroom, a dining room, or the host's kitchen. Often the owners of guest house themselves prepare the breakfast and clean the rooms.

Hostels in Los Angeles
Los Angeles hostels provide budget-oriented, sociable accommodation where guests can rent a bed, usually a bunk bed, in a dormitory and share a bathroom, lounge, and sometimes a kitchen. Rooms can be mixed or single-sex, although private rooms may also be available. Hostels are often cheaper for both the operator and occupants; many Los Angeles hostels have long-term residents whom they employ as desk agents or housekeeping staff in exchange for experience or discounted accommodation.

Apartment hotels, extended stay hotels in Los Angeles
Extended stay hotels are small to medium-sized Los Angeles hotels that offer longer term full service accommodations compared to a traditional hotel. Extended stay hotels may offer non-traditional pricing methods such as a weekly rate that cater towards travelers in need of short-term accommodations for an extended period of time. Similar to limited and select service hotels, on-site amenities are normally limited and most extended stay hotels in Los Angeles lack an on-site restaurant.

Timeshare and destination clubs in Los Angeles
Los Angeles timeshare and destination clubs are a form of property ownership also referred to as a vacation ownership involving the purchase and ownership of an individual unit of accommodation for seasonal usage during a specified period of time. Timeshare resorts in Los Angeles often offer amenities similar that of a Full service hotel with on-site restaurant(s), swimming pools, recreation grounds, and other leisure-oriented amenities. Destination clubs of Los Angeles on the other hand may offer more exclusive private accommodations such as private houses in a neighborhood-style setting.

Motels in Los Angeles
A Los Angeles motel is a small-sized low-rise lodging establishment similar to that of a limited service hotel, but with direct access to individual rooms from the car park. Common during the 1950s and 1960s, motels were often located adjacent to a major road, where they were built on inexpensive land at the edge of towns or along stretches of highways. They are still useful in less populated areas of Los Angeles for driving travelers, but the more populated an area becomes the more hotels fill the need. Many of Los Angeles motels which remain in operation have joined national franchise chains, rebranding themselves as hotels, inns or lodges.

Why HotelsCombined

HotelsCombined is the leading hotel metasearch engine founded in 2005, with headquarters in Sydney, Australia. It is widely recognized as the world's best hotel price comparison site and has won many of the most prestigious tourism industry awards. The site operates in over 40 languages, handles 120 different currencies and aggregates more than 2 million deals from hundreds of travel sites and hotel chains. The number of users counts more than 300,000 people a year with over $1,000,000,000 in estimated total cost of hotel reservations.

The main purpose of HotelsCombined hotel price comparison service is to help the travelers in finding a perfect accommodation option in Los Angeles at the best price, eliminating the need to manually analyze hundreds of hotel booking sites and thousands of price offers. Through the partnership with the most popular hotel booking websites, online travel agencies and hotel chains, HotelsCombined allows its users to search for and compare the current rates on Los Angeles hotels in a single search. It also provides an aggregated summary of hotel reviews and ratings from external sites.

The HotelsCombined's advanced technology allows to instantly find the available Los Angeles hotels and process the offers of all leading travel websites, including Booking.com, Hotels.com, Agoda.com, etc. and many others (AccorHotels.com, AirAsiaGo.com, Amoma.com, AsiaTravel.com, BestWestern.com, Budgetplaces.com, EasyToBook.com, Elvoline.com, Expedia.com, Getaroom.com, Hilton.com, Homestay.com, Hotel.de, HotelClub.com, HotelsClick.com, HotelTravel.com, Housetrip.com, ihg.com, Interhome.com, Jovago.com, LateRooms.com, NH-Hotels.com, OnHotels.com, Otel.com, Prestigia.com, Skoosh.com, Splendia.com, Superbreak.com, Tiket.com, etc.). Due to the fast and easy-to-use search system you get the rates on available Los Angeles hotels and book a preferable hotel on a website providing the lowest price.

All Los Angeles Hotels & Hostels Online

HotelsCombined is created for those interested in Los Angeles, United States, HotelsCombined, Trivago, sale on the hotel booking site HotelsCombined, discount coupons on the hotel booking site HotelsCombined, best rates on Los Angeles hotels, low prices on Los Angeles hotels, best hotel in Los Angeles, best Los Angeles hotel, discounted Los Angeles hotel booking, online Los Angeles hotel reservation, Los Angeles hotels comparison, hotel booking in Los Angeles, luxury and cheap accomodation in Los Angeles, Los Angeles inns, Los Angeles B&Bs, bed and breakfast in Los Angeles, condo hotels and apartments in Los Angeles, bargain Los Angeles rentals, cheap Los Angeles vacation rentals,Los Angeles pensions and guest houses, cheap hotels and hostels of Los Angeles, Los Angeles motels, dormitories of Los Angeles, dorms in Los Angeles, Los Angeles dormitory rooms, lowest rates on hotels in Los Angeles, hotel prices comparison in Los Angeles, travel to Los Angeles, vacation in Los Angeles, trip to Los Angeles, trusted hotel reviews of Los Angeles, sights and attractions of Los Angeles, Los Angeles guidebook, Los Angeles guide, hotel booking in Los Angeles, United States, tours to Los Angeles, travel company in Los Angeles, travel agency in Los Angeles, excursions in Los Angeles, tickets to Los Angeles, airline tickets to Los Angeles, Los Angeles hotel booking, Los Angeles hostels, dormitory of Los Angeles, dorm in Los Angeles, Los Angeles dormitory, Los Angeles airfares, etc.

Many people are also interested in the Los Angeles airline tickets, Los Angeles tours, Los Angeles travel, must-see places in Los Angeles, Los Angeles Booking.com, Los Angeles hotels Trivago, Los Angeles Expedia, Los Angeles Airbnb, Los Angeles TripAdvisor, Hotels Combined Los Angeles, HotelsCombined Los Angeles, Los Angeles hotels and hostels, US hotels and hostels, Black Friday on the hotel booking site HotelsCombined, Cyber Monday on the hotel booking site HotelsCombined, New Year's and Christmas sale HotelsCombined, hotelscombined.en, HotelsCombined.en, HotelsCombined.en, hotelscombined.com, Los Andželes, Лос Анжелес, لاس انجلس, Los Anjélés, લોસ એન્જેલસ, लॉस एंजेल्स, Los Angeles, California, لوس‌آنجلس, Os Ánxeles, Լոս Անջելես, Los Andželas, Los-Anceles, Лос-Анџелес, לאס אנדזשעלעס, لۆس ئانجلەس, Lɔsɩ Anzelɛsɩ, Los Angeles (Kalifornia), Los Angeles, Лос Анджелис, Angelopolis, लॉस एंजेलिस, ሎስ አንጄሌስ, Luos Andžels, लस एञ्जिलस, and so on.

While others are looking for the Los Anjeles, Los Ángeles, Лос-Анджэлес, Лос Андьелес, Los-Anjeles, Los Angeles, Karapōnia, Лос-Анжелес, Las Anjiliiz, Los Anjeles (Kalifornia), Los Angeles, Kalifòni, Los Andjeles, لوس أنجلوس, Ahééháshį́į́h (kin haalʼá), ロサンゼルス, Los-Anĝeleso, 洛杉矶, لوس انجليس, 로스앤젤레스, ಲಾಸ್ ಎಂಜಲೀಸ್, လော့စ်အိန်ဂျယ်လိစ်မြို့, Λος Άντζελες, லாஸ் ஏஞ்சலஸ், Лос Анђелес, Лос Анџелес, 洛杉磯, लास एंजलस, لس آنجلس, לוס אנג'לס, ლოს-ანჯელესი, Los Angeles, Kalifornija, ਲਾਸ ਐਂਜਲਸ, लस एन्जलस, ലോസ് ആഞ്ചെലെസ്, Лос Анӂелес, Лос Анҷелес, లాస్ ఏంజలెస్, لاس اینجلس, Лос-Анджелес, লস অ্যাঞ্জেলেস, Лос Анджелес, Losandželosa, ลอสแอนเจลิส. A lot of people have already booked the hotels in Los Angeles on the hotel booking site HotelsCombined. Don't wait, act now!

Travelling and vacation in Los Angeles

Los Angeles, California
Metropolitan City
City of Los Angeles
Los Angeles skyline
Hollywood Sign Echo Park Lake
Los Angeles City Hall Theme Building at Los Angeles International Airport
Vincent Thomas Bridge Venice Beach
Clockwise from top: Downtown Los Angeles skyline, Echo Park, Theme Building at Los Angeles International Airport, Venice Beach, Vincent Thomas Bridge, Los Angeles City Hall, Hollywood Sign
Flag of Los Angeles, California
Official seal of Los Angeles, California
Nickname(s): "L.A.", "City of Angels", "Angeltown", "The Entertainment Capital of the World", "The Big Orange", "La-la-land", "Tinseltown"
Location in Los Angeles County in the state of California
Location in Los Angeles County in the state of California
Los Angeles is located in California
Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Los Angeles is located in the US
Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Location in the United States
Coordinates:  / 34.050; -118.250  / 34.050; -118.250
Country United States
State California

Los Angeles

CSA Los Angeles-Long Beach
MSA Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim
Pueblo September 4, 1781
Incorporated April 4, 1850
Named for Our Lady, Queen of the Angels
• Type Mayor-Council-Commission
• Body Los Angeles City Council
• Mayor Eric Garcetti
• City Attorney Mike Feuer
• City Controller Ron Galperin
• Metropolitan City 502.76 sq mi (1,302.15 km)
• Land 468.74 sq mi (1,214.03 km)
• Water 34.02 sq mi (88.12 km) 6.7%
Elevation 305 ft (93 m)
Highest elevation 5,074 ft (1,547 m)
Lowest elevation 0 ft (0 m)
Population (2010)
• Metropolitan City 3,792,621
• Estimate (2016) 3,976,322
• Rank 1st, California
2nd, U.S.
• Density 8,483.02/sq mi (3,275.32/km)
• Urban 12,150,996
• Metro 13,131,431
• CSA 18,679,763 (US: 2nd)
Demonym(s) Angeleno
Time zone Pacific (UTC−8)
• Summer (DST) PDT (UTC−7)
ZIP codes 90001–90068, 90070–90084, 90086–90089, 90091, 90093–90097, 90099, 90101–90103, 90174, 90185, 90189, 90291–90293, 91040–91043, 91303–91308, 91342–91349, 91352–91353, 91356–91357, 91364–91367, 91401–91499, 91601–91609
Area codes 213/323, 310/424, 747/818
FIPS code 06-44000
GNIS feature IDs 1662328, 2410877
Website Official website

Los Angeles (/lɒs ˈænələs/; Spanish for "The Angels"; Spanish pronunciation: [los ˈaŋxeles]), officially the City of Los Angeles and often known by its initials L.A., is the cultural, financial, and commercial center of Southern California. With a U.S. Census-estimated 2016 population of 3,976,322, it is the second most populous city in the United States (after New York City) and the most populous city in the state of California. Located in a large coastal basin surrounded on three sides by mountains reaching up to and over 10,000 feet (3,000 m), Los Angeles covers an area of about 469 square miles (1,210 km). The city is also the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the center of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, with 13,131,431 residents, and is part of the larger designated Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area (CSA), the second most populous in the nation with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.

Historically home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California. The city was officially founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, thereby becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood. The discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California, later assured the city's continued rapid growth.

Nicknamed the "City of Angels" in part because of how its name translates from the Spanish, Los Angeles is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity, and sprawling metropolis. The city is also one of the most substantial economic engines within the nation, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is also famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index. The Los Angeles combined statistical area (CSA) also has a gross metropolitan product (GMP) of $831 billion (as of 2008), making it the third-largest in the world, after the Greater Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the Olympic Games for a third time in 2028.

Los Angeles: History

Historical affiliations
  • Spanish Empire 1781–1821
  • First Mexican Empire 1821–1823
  • United Mexican States 1823–1848
  • California Republic 1846
  • United States 1848–present

Los Angeles: The pre-colonial period, up to 1771

Chumash people lived in Los Angeles before Europeans settled there.

The Los Angeles coastal area was first settled by the Tongva (Gabrieleños) and Chumash Native American tribes thousands of years ago. A Gabrielino settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ (written Yang-na by the Spanish), meaning "poison oak place."

Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, a Portuguese-born explorer, claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America. Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769.

Los Angeles: The Spanish period, 1771 to 1821

In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called "El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles de Porciúncula;" in English, this translates as "The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels of Porciúncula." The Queen of the Angels (feast day Aug. 2) is an honorific of the Virgin Mary; indeed, the present-day city still retains an active Roman Catholic Archdiocese, and as noted below, this archdiocese of Roman Catholicism remains the largest such archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the settlers were mestizo or mulatto with a mixture of African, indigenous and European ancestry. The settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles.

Los Angeles: The Mexican period, 1821 to 1847

New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, and the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico. During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital.

Los Angeles: The American period, 1847 to the present

Old Los Angeles
Los Ángeles Plaza in 1869, looking north towards Upper Town.

Old Los Angeles overlay labeled.jpeg


  1. The Old Aliso, giant sycamore, historical symbol of Los Angeles.
  2. The Covered Bridge (Macy Street)
  3. Fort Moore
  4. The Calaboose (original adobe jail)
  5. Poundcake Hill
  6. Council Chamber
  7. Government House, seat of the Asamblea when Los Angeles was the capital.
  8. Clocktower Courthouse, courtroom/theatre was on the upper floor, market was on the ground floor, and clocktower was on top, with copper dome.
  9. St. Athanasius's Episcopal Church, first Protestant church in Los Angeles, on Temple Road ("Salvation Alley").
  10. Calle de los Negros
  11. Mellus Block, Gen. Kearney's headquarters
  12. Gov. Downey's house
  13. Old stage road, to Cahuenga Valley & the back way to San Fernando.
  14. Placita Church
  15. Wine Street, (Calle de las vides)
  16. Main Plaza
  17. Water wheel on the Zanja Madre
  18. Approximate run of the original Los Angeles River bed, to current USC, through the former swamps of Leimert Park, and out to sea at Ballona Creek and Venice Beach.

    LP: Lower Plaza

    ECR: El Camino Real

Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847.

Railroads arrived with the completion of the Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876. Oil was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, and by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output.

By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000, putting pressure on the city's water supply. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that effectively prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.

In 1910, Hollywood merged into Los Angeles, with 10 movie companies already operating in the city at the time. By 1921, more than 80 percent of the world's film industry was concentrated in L.A. The money generated by the industry kept the city insulated from much of the economic loss suffered by the rest of the country during the Great Depression. By 1930, the population surpassed one million. In 1932, the city hosted the Summer Olympics.

During World War II, Los Angeles was a major center of wartime manufacturing, such as shipbuilding and aircraft. Calship built hundreds of Liberty Ships and Victory Ships on Terminal Island, and the Los Angeles area was the headquarters of six of the country's major aircraft manufacturers (Douglas Aircraft Company, Hughes Aircraft, Lockheed, North American Aviation, Northrop Corporation, and Vultee). During the war, more aircraft were produced in one year than in all the pre-war years since the Wright brothers flew the first airplane in 1903, combined. Manufacturing in Los Angeles skyrocketed, and as William S. Knudsen, of the National Defense Advisory Commission put it, "We won because we smothered the enemy in an avalanche of production, the like of which he had never seen, nor dreamed possible.

The Richfield Tower, an Art Deco landmark of 1929, was demolished in 1969.

Following the end of World War II, Los Angeles grew more rapidly than ever, sprawling into the San Fernando Valley. The expansion of the Interstate Highway System during the 1950s and 1960s helped propel suburban growth and signaled the demise of the city's electrified rail system, once the world's largest.

The 1960s saw race relations boil over into the Watts Riots of 1965 which resulted in 34 deaths and over 1,000 injuries. It was the most severe riot in the city's history until the Los Angeles riots of 1992. In 1969, Los Angeles became the birthplace of the Internet, as the first ARPANET transmission was sent from the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) to SRI in Menlo Park.

In 1984, the city hosted the Summer Olympic Games for the second time. Despite being boycotted by 14 Communist countries, the 1984 Olympics became more financially successful than any previous, and the second Olympics to turn a profit until then – the other, according to an analysis of contemporary newspaper reports, being the 1932 Summer Olympics, also held in Los Angeles.

Racial tensions erupted on April 29, 1992, with the acquittal by a Simi Valley jury of the police officers captured on videotape beating Rodney King, culminating in large-scale riots. They were the largest riots in US history causing approximately $1.3 billion in damage as well as 53 deaths and over 2,000 injuries.

In 1994, the 6.7 Northridge earthquake shook the city, causing $12.5 billion in damage and 72 deaths. The century ended with the Rampart scandal, one of the most extensive documented cases of police misconduct in American history.

In 2002, voters defeated efforts by the San Fernando Valley and Hollywood to secede from the city.

Los Angeles will host the 2028 Summer Olympics and Paralympic Games, making Los Angeles the third city to host the Olympics three times.

Los Angeles: Geography

Los Angeles: Cityscape

Panorama of Los Angeles as viewed from Griffith Observatory.
Left to right: Los Feliz, Downtown and Hollywood
Hollywood is a neighborhood in Los Angeles.

The city is divided into over 80 districts and neighborhoods, many of which were incorporated places or communities that merged into the city. These neighborhoods were developed piecemeal, and are well-defined enough that the city has signage marking nearly all of them.

More broadly, the city is divided into the following areas: Downtown Los Angeles, East Los Angeles and Northeast Los Angeles, South Los Angeles, the Harbor Area, Greater Hollywood, Wilshire, the Westside, and the San Fernando and Crescenta Valleys.

Los Angeles: Overview

The city's street pattern generally follows a grid plan, with uniform block lengths and occasional roads that cut across blocks. However, this is complicated by rugged terrain, which has necessitated having different grids for each of the valleys that Los Angeles covers. Major streets are designed to move large volumes of traffic through many parts of the city; many of which are extremely long: Sepulveda Boulevard is 43 miles (69 km) long, while Foothill Boulevard is over 60 miles (97 km) long, reaching as far east as San Bernardino. Drivers in Los Angeles suffer from one of the worst rush hour periods in the world, according to an annual traffic index by navigation system maker, TomTom. L.A. drivers spend an additional 92 hours in traffic each year. During the peak rush hour there is 80% congestion, according to the index.

Los Angeles is often characterized by the presence of low-rise buildings. Outside of a few centers such as Downtown, Warner Center, Century City, Koreatown, Miracle Mile, Hollywood and Westwood, skyscrapers and high-rise buildings are not common. The few skyscrapers that are built outside of those areas often stand out above the rest of the surrounding landscape. Most construction is done in separate units, rather than wall-to-wall. That being said, downtown Los Angeles itself has many buildings over 30 stories, with fourteen over 50 stories, and two over 70 stories (the tallest buildings west of Chicago-see List of tallest buildings in Los Angeles). Also, Los Angeles is increasingly becoming a city of apartments rather than single family dwellings, especially in the dense inner city and Westside neighborhoods.

Los Angeles: Landmarks

Important landmarks in Los Angeles include the Hollywood Sign, Walt Disney Concert Hall, Capitol Records Building, the Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels, Angels Flight, Grauman's Chinese Theatre, Dolby Theatre, Griffith Observatory, Getty Center, Getty Villa, the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum, the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, the Venice Canal Historic District and boardwalk, Theme Building, Bradbury Building, U.S. Bank Tower, Wilshire Grand Center, Hollywood Boulevard, Los Angeles City Hall, Hollywood Bowl, Battleship USS Iowa, Watts Towers, Staples Center, Dodger Stadium, and Olvera Street.

Los Angeles: Topography

The Los Angeles Basin

The city of Los Angeles covers a total area of 502.7 square miles (1,302 km), comprising 468.7 square miles (1,214 km) of land and 34.0 square miles (88 km) of water. The city extends for 44 miles (71 km) longitudinally and for 29 miles (47 km) latitudinally. The perimeter of the city is 342 miles (550 km).

Los Angeles is both flat and hilly. The highest point in the city proper is 5,074 ft (1,547 m) Mount Lukens, located at the northeastern end of the San Fernando Valley. The eastern end of the Santa Monica Mountains stretches from Downtown to the Pacific Ocean and separates the Los Angeles Basin from the San Fernando Valley. Other hilly parts of Los Angeles include the Mt. Washington area north of Downtown, eastern parts such as Boyle Heights, the Crenshaw district around the Baldwin Hills, and the San Pedro district.

Surrounding the city are much higher mountains. Immediately to the north lie the San Gabriel Mountains, which is a popular recreation area for Angelenos. Its high point is Mount San Antonio, locally known as Mount Baldy, which reaches 10,064 feet (3,068 m). Further afield, the highest point in the greater Los Angeles area is San Gorgonio Mountain, with a height of 11,503 feet (3,506 m).

The Los Angeles River, which is largely seasonal, is the primary drainage channel. It was straightened and lined in 51 miles (82 km) of concrete by the Army Corps of Engineers to act as a flood control channel. The river begins in the Canoga Park district of the city, flows east from the San Fernando Valley along the north edge of the Santa Monica Mountains, and turns south through the city center, flowing to its mouth in the Port of Long Beach at the Pacific Ocean. The smaller Ballona Creek flows into the Santa Monica Bay at Playa del Rey.

Los Angeles: Vegetation

Los Angeles is rich in native plant species partly because of its diversity of habitats, including beaches, wetlands, and mountains. The most prevalent plant communities are coastal sage scrub, chaparral shrubland, and riparian woodland. Native plants include: California poppy, matilija poppy, toyon, Ceanothus, Chamise, Coast Live Oak, sycamore, willow and Giant Wildrye. Many of these native species, such as the Los Angeles sunflower, have become so rare as to be considered endangered. Though it is not native to the area, the official tree of Los Angeles is the Coral Tree (Erythrina caffra) and the official flower of Los Angeles is the Bird of Paradise (Strelitzia reginae). Mexican Fan Palms, Canary Island Palms, Queen Palms, Date Palms, and California Fan Palms are common in the Los Angeles area, although only the last is native.

Los Angeles: Geology

Los Angeles is subject to earthquakes because of its location on the Pacific Ring of Fire. The geologic instability has produced numerous faults, which cause approximately 10,000 earthquakes annually in Southern California, though most of them are too small to be felt. The strike-slip San Andreas Fault system is located at the boundary between the Pacific Plate and the North American Plate, and is vulnerable to the "big one", a potentially large and damaging event. The Los Angeles basin and metropolitan area are also at risk from blind thrust earthquakes. Major earthquakes that have hit the Los Angeles area include the 1933 Long Beach, 1971 San Fernando, 1987 Whittier Narrows, and the 1994 Northridge events. Nevertheless, all but a few are of low intensity and are not felt. The USGS has released the UCERF California earthquake forecast which models earthquake occurrence in California. Parts of the city are also vulnerable to tsunamis; harbor areas were damaged by waves from the Valdivia earthquake in 1960.

Los Angeles: Climate

MacArthur Park in Westlake. Palms are common in Los Angeles due to its climate

Los Angeles has a Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification Csb on the coast, Csa inland), and receives just enough annual precipitation to avoid either Köppen's BSh or BSk (semi-arid climate) classification. Los Angeles has plenty of sunshine throughout the year, with an average of only 35 days with measurable precipitation annually. The coastal region around Los Angeles has a climate that is comparable to coastal areas of southeastern Spain such as Alicante or Elche, in temperature range and variation, in sunshine hours and as well as annual precipitation levels.

Temperatures in the coastal basin exceed 90 °F (32 °C) on a dozen or so days in the year, from one day a month in April, May, June and November to three days a month in July, August, October and to five days in September. Temperatures in the San Fernando and San Gabriel Valleys are considerably warmer. Temperatures are subject to substantial daily swings; in inland areas the difference between the average daily low and the average daily high is over 30 °F (17 °C). The average annual temperature of the sea is 63 °F (17 °C), from 58 °F (14 °C) in January to 68 °F (20 °C) in August. Hours of sunshine total more than 3,000 per year, from an average of 7 hours of sunshine per day in December to an average of 12 in July.

The Los Angeles area is also subject to phenomena typical of a microclimate, causing extreme variations in temperature in close physical proximity to each other. For instance, the average July maximum temperature at the Santa Monica Pier is 75 °F (24 °C) whereas it is 95 °F (35 °C) in Canoga Park. The city, like much of the southern California coast, is subject to a late spring/early summer weather phenomenon called "June Gloom". This involves overcast or foggy skies in the morning which yield to sun by early afternoon.

Downtown Los Angeles averages 14.93 in (379 mm) of precipitation annually, which mainly occurs during November through March, generally in the form of moderate rain showers, but sometimes as heavy rainfall during winter storms. Summer days are usually rainless. Rarely, an incursion of moist air from the south or east can bring brief thunderstorms in late summer, especially to the mountains. The coast gets slightly less rainfall, while the inland and mountain areas get considerably more. Years of average rainfall are rare. The usual pattern is year to year variability, with a short string of dry years of 5–10 in (130–250 mm) rainfall, followed by one or two wet years with more than 20 in (510 mm). Wet years are usually associated with warm water El Niño conditions in the Pacific, dry years with cooler water La Niña episodes. A series of rainy days can bring floods to the lowlands and mudslides to the hills, especially after wildfires have denuded the slopes.

Both freezing temperatures and snowfall are extremely rare in the city basin and along the coast, with the last occurrence of a 32 °F (0 °C) reading at the downtown station being January 29, 1979; freezing temperatures occur nearly every year in valley locations while the mountains within city limits typically receive snowfall every winter. The greatest snowfall recorded in downtown Los Angeles was 2.0 inches (5 cm) on January 15, 1932. At the official downtown station, the highest recorded temperature is 113 °F (45 °C) on September 27, 2010, while the lowest is 28 °F (−2 °C), on January 4, 1949. During autumn and winter, Santa Ana winds sometimes bring much warmer and drier conditions to Los Angeles, and raise the wildfire risk.

Climate data for Los Angeles (USC, Downtown), 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1877–present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 95
Mean maximum °F (°C) 83.3
Average high °F (°C) 68.2
Daily mean °F (°C) 58.0
Average low °F (°C) 47.8
Mean minimum °F (°C) 41.3
Record low °F (°C) 28
Average rainfall inches (mm) 3.12
Average rainy days (≥ 0.01 in) 6.1 6.4 5.5 3.2 1.3 0.6 0.3 0.3 1.0 2.5 3.3 5.2 35.7
Mean monthly sunshine hours 225.3 222.5 267.0 303.5 276.2 275.8 364.1 349.5 278.5 255.1 217.3 219.4 3,254.2
Percent possible sunshine 71 72 72 78 64 64 83 84 75 73 70 71 73
Source: NOAA (sun 1961–1977)

Los Angeles: Environmental issues

A view of Los Angeles covered in smog

A Gabrielino settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ (written Yang-na by the Spanish), which has been translated as "poison oak place". Yang-na has also been translated as "the valley of smoke". Owing to geography, heavy reliance on automobiles, and the Los Angeles/Long Beach port complex, Los Angeles suffers from air pollution in the form of smog. The Los Angeles Basin and the San Fernando Valley are susceptible to atmospheric inversion, which holds in the exhausts from road vehicles, airplanes, locomotives, shipping, manufacturing, and other sources.

The smog season lasts from approximately May to October. While other large cities rely on rain to clear smog, Los Angeles gets only 15 inches (380 mm) of rain each year: pollution accumulates over many consecutive days. Issues of air quality in Los Angeles and other major cities led to the passage of early national environmental legislation, including the Clean Air Act. More recently, the state of California has led the nation in working to limit pollution by mandating low-emission vehicles. Smog is expected to continue to drop in the coming years because of aggressive steps to reduce it, which include electric and hybrid cars, improvements in mass transit, and other measures.

The number of Stage 1 smog alerts in Los Angeles has declined from over 100 per year in the 1970s to almost zero in the new millennium. Despite improvement, the 2006 and 2007 annual reports of the American Lung Association ranked the city as the most polluted in the country with short-term particle pollution and year-round particle pollution. In 2008, the city was ranked the second most polluted and again had the highest year-round particulate pollution. The city met its goal of providing 20 percent of the city's power from renewable sources in 2010. The American Lung Association's 2013 survey ranks the metro area as having the nation's worst smog, and fourth in both short-term and year-round pollution amounts.

Climate change has already affected Los Angeles with a 4 degree average temperature rise from 1878 to 2005 with a UCLA study predicting that coastal areas will rise 3 to 4 degrees in temperature and urban areas 4 to 4.5 degrees. In 2014, the fire season never finished in Southern California and studies have predicted that climate change will cause more frequent and larger fires by the end of the century. Climate change is also expected to affect sea levels which are expected to rise 5 to 24 inches from 2000 to 2050 leading to higher storm surge and waves, which could result in more extensive flooding that could threaten critical coastal infrastructure.

Los Angeles is also home to the nation's largest urban oil field. There are more than 700 active oil wells located within 1,500 feet of homes, churches, schools and hospitals in the city, a situation about which the EPA has voiced serious concerns.

Los Angeles: Demographics

Percent of households with incomes above $150k across LA County census tracts.
Historical population
Census Pop.
1850 1,610 -
1860 4,385 172.4%
1870 5,728 30.6%
1880 11,183 95.2%
1890 50,395 350.6%
1900 102,479 103.4%
1910 319,198 211.5%
1920 576,673 80.7%
1930 1,238,048 114.7%
1940 1,504,277 21.5%
1950 1,970,358 31.0%
1960 2,479,015 25.8%
1970 2,811,801 13.4%
1980 2,968,528 5.6%
1990 3,485,398 17.4%
2000 3,694,820 6.0%
2010 3,792,621 2.6%
Est. 2016 3,976,322 4.8%
U.S. Decennial Census

The 2010 United States Census reported that Los Angeles had a population of 3,792,621. The population density was 8,092.3 people per square mile (2,913.0/km²). The age distribution was 874,525 people (23.1%) under 18, 434,478 people (11.5%) from 18 to 24, 1,209,367 people (31.9%) from 25 to 44, 877,555 people (23.1%) from 45 to 64, and 396,696 people (10.5%) who were 65 or older. The median age was 34.1 years. For every 100 females there were 99.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.6 males.

There were 1,413,995 housing units-up from 1,298,350 during 2005–2009-at an average density of 2,812.8 households per square mile (1,086.0/km²), of which 503,863 (38.2%) were owner-occupied, and 814,305 (61.8%) were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 2.1%; the rental vacancy rate was 6.1%. 1,535,444 people (40.5% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 2,172,576 people (57.3%) lived in rental housing units.

According to the 2010 United States Census, Los Angeles had a median household income of $49,497, with 22.0% of the population living below the federal poverty line.

Los Angeles: Race and ethnicity

Racial composition 2010 1990 1970 1940
Non-Hispanic White 28.7% 37.3% 61.1% 86.3%
Black or African American 9.6% 14.0% 17.9% 4.2%
Hispanic or Latino 48.5% 39.9% 17.1% 7.1%
Asian 11.3% 9.8% 3.6% 2.2%
Map of racial distribution in Los Angeles, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people: White, Black, Asian, Hispanic or Other (yellow)

According to the 2010 Census, the racial makeup of Los Angeles included: 1,888,158 Whites (49.8%), 365,118 African Americans (9.6%), 28,215 Native Americans (0.7%), 426,959 Asians (11.3%), 5,577 Pacific Islanders (0.1%), 902,959 from other races (23.8%), and 175,635 (4.6%) from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 1,838,822 persons (48.5%). Los Angeles is home to people from more than 140 countries speaking 224 different identified languages. Ethnic enclaves like Chinatown, Historic Filipinotown, Koreatown, Little Armenia, Little Ethiopia, Tehrangeles, Little Tokyo, Little Bangladesh and Thai Town provide examples of the polyglot character of Los Angeles.

Non-Hispanic whites were 28.7% of the population in 2010, compared to 86.3% in 1940. The majority of the Non-Hispanic white population is living in areas along the Pacific coast as well as in neighborhoods near and on the Santa Monica Mountains from the Pacific Palisades to Los Feliz.

Mexican ancestry make up the largest ethnic group of Hispanics at 31.9% of Los Angeles' population, followed by those of Salvadoran (6.0%) and Guatemalan (3.6%) heritage. The Hispanic population has a long established Mexican-American and Central American community and is spread well-nigh throughout the entire city of Los Angeles and its metropolitan area. It is most heavily concentrated in regions around Downtown as East Los Angeles, Northeast Los Angeles and Westlake. Furthermore, a vast majority of residents in neighborhoods in eastern South Los Angeles towards Downey are of Hispanic origin.

The largest Asian ethnic groups are Filipinos (3.2%) and Koreans (2.9%), which have their own established ethnic enclaves−Koreatown in the Wilshire Center and Historic Filipinotown. Chinese people, which make up 1.8% of Los Angeles' population, reside mostly outside of Los Angeles city limits and rather in the San Gabriel Valley of eastern Los Angeles County, but make a sizable presence in the city, notably in Chinatown. Chinatown and Thaitown are also home to many Thais and Cambodians, which make up 0.3% and 0.1% of Los Angeles' population, respectively. Japanese comprise 0.9% of L.A.'s population, and have an established Little Tokyo in the city's downtown, and another significant community of Japanese Americans is located in the Sawtelle district of West Los Angeles. Vietnamese make up 0.5% of Los Angeles' population. Indians make up 0.9% of the city's population.

The Los Angeles metropolitan area is home to a large population of Armenians and Iranians, many of whom live in enclaves like Little Armenia and Tehrangeles.

African Americans have been the predominant ethnic group in South Los Angeles, which has emerged as the largest African American community in the western United States since the 1960s. The neighborhoods of South LA with highest concentration of African Americans include Crenshaw, Baldwin Hills, Leimert Park, Hyde Park, Gramercy Park, Manchester Square and Watts. Apart from South Los Angeles, neighborhoods in the Central region of Los Angeles, as Mid-City and Mid-Wilshire have a moderate concentration of African Americans as well. In 1970, the Census Bureau reported the city's population as 17.9% black, 61.1% non-Hispanic white and 17.1% Hispanic.

Los Angeles: Religion

Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels is the mother cathedral for the Los Angeles archdiocese.
Built in 1956, the Los Angeles California Temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is the second largest LDS temple in the world.

According to a 2014 study by the Pew Research Center, Christianity is the most prevalently practiced religion in Los Angeles (65%). Perhaps owing to the fact of its founding by Franciscan friars of Roman Catholicism, the Roman Catholic Archbishop of Los Angeles leads the largest archdiocese in the country. Cardinal Roger Mahony oversaw construction of the Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels, which opened in September 2002 in downtown Los Angeles. Construction of the cathedral marked a coming of age of the city's Catholic, heavily Latino community. There are numerous Catholic churches and parishes throughout Los Angeles.

In 2011, the once common, but ultimately lapsed, custom of conducting a procession and Mass in honor of Nuestra Señora de los Ángeles, in commemoration of the founding of the City of Los Angeles in 1781, was revived by the Queen of Angels Foundation and its founder Mark Albert, with the support and approbation of the Archdiocese of Los Angeles as well as several civic leaders. The recently revived custom is a continuation of the original processions and Masses which commenced on the first anniversary of the founding of Los Angeles in 1782 and continued for nearly a century thereafter.

With 621,000 Jews in the metropolitan area (490,000 in city proper), the region has the second largest population of Jews in the United States. Many of Los Angeles' Jews now live on the Westside and in the San Fernando Valley, though Boyle Heights and Northwest Los Angeles once had large Jewish populations. Many varieties of Judaism are represented in the area, including Reform, Conservative, Orthodox, and Reconstructionist. The Breed Street Shul in East Los Angeles, built in 1923, was the largest synagogue west of Chicago in its early decades. (It is no longer a sacred space and is being converted to a museum and community center.) The Kabbalah Centre also has a presence in the city.

The International Church of the Foursquare Gospel was founded in Los Angeles by Aimee Semple McPherson in 1923 and remains headquartered there to this day. For many years, the church convened at Angelus Temple, which, when built, was one of the largest churches in the country.

Los Angeles has had a rich and influential Protestant tradition. The first Protestant service in Los Angeles was a Methodist meeting held in a private home in 1850 and the oldest Protestant church still operating, First Congregational Church, was founded in 1867.<refname=Eighteen5019Thirty>Clifton L. Holland. "n Overview of Religion in Los Angeles from 1850 to 1930". </ref> In the early 1900s the Bible Institute Of Los Angeles published the founding documents of the Christian Fundamentalist movement and the Azusa Street Revival launched Pentecostalism.<refname=Eighteen5019Thirty></ref> The Metropolitan Community Church also had its origins in the Los Angeles area. Important churches in the city include First Presbyterian Church of Hollywood, Bel Air Presbyterian Church, First African Methodist Episcopal Church of Los Angeles, West Angeles Church of God in Christ, Second Baptist Church, Crenshaw Christian Center, McCarty Memorial Christian Church, and First Congregational Church.

The Los Angeles California Temple, the second largest temple operated by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, is on Santa Monica Boulevard in the Westwood neighborhood of Los Angeles. Dedicated in 1956, it was the first LDS temple built in California and it was the largest in the world when completed.

The Hollywood region of Los Angeles also has several significant headquarters, churches, and the Celebrity Center of Scientology.

Because of Los Angeles' large multi-ethnic population, a wide variety of faiths are practiced, including Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, Zoroastrianism, Sikhism, Bahá'í, various Eastern Orthodox Churches, Sufism and others. Immigrants from Asia for example, have formed a number of significant Buddhist congregations making the city home to the greatest variety of Buddhists in the world. The first Buddhist joss house was founded in the city in 1875.<refname=Eighteen5019Thirty> Atheism and other secular beliefs are also common, as the city is the largest in the Western U.S. Unchurched Belt.

Los Angeles: Economy

Financial companies such as US Bancorp, Ernst & Young, Aon, Bank of America, PwC, and Deloitte have offices in the Downtown Financial District.

The economy of Los Angeles is driven by international trade, entertainment (television, motion pictures, video games, music recording, and production), aerospace, technology, petroleum, fashion, apparel, and tourism. Other significant industries include finance, telecommunications, law, healthcare, and transportation. In the 2017 Global Financial Centres Index, Los Angeles was ranked as having the 19th most competitive financial center in the world, and sixth most competitive in United States (after New York City, San Francisco, Chicago, Boston, and Washington, D.C.).

Three of the six major film studios--Paramount Pictures, 20th Century Fox, and Universal Pictures-are located within the city limits, their locations being part of the so-called "Thirty-Mile Zone" of entertainment headquarters in Southern California.

Los Angeles is the largest manufacturing center in the western United States. The contiguous ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach together comprise the fifth-busiest port in the world and the most significant port in the Western Hemisphere and is vital to trade within the Pacific Rim.

The Los Angeles–Long Beach metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $866 billion (as of 2015), making it the third-largest economic metropolitan area in the world, after Tokyo and New York. Los Angeles has been classified an "Alpha world city" according to a 2012 study by a group at Loughborough University.

The largest employers in the city as of 2009 were, in descending order, the City of Los Angeles, the County of Los Angeles, and University of California, Los Angeles. The University of Southern California (USC) is the city's fourth largest employer and the largest private sector employer.

Los Angeles: Fortune 500

The city was home to six companies in the 2014 Fortune 500.

Top publicly traded companies
in Los Angeles for 2014

(ranked by revenues)
with City and U.S. ranks
L.A. Corporation US
1 Occidental Petroleum Corporation 116
2 Health Net, Inc. 254
3 Reliance Steel & Aluminum Co. 299
4 AECOM Technology Corporation 332
5 Oaktree Capital Group, LLC 354
6 CBRE Group, Inc. 363
Source: Fortune 500

Los Angeles: Culture

The Dolby Theatre; venue for the Academy Awards
Walt Disney Concert Hall

Los Angeles is often billed as the "Creative Capital of the World", because one in every six of its residents works in a creative industry and there are more artists, writers, filmmakers, actors, dancers and musicians living and working in Los Angeles than any other city at any time in history.

Los Angeles: Movies and the performing arts

The city's Hollywood neighborhood has become recognized as the center of the motion picture industry. Los Angeles plays host to the annual Academy Awards and is the site of the USC School of Cinematic Arts, the oldest film school in the United States.

The performing arts play a major role in Los Angeles' cultural identity. According to the USC Stevens Institute for Innovation, "there are more than 1,100 annual theatrical productions and 21 openings every week." The Los Angeles Music Center is "one of the three largest performing arts centers in the nation", with more than 1.3 million visitors per year. The Walt Disney Concert Hall, centerpiece of the Music Center, is home to the prestigious Los Angeles Philharmonic. Notable organizations such as Center Theatre Group, the Los Angeles Master Chorale, and the Los Angeles Opera are also resident companies of the Music Center. Talent is locally cultivated at premier institutions such as the Colburn School and the USC Thornton School of Music.

Los Angeles: Museums and galleries

The Fox Plaza in Century City, headquarters for 20th Century Fox

There are 841 museums and art galleries in Los Angeles County. In fact, Los Angeles has more museums per capita than any other city in the world. Some of the notable museums are the Los Angeles County Museum of Art (the largest art museum in the Western United States), the Getty Center (part of the larger J. Paul Getty Trust, the world's wealthiest art institution), the Battleship Iowa, and the Museum of Contemporary Art. A significant number of art galleries are located on Gallery Row, and tens of thousands attend the monthly Downtown Art Walk there.

Los Angeles: Sports

Dodger Stadium is the home of the Los Angeles Dodgers.

The city of Los Angeles and its metropolitan area are the home of ten top level professional sports teams. These teams include the Los Angeles Dodgers and Los Angeles Angels of Major League Baseball (MLB), the Los Angeles Rams and the Los Angeles Chargers of the National Football League (NFL), the Los Angeles Lakers and Los Angeles Clippers of the National Basketball Association (NBA), the Los Angeles Kings and Anaheim Ducks of the National Hockey League (NHL), the Los Angeles Galaxy of Major League Soccer (MLS), and the Los Angeles Sparks of the Women's National Basketball Association (WNBA).

Other notable sports teams include the UCLA Bruins and the USC Trojans in the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), both of which are Division I teams in the Pac-12 Conference.

Los Angeles is the second-largest city in the United States but hosted no NFL team between 1995 and 2015. At one time, the Los Angeles area hosted two NFL teams: the Rams and the Raiders. Both left the city in 1995, with the Rams moving to St. Louis, and the Raiders moving back to their original home of Oakland. After 21 seasons in St. Louis, on January 12, 2016, the NFL announced that the Rams would be moving back to Los Angeles for the 2016 NFL season. A new stadium will be built in Inglewood, California for the team by the 2020 season. Prior to 1995, the Rams played their home games in the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum from 1946 to 1979 and the Raiders played their home games at the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum from 1982 to 1994. The San Diego Chargers announced that they will become the Los Angeles Chargers beginning in the 2017 NFL season and will play at the StubHub Center in Carson, California for the next three seasons.

Staples Center is a sports arena, home to the Los Angeles Lakers, Los Angeles Sparks, Los Angeles Clippers, and Los Angeles Kings.

Los Angeles has twice hosted the Summer Olympic Games: in 1932 and in 1984, and will host the games for a third time in 2028. Los Angeles will be the third city after London (1908, 1948 and 2012) and Paris (1900, 1924 and 2024) to host the Olympic Games three times. When the tenth Olympic Games were hosted in 1932, the former 10th Street was renamed Olympic Blvd. Super Bowls I and VII were also held in the city, as well as multiple FIFA World Cup games at the Rose Bowl in 1994, including the final. Los Angeles also hosted the Deaflympics in 1985 and Special Olympics World Summer Games in 2015.

Los Angeles boasts a number of sports venues, including Dodger Stadium, the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum, The Forum, the StubHub Center, the Staples Center, and the Rose Bowl in nearby Pasadena.

Los Angeles: Government

Los Angeles is a charter city as opposed to a general law city. The current charter was adopted on June 8, 1999 and has been amended many times since then. The elected government consists of the Los Angeles City Council and the Mayor of Los Angeles which operate under a mayor-council government, as well as the city attorney (not to be confused with the district attorney, a county office) and controller. The current mayor is Eric Garcetti. There are 15 city council districts.

The city has many departments and appointed officers, including the Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD), the Los Angeles Board of Police Commissioners, the Los Angeles Fire Department (LAFD), the Housing Authority of the City of Los Angeles (HACLA), the Los Angeles Department of Transportation (LADOT), and the Los Angeles Public Library (LAPL).

The Charter of the City of Los Angeles ratified by voters in 1999 created a system of advisory neighborhood councils that would represent the diversity of stakeholders, defined as those who live, work or own property in the neighborhood. The neighborhood councils are relatively autonomous and spontaneous in that they identify their own boundaries, establish their own bylaws, and elect their own officers. There are currently about 90 neighborhood councils.

Residents of Los Angeles elect supervisors for the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th supervisorial districts.

Los Angeles: Federal and state representation

In the California State Assembly, Los Angeles is split between fourteen districts. In the California State Senate, the city is split between eight districts. In the United States House of Representatives, it is split between ten congressional districts.

Los Angeles: Crime

The LAPD on May Day 2006 in front of the new Caltrans District 7 Headquarters

Los Angeles experienced a significant decline in crime in the 1990s and late 2000s and reached a 50-year low in 2009 with 314 homicides. This is a rate of 7.85 per 100,000 population-a major decrease from 1980 when a homicide rate of 34.2 per 100,000 was reported. This included 15 officer-involved shootings. One shooting led to the death of a SWAT team member, Randal Simmons, the first in LAPD's history. Los Angeles in the year of 2013 totaled 251 murders, a decrease of 16 percent from the previous year. Police speculate that the drop resulted from a number of factors, including young people spending more time online. Crime increased significantly in 2015 from the low in 2013 with the rate of aggravated assault up 76%, rape up 182.7% and murder up 9.2%.

The Dragna crime family and the Cohen crime family dominated organized crime in the city during the Prohibition era and reached its peak during the 1940s and 1950s with the battle of Sunset Strip as part of the American Mafia, but has gradually declined since then with the rise of various black and Hispanic gangs in the late 1960s and early 1970s.

According to the Los Angeles Police Department, the city is home to 45,000 gang members, organized into 450 gangs. Among them are the Crips and Bloods, which are both African American street gangs that originated in the South Los Angeles region. Latino street gangs such as the Sureños, a Mexican American street gang, and Mara Salvatrucha, which has mainly members of Salvadoran descent, all originated in Los Angeles. This has led to the city being referred to as the "Gang Capital of America".

Los Angeles: Education

Los Angeles: Colleges and universities

Second branch of the California State Normal School in downtown Los Angeles opened its doors in 1882.

There are three public universities located within the city limits: California State University, Los Angeles (CSULA), California State University, Northridge (CSUN) and University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA).

Private colleges in the city include the American Film Institute Conservatory, Alliant International University, Syracuse University (Los Angeles Campus), American Academy of Dramatic Arts (Los Angeles Campus), American Jewish University, The American Musical and Dramatic Academy – Los Angeles campus, Antioch University's Los Angeles campus, Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science, Emperor's College, Fashion Institute of Design & Merchandising's Los Angeles campus (FIDM), Los Angeles Film School, Loyola Marymount University (LMU is also the parent university of Loyola Law School located in Los Angeles), Marymount College, Mount St. Mary's College, National University of California, Occidental College ("Oxy"), Otis College of Art and Design (Otis), Southern California Institute of Architecture (SCI-Arc), Southwestern Law School, University of Southern California (USC), and Woodbury University.

The community college system consists of nine campuses governed by the trustees of the Los Angeles Community College District: East Los Angeles College (ELAC), Los Angeles City College (LACC), Los Angeles Harbor College, Los Angeles Mission College, Los Angeles Pierce College, Los Angeles Valley College (LAVC), Los Angeles Southwest College, Los Angeles Trade-Technical College and West Los Angeles College.

There are numerous additional colleges and universities outside the city limits in the Greater Los Angeles area.

Los Angeles: Schools and libraries

The Los Angeles Central Library is in Downtown Los Angeles.

Los Angeles Unified School District serves almost all of the city of Los Angeles, as well as several surrounding communities, with a student population around 800,000. After Proposition 13 was approved in 1978, urban school districts had considerable trouble with funding. LAUSD has become known for its underfunded, overcrowded and poorly maintained campuses, although its 162 Magnet schools help compete with local private schools.

Several small sections of Los Angeles are in the Las Virgenes Unified School District. The Los Angeles County Office of Education operates the Los Angeles County High School for the Arts. The Los Angeles Public Library system operates 72 public libraries in the city. Enclaves of unincorporated areas are served by branches of the County of Los Angeles Public Library, many of which are within walking distance to residents.

Los Angeles: Media

The Los Angeles metro area is the second-largest broadcast designated market area in the U.S. (after New York) with 5,431,140 homes (4.956% of the U.S.), which is served by a wide variety of local AM and FM radio and television stations. Los Angeles and New York City are the only two media markets to have seven VHF allocations assigned to them.

As part of the region's aforementioned creative industry, the Big Four major broadcast television networks, ABC, CBS, Fox, and NBC, all have production facilities and offices throughout various areas of Los Angeles. All four major broadcast television networks, plus major Spanish-language networks Telemundo and Univision, also own and operate stations that both serve the Los Angeles market and serve as each network's West Coast flagship station: ABC's KABC-TV (Channel 7), CBS's KCBS-TV (Channel 2), Fox's KTTV-TV (Channel 11), NBC's KNBC-TV (Chennel 4), Telemundo's KVEA-TV (Channel 52), and Univision's KMEX-TV (Channel 34). The region also has three PBS stations, as well as KCET, the nation's largest independent public television station. KTBN (Channel 40) is the flagship station of the religious Trinity Broadcasting Network, based out of Santa Ana. A variety of independent television stations, such as KCAL-TV (Channel 9) and KTLA-TV (Channel 5), also operate in the area.

The major daily English-language newspaper in the area is the Los Angeles Times. La Opinión is the city's major daily Spanish-language paper. The Korea Times is the city's major daily Korean language paper while The World Journal is the city and county's major Chinese newspaper. The Los Angeles Sentinel is the city's major African-American weekly paper, boasting the largest African-American readership in the Western United States. Investor's Business Daily is distributed from its L.A. corporate offices, which are headquartered in Playa del Rey.

Los Angeles Times headquarters

There are also a number of smaller regional newspapers, alternative weeklies and magazines, including the Los Angeles Register, Los Angeles Community News, (which focuses on coverage of the greater Los Angeles area), Los Angeles Daily News (which focuses coverage on the San Fernando Valley), LA Weekly, L.A. Record (which focuses coverage on the music scene in the Greater Los Angeles Area), Los Angeles Magazine, the Los Angeles Business Journal, the Los Angeles Daily Journal (legal industry paper), The Hollywood Reporter, Variety (both entertainment industry papers), and Los Angeles Downtown News. In addition to the major papers, numerous local periodicals serve immigrant communities in their native languages, including Armenian, English, Korean, Persian, Russian, Chinese, Japanese, Hebrew, and Arabic. Many cities adjacent to Los Angeles also have their own daily newspapers whose coverage and availability overlaps into certain Los Angeles neighborhoods. Examples include The Daily Breeze (serving the South Bay), and The Long Beach Press-Telegram.

Los Angeles arts, culture and nightlife news is also covered by a number of local and national online guides like Time Out Los Angeles, Thrillist, Kristin's List, DailyCandy, LAist, and Flavorpill.

Los Angeles: Transportation

Los Angeles: Freeways

The Judge Harry Pregerson Interchange, connecting the Century Freeway (I-105) and the Harbor Freeway (I-110).

The city and the rest of the Los Angeles metropolitan area are served by an extensive network of freeways and highways. The Texas Transportation Institute, which publishes an annual Urban Mobility Report, ranked Los Angeles road traffic as the most congested in the United States in 2005 as measured by annual delay per traveler. The average traveler in Los Angeles experienced 72 hours of traffic delay per year according to the study. Los Angeles was followed by San Francisco/Oakland, Washington, D.C. and Atlanta, (each with 60 hours of delay). Despite the congestion in the city, the mean travel time for commuters in Los Angeles is shorter than other major cities, including New York City, Philadelphia and Chicago. Los Angeles's mean travel time for work commutes in 2006 was 29.2 minutes, similar to those of San Francisco and Washington, D.C.

Among the major highways that connect LA to the rest of the nation include Interstate 5, which runs south through San Diego to Tijuana in Mexico and north through Sacramento, Portland, and Seattle to the Canada–US border; Interstate 10, the southernmost east–west, coast-to-coast Interstate Highway in the United States, going to Jacksonville, Florida; and U.S. Route 101, which heads to the California Central Coast, San Francisco, the Redwood Empire, and the Oregon and Washington coasts.

Los Angeles: Transit systems

Current Los Angeles Metro Rail and Metro Transitway map, showing existing lines

The LA County Metropolitan Transportation Authority and other agencies operate an extensive system of bus lines, as well as subway and light rail lines across Los Angeles County, with a combined monthly ridership (measured in individual boardings) of 38.8 million as of September 2011. The majority of this (30.5 million) is taken up by the city's bus system, the second busiest in the country. The subway and light rail combined average the remaining roughly 8.2 million boardings per month. In 2005, 10.2% of Los Angeles commuters rode some form of public transportation.

The city's subway system is the ninth busiest in the United States and its light rail system is the country's second busiest. The rail system includes the Red and Purple subway lines, as well as the Gold, Blue, Expo, and Green light rail lines. In 2016, the Expo Line was extended to the Pacific at Santa Monica. The Metro Orange and Silver lines are bus rapid transit lines with stops and frequency similar to those of light rail. The city is also central to the commuter rail system Metrolink, which links Los Angeles to all neighboring counties as well as many suburbs.

Union Station in Los Angeles, California

Besides the rail service provided by Metrolink and the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority, Los Angeles is served by inter-city passenger trains from Amtrak. The main rail station in the city is Union Station just north of Downtown.

In addition, the city directly contracts for local and commuter bus service through the Los Angeles Department of Transportation, or LADOT.

Los Angeles: Airports

The Theme Building at Los Angeles Airport

The main international and domestic airport serving Los Angeles is Los Angeles International Airport (IATA: LAX, ICAO: KLAX), commonly referred to by its airport code, LAX. The sixth busiest commercial airport in the world and the third busiest in the United States, LAX handled over 66 million passengers and close to 2 million tons of cargo in 2013.

Other major nearby commercial airports include:

  • (IATA: ONT, ICAO: KONT) LA/Ontario International Airport, owned by the city of Los Angeles; serves the Inland Empire.
  • (IATA: BUR, ICAO: KBUR) Bob Hope Airport, formerly known as Burbank Airport; serves the San Fernando and San Gabriel Valleys
  • (IATA: LGB, ICAO: KLGB) Long Beach Airport, serves the Long Beach/Harbor area
  • (IATA: SNA, ICAO: KSNA) John Wayne Airport of Orange County

One of the world's busiest general-aviation airports is also located in Los Angeles, Van Nuys Airport (IATA: VNY, ICAO: KVNY).

Los Angeles: Seaports

The Vincent Thomas Bridge is at Terminal Island.

The Port of Los Angeles is located in San Pedro Bay in the San Pedro neighborhood, approximately 20 miles (32 km) south of Downtown. Also called Los Angeles Harbor and WORLDPORT LA, the port complex occupies 7,500 acres (30 km) of land and water along 43 miles (69 km) of waterfront. It adjoins the separate Port of Long Beach.

The sea ports of the Port of Los Angeles and Port of Long Beach together make up the Los Angeles/Long Beach Harbor. Together, both ports are the fifth busiest container port in the world, with a trade volume of over 14.2 million TEU's in 2008. Singly, the Port of Los Angeles is the busiest container ports in the United States and the largest cruise ship center on the West Coast of the United States – The Port of Los Angeles' World Cruise Center served about 590,000 passengers in 2014.

There are also smaller, non-industrial harbors along Los Angeles' coastline. The port includes four bridges: the Vincent Thomas Bridge, Henry Ford Bridge, Gerald Desmond Bridge, and Commodore Schuyler F. Heim Bridge. Passenger ferry service from San Pedro to the city of Avalon on Santa Catalina Island is provided by Catalina Express.

Los Angeles: Notable people

As home to Hollywood and its entertainment industry, numerous singers, actors and other entertainers live in various districts of Los Angeles.

Los Angeles: Twin towns and sister cities

A sign near City Hall points to the sister cities of Los Angeles.

Los Angeles has 25 sister cities, listed chronologically by year joined:

  • Eilat, Israel (1959)
  • Nagoya, Japan (1959)
  • Salvador, Bahia, Brazil (1962)
  • Bordeaux, France (1964)
  • Berlin, Germany (1967)
  • Lusaka, Zambia (1968)
  • Mexico City, Mexico (1969)
  • Auckland, New Zealand (1971)
  • Busan, South Korea (1971)
  • Mumbai, India (1972)
  • Tehran, Iran (1972)
  • Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China (1979)
  • Guangzhou, People's Republic of China (1981)
  • Athens, Greece (1984)
  • Saint Petersburg, Russia (1984)
  • Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada (1986)
  • Giza, Egypt (1989)
  • Jakarta, Indonesia (1990)
  • Kaunas, Lithuania (1991)
  • Makati, Philippines (1992)
  • Split, Croatia (1993)
  • San Salvador, El Salvador (2005)
  • Beirut, Lebanon (2006)
  • Ischia, Campania, Italy (2006)
  • Yerevan, Armenia (2007)

In addition, Los Angeles has the following "friendship cities":

  • London, United Kingdom
  • Łódź, Poland
  • Manchester, United Kingdom
  • Tel Aviv, Israel

Los Angeles: See also

  • Eastside Los Angeles
  • Largest cities in Southern California
  • Largest cities in the Americas
  • List of cities and towns in California
  • List of hotels in Los Angeles
  • List of largest California cities by population
  • List of largest houses in the Los Angeles Metropolitan Area
  • List of museums in Los Angeles
  • List of museums in Los Angeles County, California
  • List of music venues in Los Angeles
  • List of people from Los Angeles
  • List of tallest buildings in Los Angeles
  • Los Angeles in popular culture
  • National Register of Historic Places listings in Los Angeles, California

Los Angeles: References

  1. Gollust, Shelley (April 18, 2013). "Nicknames for Los Angeles". Voice of America. Retrieved June 26, 2014.
  2. Smith, Jack (October 12, 1989). "A Teflon Metropolis Where No Nicknames Stick". Los Angeles Times. p. 1. Retrieved October 1, 2011.
  3. Barrows, H.D. (1899). "Felepe de Neve". Historical Society of Southern California Quarterly. 4. p. 151ff. Retrieved September 28, 2011.
  4. "California Cities by Incorporation Date". California Association of Local Agency Formation Commissions. Archived from the original (Word Document) on February 21, 2013. Retrieved August 25, 2014.
  5. "About the City Government". City of Los Angeles. Retrieved February 8, 2015.
  6. "City Directory". City of Los Angeles. Archived from the original on November 13, 2014. Retrieved September 28, 2014.
  7. "2016 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
  8. "Los Angeles City Hall". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved October 16, 2014.
  9. "Elevations and Distances". US Geological Survey. April 29, 2005. Retrieved February 10, 2015.
  10. "CA Dept. of Finance - New State Population Report" (PDF). Retrieved July 2, 2016.
  11. "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved June 9, 2017.
  12. "Urban Areas". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on May 16, 2012. Retrieved August 29, 2014. http://www.census.gov/geo/reference/ua/urban-rural-2010.html
  13. "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2013 – United States – Metropolitan Statistical Area; and for Puerto Rico". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on August 15, 2014. Retrieved August 29, 2014.
  14. "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2013 – United States – Combined Statistical Area; and for Puerto Rico". Census Bureau. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on August 15, 2014. Retrieved August 29, 2014.
  15. Also /lɒs ˈænəlz/ or /lɒs ˈæŋɡələs/
  16. "US Census 2016 city population estimates". Retrieved May 25, 2017.
  17. "2010 Census U.S. Gazetteer Files – Places – California". United States Census Bureau.
  18. "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2013 – United States – Metropolitan Statistical Area; and for Puerto Rico". United States Census Bureau.
  19. "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2015 – Combined Statistical Area; and for Puerto Rico - 2015 Population Estimates". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved April 6, 2016.
  20. "Subterranean L.A.: The Urban Oil Fields | The Getty Iris". blogs.getty.edu. Retrieved December 31, 2015.
  21. Bright, William (1998). Fifteen Hundred California Place Names. University of California Press. p. 86. ISBN 978-0-520-21271-8. LCCN 97043147. Founded on the site of a Gabrielino Indian village called Yang-na, or more accurately iyáangẚ, 'poison-oak place.'
  22. Sullivan, Ron (December 7, 2002). "Roots of native names". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved January 7, 2015. Los Angeles itself was built over a Gabrielino village called Yangna or iyaanga', 'poison oak place.'
  23. Willard, Charles Dwight (1901). The Herald's History of Los Angeles. Los Angeles: Kingsley-Barnes & Neuner. pp. 21–24. Retrieved September 29, 2011.
  24. "Portola Expedition 1769 Diaries". Pacifica Historical Society. Retrieved January 7, 2015.
  25. Leffingwell, Randy; Worden, Alastair (November 4, 2005). California missions and presidios. Voyageur Press. pp. 43–44. ISBN 978-0-89658-492-1. Retrieved September 30, 2011.
  26. Sullivan, Noelle (December 8, 2009). It Happened in Southern California: Remarkable Events That Shaped History (2nd ed.). Globe Pequot. pp. 7–9. ISBN 978-0-7627-5423-6. Retrieved September 29, 2011.
  27. Mulroy, Kevin; Taylor, Quintard; Autry Museum of Western Heritage (March 2001). "The Early African Heritage in California (Forbes, Jack D.)". Seeking El Dorado: African Americans in California. University of Washington Press. p. 79. ISBN 978-0-295-98082-9. Retrieved September 30, 2011.
  28. Guinn, James Miller (1902). Historical and biographical record of southern California: containing a history of southern California from its earliest settlement to the opening year of the twentieth century. Chapman pub. co. p. 63. Retrieved September 30, 2011.
  29. Estrada, William D. (2006). Los Angeles's Olvera Street. Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7385-3105-2. Retrieved September 30, 2011.
  30. "Pio Pico, Afro Mexican Governor of Mexican California". African American Registry. Retrieved January 24, 2017.
  31. Guinn, James Miller (1902). Historical and biographical record of southern California: containing a history of southern California from its earliest settlement to the opening year of the twentieth century. Chapman pub. co. p. 50. Retrieved September 30, 2011.
  32. Mulholland, Catherine (2002). William Mulholland and the Rise of Los Angeles. University of California Press. p. 15. ISBN 978-0-520-23466-6. Retrieved September 30, 2011.
  33. Kipen, David (2011). Los Angeles in the 1930s: The WPA Guide to the City of Angels. University of California Press. pp. 45–46. ISBN 978-0-520-26883-8. Retrieved September 30, 2011.
  34. "Population of the 100 Largest Urban Places: 1900". United States Census Bureau. June 15, 1998. Retrieved January 8, 2015.
  35. "The Los Angeles Aqueduct and the Owens and Mono Lakes (MONO Case)". American University. Archived from the original on January 9, 2015. Retrieved January 8, 2015.
  36. ISBN 978-0-14-017824-1. Retrieved September 30, 2011.
  37. Basiago, Andrew D. (February 7, 1988), Water For Los Angeles – Sam Nelson Interview, The Regents of the University of California, 11, retrieved October 7, 2013
  38. Annexation and Detachment Map (PDF) (Map). City of Los Angeles Bureau of Engineering.
  39. Creason, Glen. "CityDig: L.A.’s 20th Century Land Grab". Los Angeles Magazine. Retrieved October 10, 2013.
  40. Buntin, John (April 6, 2010). L.A. Noir: The Struggle for the Soul of America's Most Seductive City. Random House Digital, Inc. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-307-35208-8. Retrieved September 30, 2011.
  41. Young, William H.; Young, Nancy K. (March 2007). The Great Depression in America: a cultural encyclopedia. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 21. ISBN 978-0-313-33521-1. Retrieved September 30, 2011.
  42. "Population of the 100 Largest Urban Places: 1930". United States Census Bureau. June 15, 1998. Retrieved January 8, 2015.
  43. Parker, Dana T. Building Victory: Aircraft Manufacturing in the Los Angeles Area in World War II, pp.5–8, 14, 26, 36, 50, 60, 78, 94, 108, 122, Cypress, CA, 2013. ISBN 978-0-9897906-0-4.
  44. ISBN 978-0-226-07691-1. Retrieved October 1, 2011.
  45. ISBN 978-0-684-87216-2. Retrieved October 1, 2011.
  46. Woo, Elaine (June 30, 2004). "Rodney W. Rood, 88; Played Key Role in 1984 Olympics, Built Support for Metro Rail". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 1, 2011.
  47. Zarnowski, C. Frank (Summer 1992). "A Look at Olympic Costs" (PDF). Citius, Altius, Fortius. 1 (1): 16–32. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 28, 2008. Retrieved October 1, 2011.
  48. Rucker, Walter C.; Upton, James N.; Hughey, Matthew W. (2007). "Los Angeles (California) Riots of 1992". Encyclopedia of American race riots. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 376–85. ISBN 978-0-313-33301-9. Retrieved October 1, 2011.
  49. "The 10 Biggest Ever American Riots". TheRichest. February 24, 2014. Retrieved January 23, 2015.
  50. Wilson, Stan (April 25, 2012). "Riot anniversary tour surveys progress and economic challenges in Los Angeles". CNN. Retrieved January 23, 2015.
  51. Reich, Kenneth (December 20, 1995). "Study Raises Northridge Quake Death Toll to 72". Los Angeles Times. p. B1. Retrieved October 1, 2011.
  52. "Rampart Scandal Timeline". PBS Frontline. Retrieved October 1, 2011.
  53. Orlov, Rick (November 3, 2012). "Secession drive changed San Fernando Valley, Los Angeles". Los Angeles Daily News. Retrieved January 12, 2015.
  54. Horowitz, Julia (August 1, 2017). "Los Angeles will host 2028 Olympics". CNNMoney. Archived from the original on July 31, 2017.
  55. "Cities Which Have Hosted Multiple Summer Olympic Games". worldatlas. Archived from the original on December 15, 2016.
  56. Pool, Bob (February 19, 2009). "L.A. neighborhoods, you're on the map". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 2, 2011.
  57. ISBN 978-0-8166-3336-4. Retrieved October 2, 2011.
  58. LADOT Archived September 7, 2015, at the Wayback Machine.
  59. "Los Angeles tops worst cities for traffic in USA". USA TODAY. Retrieved December 31, 2015.
  60. "Elevations of the 50 Largest Cities (by population, 1980 Census)". United States Geological Survey. Archived from the original on October 2, 2011. Retrieved October 3, 2011.
  61. "Mount Lukens Guide". Sierra Club Angeles Chapter. Retrieved October 3, 2011.
  62. Gumprecht, Blake (March 2001). The Los Angeles River: Its Life, Death, and Possible Rebirth. JHU Press. p. 173. ISBN 978-0-8018-6642-5. Retrieved October 3, 2011.
  63. Miller, George Oxford (January 15, 2008). Landscaping with Native Plants of Southern California. Voyageur Press. p. 15. ISBN 978-0-7603-2967-2. Retrieved October 6, 2011.
  64. National Research Council (U.S.). Advisory Committee on Technology Innovation (1979). Tropical legumes: resources for the future : report of an ad hoc panel of the Advisory Committee on Technology Innovation, Board on Science and Technology for International Development, Commission on International Relations, National Research Council. National Academies. p. 258. NAP:14318. Retrieved October 6, 2011.
  65. "Flower". Los Angeles Magazine. Emmis Communications. April 2003. p. 62. ISSN 1522-9149. Retrieved October 6, 2011.
  66. "Earthquake Facts". United States Geological Survey. Retrieved October 3, 2011.
  67. "San Andreas Fault Set for the Big One". Physorg.com. June 21, 2006. Retrieved October 3, 2011.
  68. Shaw, John H.; Shearer, Peter M. (March 5, 1999). "An Elusive Blind-Thrust Fault Beneath Metropolitan Los Angeles". Science. 283 (5407): 1516–1518. PMID 10066170. doi:10.1126/science.283.5407.1516. Retrieved October 3, 2011.
  69. "World's Largest Recorded Earthquake". Geology.com. Retrieved January 12, 2015.
  70. "Historical Weather for Los Angeles, California, United States of America". Weatherbase.com. Retrieved December 15, 2011.
  71. "Climatography of the United States No. 20 (1971–2000)" (PDF). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 2004. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 2, 2013. Retrieved October 5, 2011.
  72. "Pacific Ocean Temperatures on California Coast". beachcalifornia.com. Retrieved October 5, 2011.
  73. "Los Angeles Climate Guide". weather2travel.com. Retrieved October 5, 2011.
  74. "Climate of California". Western Regional Climate Center. Retrieved October 6, 2011.
  75. Poole, Matthew R. (September 22, 2010). Frommer's Los Angeles 2011. John Wiley & Sons. p. 22. ISBN 978-0-470-62619-1. Retrieved October 5, 2011.
  76. Burt, Christopher C.; Stroud, Mark (June 26, 2007). Extreme weather: a guide & record book. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 100. ISBN 978-0-393-33015-1. Retrieved October 5, 2011.
  77. Pool, Bob; Lin II, Rong-Gong (September 27, 2010). "L.A.'s hottest day ever". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 5, 2011.
  78. "NowData – NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved June 7, 2013.
  79. "Station Name: CA LOS ANGELES DWTN USC CAMPUS". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2014-05-09.
  80. "LOS ANGELES/WBO CA Climate Normals". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved October 20, 2013.
  81. "Station Name: CA LOS ANGELES INTL AP". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2014-05-09.
  82. "WMO Climate Normals for LOS ANGELES/INTL, CA 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2014-04-17.
  83. Bowman, Chris (July 8, 2008). "Smoke is Normal – for 1800". The Sacramento Bee. Archived from the original on July 9, 2008. Retrieved October 6, 2011.
  84. Gordon J. MacDonald. "Environment: Evolution of a Concept" (PDF). p. 2. The Native American name for Los Angeles was Yang na, which translates into "the valley of smoke."
  85. Stimson, Thomas E. (July 1955). What can we do about smog?. Popular Mechanics. p. 65. ISSN 0032-4558. Retrieved October 6, 2011.
  86. Smog Hangs Over Olympic Athletes. New Scientist. August 11, 1983. p. 393. ISSN 0262-4079. Retrieved October 6, 2011.
  87. Marziali, Carl (March 4, 2015). "L.A.'s Environmental Success Story: Cleaner Air, Healthier Kids". USC News. Retrieved March 16, 2015.
  88. "Most Polluted Cities". American Lung Association. Retrieved January 12, 2015.
  89. "Pittsburgh and Los Angeles the most polluted US cities". citymayors.com. May 4, 2008. Retrieved October 7, 2011.
  90. "Los Angeles meets 20 percent renewable energy goal". Bloomberg News. January 14, 2011. Archived from the original on February 1, 2011. Retrieved October 7, 2011.
  91. "American Lung Association State of the Air 2013 – Los Angeles-Long Beach-Riverside, CA". American Lung Association State of the Air 2013. Retrieved September 1, 2015.
  92. Baehr, Leslie (June 17, 2014). "Climate Change Is Ruining Some Of The Best Things About Los Angeles". Business Insider. Retrieved January 23, 2015.
  93. "EPA officers sickened by fumes at South L.A. oil field". latimes.com. Retrieved March 24, 2016.
  94. "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Archived from the original on May 12, 2015. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
  95. "2010 Census Interactive Population Search: CA - Los Angeles". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 12, 2014.
  96. "Los Angeles (city), California". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved October 3, 2016.
  97. "Race and Hispanic Origin for Selected Cities and Other Places: Earliest Census to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on August 6, 2012. Retrieved November 6, 2015.
  98. From 15% sample
  99. Hispanic origin based on the White population of Spanish mother tongue.
  100. "City Basics". City of Los Angeles. April 12, 2005. Archived from the original on November 27, 2010. Retrieved April 13, 2010. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on January 15, 2016. Retrieved November 6, 2015.
  101. Ray, MaryEllen Bell (1985). The City of Watts, California: 1907 to 1926. ISBN 0-917047-01-X. Retrieved November 6, 2015.
  102. Major U.S. metropolitan areas differ in their religious profiles, Pew Research Center
  103. "America's Changing Religious Landscape". Pew Research Center: Religion & Public Life. May 12, 2015.
  104. Pomfret, John (April 2, 2006). "Cardinal Puts Church in Fight for Immigration Rights". Washington Post. Retrieved October 22, 2011.
  105. Stammer, Larry B.; Becerra, Hector (September 4, 2002). "Pomp Past, Masses Flock to Cathedral". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 22, 2011.
  106. Dellinger, Robert (September 6, 2011). "2011 'Grand Procession' revives founding of L.A. Marian devotion" (PDF). The Tidings Online. Retrieved January 14, 2015.
  107. "World Jewish Population". SimpleToRemember.com. Retrieved October 23, 2011.
  108. "Washington Symposium and Exhibition Highlight Restoration and Adaptive Reuse of American Synagogues". Jewish Heritage Report (1). March 1997. Retrieved October 23, 2011.
  109. "Los Angeles's Breed Street Shul Saved by Politicians". Jewish Heritage Report. II (1–2). Spring–Summer 1998. Retrieved October 23, 2011.
  110. Luscombe, Belinda (August 6, 2006). "Madonna Finds A Cause". Time Magazine. Retrieved October 23, 2011.
  111. Edith Waldvogel Blumhofer, Aimee Semple McPherson: everybody's sister, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, USA, 1993, page 246-247
  112. "History of the Metropolitan Community Church".
  113. "LDS Los Angeles California Temple". The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Retrieved October 23, 2011.
  114. "The Global Financial Centres Index 21" (PDF). Long Finance. March 2017.
  115. "Los Angeles: Economy". City-Data. Retrieved October 7, 2011.
  116. "Gross Metropolitan Product".
  117. "CIA World Factbook, 2009: GDP (official exchange rate)". Central Intelligence Agency. October 2008. Archived from the original on October 4, 2008. Retrieved October 9, 2011.
  118. "The World According to GaWC 2012". Globalization and World Cities Research Network. Loughborough University. Retrieved January 25, 2014.
  119. "City of Los Angeles CAFR (2010)" (PDF). City of Los Angeles. p. 332 (367). Retrieved October 14, 2011.
  120. George, Evan (December 11, 2006). "Trojan Dollars: Study Finds USC Worth $4 Billion Annually to L.A. County". Los Angeles Downtown News. Archived from the original on April 30, 2009.
  121. "Fortune 500". Fortune. Time Inc. Retrieved April 13, 2015.
  122. "Fortune 500". Fortune. Time Inc. Retrieved May 6, 2015.
  123. "Is Los Angeles really the creative capital of the world? Report says yes". SmartPlanet. November 19, 2009. Retrieved October 14, 2011.
  124. "Only In LA: Tapping L.A. Innovation". University of Southern California. Archived from the original on October 2, 2011. Retrieved October 14, 2011.
  125. Waxman, Sharon (January 31, 2006). "At U.S.C., a Practical Emphasis in Film". The New York Times. Retrieved October 14, 2011.
  126. "Explore the Center". Music Center of Los Angeles County. Archived from the original on October 5, 2011. Retrieved October 14, 2011.
  127. "The Los Angeles Region". Loyola Marymount University. May 5, 2008. Archived from the original on October 18, 2011. Retrieved October 20, 2011. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on August 23, 2015. Retrieved November 6, 2015.
  128. "Overview". Los Angeles County Museum of Art. Retrieved October 20, 2011.
  129. Boehm, Mike (March 16, 2009). "Getty slashes operating budget after severe investment losses". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 20, 2011.
  130. Mather, Kate (August 5, 2011). "Downtown L.A. Art Walk safety changes planned". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 20, 2011.
  131. Hanzus, Dan (January 12, 2016). "Rams to relocate to L.A.; Chargers first option to join". NFL.com. National Football League. Retrieved January 13, 2016.
  132. "Rams to Return to Los Angeles". St. Louis Rams. January 12, 2016. Retrieved January 13, 2016.
  133. Maske, Mark (January 12, 2016). "NFL returns to Los Angeles: Owners approve move by Rams; Chargers with option to join". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 12, 2016.
  134. NAGOURNEY, Adam; LONGMAN, JERÉ (July 31, 2017). "Los Angeles Makes Deal to Host the 2028 Summer Olympics". The New York Times. Archived from the original on August 3, 2017.
  135. "Games – Deaflympics". deaflympics.com.
  136. "Los Angeles To Host 2015 Special Olympics World Summer Games". Special Olympics. September 14, 2011. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
  137. "Los Angeles, California Code Resources". American Legal Publishing. Retrieved January 23, 2015.
  138. "Communities of Interest - City". California Citizens Redistricting Commission. Retrieved September 28, 2014.
  139. "Communities of Interest - City". California Citizens Redistricting Commission. Retrieved September 28, 2014.
  140. "Communities of Interest - City". California Citizens Redistricting Commission. Retrieved September 27, 2014.
  141. Powell, Amy (January 6, 2010). "Los Angeles crime rates hit 50-year lows". KABC-TV. Archived from the original on July 21, 2015. Retrieved January 14, 2015.
  142. "LAPD year-end crime statistics". Los Angeles Police Department. Retrieved April 13, 2010.
  143. "Uniform Crime Reports of Los Angelesand Index from 1985 to 2005". Retrieved April 20, 2016.
  144. "LAPD Online Crime Rates" (PDF). Los Angeles Police Department. Retrieved April 13, 2010.
  145. "Simmons, Randal". Los Angeles Police Department. Retrieved July 9, 2008.
  146. "LAPD City Murder Rate Drops 16 Percent". KCBS-TV. January 6, 2014. Retrieved February 4, 2014.
  147. "Crime in Los Angeles, California (CA): murders, rapes, robberies, assaults, burglaries, thefts, auto thefts, arson, law enforcement employees, police officers, crime map". www.city-data.com.
  148. DeVico, Peter (2007). The Mafia Made Easy: The Anatomy and Culture of La Cosa Nostra. Tate Publishing. p. 154. ISBN 1-60247-254-8. Retrieved September 6, 2012.
  149. "Gangs". Los Angeles Police Department. Retrieved April 13, 2010.
  150. Serjeant, Jill (February 8, 2007). "Police target 11 worst Los Angeles street gangs". Reuters. Retrieved January 14, 2015.
  151. "US Census, District information". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved October 24, 2011.
  152. "Los Angeles Public Library Branches". Los Angeles Public Library. Retrieved October 24, 2011.
  153. "Allocation". Museum of Broadcast Communications. Retrieved October 20, 2011.
  154. "Flavorpill". flavorpill. Archived from the original on February 7, 2013. Retrieved September 1, 2015.
  155. Woolsey, Matt (April 25, 2008). "Best And Worst Cities For Commuters". Forbes. Retrieved October 24, 2011.
  156. Woolsey, Matt. "In Depth: 10 Worst Cities For Commuters". Forbes. Retrieved October 24, 2011.
  157. "American Community Survey 2006, Table S0802". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on September 16, 2008. http://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/acs/
  158. "Ridership Statistics". Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Retrieved October 24, 2011.
  159. Christie, Les (June 29, 2007). "New Yorkers are Top Transit Users". CNN. Retrieved October 24, 2011.
  160. "Public Transit Ridership Report" (PDF). American Public Transportation Association. 2011. Retrieved October 24, 2011.
  161. "Van Nuys Airport General Description". Los Angeles World Airports. Retrieved October 25, 2011.
  162. "Los Angeles/Long Beach Harbor Safety Committee" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on October 8, 2006. Retrieved March 16, 2011.
  163. "Los Angeles/Long Beach Harbor Employers Association". Harboremployers.com. Retrieved March 16, 2011.
  164. "AAPA World Port Rankings 2008" (PDF). Retrieved March 16, 2011.
  165. "Cruise Passenger and Ferry Terminals". Port of Los Angeles. Retrieved January 14, 2015.
  166. "Sister Cities of Los Angeles". Sister Cities Los Angeles. Retrieved September 29, 2011.
  167. "Bordeaux– Rayonnement européen et mondial". Mairie de Bordeaux (in French). Archived from the original on February 7, 2013. Retrieved July 29, 2013.
  168. "Bordeaux-Atlas français de la coopération décentralisée et des autres actions extérieures". Délégation pour l'Action Extérieure des Collectivités Territoriales (Ministère des Affaires étrangères) (in French). Archived from the original on February 7, 2013. Retrieved July 29, 2013.
  169. "Berlin City Partnerships". Der Regierende Bürgermeister Berlin. Archived from the original on May 21, 2013. Retrieved September 17, 2013.
  170. "Guangzhou Sister Cities". Guangzhou Foreign Affairs Office. Archived from the original on October 24, 2012. Retrieved July 21, 2013.
  171. "Vancouver Twinning Relationships" (PDF). City of Vancouver. Retrieved December 5, 2009.
  172. "Gradovi prijatelji Splita" [Split Twin Towns]. Grad Split [Split Official City Website] (in Croatian). Archived from the original on March 24, 2012. Retrieved December 19, 2013.
  173. "Yerevan Twin Towns & Sister Cities". Yerevan Municipality Official Website. Retrieved November 4, 2013.
  174. "Twinning link with LA". Manchester Evening News. July 27, 2009. Archived from the original on July 31, 2013. Retrieved July 28, 2009.
  175. "Tel Aviv/Los Angeles Partnership". The Jewish Federation of Greater Los Angeles. 2007. Archived from the original on June 23, 2008. Retrieved August 7, 2008.

Los Angeles: Further reading


Architecture and urban theory

Race relations

  • ISBN 978-1-85984-031-3. Retrieved September 30, 2011.
  • George, Lynell (1992). No Crystal Stair: African Americans in the City of Angels. Verso. ISBN 978-0-86091-389-4.
  • Sides, Josh (2006). L.A. City Limits: African American Los Angeles from the Great Depression to the Present. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-24830-4.
  • Eduardo Obregón Pagán (2006). Murder at the Sleepy Lagoon: Zoot Suits, Race, and Riot in Wartime L.A. The University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 978-0-8078-5494-5.
  • R. J. Smith (2007). The Great Black Way: L.A. in the 1940s and the Last African American Renaissance. PublicAffairs. ISBN 978-1-58648-521-4.



Art and literature

  • David L. Ulin, ed. (2002). Writing Los Angeles: A Literary Anthology. ISBN 978-1-931082-27-3.
  • Whiting, Cécile (2008). Pop L.A.: Art and the City in the 1960s. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-25634-7.
  • Official website
Source of information: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. We're not responsible for the content of this article and your use of this information. Disclaimer
Los Angeles: Information in other languages
Afrikaans Los Angeles
Alemannisch Los Angeles
አማርኛ ሎስ አንጄሌስ
Ænglisc Los Angeles
Аҧсшәа Лос-Анџелес
العربية لوس أنجلوس
Aragonés Los Angeles
Armãneashti Los Angeles
Asturianu Los Angeles
Avañe'ẽ Los Ángeles
Aymar aru Los Angeles
Azərbaycanca Los-Anceles
تۆرکجه لوس‌آنجلس
Bamanankan Los Angeles
বাংলা লস অ্যাঞ্জেলেস
Bân-lâm-gú Los Angeles
Башҡортса Лос-Анджелес
Беларуская Лос-Анджэлес
Беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎ Лос-Анджэлес
Bikol Central Los Angeles
Bislama Los Angeles
Български Лос Анджелис
Boarisch Los Angeles
Bosanski Los Angeles
Brezhoneg Los Angeles (Kalifornia)
Буряад Лос-Анджелес
Català Los Angeles
Чӑвашла Лос-Анджелес
Cebuano Los Angeles
Čeština Los Angeles
Chavacano de Zamboanga Los Angeles
Chi-Chewa Los Angeles
Corsu Los Angeles
Cymraeg Los Angeles
Dansk Los Angeles
Deitsch Los Angeles
Deutsch Los Angeles
Diné bizaad Ahééháshį́į́h (kin haalʼá)
Dolnoserbski Los Angeles
Eesti Los Angeles
Ελληνικά Λος Άντζελες
Emiliàn e rumagnòl Los Angeles
Español Los Ángeles
Esperanto Los-Anĝeleso
Estremeñu Los Ángeles
Euskara Los Angeles
فارسی لس آنجلس
Fiji Hindi Los Angeles, California
Føroyskt Los Angeles
Français Los Angeles
Frysk Los Angeles
Furlan Los Angeles
Gaeilge Los Angeles, California
Gaelg Los Angeles
Gàidhlig Los Angeles
Galego Os Ánxeles
贛語 洛杉磯
Gĩkũyũ Los Angeles
ગુજરાતી લોસ એન્જેલસ
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî Los Angeles
한국어 로스앤젤레스
Հայերեն Լոս Անջելես
हिन्दी लॉस एंजेलिस
Hornjoserbsce Los Angeles
Hrvatski Los Angeles, Kalifornija
Ido Los Angeles
Ilokano Los Angeles
Bahasa Indonesia Los Angeles
Interlingua Los Angeles
Interlingue Los Angeles
Ирон Лос-Анджелес
Íslenska Los Angeles
Italiano Los Angeles
עברית לוס אנג'לס
Basa Jawa Los Angeles
ಕನ್ನಡ ಲಾಸ್ ಎಂಜಲೀಸ್
Kapampangan Los Angeles, California
Къарачай-малкъар Лос-Анджелес
ქართული ლოს-ანჯელესი
Қазақша Лос Анжелес
Kernowek Los Angeles
Kirundi Los Angeles
Kiswahili Los Angeles
Kreyòl ayisyen Los Angeles, Kalifòni
Kurdî Los Angeles
Кыргызча Лос-Анжелес
Кырык мары Лос-Анджелес
Ladino Los Anjeles (Kalifornia)
Лезги Лос-Анджелес
Latina Angelopolis
Latviešu Losandželosa
Lëtzebuergesch Los Angeles
Lietuvių Los Andželas
Ligure Los Angeles
Limburgs Los Angeles
Lingála Los Angeles
Lumbaart Los Angeles
Magyar Los Angeles
मैथिली लस एन्जलस
Македонски Лос Анџелес
Malagasy Los Angeles
മലയാളം ലോസ് ആഞ്ചെലെസ്
Māori Los Angeles, Karapōnia
मराठी लॉस एंजेल्स
მარგალური ლოს-ანჯელესი
مصرى لوس انجليس
مازِرونی لس آنجلس
Bahasa Melayu Los Angeles
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄ Los Angeles
Mirandés Los Angeles
Молдовеняскэ Лос Анӂелес
Монгол Лос-Анжелес
မြန်မာဘာသာ လော့စ်အိန်ဂျယ်လိစ်မြို့
Dorerin Naoero Los Angeles
Na Vosa Vakaviti Los Angeles
Nederlands Los Angeles
नेपाली लस एन्जलस
नेपाल भाषा लस एञ्जिलस
日本語 ロサンゼルス
Napulitano Los Angeles
Нохчийн Лос-Анджелес
Nordfriisk Los Angeles
Norsk Los Angeles
Norsk nynorsk Los Angeles
Novial Los Angeles
Occitan Los Angeles
Олык марий Лос-Анджелес
Oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча Los Anjeles
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ ਲਾਸ ਐਂਜਲਸ
Pälzisch Los Angeles
پنجابی لاس اینجلس
Papiamentu Los Angeles
پښتو لاس انجلس
Patois Las Anjiliiz
ភាសាខ្មែរ ឡូស​អាន់​ជ័រ​លេស
Picard Los Angeles
Piemontèis Los Angeles
Plattdüütsch Los Angeles
Polski Los Angeles
Português Los Angeles
Qaraqalpaqsha Los Andjeles
Reo tahiti Los Angeles
Română Los Angeles
Romani Los Angeles
Rumantsch Los Angeles
Runa Simi Los Angeles
Русиньскый Лос Анджелес
Русский Лос-Анджелес
Саха тыла Лос Андьелес
Sámegiella Los Angeles
संस्कृतम् लास एंजलस
Sängö Los Angeles
Sardu Los Angeles
Scots Los Angeles
Seeltersk Los Angeles
Shqip Los Angeles
Sicilianu Los Angeles
Simple English Los Angeles
Slovenčina Los Angeles
Slovenščina Los Angeles
Ślůnski Los Angeles
Soomaaliga Los Angeles
کوردی لۆس ئانجلەس
Sranantongo Los Angeles
Српски / srpski Лос Анђелес
Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски Los Angeles
Suomi Los Angeles
Svenska Los Angeles
Tagalog Los Angeles, California
தமிழ் லாஸ் ஏஞ்சலஸ்
Taqbaylit Los Angeles
Tarandíne Los Angeles
Татарча/tatarça Лос-Анджелес
తెలుగు లాస్ ఏంజలెస్
ไทย ลอสแอนเจลิส
Тоҷикӣ Лос Анҷелес
Tsetsêhestâhese Los Angeles
Türkçe Los Angeles
Türkmençe Los-Anjeles
Twi Los Angeles
Українська Лос-Анджелес
اردو لاس اینجلس
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche Los Anjélés
Vèneto Los Angeles
Vepsän kel’ Los Andželes
Tiếng Việt Los Angeles
Volapük Los Angeles
文言 洛杉磯
West-Vlams Los Angeles
Winaray Los Angeles
吴语 洛杉矶
ייִדיש לאס אנדזשעלעס
Yorùbá Los Angeles
粵語 洛杉磯
Zazaki Los Angeles
Žemaitėška Luos Andžels
中文 洛杉矶
डोटेली लस एन्जलस
Kabɩyɛ Lɔsɩ Anzelɛsɩ
United States: Hotels & Tickets Sale
Ann Arbor
Baton Rouge
Beaver Creek
Big Bear Lake
Boca Raton
Chula Vista
Colorado Springs
Columbus Georgia
Corpus Christi
Costa Mesa
Dana Point
Daytona Beach
Death Valley
Delray Beach
Des Moines
El Paso
Estes Park
Fort Lauderdale
Fort Myers
Fort Walton Beach
Fort Wayne
Fort Worth
Grand Canyon
Grand Rapids
Grand Teton
Great Smoky Mountains
Hot Springs
Huntington Beach
Jackson Mississippi
Jackson Wyoming
Jersey City
Kansas City
Key Largo
Key West
La Jolla
Laguna Beach
Lake Tahoe
Las Vegas
Little Rock
Long Beach
Los Angeles
Mammoth Lakes
Menlo Park
Mexico City
Miami Beach
Moreno Valley
Mountain View
Myrtle Beach
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico
New Orleans
New York City
New York
Newport Beach
North Carolina
North Dakota
North Las Vegas
Ocean City
Oklahoma City
Palm Coast
Palm Desert
Palm Springs
Palo Alto
Panama City Beach
Park City
Pompano Beach
Redwood City
Rhode Island
Rocky Mountains
Saint Paul
Salt Lake City
San Antonio
San Bernardino
San Diego
San Francisco
San Jose
San Mateo
Santa Ana
Santa Barbara
Santa Cruz
Santa Fe
Santa Monica
Santa Rosa
Silicon Valley
South Carolina
South Dakota
South Lake Tahoe
Squaw Valley
St. Augustine
St. Louis
St. Petersburg
Steamboat Springs
Sunny Isles Beach
Thousand Oaks
Virginia Beach
Washington D.C.
West Palm Beach
West Virginia
Hotels & Tickets Sale worldwide
American Virgin Islands
Antigua and Barbuda
Bosnia and Herzegovina
British Virgin Islands
Burkina Faso
Cape Verde
Caribbean Netherlands
Cayman Islands
Costa Rica
Czech Republic
Democratic Republic of the Congo
Dominican Republic
East Timor
El Salvador
Equatorial Guinea
Falkland Islands
Faroe Islands
French Guiana
French Polynesia
Hong Kong
Isle of Man
Ivory Coast
New Zealand
North Korea
Northern Mariana Islands
Papua New Guinea
Puerto Rico
Saint Barthélemy
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Lucia
Saint Martin
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
San Marino
Saudi Arabia
Sierra Leone
Sint Maarten
Solomon Islands
South Africa
South Korea
Sri Lanka
Trinidad and Tobago
Turks and Caicos Islands
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom
United States
Vacation: Complete information and online sale
Today's Special Offers
Amazon Prime
Free fast shipping on over 50 million goods
Amazon Prime Gift
Give the gift of Amazon Prime membership
Amazon Music
Listen to tens of millions of songs for free!
Amazon Kindle
Download e-books and audiobooks for free!
Sign up now & download two audiobooks for free!
Amazon Cell Phones
Buy cheap contract cell phones & service plans
Amazon Family
Save a lot on children's goods and baby food
Amazon Home Services
Order any home maintenance services
Get payments worldwide. Sign up now and earn $25
Vacation: Website Templates & Graphics

All trademarks, service marks, trade names, product names, and logos appearing on the site are the property of their respective owners.
© 2011-2017 Maria-Online.com ▪ AdvertisingDesignHosting