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Hotels of Lübeck
A hotel in Lübeck is an establishment that provides lodging paid on a short-term basis. Facilities provided may range from a basic bed and storage for clothing, to luxury features like en-suite bathrooms. Larger in Lübeck hotels may provide additional guest facilities such as a swimming pool, business centre, childcare, conference facilities and social function services. Hotel rooms in Lübeck are usually numbered (or named in some smaller hotels and B&Bs) to allow guests to identify their room. Some Lübeck hotels offer meals as part of a room and board arrangement. Hotel operations vary in size, function, and cost. Most Lübeck hotels and major hospitality companies that operate hotels in Lübeck have set widely accepted industry standards to classify hotel types. General categories include the following:
Upscale luxury hotels in Lübeck
An upscale full service hotel facility in Lübeck that offers luxury amenities, full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and the highest level of personalized and professional service. Luxury Lübeck hotels are normally classified with at least a Four Diamond or Five Diamond status or a Four or Five Star rating depending on classification standards.
Full service hotels in Lübeck
Full service Lübeck hotels often contain upscale full-service facilities with a large volume of full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and a variety of on-site amenities such as swimming pools, a health club, children's activities, ballrooms, on-site conference facilities, etc.
Historic inns and boutique hotels in Lübeck
Boutique hotels of Lübeck are smaller independent non-branded hotels that often contain upscale facilities of varying size in unique or intimate settings with full service accommodations. Lübeck boutique hotels are generally 100 rooms or less. Some historic inns and boutique hotels in Lübeck may be classified as luxury hotels.
Focused or select service hotels in Lübeck
Small to medium-sized hotel establishments that offer a limited amount of on-site amenities that only cater and market to a specific demographic of Lübeck travelers, such as the single business traveler. Most Lübeck focused or select service hotels may still offer full service accommodations but may lack leisure amenities such as an on-site restaurant or a swimming pool.
Economy and limited service hotels in Lübeck
Small to medium-sized Lübeck hotel establishments that offer a very limited amount of on-site amenities and often only offer basic accommodations with little to no services, these facilities normally only cater and market to a specific demographic of travelers, such as the budget-minded Lübeck traveler seeking a "no frills" accommodation. Limited service Lübeck hotels often lack an on-site restaurant but in return may offer a limited complimentary food and beverage amenity such as on-site continental breakfast service.
Guest houses and B&Bs in Lübeck
A bed and breakfast in Lübeck is a small lodging establishment that offers overnight accommodation and inclusive breakfast. Usually, Lübeck bed and breakfasts are private homes or family homes offering accommodations. The typical Lübeck B&B has between 4 and 11 rooms, with 6 being the average. Generally, guests are accommodated in private bedrooms with private bathrooms, or in a suite of rooms including an en suite bathroom. Some homes have private bedrooms with a bathroom which is shared with other guests. Breakfast is served in the bedroom, a dining room, or the host's kitchen. Often the owners of guest house themselves prepare the breakfast and clean the rooms.
Hostels in Lübeck
Lübeck hostels provide budget-oriented, sociable accommodation where guests can rent a bed, usually a bunk bed, in a dormitory and share a bathroom, lounge, and sometimes a kitchen. Rooms can be mixed or single-sex, although private rooms may also be available. Hostels are often cheaper for both the operator and occupants; many Lübeck hostels have long-term residents whom they employ as desk agents or housekeeping staff in exchange for experience or discounted accommodation.
Apartment hotels, extended stay hotels in Lübeck
Extended stay hotels are small to medium-sized Lübeck hotels that offer longer term full service accommodations compared to a traditional hotel. Extended stay hotels may offer non-traditional pricing methods such as a weekly rate that cater towards travelers in need of short-term accommodations for an extended period of time. Similar to limited and select service hotels, on-site amenities are normally limited and most extended stay hotels in Lübeck lack an on-site restaurant.
Timeshare and destination clubs in Lübeck
Lübeck timeshare and destination clubs are a form of property ownership also referred to as a vacation ownership involving the purchase and ownership of an individual unit of accommodation for seasonal usage during a specified period of time. Timeshare resorts in Lübeck often offer amenities similar that of a Full service hotel with on-site restaurant(s), swimming pools, recreation grounds, and other leisure-oriented amenities. Destination clubs of Lübeck on the other hand may offer more exclusive private accommodations such as private houses in a neighborhood-style setting.
Motels in Lübeck
A Lübeck motel is a small-sized low-rise lodging establishment similar to that of a limited service hotel, but with direct access to individual rooms from the car park. Common during the 1950s and 1960s, motels were often located adjacent to a major road, where they were built on inexpensive land at the edge of towns or along stretches of highways. They are still useful in less populated areas of Lübeck for driving travelers, but the more populated an area becomes the more hotels fill the need. Many of Lübeck motels which remain in operation have joined national franchise chains, rebranding themselves as hotels, inns or lodges.
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Lübeck (pronounced[ˈlyːbɛk] ( listen)) is a city in Schleswig-Holstein, northern Germany, and one of the major ports of Germany. On the river Trave, it was the leading city of the Hanseatic League, and because of its extensive Brick Gothic architecture is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. In 2015, it had a population of 218,523.
The old part of Lübeck is on an island enclosed by the Trave. The Elbe–Lübeck Canal connects the Trave with the Elbe River. Another important river near the town centre is the Wakenitz. Autobahn 1 connects Lübeck with Hamburg and Denmark. Travemünde is a sea resort and ferry port on the coast of the Baltic Sea. Lübeck Hauptbahnhof links Lübeck to a number of railway lines, notably the line to Hamburg.
Main articles: Liubice, Free City of Lübeck, and Timeline of Lübeck
Humans settled in the area around what today is Lübeck after the last Ice Age ended about 9700 BCE. Several Neolithic dolmens can be found in the area.
Around AD 700, Slavic peoples started moving into the eastern parts of Holstein, an area previously settled by Germanic inhabitants; the latter had moved on in the course of the Migration Period. Charlemagne (Holy Roman Emperor 800-814), whose efforts to Christianise the area were opposed by the Germanic Saxons, expelled many of the Saxons and brought in Polabian Slavs, allied to Charlemagne, in their stead. Liubice (the place-name means "lovely") was founded on the banks of the river Trave about four kilometres (2.5 miles) north of the present-day city-centre of Lübeck. In the 10th century it became the most important settlement of the Obotrite confederacy and a castle was built. In 1128 the pagan Rani from Rügen razed Liubice.
In 1143 Adolf II, Count of Schauenburg and Holstein, founded the modern town as a German settlement on the river island of Bucu. He built a new castle, first mentioned by the chronicler Helmold as existing in 1147. Adolf had to cede the castle to the Duke of Saxony, Henry the Lion, in 1158. After Henry's fall from power in 1181 the town became an Imperial city for eight years. Emperor Barbarossa (reigned 1152-1190) ordained that the city should have a ruling council of twenty members. With the council dominated by merchants, pragmatic trade interests shaped Lübeck's politics for centuries. The council survived into the 19th century. The town and castle changed ownership for a period afterwards and formed part of the Duchy of Saxony until 1192, of the County of Holstein until 1217, and of the kingdom of Denmark until the Battle of Bornhöved in 1227.
Lübeck's seal, 1280
Lübeck: The Hanseatic city
Around 1200 the port became the main point of departure for colonists leaving for the Baltic territories conquered by the Livonian Order and, later, by the Teutonic Order. In 1226 Emperor Frederick II elevated the town to the status of an Imperial Free City, by which it became the Free City of Lübeck.
Import/exports by sea: valued in 000s Lübeck marks, 18 Mar 1368–10 Mar 1369
Livonia, North Germany
In the 14th century Lübeck became the "Queen of the Hanseatic League", being by far the largest and most powerful member of that medieval trade organization. In 1375 Emperor Charles IV named Lübeck one of the five "Glories of the Empire", a title shared with Venice, Rome, Pisa and Florence.
Movements of 680 ships entering/leaving port
Several conflicts about trading privileges resulted in fighting between Lübeck (with the Hanseatic League) and Denmark and Norway - with varying outcomes. While Lübeck and the Hanseatic League prevailed in conflicts in 1435 and 1512, Lübeck lost when it became involved in the Count's Feud, a civil war that raged in Denmark from 1534 to 1536. Lübeck also joined the pro-Lutheran Schmalkaldic League of the mid-16th century.
Exports of butter (tons) and copper (schiffspfund) from Stockholm to Lübeck and Danzig
After its defeat in the Count's Feud, Lübeck's power slowly declined. The city remained neutral in the Thirty Years' War of 1618-1648, but the combination of the devastation from the decades-long war and the new transatlantic orientation of European trade caused the Hanseatic League - and thus Lübeck with it - to decline in importance. However, even after the de facto disbanding of the Hanseatic League in 1669, Lübeck still remained an important trading town on the Baltic Sea.
Lübeck in 1493
Lübeck: Old traditions, new challenges
Franz Tunder was the organist in the Marienkirche. It was part of the tradition in this Lutheran congregation that the organist would pass on the duty in a dynastic marriage. In 1668 his daughter Anna Margarethe married the great Danish-German composer Dieterich Buxtehude, who was the organist at the Marienkirche in Lübeck until at least 1703. Some of the greatest composers of the day came to the church to hear his renowned playing.
In the course of the war of the Fourth Coalition against Napoleon, troops under Bernadotte occupied the neutral Lübeck after a battle against Blücher on 6 November 1806. Under the Continental System, the State bank went into bankruptcy. In 1811 the French Empire formally annexed Lübeck as part of France; the anti-Napoleonic Allies liberated the area in 1813, and the Congress of Vienna of 1815 recognised Lübeck as an independent Free City.
Lübeck, 16th century
Lübeck in 1641
In 1937 the Nazis passed the so-called Greater Hamburg Act, which merged the city of Lübeck with Prussia.
During World War II (1939–1945), Lübeck became the first German city to suffer substantial Royal Air Force (RAF) bombing. The attack of 28 March 1942 created a firestorm that caused severe damage to the historic centre. This raid destroyed three of the main churches and large parts of the built-up area; the bells of St Marienkircke plunged to the stone floor. Germany operated a POW camp for officers, Oflag X-C, near the city from 1940 until April 1945. The British Second Army entered Lübeck on 2 May 1945 and occupied it without resistance.
On 3 May 1945 one of the biggest disasters in naval history occurred in the Bay of Lübeck when RAF bombers sank three ships: the SS Cap Arcona, the SS Deutschland, and the SS Thielbek – which, unknown to them, were packed with concentration-camp inmates. About 7,000 people died.
Lübeck's population grew considerably – from about 150,000 in 1939 to more than 220,000 after the war – owing to an influx of ethnic German refugees expelled from the so-called former Eastern provinces of Germany in the Communist Bloc. Lübeck remained part of Schleswig-Holstein after World War II (and consequently lay within West Germany). It stood directly on what became the inner German border during the division of Germany into two states in the Cold War period. South of the city, the border followed the path of the river Wakenitz, which separated the Germanys by less than 10 m (32.81 ft) in many parts. The northernmost border-crossing was in Lübeck's district of Schlutup. Lübeck spent decades restoring its historic city centre. In 1987 UNESCO designated this area a World Heritage Site.
Lübeck became the scene of a notable art scandal in the 1950s. Lothar Malskat was hired to restore the medieval frescoes of the cathedral of the Marienkirche, which were discovered after the cathedral had been badly damaged during World War II. Instead he painted new works which he passed off as restorations, fooling many experts. Malskat later revealed the deception himself. Günter Grass featured this incident in his 1986 novel The Rat.
The house after the attack
On the night of 18 January 1996 a fire broke out in a home for foreign refugees, killing 10 people and severely injuring more than 30 others, mostly children. Most of the shelter's inhabitants thought it was a racist attack, as they stated that they had encountered other overt hostility in the city. The police and the local court were criticized at the time for ruling out racism as a possible motive before even beginning preliminary investigations. But by 2002, the courts found all the Germans involved not guilty: the perpetrators have not been caught.
In April 2015, Lübeck hosted the G7 conference.
In 2015 the city had a population of 218,523. The largest ethnic minority groups are Turks, Central Europeans (Poles), Southern Europeans (mostly Greeks and Italians), Eastern Europeans (e.g. Russians), Arabs and several smaller groups. As in numerous other German cities, there is also a growing Afro-German community. Population structure:
Lübeck: Main sights
St. Mary's Church, Lübeck
Fehmarnbelt Lightship in front of the Concert and Congress Center
Hospital of the Holy Spirit, one of the oldest social institutions of Lübeck (1260)
A typical crow-stepped gabled town house
Much of the old town has kept a medieval appearance with old buildings and narrow streets. At one time the town could only be entered via any of four town gates, of which today two remain, the well-known Holstentor (1478) and the Burgtor (1444).
The old town centre is dominated by seven church steeples. The oldest are the Lübecker Dom (the city's cathedral) and the Marienkirche (Saint Mary's), both from the 13th and 14th centuries.
Other sights include:
the Lübecker Rathaus (Town Hall).
St. Catherine's Church, a church that belonged to a former monastery, now the Katharineum, a Latin school.
Thomas Mann's house.
Günter Grass' house.
Church of St. Peter Petrikirche (Lübeck)
Church of St. Lawrence, located on the site of a cemetery for people who died during the 16th century plague.
Church of St. Jacob Lübecker Jakobikirche, 1334
Church of the Sacred Heart (Propsteikirche Herz Jesu)
Church of St Aegidien
the Salzspeicher, historic warehouses where salt delivered from Lüneburg awaited shipment to Baltic ports.
Like many other places in Germany, Lübeck has a long tradition of a Christmas market in December, which includes the famous handicrafts market inside the Heiligen-Geist-Hospital (Hospital of the Holy Spirit), located at the northern end of Königstrasse.
Lübeck has many small museums, such as the St. Anne's Museum Quarter, Lübeck, the Behnhaus, the European Hansemuseum and the Holstentor. Lübeck Museum of Theatre Puppets is a privately run museum. Waterside attractions are a lightvessel that served Fehmarnbelt and the Lisa von Lübeck, a reconstruction of a Hanseatic 15th century caravel.
Lübeck: Food and drink
Lübeck is famous for its marzipan industry. According to local legend, marzipan was first made in Lübeck, possibly in response either to a military siege of the city or a famine year. The story, perhaps apocryphal, is that the town ran out of all food except stored almonds and sugar, which were used to make loaves of marzipan "bread". Others believe that marzipan was actually invented in Persia a few hundred years before Lübeck claims to have invented it. The best known producer is Niederegger, which tourists often visit while in Lübeck, especially at Christmas time.
The Lübeck wine trade dates back to Hanseatic times. One Lübeck specialty is Rotspon (listen(help·info)), wine made from grapes processed and fermented in France and transported in wooden barrels to Lübeck, where it is stored, aged and bottled.
Lübeck has three universities, the University of Lübeck, the Lübeck Academy of Applied Sciences, and the Lübeck Academy of Music. The Graduate School for Computing in Medicine and Life Sciences is a central faculty of the University and was founded by the German Excellence Initiative. The International School of New Media is an affiliated institute of the University.
Lübeck: Notable people
Further information: Category:People from Lübeck
Robert Christian Ave-Lallemant in 1851
Willy Brandt in 1980
Heinrich (left) and Thomas Mann around 1902
Kurd von Schlözer in 1892 by Franz von Lenbach
Robert Christian Avé-Lallemant (1812-1884), physician and research traveler
Thomas Baltzar (around 1631-1663), violinist and composer
Hans Blumenberg (1920-1996), philosopher
Adam Brand (explorer), (before 1692-1746), German merchant and researcher
Willy Brandt (1913-1992), politician, German chancellor (SPD)
Dieterich Buxtehude, (c.1637-1707), composer and organist
Ephraim Carlebach (1879-1936), rabbi and founder of the Higher Israelite School in Leipzig
Felix Carlebach (1911-2008), rabbi
Joseph Carlebach (1883-1942), murdered in the concentration camp Jungfernhof near Riga, rabbi, victim of the Holocaust
Friedrich Matthias Claudius (1822-1869), anatomist
Ernst Curtius, (1814-1896), Archaeologist and historian
Justus von Dohnányi (born 1960), actor
Björn Engholm (born 1939), politician (SPD)
Walter Ewers (1892-1918), flying ace of World War I
Gustav Falke (1853-1916), author
Hermann Fehling (1811-1885), in Stuttgart, chemist
Erasmus Finx (1627-1694), polyhistorian, author and church writer
August Hermann Francke (1663-1727), pedagogue and theologian, founder of the Francke Foundations
Emanuel Geibel (1815-1884), poet
Günter Grass (1927-2015), novelist, poet, playwright, illustrator, graphic artist, sculptor, and recipient of the 1999 Nobel Prize in Literature
Christian Friedrich Heinecken (1721-1725), "the infant scholar of Lübeck", a mythical child prodigy
Hermann von der Hude (1830-1908), architect
Joachim Jungius (1587-1657), mathematician, physicist and philosopher
Andreas Kneller (1649-1724), composer and organist
Godfrey Kneller born as Gottfried Kniller (1646-1723), court painter of several British monarchs
Gotthardt Kuehl (born 1850), painter
Friedrich Ludwig Æmilius Kunzen (1761-1817), composer
Heinrich Mann (1871-1950), novelist (Professor Unrat)
Thomas Mann (1875-1955), novelist, Nobel Prize for Literature in 1929 (Lübeck is the setting of Mann's novel Buddenbrooks)
Friedrich Matz (1843-1874), archaeologist
Heinrich Meibom (1638-1700), medical expert, discoverer of the Meibomian gland
Christian Adolph Overbeck (1755-1821), mayor and poet
Friedrich Overbeck (1789-1869), painter and head of the Nazarenes
Hermann Pister (1885-1948), SS leader and commander of Buchenwald Concentration Camp, war criminal
Erich Ponto (1884-1957), actor
Gustav Radbruch (1878-1949), legal scholar and politician
Friedrich Ranke (1882-1950), Germanist and ethnologist
John Rugee (1827-1894), politician in Wisconsin, USA
Maria Slavona (1865-1931), impressionist painter, sister of Cornelia Schorer
Kurd von Schlözer (1822-1894), diplomat and historian
Laurentius Surius (1522-1578), Carthusian monk and Hagiograph
Franz Tunder (1614-1667), organist and composer
Sandra Völker (born 1974), swimmer
Johann Bernhard Vermehren (1777-1803), romanticist and lecturer
Jörg Wontorra (born 1948), German sport journalist
The city of Lübeck is divided into 10 zones. These again are arranged into altogether 35 urban districts. The 10 zones with their official numbers, their associated urban districts and the numbers of inhabitants of the quarters:
The industrial Lübeck-Herrenwyk area was until the beginning of the 1990s the location of a big metallurgical plant. The gas produced by this plant was used for making electricity in the Lübeck-Herrenwyk power station. In 1992, the Lübeck-Herrenwyk power station was demolished after the bankruptcy and demolition of the metallurgical plant and since 1994 its site houses the static inverter plant of the HVDC Baltic Cable.
Lübeck: International relations
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany
Lübeck is twinned with:
Kotka, Finland (since 1969)
Venice, Italy (since 1979 - friendship treaty)
Wismar, Germany (since 1987)
La Rochelle, France (since 1988)
Klaipėda, Lithuania (since 1990)
Kawasaki, Kanagawa, Japan (since 1992 - friendship treaty)
Szczecin, Poland (since 1993)
Bergen, Norway (since 1996 - friendship treaty)
Visby, Sweden (since 1999)
Shaoxing, Zhejiang, China (since 2003 - friendship treaty)
Spokane, United States (Sister City 1980 - 2000, friendship treaty)
Lubec, Maine, the easternmost town in the United States, is named after Lübeck.
Lübeck: See also
Lübeck Nordic Film Days
Lübecker Nachrichten is Lübeck's only newspaper
Oberschule zum Dom
Ports of the Baltic Sea
Schleswig-Holstein Musik Festival
VfB Lübeck, football and sports club
Bombing of Lübeck in World War II
"Statistikamt Nord – Bevölkerung der Gemeinden in Schleswig-Holstein 4. Quartal 2015] (XLS-file)". Statistisches Amt für Hamburg und Schleswig-Holstein (in German).
Vehicles registered between 1937 and 1956 were given prefixes valid for all of Schleswig-Holstein: "I P" (1937–1945), "S" (1945–1947), "SH" (1947 only), "BS" (1948–1956).
G.Lechner, Die Hanischen Pjundzollistern des Jahres 1368 (1935), pp.48, 198
G.Lechner, Die Hansischen Pjundzollisten des Jahres 1368 (1935), pp.66
Exports of butter, copper, osmund (a high quality iron) and, pig-iron. Units of iron were in Lasts; there were 12 lasts to 1 schiffspfund.