Luxembourg
Hotels

Online hotels booking in Luxembourg
Tickets

Cheapest tickets to Luxembourg
Car Hire

Cheap and easy car hire in Luxembourg
Info

Detailed description of Luxembourg
Goods

Luxembourg related books and other goods

Best prices on Luxembourg hotel booking and tickets to Luxembourg

One of the newest offers is an unique opportunity to instantly find the lowest prices on Luxembourg hotels and book a best hotel in Luxembourg saving up to 80%! You can do it quickly and easily with HotelsCombined, a world's leading free hotel metasearch engine that allows to search and compare the rates of all major hotel chains, top travel sites, and leading hotel booking websites, including Booking.com, Hotels.com, Agoda.com, etc. The hotel price comparison service HotelsCombined means cheap Luxembourg hotel booking, lowest prices on hotels in Luxembourg and airline tickets to Luxembourg!

Luxembourg Hotels Comparison & Online Booking

▪ Lowest prices on Luxembourg hotels booking
▪ The discounts on Luxembourg hotels up to 80%
▪ No booking fees on Luxembourg hotels
▪ Detailed description & photos of Luxembourg hotels
▪ Trusted ratings and reviews of Luxembourg hotels
▪ Advanced Luxembourg hotel search & comparison
▪ All Luxembourg hotels on the map
▪ Interesting sights of Luxembourg

What's important: you can compare and book not only Luxembourg hotels and resorts, but also villas and holiday cottages, inns and B&Bs (bed and breakfast), condo hotels and apartments, timeshare properties, guest houses and pensions, campsites (campgrounds), motels and hostels in Luxembourg. If you're going to Luxembourg save your money and time, don't pay for the services of the greedy travel agencies. Instead, book the best hotel in Luxembourg online, buy the cheapest airline tickets to Luxembourg, and rent a car in Luxembourg right now, paying the lowest price! Besides, here you can buy the Luxembourg related books, guidebooks, souvenirs and other goods.

Here you can book a hotel virtually anywhere in Luxembourg, including such popular and interesting places as Luxembourg City, Dudelange, Differdange, Esch-sur-Alzette, Vianden, Echternach, etc.

How to Book a Hotel in Luxembourg

In order to book an accommodation in Luxembourg enter the proper dates and do the hotel search. If needed, sort the found Luxembourg hotels by price, star rating, property type, guest rating, hotel features, hotel theme or hotel chain. Then take a look at the found hotels on Luxembourg map to estimate the distance from the main Luxembourg attractions and sights. You can also read the guest reviews of Luxembourg hotels and see their ratings.

When a hotel search in Luxembourg is done, please select the room type, the included meals and the suitable booking conditions (for example, "Deluxe double room, Breakfast included, Non-Refundable"). Press the "View Deal" ("Book Now") button. Make your booking on a hotel booking website and get the hotel reservation voucher by email. That's it, a perfect hotel in Luxembourg is waiting for you!

Hotels of Luxembourg

A hotel in Luxembourg is an establishment that provides lodging paid on a short-term basis. Facilities provided may range from a basic bed and storage for clothing, to luxury features like en-suite bathrooms. Larger in Luxembourg hotels may provide additional guest facilities such as a swimming pool, business centre, childcare, conference facilities and social function services. Hotel rooms in Luxembourg are usually numbered (or named in some smaller hotels and B&Bs) to allow guests to identify their room. Some Luxembourg hotels offer meals as part of a room and board arrangement. Hotel operations vary in size, function, and cost. Most Luxembourg hotels and major hospitality companies that operate hotels in Luxembourg have set widely accepted industry standards to classify hotel types. General categories include the following:

Upscale luxury hotels in Luxembourg
An upscale full service hotel facility in Luxembourg that offers luxury amenities, full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and the highest level of personalized and professional service. Luxury Luxembourg hotels are normally classified with at least a Four Diamond or Five Diamond status or a Four or Five Star rating depending on classification standards.

Full service hotels in Luxembourg
Full service Luxembourg hotels often contain upscale full-service facilities with a large volume of full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and a variety of on-site amenities such as swimming pools, a health club, children's activities, ballrooms, on-site conference facilities, etc.

Historic inns and boutique hotels in Luxembourg
Boutique hotels of Luxembourg are smaller independent non-branded hotels that often contain upscale facilities of varying size in unique or intimate settings with full service accommodations. Luxembourg boutique hotels are generally 100 rooms or less. Some historic inns and boutique hotels in Luxembourg may be classified as luxury hotels.

Focused or select service hotels in Luxembourg
Small to medium-sized hotel establishments that offer a limited amount of on-site amenities that only cater and market to a specific demographic of Luxembourg travelers, such as the single business traveler. Most Luxembourg focused or select service hotels may still offer full service accommodations but may lack leisure amenities such as an on-site restaurant or a swimming pool.

Economy and limited service hotels in Luxembourg
Small to medium-sized Luxembourg hotel establishments that offer a very limited amount of on-site amenities and often only offer basic accommodations with little to no services, these facilities normally only cater and market to a specific demographic of travelers, such as the budget-minded Luxembourg traveler seeking a "no frills" accommodation. Limited service Luxembourg hotels often lack an on-site restaurant but in return may offer a limited complimentary food and beverage amenity such as on-site continental breakfast service.

Guest houses and B&Bs in Luxembourg
A bed and breakfast in Luxembourg is a small lodging establishment that offers overnight accommodation and inclusive breakfast. Usually, Luxembourg bed and breakfasts are private homes or family homes offering accommodations. The typical Luxembourg B&B has between 4 and 11 rooms, with 6 being the average. Generally, guests are accommodated in private bedrooms with private bathrooms, or in a suite of rooms including an en suite bathroom. Some homes have private bedrooms with a bathroom which is shared with other guests. Breakfast is served in the bedroom, a dining room, or the host's kitchen. Often the owners of guest house themselves prepare the breakfast and clean the rooms.

Hostels in Luxembourg
Luxembourg hostels provide budget-oriented, sociable accommodation where guests can rent a bed, usually a bunk bed, in a dormitory and share a bathroom, lounge, and sometimes a kitchen. Rooms can be mixed or single-sex, although private rooms may also be available. Hostels are often cheaper for both the operator and occupants; many Luxembourg hostels have long-term residents whom they employ as desk agents or housekeeping staff in exchange for experience or discounted accommodation.

Apartment hotels, extended stay hotels in Luxembourg
Extended stay hotels are small to medium-sized Luxembourg hotels that offer longer term full service accommodations compared to a traditional hotel. Extended stay hotels may offer non-traditional pricing methods such as a weekly rate that cater towards travelers in need of short-term accommodations for an extended period of time. Similar to limited and select service hotels, on-site amenities are normally limited and most extended stay hotels in Luxembourg lack an on-site restaurant.

Timeshare and destination clubs in Luxembourg
Luxembourg timeshare and destination clubs are a form of property ownership also referred to as a vacation ownership involving the purchase and ownership of an individual unit of accommodation for seasonal usage during a specified period of time. Timeshare resorts in Luxembourg often offer amenities similar that of a Full service hotel with on-site restaurant(s), swimming pools, recreation grounds, and other leisure-oriented amenities. Destination clubs of Luxembourg on the other hand may offer more exclusive private accommodations such as private houses in a neighborhood-style setting.

Motels in Luxembourg
A Luxembourg motel is a small-sized low-rise lodging establishment similar to that of a limited service hotel, but with direct access to individual rooms from the car park. Common during the 1950s and 1960s, motels were often located adjacent to a major road, where they were built on inexpensive land at the edge of towns or along stretches of highways. They are still useful in less populated areas of Luxembourg for driving travelers, but the more populated an area becomes the more hotels fill the need. Many of Luxembourg motels which remain in operation have joined national franchise chains, rebranding themselves as hotels, inns or lodges.

Why HotelsCombined

HotelsCombined is the leading hotel metasearch engine founded in 2005, with headquarters in Sydney, Australia. It is widely recognized as the world's best hotel price comparison site and has won many of the most prestigious tourism industry awards. The site operates in over 40 languages, handles 120 different currencies and aggregates more than 2 million deals from hundreds of travel sites and hotel chains. The number of users counts more than 300,000 people a year with over $1,000,000,000 in estimated total cost of hotel reservations.

The main purpose of HotelsCombined hotel price comparison service is to help the travelers in finding a perfect accommodation option in Luxembourg at the best price, eliminating the need to manually analyze hundreds of hotel booking sites and thousands of price offers. Through the partnership with the most popular hotel booking websites, online travel agencies and hotel chains, HotelsCombined allows its users to search for and compare the current rates on Luxembourg hotels in a single search. It also provides an aggregated summary of hotel reviews and ratings from external sites.

The HotelsCombined's advanced technology allows to instantly find the available Luxembourg hotels and process the offers of all leading travel websites, including Booking.com, Hotels.com, Agoda.com and many others (AccorHotels.com, AirAsiaGo.com, Amoma.com, AsiaTravel.com, BestWestern.com, Budgetplaces.com, EasyToBook.com, Elvoline.com, Expedia.com, Getaroom.com, Hilton.com, Homestay.com, Hotel.de, HotelClub.com, HotelsClick.com, HotelTravel.com, Housetrip.com, ihg.com, Interhome.com, Jovago.com, LateRooms.com, NH-Hotels.com, OnHotels.com, Otel.com, Prestigia.com, Skoosh.com, Splendia.com, Superbreak.com, Tiket.com, etc.). Due to the fast and easy-to-use search system you get the rates on available Luxembourg hotels and book a preferable hotel on a website providing the lowest price.

All Luxembourg Hotels & Hostels Online

HotelsCombined is ideal for those interested in Luxembourg, HotelsCombined, Trivago, sale on the hotel booking site HotelsCombined, discount coupons on the hotel booking site HotelsCombined, best rates on Luxembourg hotels, low prices on Luxembourg hotels, best hotel in Luxembourg, best Luxembourg hotel, discounted Luxembourg hotel booking, online Luxembourg hotel reservation, Luxembourg hotels comparison, hotel booking in Luxembourg, luxury and cheap accomodation in Luxembourg, Luxembourg inns, Luxembourg B&Bs, bed and breakfast in Luxembourg, condo hotels and apartments in Luxembourg, bargain Luxembourg rentals, cheap Luxembourg vacation rentals,Luxembourg pensions and guest houses, cheap hotels and hostels of Luxembourg, Luxembourg motels, dormitories of Luxembourg, dorms in Luxembourg, Luxembourg dormitory rooms, lowest rates on hotels in Luxembourg, hotel prices comparison in Luxembourg, travel to Luxembourg, vacation in Luxembourg, trip to Luxembourg, trusted hotel reviews of Luxembourg, sights and attractions of Luxembourg, Luxembourg guidebook, Luxembourg guide, hotel booking in Luxembourg, tours to Luxembourg, travel company in Luxembourg, travel agency in Luxembourg, excursions in Luxembourg, tickets to Luxembourg, airline tickets to Luxembourg, Luxembourg hotel booking, Luxembourg hostels, dormitory of Luxembourg, dorm in Luxembourg, Luxembourg dormitory, Luxembourg airfares, Luxembourg airline tickets, Luxembourg tours, Luxembourg travel, must-see places in Luxembourg, Luxembourg Booking.com, Luxembourg hotels Trivago, Luxembourg Expedia, Luxembourg Airbnb, Luxembourg TripAdvisor, Hotels Combined Luxembourg, HotelsCombined Luxembourg, Luxembourg hotels and hostels, LU hotels and hostels, Black Friday on the hotel booking site HotelsCombined, Cyber Monday on the hotel booking site HotelsCombined, New Year's and Christmas sale HotelsCombined, hotelscombined.en, HotelsCombined.en, HotelsCombined.en, hotelscombined.com, Luxemborg (estat), etc.

Many people are also interested in the לוקסעמבורג, Lussimburgu, Lussimbourk, Люксембург (патшалăх), Lussemborgh, ಲಕ್ಸೆಂಬೊರ್ಗ್, Letseburg, Luksèmburg, 盧森堡, ლუქსემბურგი, লুক্সেমবুর্গ, लक्समबर्ग, Lucsemburg, Lyuksemburg, Lëtzebuerg (Land), Liksanbou (peyi), Люксэмбург, Rakapuō, Luxemborj, Lüksemburq, Lúksẹ́mbọ̀rg, Luksemburgu, Лецебург, Grande-Dutcheye do Lussimbork, Luksemburgkondre, Luxembuurich, Luxembourg (pays), Lucsamburg, L’uksemburgu, Luksambuur, لڪسمبرگ, Luxembursko, Լյուքսեմբուրգ, Λουξεμβούργο, लक्जेम्बर्ग, લક્ઝેમ્બર્ગ, Luxnbuag, Látsębooʼ, Luxemburg (laand), Lucembursko, Luhemburgo, Luksemborg, لوكسمبورغ, Lüssemburgh, Luksammbuur, Lussemburgu, ଲକ୍ସମବର୍ଗ, Luxemburg (land), Lushaborg, لوکسەمبورگ, लक्झेंबर्ग, ܠܘܟܣܡܒܘܪܓ, Луксембурьско, ประเทศลักเซมเบิร์ก, லக்சம்பர்க், Lussemburgo, Люксембург Мастор, Luksymburg, Luxemborg, Luxembörg (land), Laaksembargi, लक्ज़मबर्ग, لوگزامبورگ, Lúksemboarch (lân), Luksemburgo, and so on.

While others are looking for the ルクセンブルク, Luksembourg (bro), Luksembùrskô, Luksemburg, लक्संबॉर्ग, Luxenburgo, ᎸᎧᏎᏋᎩ, lEtsyburg, Lëtzebuerg, ལུ་སེམ་བའུརག (རྒྱལ་ཁབ།), လူဇင်ဘတ်နိုင်ငံ, 卢森堡, Люксембург, Luxemburg, لوکزامبورگ, Lýuksemburg, Lussemburghe, Luksamburg, Лүксембург, Luxemburgo, Luksimbur, ሉክሰምበርግ, Liuksemburgas, Luxemburgska, لوکزامبورق, لکسمبرگ, Luxämburgän, Lüksemburg, Люѯємбоургъ, Lwcsembwrg, Лүксин Балһсна Нутг, Люксембур, Luksemburga, Lussemburc, לוקסמבורג, Lioksemborgs, ਲਕਸਮਬਰਗ, Lukemapuka, ليۇكسېمبۇرگ, ປະເທດລູກຊຳບວກ, Luxembôrg (payis), 룩셈부르크, Luxembourg (nunaat), Luxemburgia, Lussembûrgh, Logzimboerg, Luxembourg, لوكسيمبورج, लक्सम्बर्ग, Lugizamburu, Lussembulgu, Люксембург (паддзахад), Lusembogu, Lusenburgo, Lúxemborg, Ruketemburg, Luksemburg (dewlete), Loksemborga, Luksõmburk, Lûksembûrg, ലക്സംബർഗ്, Luxemburgu, Luksemburgo (lando), Луксембург, Luxemburgum. Many people have already booked the hotels in Luxembourg on the hotel booking site HotelsCombined. Don't waste your time, go for it!

Travelling and vacation in Luxembourg

.
This article is about the country. For the city, see Luxembourg City. For other uses, see Luxembourg (disambiguation).

 / 49.750; 6.167

Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
  • Groussherzogtum Lëtzebuerg (Luxembourgish)
  • Großherzogtum Luxemburg (German)
  • Grand-Duché de Luxembourg (French)
Flag of Luxembourg
Coat of arms of Luxembourg
Flag Coat of arms
Motto: "Mir wëlle bleiwe wat mir sinn" (Luxembourgish)
"We want to remain what we are"
Anthem: "Ons Heemecht"
"Our Homeland"
Royal anthem: "De Wilhelmus"
Location of  Luxembourg  (dark green)– in Europe  (green & dark grey)– in the European Union  (green)
Location of Luxembourg (dark green)

– in Europe (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union (green)

Capital
and largest city
Luxembourg City
 / 49.600; 6.117
Official languages French
German
Luxembourgish
Demonym Luxembourgish, Luxembourger
Government Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy
Monarch (list)
Henri
Prime Minister (list)
Xavier Bettel
• Deputy Prime Minister
Etienne Schneider
Legislature Chamber of Deputies
Independence
• from Lotharingia / Duchy of Upper Lorraine
965 (as County of Luxembourg)
• Elevation to Duchy of Luxembourg
1355
• from the French Empire and elevation to Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
1815
• Independence in personal Union with the Netherlands Treaty of London)
19 April 1839
• Reaffirmation of Independence Treaty of London
11 May 1867
• End of personal union with the Kingdom of the Netherlands
23 November 1890
• from the German Reich
1944 / 1945
Area
• Total
2,586.4 km (998.6 sq mi) (168th)
• Water (%)
0.60%
Population
• April 2015 estimate
576,249 (170th)
• 2001 census
439,539
• Density
222.8/km (577.0/sq mi) (60th)
GDP (PPP) 2016 estimate
• Total
$58.234 billion (94th)
• Per capita
$100,991 (2nd)
GDP (nominal) 2016 estimate
• Total
$60.176 billion (71st)
• Per capita
$104,359 (3rd)
Gini (2014) 28.7
low · 19th
HDI (2014) Increase 0.892
very high · 19th
Currency Euro (€) (EUR)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
• Summer (DST)
CEST (UTC+2)
Drives on the right
Calling code +352
ISO 3166 code LU
Internet TLD .lu
  1. Not the same as the Het Wilhelmus of the Netherlands.
  2. Before 1999, Luxembourgish franc.
  3. The .eu domain is also used, as it is shared with other European Union member states.
  4. "CIA – The World Factbook – Field Listing – Distribution of family income – Gini index". United States government. Retrieved 3 May 2013.

Luxembourg Listen/ˈlʌksəmbɜːrɡ/ (Luxembourgish: Lëtzebuerg; German: Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in western Europe. It is bordered by Belgium to the west and north, Germany to the east, and France to the south. Its capital, Luxembourg City, is, together with Brussels and Strasbourg, one of the three official capitals of the European Union and the seat of the European Court of Justice, the highest juridical authority in the EU. Its culture, people and languages are highly intertwined with its neighbours, making it essentially a mixture of French and Germanic cultures. The repeated invasions by its neighbor countries, especially in World War II, resulted in the country's strong will for mediation between France and Germany and led to the foundation of the European Union.

It comprises two principal regions: the Oesling in the north as part of the Ardennes massif, and the Gutland ("Good Land") in the south. With an area of 2,586 square kilometres (998 sq mi), it is one of the smallest sovereign states in Europe (about the same size as the US state of Rhode Island or the English county of Northamptonshire). Luxembourg had a population of 524,853 in October 2012, ranking it the 8th least-populous country in Europe. As a representative democracy with a constitutional monarch, it is headed by a Grand Duke, Henri, Grand Duke of Luxembourg, and is the world's only remaining grand duchy. Luxembourg is a developed country, with an advanced economy and the world's highest GDP (PPP) per capita, according to the United Nations in 2014. Its central location has historically made it of great strategic importance to numerous powers, dating back to its founding as a Roman fortress, its hosting of a vital Frankish castle during the Early Middle Ages, and its role as a bastion for the Spanish Road between the 16th and 17th centuries.

Luxembourg is a founding member of the European Union, OECD, United Nations, NATO, and Benelux, reflecting its political consensus in favour of economic, political, and military integration. The city of Luxembourg, which is the country's capital and largest city, is the seat of several institutions and agencies of the EU. Luxembourg served on the United Nations Security Council for the years 2013 and 2014, which was a first in the country's history. In 2016 Luxembourgish citizens had visa-free or visa-on-arrival access to 172 countries and territories, ranking the Luxembourgian passport 6th in the world, tied with countries such as Canada and Switzerland.

Luxembourg: History

Main article: History of Luxembourg

Luxembourg: County

Main article: County of Luxemburg

The recorded history of Luxembourg begins with the acquisition of Lucilinburhuc (today Luxembourg Castle) situated on the Bock rock by Siegfried, Count of Ardennes, in 963 through an exchange act with St. Maximin's Abbey, Trier. Around this fort, a town gradually developed, which became the centre of a state of great strategic value.

Luxembourg: Duchy

Main article: Duchy of Luxemburg

In the 14th and early 15th centuries, three members of the House of Luxembourg reigned as Holy Roman Emperors. In 1437, the House of Luxembourg suffered a succession crisis, precipitated by the lack of a male heir to assume the throne, which led to the territories being sold by Duchess Elisabeth to Philip the Good of Burgundy.

In the following centuries, Luxembourg's fortress was steadily enlarged and strengthened by its successive occupants, the Bourbons, Habsburgs, Hohenzollerns and the French.

Luxembourg: Nineteenth century

See also: History of rail transport in Luxembourg

After the defeat of Napoleon in 1815, Luxembourg was disputed between Prussia and the Netherlands. The Congress of Vienna formed Luxembourg as a Grand Duchy within the German Confederation in personal union with the Netherlands, being at the same time a part of the Netherlands and ruled as one of its provinces, with the Fortress of Luxembourg manned by Prussian troops. This arrangement was revised by the 1839 First Treaty of London, from which date Luxembourg's full independence is reckoned.

Luxembourg City: The Passerelle, also known as the viaduct or old bridge, over the Pétrusse river valley, opened 1861

At the time of the Belgian Revolution of 1830–1839, and by the 1839 Treaty establishing full independence, Luxembourg's territory was reduced by more than half, as the predominantly francophone western part of the country was transferred to Belgium. In 1842 Luxembourg joined the German Customs Union (Zollverein). This resulted in the opening of the German market, the development of Luxembourg's steel industry, and expansion of Luxembourg's railway network from 1855 to 1875, particularly the construction of the Luxembourg-Thionville railway line, with connections from there to the European industrial regions. While Prussian troops still manned the fortress, in 1861, the Passerelle was opened, the first road bridge spanning the Pétrusse river valley, connecting the Ville Haute and the main fortification on the Bock with Luxembourg railway station, opened in 1859, on the then fortified Bourbon plateau to the south.

After the Luxembourg Crisis of 1866 nearly led to war between Prussia and France, the Grand Duchy's independence and neutrality were again affirmed by the 1867 Second Treaty of London, Prussia's troops were withdrawn from the Fortress of Luxembourg and its Bock and surrounding fortifications were dismantled.

The King of the Netherlands remained Head of State as Grand Duke of Luxembourg, maintaining a personal union between the two countries until 1890. At the death of William III, the throne of the Netherlands passed to his daughter Wilhelmina, while Luxembourg (then restricted to male heirs by the Nassau Family Pact) passed to Adolph of Nassau-Weilburg.

At the time of the Franco-Prussian war in 1870, despite allegations about French use of the Luxembourg railways for passing soldiers from Metz (then part of France) through the Duchy, and for forwarding provisions to Thionville, Luxembourg's neutrality was respected by Germany, and neither France nor Germany invaded the country. But in 1871, as a result of Germany's victory over France, Luxembourg's boundary with Lorraine, containing Metz and Thionville, changed from being a frontier with a part of France to a frontier with territory annexed to the German Empire as Alsace-Lorraine under the Treaty of Frankfurt. This allowed Germany the military advantage of controlling and expanding the railways there.

View to Place de la Constitution and Gëlle Fra monument, from the capital's Metz square at the Adolphe Bridge end of Avenue de la Liberté, connecting with the railway station

Luxembourg: Twentieth century

Frontier with German Empire's Alsace-Lorraine, from 1871 to 1918

In August 1914, Imperial Germany violated Luxembourg's neutrality by invading it in its war against France. This allowed Germany to use the railway lines, while at the same time denying them to France. Nevertheless, despite the German occupation, Luxembourg was allowed to maintain much of its independence and political mechanisms.

Current cross-border railway network, connecting Luxembourg City with Luxembourg's neighbouring countries, north (Belgium) – south (France) and east (Germany) – west (France)

In 1940, after the outbreak of World War II, Luxembourg's neutrality was again violated when the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany entered the country, "entirely without justification". In contrast to the First World War, under the German occupation of Luxembourg during World War II, the country was treated as German territory and informally annexed to the adjacent province of the Third Reich. A government in exile based in London supported the Allies, sending a small group of volunteers who participated in the Normandy invasion. Luxembourg was liberated in September 1944, and became a founding member of the United Nations in 1945. Luxembourg's neutral status under the constitution formally ended in 1948, and in 1949 it became a founding member of NATO.

In 1951, Luxembourg became one of the six founding countries of the European Coal and Steel Community, which in 1957 would become the European Economic Community and in 1993 the European Union, and in 1999 Luxembourg joined the Euro currency area. In 2005, a referendum on the EU treaty establishing a constitution for Europe was held.

Luxembourg: Politics

Main articles: Politics of Luxembourg and Law of Luxembourg

Luxembourg is a parliamentary democracy headed by a constitutional monarch. Under the constitution of 1868, executive power is exercised by the Grand Duke and the cabinet, which consists of several other ministers. The Grand Duke has the power to dissolve the legislature, in which case new elections must be held within three months. However, since 1919, sovereignty has resided with the Nation, exercised by the Grand Duke in accordance with the Constitution and the law.

Legislative power is vested in the Chamber of Deputies, a unicameral legislature of sixty members, who are directly elected to five-year terms from four constituencies. A second body, the Council of State (Conseil d'État), composed of twenty-one ordinary citizens appointed by the Grand Duke, advises the Chamber of Deputies in the drafting of legislation.

The Grand Duchy has three lower tribunals (justices de paix; in Esch-sur-Alzette, the city of Luxembourg, and Diekirch), two district tribunals (Luxembourg and Diekirch) and a Superior Court of Justice (Luxembourg), which includes the Court of Appeal and the Court of Cassation. There is also an Administrative Tribunal and an Administrative Court, as well as a Constitutional Court, all of which are located in the capital.

Luxembourg: Administrative divisions

Main articles: Cantons of Luxembourg and Communes of Luxembourg
Further information: Administrative divisions of Luxembourg

Luxembourg is divided into 12 cantons, which are further divided into 105 communes. Twelve of the communes have city status, of which the city of Luxembourg is the largest.

Luxembourg: Foreign relations

Main article: Foreign relations of Luxembourg

Luxembourg has long been a prominent supporter of European political and economic integration. In efforts foreshadowing European integration, Luxembourg and Belgium in 1921 formed the Belgium–Luxembourg Economic Union (BLEU) to create a regime of inter-exchangeable currency and a common customs. Luxembourg is a member of the Benelux Economic Union and was one of the founding members of the European Economic Community (now the European Union). It also participates in the Schengen Group (named after the Luxembourg village of Schengen where the agreements were signed), whose goal is the free movement of citizens among member states. At the same time, the majority of Luxembourgers have consistently believed that European unity makes sense only in the context of a dynamic transatlantic relationship, and thus have traditionally pursued a pro-NATO, pro-US foreign policy.

Luxembourg is the site of the European Court of Justice, the European Court of Auditors, the Statistical Office of the European Communities ("Eurostat") and other vital EU organs. The Secretariat of the European Parliament is located in Luxembourg, but the Parliament usually meets in Brussels and sometimes in Strasbourg.

Luxembourg: Military

Main article: Luxembourg Army
A NATO owned AWACS aircraft.

Luxembourg contributes an army of about 800 soldiers and 100 civil servants to its defense and to NATO. Being a landlocked country, it has no navy.

Luxembourg also lacks an air force, though the 17 NATO AWACS aeroplanes are, for convenience, registered as aircraft of Luxembourg. In accordance with a joint agreement with Belgium, both countries have put forth funding for one A400M military cargo plane.

Luxembourg: Geography

Main article: Geography of Luxembourg
The largest towns are Luxembourg, Esch-sur-Alzette, Dudelange, and Differdange.

Luxembourg is one of the smallest countries in Europe, and ranked 179th in size of all the 194 independent countries of the world; the country is about 2,586 square kilometres (998 sq mi) in size, and measures 82 km (51 mi) long and 57 km (35 mi) wide. It lies between latitudes 49° and 51° N, and longitudes 5° and 7° E.

To the east, Luxembourg borders the German Bundesland of Rhineland-Palatinate and Saarland, and, to the south, it borders the French région of Lorraine. The Grand Duchy borders the Belgian Walloon Region, in particular the latter's provinces of Luxembourg and Liège, part of which comprises the German-speaking Community of Belgium, to the west and to the north respectively.

The northern third of the country is known as the 'Oesling', and forms part of the Ardennes. It is dominated by hills and low mountains, including the Kneiff near Wilwerdange, which is the highest point, at 560 metres (1,837 ft). Other mountains are the 'Buurgplaaz' at 559 metres near Huldange and the 'Napoléonsgaard' at 554 metres near Rambrouch. The region is sparsely populated, with only one town (Wiltz) with a population of more than four thousand people.

Countryside of Alscheid.

The southern two-thirds of the country is called the "Gutland", and is more densely populated than the Oesling. It is also more diverse, and can be divided into five geographic sub-regions. The Luxembourg plateau, in south-central Luxembourg, is a large, flat, sandstone formation, and the site of the city of Luxembourg. Little Switzerland, in the east of Luxembourg, has craggy terrain and thick forests. The Moselle valley is the lowest-lying region, running along the southeastern border. The Red Lands, in the far south and southwest, are Luxembourg's industrial heartland and home to many of Luxembourg's largest towns.

The border between Luxembourg and Germany is formed by three rivers: the Moselle, the Sauer, and the Our. Other major rivers are the Alzette, the Attert, the Clerve, and the Wiltz. The valleys of the mid-Sauer and Attert form the border between the Gutland and the Oesling.

According to the 2012 Environmental Performance Index, Luxembourg is one of the world's best performers in environmental protection, ranking 4th out of 132 assessed countries Luxembourg also ranks 6th among the top ten most livable cities in the world by Mercer's.

Luxembourg: Climate

Luxembourg has an oceanic climate (Köppen: Cfb), marked by high precipitation, particularly in late summer. The summers are warm and winters cool.

Luxembourg: Economy

Main article: Economy of Luxembourg
Graphical depiction of Luxembourg's product exports in 28 colour-coded categories.

Luxembourg's stable and high-income market economy features moderate growth, low inflation, and a high level of innovation. Unemployment is traditionally low, although it had risen to 6.1% by May 2012, due largely to the effect of the 2008 global financial crisis. Consequently, Luxembourg's economy was forecast to have negligible growth in 2012. In 2011, according to the IMF, Luxembourg was the second richest country in the world, with a per capita GDP on a purchasing-power parity (PPP) basis of $80,119. Luxembourg is ranked 13th in the Heritage Foundation's Index of Economic Freedom, 26th in the United Nations Human Development Index, and 4th in the Economist Intelligence Unit's quality of life index.

External debt of Luxembourg is extremely high when external debt per capita or debt-to-GDP ratio is taken into consideration. External debt per capita (2014) is $3,696,467 and as a percentage of GDP it is 3443%, the world's highest by both measurements.

The industrial sector, which was dominated by steel until the 1960s, has since diversified to include chemicals, rubber, and other products. During the past decades, growth in the financial sector has more than compensated for the decline in steel production. Services, especially banking and finance, account for the majority of economic output. Luxembourg is the world's second largest investment fund centre (after the United States), the most important private banking centre in the Eurozone and Europe's leading centre for reinsurance companies. Moreover, the Luxembourg government has aimed to attract internet start-ups, with Skype and Amazon being two of the many internet companies that have shifted their regional headquarters to Luxembourg.

In April 2009, concern about Luxembourg's banking secrecy laws, as well as its reputation as a tax haven, led to its being added to a "grey list" of nations with questionable banking arrangements by the G20. In response, the country soon after adopted OECD standards on exchange of information and was subsequently added into the category of "jurisdictions that have substantially implemented the internationally agreed tax standard". In March 2010, the Sunday Telegraph reported that most of Kim Jong-Il's $4 billion in secret accounts is in Luxembourg banks. Amazon.co.uk also benefits from Luxembourg tax loopholes by channeling substantial UK revenues as reported by The Guardian in April 2012. Luxembourg ranked third on the Tax Justice Network's 2011 Financial Secrecy Index of the world's major tax havens, scoring only slightly behind the Cayman Islands. In 2013, Luxembourg is ranked as the 2nd safest tax haven in the world, behind Switzerland.

Agriculture is based on small, family-owned farms.

Luxembourg has especially close trade and financial ties to Belgium and the Netherlands (see Benelux), and as a member of the EU it enjoys the advantages of the open European market.

With $171 billion in May 2015, the country ranks eleventh in the world in holdings of U.S. Treasury securities. The ranking is however imperfect as some foreign owners entrust the safekeeping of their securities to institutions that are neither in the United States nor in the owner's country of residence.

Luxembourg: Transport

Luxembourg's international airline Luxair is based at Luxembourg Airport, the country's only international airport.
Main article: Transport in Luxembourg

Luxembourg has efficient road, rail and air transport facilities and services. The road network has been significantly modernised in recent years with 147 km (91 mi) of motorways connecting the capital to adjacent countries. The advent of the high-speed TGV link to Paris has led to renovation of the city's railway station and a new passenger terminal at Luxembourg Airport was opened in 2008. There are plans to introduce trams in the capital and light-rail lines in adjacent areas within the next few years.

The number of cars per 1000 persons amount to 680.1 in Luxembourg - higher than all but two states, namely the Principality of Monaco and the British overseas territory of Gibraltar.

Luxembourg: Communications

The telecommunications industry in Luxembourg is liberalised and the electronic communications networks are significantly developed. Competition between the different operators is guaranteed by the legislative framework Paquet Telecom of the Government of 2011 which transposes the European Telecom Directives into Luxembourgian law. This encourages the investment in networks and services. The regulator ILR – Institut Luxembourgeois de Régulation ensures the compliance to these legal rules.

Luxembourg has modern and widely deployed optical fiber and cable networks throughout the country. In 2010, the Luxembourg Government launched its National strategy for very high-speed networks with the aim to become a global leader in terms of very high-speed broadband by achieving full 1 Gbit/s coverage of the country by 2020. In 2011, Luxembourg had an NGA coverage of 75%. In April 2013, Luxembourg featured the 6th highest download speed worldwide and the 2nd highest in Europe: 32,46 Mbit/s. The country's location in Central Europe, stable economy and low taxes favour the telecommunication industry.

It ranks 2nd in the world in the development of the Information and Communication Technologies in the ITU ICT Development Index and 8th in the Global Broadband Quality Study 2009 by the University of Oxford and the University of Oviedo.

Signs in front of the Centre Drosbach on the Cloche d'or, in the city of Luxembourg.

Luxembourg is connected to all major European Internet Exchanges (AMS-IX Amsterdam, DE-CIX Frankfurt, LINX London), datacenters and POPs through redundant optical networks. In addition, the country is connected to the virtual meetme room services (vmmr) of the international data hub operator Ancotel. This enables Luxembourg to interconnect with all major telecommunication operators and data carriers worldwide. The interconnection points are in Frankfurt, London, New York and Hong Kong.

Several providers interconnect Luxembourg to the major European data hubs:

  • Teralink (P&TLuxembourg, also called EPT Luxembourg: incumbent operator)
  • LuxConnect (shareholder : Government) LuxConnect tested the 100G coherent transmission of data signals between Luxembourg and Amsterdam in June 2011.
  • Artelis/Cegecom (alternative telecommunications provider in Luxembourg and Saarland)
  • Satellite connectivity – Teleports (SES), Broadcasting Center Europe and P&T Luxembourg Teleport.

Luxembourg is connected through an optical DWDM network, called Teralink to several Tier 1 upstream providers like Level3 and Global Crossing. Teralink offers connectivities up to 100 Gbit/s. P&TLuxembourg established a coherent 100Gbit/s IP connection between Frankfurt and Luxembourg with live traffic in 2011.

The Internet IPV6 protocol has been introduced to the country by Restena and P&T Luxembourg.

Luxembourg has one Internet exchange point and one Carrier Ethernet Exchange point.

  • LU-CIX is Luxembourg's neutral and commercial Internet Exchange Point which was founded in 2009 by Cegecom, Datacentre Luxembourg, Global Media Systems, INEXIO, LuxConnect, P&T Luxembourg and Root eSolutions. It offers a short, fast and efficient route to the major European Internet networks. In 2012, LIX, the neutral Internet exchange operated by the RESTENA Foundation, merged with LU-CIX. In March 2013, LU-CIX launched the 'Central European Peering Hub' in order to provide the opportunity to its members to connect to other IXs' reseller programs, AMS-IX (Amsterdam), LINX (London), DE-CIX (Frankfurt) and France-IX (Paris), etc.
  • LIX is the Luxembourg Ethernet Exchange located in the Tier IV certified eBRC datacentre.

The online portal De Guichet of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg is a single one-stop online shop for citizens and companies to undertake various administrative operations (procedures, online forms, downloadable forms and advice) by Internet.

PSA Peugeot Citroën, with P&TLuxembourg as its partner, has introduced an integrated mobile telecommunication solution for the development of its telematic services in Europe.

Luxembourg: Data centres

Some 20 data centres are operating in Luxembourg. Six data centers are Tier IV Design certified: three of ebrc, two of LuxConnect and one of European Data Hub. In a survey on nine international data centers carried out in December 2012 and January 2013 and measuring availability (up-time) and performance (delay by which the data from the requested website was received), the top three positions were held by Luxembourg data centers.

Luxembourg: Demographics

Main article: Demographics of Luxembourg

Luxembourg: Ethnicity

The people of Luxembourg are called Luxembourgers. The immigrant population increased in the 20th century due to the arrival of immigrants from Belgium, France, Italy, Germany, and Portugal, with the majority coming from the latter: in 2013 there were about 88,000 inhabitants with Portuguese nationality.

There is also a very small Romani (Gypsy) and Jewish population. Both of the two groups living in Luxembourg were affected by the Holocaust in the past and were expelled from Luxembourg.

Since the beginning of the Yugoslav wars, Luxembourg has seen many immigrants from Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, and Serbia. Annually, over 10,000 new immigrants arrive in Luxembourg, mostly from the EU states, as well as Eastern Europe. In 2000 there were 162,000 immigrants in Luxembourg, accounting for 37% of the total population. There were an estimated 5,000 illegal immigrants in Luxembourg in 1999.

Luxembourg: Language

Coin of the former Luxembourg franc in two of the country's three languages: French (obverse, left) and Luxembourgish (reverse, right).
Main articles: Languages of Luxembourg, Multilingualism in Luxembourg, and Literature of Luxembourg

Three languages are recognised as official in Luxembourg: French, German, and Luxembourgish, a Franconian language of the Moselle region that is also spoken in neighbouring parts of Belgium, France and Germany. Though Luxembourgish is part of the West Central German group of High German languages, more than 5,000 words in the language are of French origin. The first printed sentences in Luxembourgish appeared in a weekly journal, the 'Luxemburger Wochenblatt', in the second edition on 14 April 1821.

Apart from being one of the three official languages, Luxembourgish is also considered the national language of the Grand Duchy; it is the mother tongue or "language of the heart" for nearly all Luxembourgers.

Each of the three languages is used as the primary language in certain spheres. Luxembourgish is the language that Luxembourgers generally use to speak to each other, but it is not often used as the written language. Since the 1980s an increasing number of novels have however been written in Luxembourgish. Most official (written) business is carried out in French. German is usually the first language taught in school and is the language of much of the media and of the church.

Luxembourg's education system is trilingual: the first years of primary school are in Luxembourgish, before changing to German; while in secondary school, the language of instruction changes to French. Proficiency in all three languages is required for graduation from secondary school, but half the students leave school without a certified qualification, with the children of immigrants being particularly disadvantaged.

In addition to the three official languages, English is taught in the compulsory schooling and much of the population of Luxembourg can speak English, especially in Luxembourg City. Portuguese, the language of the largest immigrant community, is also spoken by large parts of the population, but by relatively few from outside their community.

French is the preferred language of the government. Official legislation must be conducted in French.

Notre-Dame Cathedral, Luxembourg City
Circle frame.svg

Religious Affiliation in Luxembourg 2012

Roman Catholic (67%)
Protestant (3%)
Orthodox Christian (1%)
Other Christian (3%)
Muslim (3%)
Buddhist (1%)
Other religion (1%)
Non-religious/Agnostic (14%)
Atheist (6%)
Unknown (1%)
Notre-Dame Cathedral at night

Luxembourg: Religion

Main article: Religion in Luxembourg

Luxembourg is a secular state, but the state recognises certain religions as officially mandated religions. This gives the state a hand in religious administration and appointment of clergy, in exchange for which the state pays certain running costs and wages. Currently, religions covered by such arrangements are Roman Catholicism, Judaism, Greek Orthodoxy, Anglicanism, Russian Orthodoxy, Lutheranism, Calvinism, Mennonitism and Islam.

Since 1980 it has been illegal for the government to collect statistics on religious beliefs or practices. An estimation by the CIA Factbook for the year 2000 is that 87% of Luxembourgers are Catholic, including the royal family, the remaining 13% being made up of Muslims, Protestants, Orthodox Christians, Jews, and those of other or no religion. According to a 2010 Pew Research Center study 70.4% are Christian, 2.3% Muslim, 26.8% unaffiliated and 0.5% other religions.

According to a 2005 Eurobarometer poll, 44% of Luxembourg citizens responded that "they believe there is a God", whereas 28% answered that "they believe there is some sort of spirit or life force" and 22% that "they do not believe there is any sort of spirit, god, or life force".

Luxembourg: Education

The University of Luxembourg is the only university in the country.
See also: List of secondary schools in Luxembourg

The University of Luxembourg and the Luxembourg Miami University campus are two universities within Luxembourg.

Luxembourg: Health

Main article: Health in Luxembourg

Luxembourg sells the most alcohol in Europe per capita. However, the large proportion of alcohol purchased by customers from neighboring countries contributes to the statistically high level of alcohol sales per capita; this level of alcohol sales is thus not representative of the actual alcohol consumption of the Luxembourg population.

Luxembourg: Culture

Main articles: Culture of Luxembourg and National symbols of Luxembourg
Edward Steichen, Luxembourgish photographer and painter

Luxembourg has been overshadowed by the culture of its neighbours. It retains a number of folk traditions, having been for much of its history a profoundly rural country. There are several notable museums, located mostly in the capital. These include the National Museum of History and Art (NMHA), the Luxembourg City History Museum, and the new Grand Duke Jean Museum of Modern Art (Mudam). The National Museum of Military History (MNHM) in Diekirch is especially known for its representations of the Battle of the Bulge. The city of Luxembourg itself is on the UNESCO World Heritage List, on account of the historical importance of its fortifications.

The country has produced some internationally known artists, including the painters Théo Kerg, Joseph Kutter and Michel Majerus, and photographer Edward Steichen, whose The Family of Man exhibition has been placed on UNESCO's Memory of the World register, and is now permanently housed in Clervaux. Movie star Loretta Young was of Luxembourgish descent.

Luxembourg was the first city to be named European Capital of Culture twice. The first time was in 1995. In 2007, the European Capital of Culture was to be a cross-border area consisting of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Rheinland-Pfalz and Saarland in Germany, the Walloon Region and the German-speaking part of Belgium, and the Lorraine area in France. The event was an attempt to promote mobility and the exchange of ideas, crossing borders physically, psychologically, artistically and emotionally.

Luxembourg was represented at the World Expo 2010 in Shanghai, China, from 1 May to 31 October 2010 with its own pavilion. The pavilion was based on the transliteration of the word Luxembourg into Chinese, "Lu Sen Bao", which means "Forest and Fortress". It represented Luxembourg as the "Green Heart in Europe".

Luxembourg: Sports

In his cycling career, Charly Gaul won three Grand Tours.
Main article: Sport in Luxembourg

Unlike most countries in Europe, sport in Luxembourg is not concentrated upon a particular national sport, but encompasses a number of sports, both team and individual. Despite the lack of a central sporting focus, over 100,000 people in Luxembourg, out of a total population of only 512,353, are licensed members of one sports federation or another. The largest sports venue in the country is d'Coque, an indoor arena and Olympic swimming pool in Kirchberg, north-eastern Luxembourg City, which has a capacity of 8,300. The arena is used for basketball, handball, gymnastics, and volleyball, including the final of the 2007 Women's European Volleyball Championship. The national stadium (also the country's largest) is the Stade Josy Barthel, in western Luxembourg City; named after the country's only official Olympic gold medallist, the stadium has a capacity of 8,054.

Notable sportspeople include (see also List of Luxembourgish Sportspeople of the Year):

  • Alpine skier Marc Girardelli, World Cup overall champion five times between 1985 and 1993
  • Cyclists Nicolas Frantz, winner of the 1927 and 1928 Tours de France; Charly Gaul, winner of the 1956 and 1959 Giro d'Italia and of the 1958 Tour de France; Elsy Jacobs, first ever women's Road World Champion in 1958; and Andy Schleck, winner of the 2010 Tour de France
  • Middle-distance runner Josy Barthel, winner of the men's 1500 metres at the 1952 Summer Olympics
  • 1961 world water skiing champion Sylvie Hülsemann
  • Tennis players Gilles Muller, Anne Kremer and Mandy Minella.

Luxembourg: Cuisine

Main article: Luxembourg cuisine

Luxembourg cuisine reflects its position on the border between the Latin and Germanic worlds, being heavily influenced by the cuisines of neighboring France and Germany. More recently, it has been enriched by its many Italian and Portuguese immigrants.

Most native Luxembourg dishes, consumed as the traditional daily fare, share roots in the country's folk dishes the same as in neighboring Germany.

Luxembourg: Media

The main languages of media in Luxembourg are French and German. The newspaper with the largest circulation is the German-language daily Luxemburger Wort. In addition there are both English and Portuguese radio and national print publications, but accurate audience figures are difficult to gauge since the national media survey by ILRES is conducted in French.

Luxembourg is known in Europe for its radio and television stations (Radio Luxembourg and RTL Group). It is also the uplink home of SES, carrier of major European satellite services for Germany and Britain.

Due to a 1988 law that established a special tax scheme for audiovisual investment, the film and co-production in Luxembourg has grown steadily. There are some 30 registered production companies in Luxembourg.

Luxembourg won an Oscar in 2014 in the Animated Short Films category with Mr Hublot.

Luxembourg: See also

  • Outline of Luxembourg
  • Architecture of Luxembourg
  • List of castles in Luxembourg
  • Luxembourg leaks
  • List of countries by external debt

Luxembourg: Footnotes

  1. Luxembourgish: Groussherzogtum Lëtzebuerg [ˈgʀəʊsˌhɛχtsoːktuːm ˈlətsəbuχɕ]
    French: Grand-Duché de Luxembourg; [ɡʁɑ̃ dyʃe də lyksɑ̃buʁ]
    German: Großherzogtum Luxemburg [ˈgʁoːsˌhɛʁtsoːktuːm ˈlʊksəmˌbʊɐk]

Luxembourg: References

  1. "Still more people in Luxembourg". Retrieved 24 August 2016
  2. "Luxembourg". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 2 April 2016.
  3. "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income (source: SILC)". Eurostat Data Explorer. Retrieved 4 December 2015.
  4. "2015 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2015. Retrieved 14 December 2015.
  5. History: The Definitive Visual Guide. New York, New York: Dorling Kindersley Limited. 2010. pp. 452–453. ISBN 978-0-7566-7456-4.
  6. "Everything you need to know about the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg" (PDF).
  7. "Eurostat – Tables, Graphs and Maps Interface (TGM) table". Epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu. Retrieved 21 February 2010.
  8. "The first results of the population census", Statistics Portal, Luxembourg. Retrieved 12 July 2012.
  9. "Luxemburger Wort – Asselborn's final Security Council meeting". Wort.lu. 19 December 2014. Retrieved 2 April 2015.
  10. "Global Ranking – Visa Restriction Index 2016" (PDF). Henley & Partners. Retrieved 27 February 2016.
  11. "Emperor Charles IV elected Greatest Czech of all time". Radio Prague. 13 June 2005. Retrieved 15 October 2010.
  12. Kreins (2003), p. 20
  13. "History of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 February 2012.
  14. Kreins (2003), p. 39
  15. Kreins (2003), p. 70
  16. Thewes, Guy (2006) (PDF). Les gouvernements du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg depuis 1848 (2006), p. 208
  17. "LUXEMBURG Geschiedenis". Landenweb.net. Retrieved 1 February 2013.
  18. "Central Intelligence Agency". Cia.gov. Retrieved 1 February 2013.
  19. Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia 1997
  20. Kreins (2003), p. 76
  21. Jean-Marie Kreins, Histoire du Luxembourg, 5th edition, Presses Universitaires de France, 2010
  22. Kreins (2003), pp. 80–81
  23. Kreins (2003), p. 84
  24. The Great European treaties of the nineteenth century. Oakes and Mowat. The Clarendon Press. 1918. p. 259.
  25. Maartje Abbenhuis, An Age of Neutrals: Great Power Politics, 1815–1914. Cambridge University Press (2014) Buy book ISBN 978-1107037601
  26. File:Luxembourg.png
  27. "The invasion of Belgium, The Netherlands and Luxembourg". Judgment of the International Military Tribunal For The Trial of German Major War Criminals. London HMSO 1951.
  28. Timeline: Luxembourg – A chronology of key events BBC News Online, 9 September 2006. Retrieved 8 October 2006.
  29. "The Luxembourgish government since 1848 (in French)" (PDF).
  30. "Constitution of Luxembourg" (PDF). Service central de législation. 2005. Retrieved 23 July 2006.
  31. "Structure of the Conseil d'Etat". Conseil d'Etat. Archived from the original on 19 June 2006. Retrieved 23 July 2006.
  32. "Carte des communes – Luxembourg.lu – Cartes du Luxembourg". Luxembourg.public.lu. 21 September 2011. Retrieved 1 February 2013.
  33. "Luxembourg". Aeroflight.co.uk. 8 September 2005. Retrieved 23 July 2006.
  34. "A400M Loadmaster, Future Large Aircraft – FLA, Avion de Transport Futur – ATF", GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
  35. "Mountains in Luxembourg" (PDF). Archived from the original on 10 June 2007. Retrieved 24 February 2010. , recueil de statistiques par commune. statistiques.public.lu (2003) p. 20
  36. [1]
  37. [2]
  38. "Luxembourg". Stadtklima (Urban Climate). Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 19 April 2007.
  39. "The Global Innovation Index 2012" (PDF). INSEAD. Retrieved 22 July 2012.
  40. "Statistics Portal // Luxembourg – Home". Statistiques.public.lu. Retrieved 2 April 2015.
  41. "Growth in 2012", Which economies will grow and shrink the fastest in 2012?. The Economist online 4 January 2012.
  42. Data refer mostly to the year 2011. World Economic Outlook Database-April 2012, International Monetary Fund. Accessed on 18 April 2012.
  43. "2011 Index of Economic Freedom". The Heritage Foundation and Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 15 January 2011.
  44. "World Life Quality Index 2005" (PDF). Economist Intelligence Unit. 2005. Retrieved 23 July 2006.
  45. List of countries by external debt
  46. "Luxembourg makes progress in OECD standards on tax information exchange". OECD. 8 July 2009.
  47. "A progress report on the jurisdictions surveyed by the OECD Global Forum" (PDF). OECD. July 2009.
  48. "Kim Jong-il $4bn emergency fund in European banks". Telegraph. March 2010.
  49. Griffiths, Ian (4 April 2012). "How one word change lets Amazon pays less tax on its UK activities". London: TheGuardian.
  50. "Embargo 4 October 0.01 AM Central European Times" (PDF). Financialsecrecyindex.com. Retrieved 2 April 2015.
  51. "Major foreign holders of treasury securities". U.S. Department of the Treasury.
  52. "What are the problems of geographic attribution for securities holdings and transactions in the TIC system?". U.S. Treasury International Capital (TIC) reporting system.
  53. "Top Ten: Die Länder mit der höchsten Pkw-Dichte – manager magazin – Unternehmen". Manager-magazin.de. Retrieved 2 April 2015.
  54. "Legilux – Réseaux et services de communications électroniques". Legilux.public.lu. Retrieved 2 April 2015.
  55. "Institut Luxembourgeois de Régulation – Communications électroniques". Ilr.public.lu. Retrieved 2 April 2015.
  56. "Service des médias et des communications (SMC) – gouvernement.lu // L'actualité du gouvernement du Luxembourg". Mediacom.public.lu. Retrieved 2 April 2015.
  57. "Study on broadband coverage 2011. Retrieved on 25 January 2013.". Retrieved 7 October 2013.
  58. "Household Download Index. Retrieved on 9 April 2013". Netindex.com. 6 April 2011. Retrieved 7 October 2013.
  59. "Eurohub Luxembourg – putting Europe at your fingertips" (PDF). Archived from the original on 19 November 2008. Retrieved 19 February 2010. . Ministry of Economy and Foreign Trade of Luxembourg. August 2008
  60. "American Chamber of Commerce Luxembourg – Why Luxembourg?".
  61. "Financial express special issue on Luxembourg" (PDF). 23 June 2009. Retrieved 13 August 2010.
  62. pressinfo (23 February 2010). "Press Release: New ITU report shows global uptake of ICTs increasing, prices falling". Itu.int. Retrieved 23 April 2010.
  63. "Luxembourg ranks on the top in the ITU ICT survey".
  64. "Global Broadband Quality Study". Socsci.ox.ac.uk. Retrieved 2 April 2015.
  65. "Global Broadband Quality Study Shows Progress, Highlights Broadband Quality Gap" (PDF). Said Business School, University of Oxford. Retrieved 13 August 2010.
  66. "ams-ix.net". ams-ix.net. Retrieved 7 October 2013.
  67. "de-cix.net". de-cix.net. Retrieved 7 October 2013.
  68. "linx.net". linx.net. Retrieved 7 October 2013.
  69. "ICT Business Environment in Luxembourg". Luxembourgforict.lu. Retrieved 13 August 2010.
  70. Tom Kettels (15 May 2009). "ICT And E-Business – Be Global from Luxembourg" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 13 August 2010.
  71. "PricewaterhouseCoopers Invest in Luxembourg". Pwc.com. Retrieved 13 August 2010.
  72. "Why Luxembourg? A highly strategic position in the heart of Europe". teralink.lu. Retrieved 13 August 2010.
  73. "ITU-T ICT Statistics : Luxembourg". Itu.int. Retrieved 13 August 2010.
  74. "Telx Partners with German Hub Provider ancotel to Provide Virtual Connections between U.S. and Europe" (PDF). Retrieved 13 August 2010.
  75. "Globale Rechenzentren | Colocation mit niedrigen Latenzen für Finanzunternehmen, CDNs, Enterprises & Cloud-Netzwerke bei Equinix" (in German). Ancotel.de. Retrieved 2 April 2015.
  76. "Ancotel – Telecommunication Operator References". Ancotel.de. Retrieved 13 August 2010.
  77. "Networks Accessible in Frankfurt via the VMMR Solution offered by Telx/ancotel" (PDF). Retrieved 13 August 2010.
  78. "Teralink". Teralink.lu. Retrieved 7 October 2013.
  79. "Teralink P&T Luxembourg". Teralink.lu. Retrieved 2 April 2015.
  80. "Welcome to LuxConnect | LuxConnect". Luxconnect.lu. Retrieved 2 April 2015.
  81. "LuxConnect hosted the first coherent 100G service testing". Paperjam.lu. Retrieved 2 April 2015.
  82. "Artelis Website". Artelis.lu. Retrieved 2 April 2015.
  83. "SES : Global Fleet and access Network" (PDF). Ses.com. Retrieved 2 April 2015.
  84. "EUROPEAN TELECOM NETWORK" (PDF). Archived from the original on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 6 March 2010. . broadcasting center Europe. BCE.lu
  85. "POST.lu". Teralink.lu. Retrieved 2 April 2015.
  86. "The World Teleport Directory". Worldteleport.org. Retrieved 2 April 2015.
  87. "Uplink Stations". Uplinkstation.com. Retrieved 2 April 2015.
  88. "POST.lu". Teralink.lu. Retrieved 2 April 2015.
  89. "International Solutions TERALINK and Cloud services" (PDF). Ictspring.com. Retrieved 2 April 2015.
  90. "Luxembourg, Your European Hub for Online Business and E-Commerce" (PDF).
  91. "P&TLuxembourg employs Alcatel-Lucent for 100G optical, Ethernet network". Fiercetelecom.com. Retrieved 2 April 2015.
  92. "P&T Luxembourg Does 100G With AlcaLu". Heavyreading.com. Retrieved 2 April 2015.
  93. "IPv6 Council Luxembourg" (PDF). Retrieved 13 August 2010.
  94. "Why LU-CIX". Lu-cix.lu. Retrieved 2 April 2015.
  95. "LU-CIX in P&T Solutions" (PDF). Pt.lu. Retrieved 2 April 2015.
  96. "Merger between LIX and LU-CIX". Lix.lu. Retrieved 2 April 2015.
  97. "LU-CIX and IX Reach Open up Connectivity to Major Internet Exchanges" (PDF). Lu-cix.lu. Retrieved 2 April 2015.
  98. "Luxembourg Ethernet Exchange (LEX)". Ebrc.lu. Retrieved 2 April 2015.
  99. [3] Archived 30 December 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  100. "A future for all in the information society". Eluxembourg.public.lu. Retrieved 2 April 2015.
  101. "PSA – Integrated mobile telecommunication solution" (PDF). Psa-peugeot-citroen.com. Retrieved 2 April 2015.
  102. "PSA – Integrated mobile telecommunication solution.". Psa-peugeot-citroen.com. Retrieved 2 April 2015.
  103. "European Datacentres: Luxembourg". Ict.luxembourg.lu. Retrieved 2 April 2015.
  104. "Luxembourg as a Centre for Online and ICT Business (pdf)." (PDF). SMediacom.public.lu. Retrieved 2 April 2015.
  105. "Data Center Europe".
  106. "ebrc Datacenter Facilities". Ebrc.lu. Retrieved 2 April 2015.
  107. "LuxConnect ICT campus Bettembourg DC 1.1". Luxconnect.lu. Retrieved 2 April 2015.
  108. "LuxConnect ICT campus Bissen/Roost DC 2". Luxconnect.lu. Retrieved 2 April 2015.
  109. "Uptime Tier Certification". Uptimeinstitute.com. Retrieved 2 April 2015.
  110. "New data center study: Luxembourg in pole position". Ict.luxembourg.lu. Retrieved 2 April 2015.
  111. "Soluxions magazine: Luxembourg en pole position". Soluxions-magazine.com. Retrieved 2 April 2015.
  112. "Luxembourg Presidency – Being a Luxembourger". Eu2005.lu. 29 December 2004. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
  113. "Population par sexe et par nationalité (x 1 000) 1981, 1991, 2001 – 2013". Le portail des Statistiques. Retrieved 9 April 2014.
  114. The A to Z of the Gypsies (Romanies) – Page 159
  115. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum – Luxembourg
  116. Amanda Levinson. "The Regularisation of Unauthorised Migrants: Literature Survey and Country Case Studies – Regularisation programmes in Luxembourg" (PDF). Centre on Migration, Policy and Society, University of Oxford. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 September 2006. Retrieved 2 September 2006.
  117. "Origins of Luxembourgish (in French)". Migration Information Source.
  118. "Parlement européen – Lëtzebuergesch léieren (FR)". Europarl.europa.eu. 14 December 2000. Retrieved 2 April 2015.
  119. "Europeans and Their Languages" (PDF). European Commission. 2006. p. 7. Retrieved 5 November 2009.
  120. "À propos des langues" (PDF) (in French). Service Information et Presse. pp. 3–4. Retrieved 1 August 2006.
  121. "The Trilingual Education system in Luxembourg". Tel2l – Teacher Education by Learning through two languages, University of Navarra. Retrieved 9 June 2007.
  122. "Immigration in Luxembourg: New Challenges for an Old Country". Migration Information Source. Retrieved 9 June 2007.
  123. "Parlement européen – Lëtzebuergesch léieren (FR)". Europarl.europa.eu. 14 December 2000. Retrieved 9 May 2010.
  124. "Discrimination in the EU in 2012 – Special Eurobarometer 393 (The question asked was "Do you consider yourself to be...?")" (PDF). European Commission. Retrieved 2 February 2016.
  125. "D'Wort article (German)" (in French). www.wort.lu. Archived from the original on 22 May 2008. Retrieved 24 July 2007.
  126. "Mémorial A, 1979, No. 29" (PDF) (in French). Service central de législation. Retrieved 1 August 2006.
  127. "World Factbook – Luxembourg". Central Intelligence Agency. 19 December 2006. Retrieved 13 January 2007.
  128. "Table: Religious Composition by Country, in Percentages | Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project". Features.pewforum.org. 18 December 2012. Retrieved 2 April 2015.
  129. Eurobarometer on Social Values, Science and technology 2005 – page 11
  130. "Home | John E. Dolibois European Center | Miami University". www.units.miamioh.edu. Retrieved 2016-12-28.
  131. "World/Global Alcohol/Drink Consumption 2009". Finfacts.ie. Retrieved 2 April 2015.
  132. "Consommation annuelle moyenne d'alcool par habitant, Catholic Ministry of Health" (PDF). sante.gouv.fr. 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 January 2012.
  133. "Culture". Ministère des Affaires Etrangères, Luxembourg. Archived from the original on 22 July 2011.
  134. "Luxembourg and Greater Region, European Capital of Culture 2007" (PDF). June 2008. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 May 2011.
  135. "Environmental Report for Expo 2010 Shanghai China" (PDF). June 2009. p. 85. Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 July 2011.
  136. "Luxembourg pavilion at the World Expo 2010 Shanghai" (PDF).
  137. "Luxembourg pavilion displays green heart of Europe" (PDF). Shanghai Daily. 12 November 2007. Retrieved 24 December 2011.
  138. "Luxembourg". Council of Europe. 2003. Archived from the original on 23 June 2004. Retrieved 25 November 2006.
  139. "Luxemburger Wort". Wort.lu. Retrieved 2 April 2015.
  140. "TNS ILRES – Home". Tns-ilres.com. Retrieved 2 April 2015.
  141. "Luxembourg, a film country". Eu2005.lu. 29 December 2004. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
  142. "Film Fund Luxembourg". En.filmfund.lu. Retrieved 2 April 2015.
  143. "Luxembourgish Film Production Companies". Cna.public.lu. Retrieved 2 April 2015.

Luxembourg: Further reading

  • Kreins, Jean-Marie (2003). Histoire du Luxembourg (in French) (3rd ed.). Paris: ISBN 978-2-13-053852-3.
  • Thewes, Guy (July 2003). Les gouvernements du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg depuis 1848 (PDF) (in French) (Édition limitée ed.). Luxembourg City: Service Information et Presse. ISBN 2-87999-118-8. Retrieved 10 July 2007.
  • Plan d'action national luxembourgeois en matière de TIC et de haut-débit
  • CEE- Europe's Digital Competitiveness Report –Volume 2: i2010 –ICT Country Profiles- page 40-41
  • Inauguration of LU-CIX
  • Art and Culture in Luxembourg
  • Official website (French)
  • Luxembourg from UCB Libraries GovPubs
  • "Luxembourg". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
  • Luxembourg at DMOZ
  • Luxembourg profile from the BBC News
  • Luxembourg's Constitution of 1868 with Amendments through 2009, English Translation 2012
  • Wikimedia Atlas of Luxembourg
Source of information: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. We're not responsible for the content of this article and your use of this information. Disclaimer
no
+ Abkhazia
+ Afghanistan
+ Albania
+ Algeria
+ Andorra
+ Angola
+ Anguilla
+ Antigua And Barbuda
+ Argentina
+ Armenia
+ Aruba
+ Australia
+ Austria
+ Azerbaijan
+ Bahamas
+ Bahrain
+ Bangladesh
+ Barbados
+ Belarus
+ Belgium
+ Belize
+ Benin
+ Bermuda
+ Bhutan
+ Bolivia
+ Bosnia and Herzegovina
+ Botswana
+ Brazil
+ British Virgin Islands
+ Brunei
+ Bulgaria
+ Burkina Faso
+ Burundi
+ Cambodia
+ Cameroon
+ Canada
+ Cape Verde
+ Caribbean Netherlands
+ Cayman Islands
+ Chad
+ Chile
+ China
+ Colombia
+ Costa Rica
+ Croatia
+ Cuba
+ Curaçao
+ Cyprus
+ Czech Republic
+ Democratic Republic of the Congo
+ Denmark
+ Djibouti
+ Dominican Republic
+ Ecuador
+ Egypt
+ El Salvador
+ Equatorial Guinea
+ Eritrea
+ Estonia
+ Ethiopia
+ Faroe Islands
+ Fiji
+ Finland
+ France
+ French Guiana
+ French Polynesia
+ Gabon
+ Gambia
+ Georgia
+ Germany
+ Ghana
+ Gibraltar
+ Greece
+ Guadeloupe
+ Guam
+ Guatemala
+ Guinea
+ Guyana
+ Haiti
+ Honduras
+ Hong Kong
+ Hungary
+ Iceland
+ India
+ Indonesia
+ Iran
+ Iraq
+ Ireland
+ Isle of Man
+ Israel
+ Italy
+ Ivory Coast
+ Jamaica
+ Japan
+ Jordan
+ Kazakhstan
+ Kenya
+ Kiribati
+ Kongo
+ Kosovo
+ Kuwait
+ Kyrgyzstan
+ Laos
+ Latvia
+ Lebanon
+ Lesotho
+ Libya
+ Liechtenstein
+ Lithuania
+ Luxembourg
+ Macau
+ Macedonia
+ Madagascar
+ Malawi
+ Malaysia
+ Maldives
+ Mali
+ Malta
+ Martinique
+ Mauritania
+ Mauritius
+ Mexico
+ Moldova
+ Monaco
+ Mongolia
+ Montenegro
+ Morocco
+ Mozambique
+ Myanmar
+ Namibia
+ Nepal
+ Netherlands
+ New Zealand
+ Nicaragua
+ Nigeria
+ North Korea
+ Northern Mariana Islands
+ Norway
+ Oman
+ Pakistan
+ Palau
+ Palestine
+ Panama
+ Papua New Guinea
+ Paraguay
+ Peru
+ Philippines
+ Poland
+ Portugal
+ Puerto Rico
+ Qatar
+ Romania
+ Russia
+ Rwanda
+ Réunion
+ Saint Barthélemy
+ Saint Kitts and Nevis
+ Saint Lucia
+ Saint Martin
+ Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
+ Samoa
+ San Marino
+ Saudi Arabia
+ Senegal
+ Serbia
+ Seychelles
+ Sierra Leone
+ Singapore
+ Sint Maarten
+ Slovakia
+ Slovenia
+ Solomon Islands
+ South Africa
+ South Korea
+ Spain
+ Sri Lanka
+ Sudan
+ Suriname
+ Swaziland
+ Sweden
+ Switzerland
+ Syria
+ Taiwan
+ Tajikistan
+ Tanzania
+ Thailand
+ Togo
+ Tonga
+ Trinidad and Tobago
+ Tunisia
+ Turkey
+ Turkmenistan
+ Turks and Caicos Islands
+ U.S. Virgin Islands
+ Uganda
+ Ukraine
+ United Arab Emirates
+ United Kingdom
+ United States
+ Uruguay
+ Uzbekistan
+ Vanuatu
+ Vatican City
+ Venezuela
+ Vietnam
+ Yemen
+ Zambia
+ Zimbabwe
Vacation: Popular Goods
Popular Goods
Clothing
Tops
Trousers & shorts
Skirts
Dresses
Suits
Uniforms
Outerwear
Underwear
Lingerie
Footwear
Headwear
Nightwear
Swimsuits
Accessories

Cosmetics
Perfumery
Skin care
Hygiene products

Jewellery
Watches
Gemstones

Home appliances
Interior design
Furniture
Bedding
Linens
Plumbing
Lamps
Hand tools
Gardening tools
Building materials

Culinary (Cooking)
Foods
Vegetables
Fruits
Beverages
Condiments
Food preparation appliances
Cooking appliances
Cooking utensils
Kitchenware
Crockery
Cookware & bakeware

Toys
Children's clothing

Electronics
Activity trackers
Audio electronics
Apple electronics
Batteries
BlackBerry
Computer hardware
Computer peripherals
Consumer electronics
Digital electronics
iPhone
GPS
Laptops (notebooks)
Mobile phones
Musical instruments
Optical devices
Photography equipment
PlayStation
Rechargeable batteries
Radio
Satellite navigation
Smartphones
Smartwatches
Tablet computers
Television
Video game consoles
Wearable computers
Wireless
Xbox

Sports
Sports equipment
Sports clothing

Travel
Tourism
Tourism by country
Capitals
Tourist attractions
Airlines
Low-cost airlines
Airports
Airliners
Hotels
Tourism companies
Travel websites
Cruise lines
Cruise ships
Travel gear
Luggage
Camping equipment
Hiking equipment
Fishing equipment

Automobiles
Auto accessories
Automotive electronics
Auto parts
Auto chemicals
Tires

Software
Windows software
Mac OS software
Linux software
Android software
IOS software
Access Control Software
Business Software
Communication Software
Computer Programming
Digital Typography Software
Educational Software
Entertainment Software
Genealogy Software
Government Software
Graphics Software
Health Software
Industrial Software
Knowledge Representation Software
Language Software
Legal Software
Library & Info Science Software
Multimedia Software
Music Software
Personal Info Managers
Religious Software
Scientific Software
Simulation Software
System Software
Transportation Software
Video games, PC games

Finance
Advertising
Accounting
Auditing
Business
Banking
Credit
Credit cards
Currency
Debt
E-commerce
Economics
Employment
Financial markets
Forex
Human resource management
Insurance
Investment
Labor
Law
Loans
Management
Marketing
Money
Mortgage
Payment systems
Pensions
Philanthropy
Property
Real estate
Securities
Stationery
Taxation
Universities & colleges

Books
Films
Music

Health
Dietary supplements
Diets
Medical equipment
Vitamins
Weight loss

All trademarks, service marks, trade names, product names, and logos appearing on the site are the property of their respective owners.
© 2011-2017 Maria-Online.com ▪ DesignHosting