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Hotels of Lübeck

A hotel in Lübeck is an establishment that provides lodging paid on a short-term basis. Facilities provided may range from a basic bed and storage for clothing, to luxury features like en-suite bathrooms. Larger in Lübeck hotels may provide additional guest facilities such as a swimming pool, business centre, childcare, conference facilities and social function services. Hotel rooms in Lübeck are usually numbered (or named in some smaller hotels and B&Bs) to allow guests to identify their room. Some Lübeck hotels offer meals as part of a room and board arrangement. Hotel operations vary in size, function, and cost. Most Lübeck hotels and major hospitality companies that operate hotels in Lübeck have set widely accepted industry standards to classify hotel types. General categories include the following:

Upscale luxury hotels in Lübeck
An upscale full service hotel facility in Lübeck that offers luxury amenities, full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and the highest level of personalized and professional service. Luxury Lübeck hotels are normally classified with at least a Four Diamond or Five Diamond status or a Four or Five Star rating depending on classification standards.

Full service hotels in Lübeck
Full service Lübeck hotels often contain upscale full-service facilities with a large volume of full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and a variety of on-site amenities such as swimming pools, a health club, children's activities, ballrooms, on-site conference facilities, etc.

Historic inns and boutique hotels in Lübeck
Boutique hotels of Lübeck are smaller independent non-branded hotels that often contain upscale facilities of varying size in unique or intimate settings with full service accommodations. Lübeck boutique hotels are generally 100 rooms or less. Some historic inns and boutique hotels in Lübeck may be classified as luxury hotels.

Focused or select service hotels in Lübeck
Small to medium-sized hotel establishments that offer a limited amount of on-site amenities that only cater and market to a specific demographic of Lübeck travelers, such as the single business traveler. Most Lübeck focused or select service hotels may still offer full service accommodations but may lack leisure amenities such as an on-site restaurant or a swimming pool.

Economy and limited service hotels in Lübeck
Small to medium-sized Lübeck hotel establishments that offer a very limited amount of on-site amenities and often only offer basic accommodations with little to no services, these facilities normally only cater and market to a specific demographic of travelers, such as the budget-minded Lübeck traveler seeking a "no frills" accommodation. Limited service Lübeck hotels often lack an on-site restaurant but in return may offer a limited complimentary food and beverage amenity such as on-site continental breakfast service.

Guest houses and B&Bs in Lübeck
A bed and breakfast in Lübeck is a small lodging establishment that offers overnight accommodation and inclusive breakfast. Usually, Lübeck bed and breakfasts are private homes or family homes offering accommodations. The typical Lübeck B&B has between 4 and 11 rooms, with 6 being the average. Generally, guests are accommodated in private bedrooms with private bathrooms, or in a suite of rooms including an en suite bathroom. Some homes have private bedrooms with a bathroom which is shared with other guests. Breakfast is served in the bedroom, a dining room, or the host's kitchen. Often the owners of guest house themselves prepare the breakfast and clean the rooms.

Hostels in Lübeck
Lübeck hostels provide budget-oriented, sociable accommodation where guests can rent a bed, usually a bunk bed, in a dormitory and share a bathroom, lounge, and sometimes a kitchen. Rooms can be mixed or single-sex, although private rooms may also be available. Hostels are often cheaper for both the operator and occupants; many Lübeck hostels have long-term residents whom they employ as desk agents or housekeeping staff in exchange for experience or discounted accommodation.

Apartment hotels, extended stay hotels in Lübeck
Extended stay hotels are small to medium-sized Lübeck hotels that offer longer term full service accommodations compared to a traditional hotel. Extended stay hotels may offer non-traditional pricing methods such as a weekly rate that cater towards travelers in need of short-term accommodations for an extended period of time. Similar to limited and select service hotels, on-site amenities are normally limited and most extended stay hotels in Lübeck lack an on-site restaurant.

Timeshare and destination clubs in Lübeck
Lübeck timeshare and destination clubs are a form of property ownership also referred to as a vacation ownership involving the purchase and ownership of an individual unit of accommodation for seasonal usage during a specified period of time. Timeshare resorts in Lübeck often offer amenities similar that of a Full service hotel with on-site restaurant(s), swimming pools, recreation grounds, and other leisure-oriented amenities. Destination clubs of Lübeck on the other hand may offer more exclusive private accommodations such as private houses in a neighborhood-style setting.

Motels in Lübeck
A Lübeck motel is a small-sized low-rise lodging establishment similar to that of a limited service hotel, but with direct access to individual rooms from the car park. Common during the 1950s and 1960s, motels were often located adjacent to a major road, where they were built on inexpensive land at the edge of towns or along stretches of highways. They are still useful in less populated areas of Lübeck for driving travelers, but the more populated an area becomes the more hotels fill the need. Many of Lübeck motels which remain in operation have joined national franchise chains, rebranding themselves as hotels, inns or lodges.

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Travelling and vacation in Lübeck

For other uses, see Lübeck (disambiguation).
Hanseatic City of Lübeck
Hansestadt Lübeck
Holstentor, emblem of the city
Holstentor, emblem of the city
Flag of Hanseatic City of Lübeck
Coat of arms of Hanseatic City of Lübeck
Coat of arms
Hanseatic City of Lübeck  is located in Germany
Hanseatic City of Lübeck
Hanseatic City of Lübeck
Coordinates:  / 53.86972; 10.68639  / 53.86972; 10.68639
Country Germany
State Schleswig-Holstein
District Urban districts of Germany
• Mayor Bernd Saxe (SPD)
• Governing parties CDU
• Total 214.13 km (82.68 sq mi)
Elevation 13 m (43 ft)
Population (2015-12-31)
• Total 216,253
• Density 1,000/km (2,600/sq mi)
Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Postal codes 23501−23570
Dialling codes 0451, 04502
Vehicle registration HL (1906–1937; since 1956)
Website www.luebeck.de
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Hanseatic City of Lübeck
Name as inscribed on the World Heritage List
Lubeck panorama.JPG
Aerial view of the old town

Location Germany
Type Cultural
Criteria iv
Reference 272
UNESCO region Europe and North America
Inscription history
Inscription 1987 (11th Session)

Lübeck (pronounced [ˈlyːbɛk]) is a city in Schleswig-Holstein, northern Germany, and one of the major ports of Germany. On the river Trave, it was the leading city of the Hanseatic League, and because of its extensive Brick Gothic architecture is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. In 2015, it had a population of 218,523.

The old part of Lübeck is on an island enclosed by the Trave. The Elbe–Lübeck Canal connects the Trave with the Elbe River. Another important river near the town centre is the Wakenitz. Autobahn 1 connects Lübeck with Hamburg and Denmark. Travemünde is a sea resort and ferry port on the coast of the Baltic Sea. Lübeck Hauptbahnhof links Lübeck to a number of railway lines, notably the line to Hamburg.

Lübeck: History

Main articles: Liubice, Free City of Lübeck, and Timeline of Lübeck

Humans settled in the area around what today is Lübeck after the last Ice Age ended about 9700 BCE. Several Neolithic dolmens can be found in the area.

Around AD 700, Slavic peoples started moving into the eastern parts of Holstein, an area previously settled by Germanic inhabitants; the latter had moved on in the course of the Migration Period. Charlemagne (Holy Roman Emperor 800-814), whose efforts to Christianise the area were opposed by the Germanic Saxons, expelled many of the Saxons and brought in Polabian Slavs, allied to Charlemagne, in their stead. Liubice (the place-name means "lovely") was founded on the banks of the river Trave about four kilometres (2.5 miles) north of the present-day city-centre of Lübeck. In the 10th century it became the most important settlement of the Obotrite confederacy and a castle was built. In 1128 the pagan Rani from Rügen razed Liubice.

In 1143 Adolf II, Count of Schauenburg and Holstein, founded the modern town as a German settlement on the river island of Bucu. He built a new castle, first mentioned by the chronicler Helmold as existing in 1147. Adolf had to cede the castle to the Duke of Saxony, Henry the Lion, in 1158. After Henry's fall from power in 1181 the town became an Imperial city for eight years. Emperor Barbarossa (reigned 1152-1190) ordained that the city should have a ruling council of twenty members. With the council dominated by merchants, pragmatic trade interests shaped Lübeck's politics for centuries. The council survived into the 19th century. The town and castle changed ownership for a period afterwards and formed part of the Duchy of Saxony until 1192, of the County of Holstein until 1217, and of the kingdom of Denmark until the Battle of Bornhöved in 1227.

Lübeck's seal, 1280

Lübeck: The Hanseatic city

Around 1200 the port became the main point of departure for colonists leaving for the Baltic territories conquered by the Livonian Order and, later, by the Teutonic Order. In 1226 Emperor Frederick II elevated the town to the status of an Imperial Free City, by which it became the Free City of Lübeck.

Import/exports by sea: valued in 000s Lübeck marks, 18 Mar 1368–10 Mar 1369
Goods Principal Origin Imports Exports Total
Cloth Flanders 120.8 39.7 160.5
Fish Skania 64.7 6.1 70.8
Salt Luneburg - 61.6 61.6
Butter Sweden 19.2 6.8 26
Skins, furs Russia, Sweden 13.3 3.7 17
Grain Prussia 13 0.8 13.8
Wax Russia, Prussia 7.2 5.8 13
Beer Wendish towns 4.1 1.9 6
Copper Sweden, Hungary 2.2 2.4 4.6
Iron Sweden, Hungary 2.4 2.2 4.6
Oil Flanders 2.7 1.5 4.2
Flax Livonia, North Germany 0.4 3 3.4
Foodstuffs passim 2.2 1.2 3.4
Silver Sweden 0.7 2 2.7
Wine Rhineland 1.3 0.9 2.2
Various 39.9 16.6 56.5
Unclassified 41 49 90
Total (rounded) 338.9 206.9 545.8

In the 14th century Lübeck became the "Queen of the Hanseatic League", being by far the largest and most powerful member of that medieval trade organization. In 1375 Emperor Charles IV named Lübeck one of the five "Glories of the Empire", a title shared with Venice, Rome, Pisa and Florence.

Movements of 680 ships entering/leaving port
Arrivals % Origin,Destination Departures %
289 33.7 Mecklenburg-Pomerania 386 42.3
250 28.8 Skania 207 22.8
145 16.8 Prussia 183 20.1
96 11.2 Sweden 64 7
35 4.3 Livonia 43 4.7
28 3.2 Fehmarn 27 3
12 1.6 Bergen - -
3 0.4 Flanders 1 0.1
858 100 911 100

Several conflicts about trading privileges resulted in fighting between Lübeck (with the Hanseatic League) and Denmark and Norway - with varying outcomes. While Lübeck and the Hanseatic League prevailed in conflicts in 1435 and 1512, Lübeck lost when it became involved in the Count's Feud, a civil war that raged in Denmark from 1534 to 1536. Lübeck also joined the pro-Lutheran Schmalkaldic League of the mid-16th century.

Exports of butter (tons) and copper (schiffspfund) from Stockholm to Lübeck and Danzig
Butter Copper
Year Lübeck % Danzig % Lübeck % Danzig %
1368 2000 460
1369 900 530
1400 247 45
1492 76 1250
1493 - 2849
1494 - 1906
1495 - 435
1559 1254 89 150 11 -
1572 1350 74 252 14 564 94 3 0.5
1582 1224 86 105 10 803 85 59 6.2
1583 1133 77 165 11 2153 70 122 4
1584 909 74 177 14 2415 69 49 1.4
1591 742 74 170 17 1487 74 247 12
1600 - - 56 5 - - 1 0
1610 64 47 7 5 1411 83 18 1.1
1620 659 76 50 6 7434 86 12 0.1

After its defeat in the Count's Feud, Lübeck's power slowly declined. The city remained neutral in the Thirty Years' War of 1618-1648, but the combination of the devastation from the decades-long war and the new transatlantic orientation of European trade caused the Hanseatic League - and thus Lübeck with it - to decline in importance. However, even after the de facto disbanding of the Hanseatic League in 1669, Lübeck still remained an important trading town on the Baltic Sea.

Lübeck in 1493

Lübeck: Old traditions, new challenges

Franz Tunder was the organist in the Marienkirche. It was part of the tradition in this Lutheran congregation that the organist would pass on the duty in a dynastic marriage. In 1668 his daughter Anna Margarethe married the great Danish-German composer Dieterich Buxtehude, who was the organist at the Marienkirche in Lübeck until at least 1703. Some of the greatest composers of the day came to the church to hear his renowned playing.

In the course of the war of the Fourth Coalition against Napoleon, troops under Bernadotte occupied the neutral Lübeck after a battle against Blücher on 6 November 1806. Under the Continental System, the State bank went into bankruptcy. In 1811 the French Empire formally annexed Lübeck as part of France; the anti-Napoleonic Allies liberated the area in 1813, and the Congress of Vienna of 1815 recognised Lübeck as an independent Free City.

Lübeck, 16th century
Lübeck in 1641

In 1937 the Nazis passed the so-called Greater Hamburg Act, which merged the city of Lübeck with Prussia.

During World War II (1939–1945), Lübeck became the first German city to suffer substantial Royal Air Force (RAF) bombing. The attack of 28 March 1942 created a firestorm that caused severe damage to the historic centre. This raid destroyed three of the main churches and large parts of the built-up area; the bells of St Marienkircke plunged to the stone floor. Germany operated a POW camp for officers, Oflag X-C, near the city from 1940 until April 1945. The British Second Army entered Lübeck on 2 May 1945 and occupied it without resistance.

On 3 May 1945 one of the biggest disasters in naval history occurred in the Bay of Lübeck when RAF bombers sank three ships: the SS Cap Arcona, the SS Deutschland, and the SS Thielbek – which, unknown to them, were packed with concentration-camp inmates. About 7,000 people died.

Lübeck's population grew considerably – from about 150,000 in 1939 to more than 220,000 after the war – owing to an influx of ethnic German refugees expelled from the so-called former Eastern provinces of Germany in the Communist Bloc. Lübeck remained part of Schleswig-Holstein after World War II (and consequently lay within West Germany). It stood directly on what became the inner German border during the division of Germany into two states in the Cold War period. South of the city, the border followed the path of the river Wakenitz, which separated the Germanys by less than 10 m (32.81 ft) in many parts. The northernmost border-crossing was in Lübeck's district of Schlutup. Lübeck spent decades restoring its historic city centre. In 1987 UNESCO designated this area a World Heritage Site.

Lübeck became the scene of a notable art scandal in the 1950s. Lothar Malskat was hired to restore the medieval frescoes of the cathedral of the Marienkirche, which were discovered after the cathedral had been badly damaged during World War II. Instead he painted new works which he passed off as restorations, fooling many experts. Malskat later revealed the deception himself. Günter Grass featured this incident in his 1986 novel The Rat.

The house after the attack

On the night of 18 January 1996 a fire broke out in a home for foreign refugees, killing 10 people and severely injuring more than 30 others, mostly children. Most of the shelter's inhabitants thought it was a racist attack, as they stated that they had encountered other overt hostility in the city. The police and the local court were criticized at the time for ruling out racism as a possible motive before even beginning preliminary investigations. But by 2002, the courts found all the Germans involved not guilty: the perpetrators have not been caught.

In April 2015, Lübeck hosted the G7 conference.

Lübeck: Demographics

In 2015 the city had a population of 218,523. The largest ethnic minority groups are Turks, Central Europeans (Poles), Southern Europeans (mostly Greeks and Italians), Eastern Europeans (e.g. Russians), Arabs and several smaller groups. As in numerous other German cities, there is also a growing Afro-German community. Population structure:

Rank Nationality Population (2014)
1 Turkey 4,410
2 Poland 1,915
3 Russia 686
4 Greece 602
5 Italy 549

Lübeck: Main sights

St. Mary's Church, Lübeck
Town Hall
Fehmarnbelt Lightship in front of the Concert and Congress Center
Hospital of the Holy Spirit, one of the oldest social institutions of Lübeck (1260)
A typical crow-stepped gabled town house

Lübeck: Buildings

Much of the old town has kept a medieval appearance with old buildings and narrow streets. At one time the town could only be entered via any of four town gates, of which today two remain, the well-known Holstentor (1478) and the Burgtor (1444).

The old town centre is dominated by seven church steeples. The oldest are the Lübecker Dom (the city's cathedral) and the Marienkirche (Saint Mary's), both from the 13th and 14th centuries.

Other sights include:

  • the Lübecker Rathaus (Town Hall).
  • St. Catherine's Church, a church that belonged to a former monastery, now the Katharineum, a Latin school.
  • Thomas Mann's house.
  • Günter Grass' house.
  • Church of St. Peter Petrikirche (Lübeck)
  • Church of St. Lawrence, located on the site of a cemetery for people who died during the 16th century plague.
  • Church of St. Jacob Lübecker Jakobikirche, 1334
  • Church of the Sacred Heart (Propsteikirche Herz Jesu)
  • Church of St Aegidien
  • the Salzspeicher, historic warehouses where salt delivered from Lüneburg awaited shipment to Baltic ports.

Like many other places in Germany, Lübeck has a long tradition of a Christmas market in December, which includes the famous handicrafts market inside the Heiligen-Geist-Hospital (Hospital of the Holy Spirit), located at the northern end of Königstrasse.

Lübeck: Museums

Lübeck has many small museums, such as the St. Anne's Museum Quarter, Lübeck, the Behnhaus, the European Hansemuseum and the Holstentor. Lübeck Museum of Theatre Puppets is a privately run museum. Waterside attractions are a lightvessel that served Fehmarnbelt and the Lisa von Lübeck, a reconstruction of a Hanseatic 15th century caravel.

Lübeck: Food and drink

Lübeck is famous for its marzipan industry. According to local legend, marzipan was first made in Lübeck, possibly in response either to a military siege of the city or a famine year. The story, perhaps apocryphal, is that the town ran out of all food except stored almonds and sugar, which were used to make loaves of marzipan "bread". Others believe that marzipan was actually invented in Persia a few hundred years before Lübeck claims to have invented it. The best known producer is Niederegger, which tourists often visit while in Lübeck, especially at Christmas time.

The Lübeck wine trade dates back to Hanseatic times. One Lübeck specialty is Rotspon (About this sound listen ), wine made from grapes processed and fermented in France and transported in wooden barrels to Lübeck, where it is stored, aged and bottled.

Lübeck: Education

Lübeck has three universities, the University of Lübeck, the Lübeck Academy of Applied Sciences, and the Lübeck Academy of Music. The Graduate School for Computing in Medicine and Life Sciences is a central faculty of the University and was founded by the German Excellence Initiative. The International School of New Media is an affiliated institute of the University.

Lübeck: Notable people

Further information: Category:People from Lübeck

Lübeck: A–K

Ephraim Carlebach
Robert Christian Ave-Lallemant in 1851
Willy Brandt in 1980
Heinrich (left) and Thomas Mann around 1902
Kurd von Schlözer in 1892 by Franz von Lenbach
  • Robert Christian Avé-Lallemant (1812-1884), physician and research traveler
  • Thomas Baltzar (around 1631-1663), violinist and composer
  • Hans Blumenberg (1920-1996), philosopher
  • Adam Brand (explorer), (before 1692-1746), German merchant and researcher
  • Willy Brandt (1913-1992), politician, German chancellor (SPD)
  • Dieterich Buxtehude, (c.1637-1707), composer and organist
  • Ephraim Carlebach (1879-1936), rabbi and founder of the Higher Israelite School in Leipzig
  • Felix Carlebach (1911-2008), rabbi
  • Joseph Carlebach (1883-1942), murdered in the concentration camp Jungfernhof near Riga, rabbi, victim of the Holocaust
  • Friedrich Matthias Claudius (1822-1869), anatomist
  • Ernst Curtius, (1814-1896), Archaeologist and historian
  • Justus von Dohnányi (born 1960), actor
  • Björn Engholm (born 1939), politician (SPD)
  • Walter Ewers (1892-1918), flying ace of World War I
  • Gustav Falke (1853-1916), author
  • Hermann Fehling (1811-1885), in Stuttgart, chemist
  • Erasmus Finx (1627-1694), polyhistorian, author and church writer
  • August Hermann Francke (1663-1727), pedagogue and theologian, founder of the Francke Foundations
  • Emanuel Geibel (1815-1884), poet
  • Günter Grass (1927-2015), novelist, poet, playwright, illustrator, graphic artist, sculptor, and recipient of the 1999 Nobel Prize in Literature
  • Christian Friedrich Heinecken (1721-1725), "the infant scholar of Lübeck", a mythical child prodigy
  • Hermann von der Hude (1830-1908), architect
  • Joachim Jungius (1587-1657), mathematician, physicist and philosopher
  • Andreas Kneller (1649-1724), composer and organist
  • Godfrey Kneller born as Gottfried Kniller (1646-1723), court painter of several British monarchs
  • Gotthardt Kuehl (born 1850), painter
  • Friedrich Ludwig Æmilius Kunzen (1761-1817), composer

Lübeck: L–Z

  • Heinrich Mann (1871-1950), novelist (Professor Unrat)
  • Thomas Mann (1875-1955), novelist, Nobel Prize for Literature in 1929 (Lübeck is the setting of Mann's novel Buddenbrooks)
  • Friedrich Matz (1843-1874), archaeologist
  • Heinrich Meibom (1638-1700), medical expert, discoverer of the Meibomian gland
  • Christian Adolph Overbeck (1755-1821), mayor and poet
  • Friedrich Overbeck (1789-1869), painter and head of the Nazarenes
  • Hermann Pister (1885-1948), SS leader and commander of Buchenwald Concentration Camp, war criminal
  • Erich Ponto (1884-1957), actor
  • Gustav Radbruch (1878-1949), legal scholar and politician
  • Friedrich Ranke (1882-1950), Germanist and ethnologist
  • John Rugee (1827-1894), politician in Wisconsin, USA
  • Maria Slavona (1865-1931), impressionist painter, sister of Cornelia Schorer
  • Kurd von Schlözer (1822-1894), diplomat and historian
  • Laurentius Surius (1522-1578), Carthusian monk and Hagiograph
  • Franz Tunder (1614-1667), organist and composer
  • Sandra Völker (born 1974), swimmer
  • Johann Bernhard Vermehren (1777-1803), romanticist and lecturer
  • Jörg Wontorra (born 1948), German sport journalist

Lübeck: Parts

The city of Lübeck is divided into 10 zones. These again are arranged into altogether 35 urban districts. The 10 zones with their official numbers, their associated urban districts and the numbers of inhabitants of the quarters:

  • 01 City center (~ 12,000 Inhabitants)
  • 02 St. Jürgen (~ 40,000 Inhabitants)
    • Hüxtertor / Mühlentor / Gärtnergasse, Strecknitz / Rothebek, Blankensee, Wulfsdorf, Beidendorf, Krummesse, Kronsforde, Niederbüssau, Vorrade, Schiereichenkoppel, Oberbüssau
  • 03 Moisling (~ 10,000 Inhabitants)
    • Niendorf / Moorgarten, Reecke, Old-Moisling / Genin
  • 04 Buntekuh (~ 10,000 Inhabitants)
  • 05 St. Lorenz-South (~ 12,000 Inhabitants)
  • 06 St. Lorenz-North (~ 40,000 Inhabitants)
    • Holstentor-North, Falkenfeld / Vorwerk / Teerhof, Großsteinrade / Schönböcken, Dornbreite / Krempelsdorf
  • 07 St. Gertrud (~ 40,000 Inhabitants)
    • Burgtor / Stadtpark, Marli / Brandenbaum, Eichholz, Karlshof / Israelsdorf / Gothmund
  • 08 Schlutup (~ 6,000 Inhabitants)
  • 09 Kücknitz (~ 20,000 Inhabitants)
    • Dänischburg / Siems / Rangenberg / Wallberg, Herrenwyk, Alt-Kücknitz / Dummersdorf / Roter Hahn, Poeppendorf
  • 10 Travemünde (~ 15,000 Inhabitants)
    • Ivendorf, Alt-Travemünde / Rönnau, Priwall, Teutendorf, Brodten

The industrial Lübeck-Herrenwyk area was until the beginning of the 1990s the location of a big metallurgical plant. The gas produced by this plant was used for making electricity in the Lübeck-Herrenwyk power station. In 1992, the Lübeck-Herrenwyk power station was demolished after the bankruptcy and demolition of the metallurgical plant and since 1994 its site houses the static inverter plant of the HVDC Baltic Cable.

Lübeck: International relations

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany

Lübeck is twinned with:

  • Finland Kotka, Finland (since 1969)
  • Italy Venice, Italy (since 1979 - friendship treaty)
  • Germany Wismar, Germany (since 1987)
  • France La Rochelle, France (since 1988)
  • Lithuania Klaipėda, Lithuania (since 1990)
  • Japan Kawasaki, Kanagawa, Japan (since 1992 - friendship treaty)
  • Poland Szczecin, Poland (since 1993)
  • Norway Bergen, Norway (since 1996 - friendship treaty)
  • Sweden Visby, Sweden (since 1999)
  • China Shaoxing, Zhejiang, China (since 2003 - friendship treaty)
  • United States Spokane, United States (Sister City 1980 - 2000, friendship treaty)

Lubec, Maine, the easternmost town in the United States, is named after Lübeck.

Lübeck: See also

  • Cap Arcona
  • Lübeck Airport
  • Lübeck Hauptbahnhof
  • Lübeck Nordic Film Days
  • Lübeck law
  • Lübecker Nachrichten is Lübeck's only newspaper
  • Oberschule zum Dom
  • Ports of the Baltic Sea
  • Schleswig-Holstein Musik Festival
  • VfB Lübeck, football and sports club
  • Bombing of Lübeck in World War II

Lübeck: References

  1. "Statistikamt Nord – Bevölkerung der Gemeinden in Schleswig-Holstein 4. Quartal 2015] (XLS-file)". Statistisches Amt für Hamburg und Schleswig-Holstein (in German).
  2. Vehicles registered between 1937 and 1956 were given prefixes valid for all of Schleswig-Holstein: "I P" (1937–1945), "S" (1945–1947), "SH" (1947 only), "BS" (1948–1956).
  3. G.Lechner, Die Hanischen Pjundzollistern des Jahres 1368 (1935), pp.48, 198
  4. G.Lechner, Die Hansischen Pjundzollisten des Jahres 1368 (1935), pp.66
  5. Exports of butter, copper, osmund (a high quality iron) and, pig-iron. Units of iron were in Lasts; there were 12 lasts to 1 schiffspfund.
  6. Pfundzollbucher of Lübeck
  7. http://www.luebeck-tourism.de/discover/sights/churches-in-luebeck/st-marys.html
  8. "Brandspuren im Gesicht, Ermittlungen zur Lübecker Asylheim-Katastrophe", Der Spiegel, 23/1996, 3 June 1996.
  9. Hannoversche Allgemeine Zeitung, 5 March 2005
  10. http://www.dokfest-muenchen.de/filme_view_web.php?fid=275&lang=en
  11. In 2015 there was another fire at a refugee home, this time at Troglitz - http://www.Troglitz.panteres.com/2015/04/05/fire-in-refugee-home-troglitz-is-everywhere/
  12. http://www.spiegel.de/politik/ausland/g7-gipfel-in-luebeck-die-beschluesse-a-1028769.html
  13. "A I 2 - vj 4/10 S" (PDF). Retrieved 12 March 2013.
  14. http://www.statistik-nord.de/index.php?id=552
  15. Hassinen, Raino. "Kotka - International co-operation: Twin Cities". City of Kotka. Retrieved 22 October 2013.
  16. "La Rochelle: Twin towns". www.ville-larochelle.fr. Retrieved 7 November 2009.
  17. "Kontakty partnerskie Miasta Szczecin". Urząd Miasta Szczecin (in Polish). Archived from the original on 18 August 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2013.
  • Zimmern, Helen (30 November 2005). Hansa Towns. Adamant Media Corporation. ISBN 1402184832.
  • Colvin, Ian Duncan (9 July 2012). The Germans in England 1066-1598. Forgotten Books. ASIN B008QQ2ZGC.
  • Nicolle, David (20 April 2014). Forces of the Hanseatic League. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1782007792.
  • Official website
  • Official tourism site
  • Panoramas of Lübeck
  • Lovebridge Lübeck
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