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Macedonia Hotels Comparison & Online Booking

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What's important: you can compare and book not only Macedonia hotels and resorts, but also villas and holiday cottages, inns and B&Bs (bed and breakfast), condo hotels and apartments, timeshare properties, guest houses and pensions, campsites (campgrounds), motels and hostels in Macedonia. If you're going to Macedonia save your money and time, don't pay for the services of the greedy travel agencies. Instead, book the best hotel in Macedonia online, buy the cheapest airline tickets to Macedonia, and rent a car in Macedonia right now, paying the lowest price! Besides, here you can buy the Macedonia related books, guidebooks, souvenirs and other goods.

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In order to book an accommodation in Macedonia enter the proper dates and do the hotel search. If needed, sort the found Macedonia hotels by price, star rating, property type, guest rating, hotel features, hotel theme or hotel chain. Then take a look at the found hotels on Macedonia map to estimate the distance from the main Macedonia attractions and sights. You can also read the guest reviews of Macedonia hotels and see their ratings.

When a hotel search in Macedonia is done, please select the room type, the included meals and the suitable booking conditions (for example, "Deluxe double room, Breakfast included, Non-Refundable"). Press the "View Deal" ("Book Now") button. Make your booking on a hotel booking website and get the hotel reservation voucher by email. That's it, a perfect hotel in Macedonia is waiting for you!

Hotels of Macedonia

A hotel in Macedonia is an establishment that provides lodging paid on a short-term basis. Facilities provided may range from a basic bed and storage for clothing, to luxury features like en-suite bathrooms. Larger in Macedonia hotels may provide additional guest facilities such as a swimming pool, business centre, childcare, conference facilities and social function services. Hotel rooms in Macedonia are usually numbered (or named in some smaller hotels and B&Bs) to allow guests to identify their room. Some Macedonia hotels offer meals as part of a room and board arrangement. Hotel operations vary in size, function, and cost. Most Macedonia hotels and major hospitality companies that operate hotels in Macedonia have set widely accepted industry standards to classify hotel types. General categories include the following:

Upscale luxury hotels in Macedonia
An upscale full service hotel facility in Macedonia that offers luxury amenities, full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and the highest level of personalized and professional service. Luxury Macedonia hotels are normally classified with at least a Four Diamond or Five Diamond status or a Four or Five Star rating depending on classification standards.

Full service hotels in Macedonia
Full service Macedonia hotels often contain upscale full-service facilities with a large volume of full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and a variety of on-site amenities such as swimming pools, a health club, children's activities, ballrooms, on-site conference facilities, etc.

Historic inns and boutique hotels in Macedonia
Boutique hotels of Macedonia are smaller independent non-branded hotels that often contain upscale facilities of varying size in unique or intimate settings with full service accommodations. Macedonia boutique hotels are generally 100 rooms or less. Some historic inns and boutique hotels in Macedonia may be classified as luxury hotels.

Focused or select service hotels in Macedonia
Small to medium-sized hotel establishments that offer a limited amount of on-site amenities that only cater and market to a specific demographic of Macedonia travelers, such as the single business traveler. Most Macedonia focused or select service hotels may still offer full service accommodations but may lack leisure amenities such as an on-site restaurant or a swimming pool.

Economy and limited service hotels in Macedonia
Small to medium-sized Macedonia hotel establishments that offer a very limited amount of on-site amenities and often only offer basic accommodations with little to no services, these facilities normally only cater and market to a specific demographic of travelers, such as the budget-minded Macedonia traveler seeking a "no frills" accommodation. Limited service Macedonia hotels often lack an on-site restaurant but in return may offer a limited complimentary food and beverage amenity such as on-site continental breakfast service.

Guest houses and B&Bs in Macedonia
A bed and breakfast in Macedonia is a small lodging establishment that offers overnight accommodation and inclusive breakfast. Usually, Macedonia bed and breakfasts are private homes or family homes offering accommodations. The typical Macedonia B&B has between 4 and 11 rooms, with 6 being the average. Generally, guests are accommodated in private bedrooms with private bathrooms, or in a suite of rooms including an en suite bathroom. Some homes have private bedrooms with a bathroom which is shared with other guests. Breakfast is served in the bedroom, a dining room, or the host's kitchen. Often the owners of guest house themselves prepare the breakfast and clean the rooms.

Hostels in Macedonia
Macedonia hostels provide budget-oriented, sociable accommodation where guests can rent a bed, usually a bunk bed, in a dormitory and share a bathroom, lounge, and sometimes a kitchen. Rooms can be mixed or single-sex, although private rooms may also be available. Hostels are often cheaper for both the operator and occupants; many Macedonia hostels have long-term residents whom they employ as desk agents or housekeeping staff in exchange for experience or discounted accommodation.

Apartment hotels, extended stay hotels in Macedonia
Extended stay hotels are small to medium-sized Macedonia hotels that offer longer term full service accommodations compared to a traditional hotel. Extended stay hotels may offer non-traditional pricing methods such as a weekly rate that cater towards travelers in need of short-term accommodations for an extended period of time. Similar to limited and select service hotels, on-site amenities are normally limited and most extended stay hotels in Macedonia lack an on-site restaurant.

Timeshare and destination clubs in Macedonia
Macedonia timeshare and destination clubs are a form of property ownership also referred to as a vacation ownership involving the purchase and ownership of an individual unit of accommodation for seasonal usage during a specified period of time. Timeshare resorts in Macedonia often offer amenities similar that of a Full service hotel with on-site restaurant(s), swimming pools, recreation grounds, and other leisure-oriented amenities. Destination clubs of Macedonia on the other hand may offer more exclusive private accommodations such as private houses in a neighborhood-style setting.

Motels in Macedonia
A Macedonia motel is a small-sized low-rise lodging establishment similar to that of a limited service hotel, but with direct access to individual rooms from the car park. Common during the 1950s and 1960s, motels were often located adjacent to a major road, where they were built on inexpensive land at the edge of towns or along stretches of highways. They are still useful in less populated areas of Macedonia for driving travelers, but the more populated an area becomes the more hotels fill the need. Many of Macedonia motels which remain in operation have joined national franchise chains, rebranding themselves as hotels, inns or lodges.

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HotelsCombined is the leading hotel metasearch engine founded in 2005, with headquarters in Sydney, Australia. It is widely recognized as the world's best hotel price comparison site and has won many of the most prestigious tourism industry awards. The site operates in over 40 languages, handles 120 different currencies and aggregates more than 2 million deals from hundreds of travel sites and hotel chains. The number of users counts more than 300,000 people a year with over $1,000,000,000 in estimated total cost of hotel reservations.

The main purpose of HotelsCombined hotel price comparison service is to help the travelers in finding a perfect accommodation option in Macedonia at the best price, eliminating the need to manually analyze hundreds of hotel booking sites and thousands of price offers. Through the partnership with the most popular hotel booking websites, online travel agencies and hotel chains, HotelsCombined allows its users to search for and compare the current rates on Macedonia hotels in a single search. It also provides an aggregated summary of hotel reviews and ratings from external sites.

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Travelling and vacation in Macedonia

Republic of Macedonia
Република Македонија (Macedonian)
Republika Makedonija
Flag of Republic of Macedonia
Coat of arms of Republic of Macedonia
Coat of arms
Денес над Македонија
Denes nad Makedonija
Today over Macedonia
Location of  Republic of Macedonia  (green)in Europe  (dark grey)  –  [Legend]
Location of Republic of Macedonia (green)

in Europe (dark grey) – [Legend]

and largest city
 / 42.000; 21.433
Official languages Macedonian
Recognized languages
  • Albanian
  • Turkish
  • Romani
  • Serbian
  • Macedonian Sign Language
Ethnic groups (2002)
  • 64.2% Macedonians
  • 25.2% Albanians
  • 3.9% Turks
  • 2.7% Romani
  • 1.8% Serbs
  • 2.2% other / unspecified
Demonym Macedonian
Government Parliamentary republic
• President
Gjorge Ivanov
• Prime Minister
Zoran Zaev
Legislature Sobranie
Independence from SFR Yugoslavia
• Declared
8 September 1991
• Officially recognized
by the United Nations
8 April 1993
• Total
25,713 km (9,928 sq mi) (145th)
• Water (%)
• 2016 estimate
• 2002 census
• Density
80.1/km (207.5/sq mi) (122nd)
GDP (PPP) 2016 estimate
• Total
$30.377 billion
• Per capita
GDP (nominal) 2016 estimate
• Total
$10.424 billion
• Per capita
Gini (2013) Negative increase 43.6
HDI (2015) Increase 0.748
high · 82nd
Currency Macedonian denar (MKD)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
• Summer (DST)
Date format dd/mm/yyyy (AD)
Drives on the right
Calling code +389
Patron saint Saint Clement of Ohrid
ISO 3166 code MK
Internet TLD
  • .mk
  • .мкд

Macedonia (/ˌmæsɪˈdniə/ mas-i-DOH-nee-ə; Macedonian: Македонија, tr. Makedonija, IPA: [makɛˈdɔnija]), officially the Republic of Macedonia (Macedonian: About this sound Република Македонија , tr. Republika Makedonija), is a country in the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe. It is one of the successor states of the former Yugoslavia, from which it declared independence in 1991. It became a member of the United Nations in 1993, but, as a result of an ongoing dispute with Greece over the use of the name "Macedonia", was admitted under the provisional description the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (sometimes abbreviated as FYROM and FYR Macedonia), a term that is also used by international organizations such as the European Union, the Council of Europe and NATO.

A landlocked country, the Republic of Macedonia has borders with Kosovo to the northwest, Serbia to the north, Bulgaria to the east, Greece to the south, and Albania to the west. It constitutes approximately the northwestern third of the larger geographical region of Macedonia, which also comprises the neighbouring parts of northern Greece and smaller portions of southwestern Bulgaria and southeastern Albania. The country's geography is defined primarily by mountains, valleys, and rivers. The capital and largest city, Skopje, is home to roughly a quarter of the nation's 2.06 million inhabitants. The majority of the residents are ethnic Macedonians, a South Slavic people. Albanians form a significant minority at around 25 percent, followed by Turks, Romani, Serbs, and others.

Macedonia's history dates back to antiquity, beginning with the kingdom of Paeonia, probably a mixed Thraco-Illyrian polity. In the late sixth century BCE the area was incorporated into the Persian Achaemenid Empire, then annexed by the Kingdom of Macedonia in the fourth century BCE. The Romans conquered the region in the second century BCE and made it part of the much larger province of Macedonia. Macedonia remained part of the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire, and was often raided and settled by Slavic peoples beginning in the sixth century CE. Following centuries of contention between the Bulgarian and Byzantine empires, it gradually came under Ottoman dominion from the 14th century. Between the late 19th and early 20th century, a distinct Macedonian identity emerged, although following the Balkan Wars of 1912 and 1913, the modern territory of Macedonia came under Serbian rule. In the aftermath of the First World War (1914–1918) it became incorporated into the Serb-dominated Kingdom of Yugoslavia, which after the Second World War was re-established as a republic (1945) and which became the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in 1963. Macedonia remained a constituent socialist republic within Yugoslavia until its peaceful secession in 1991.

Macedonia is a member of the UN and of the Council of Europe. Since 2005 it has also been a candidate for joining the European Union and has applied for NATO membership. Although one of the poorest countries in Europe, Macedonia has made significant progress in developing an open, market-based economy.

Republic of Macedonia: Etymology

The country's name derives from the Greek Μακεδονία (Makedonía), a kingdom (later, region) named after the ancient Macedonians. Their name, Μακεδόνες (Makedónes), derives ultimately from the ancient Greek adjective μακεδνός (makednós), meaning "tall, taper", which shares the same root as the adjective μακρός (makrós), meaning "long, tall, high" in ancient Greek. The name is originally believed to have meant either "highlanders" or "the tall ones", possibly descriptive of the people. However, Robert S. P. Beekes supports that both terms are of Pre-Greek substrate origin and cannot be explained in terms of Indo-European morphology.

Republic of Macedonia: History

Republic of Macedonia: Ancient and Roman period

Heraclea Lyncestis, a city founded by Philip II of Macedon in the 4th century BC: ruins of the Byzantine "Small Basilica"

The Republic of Macedonia roughly corresponds to the ancient kingdom of Paeonia, which was located immediately north of the ancient kingdom of Macedonia. Paeonia was inhabited by the Paeonians, a Thracian people, whilst the northwest was inhabited by the Dardani and the southwest by tribes known historically as the Enchelae, Pelagones and Lyncestae; the latter two are generally regarded as Molossian tribes of the northwestern Greek group, whilst the former two are considered Illyrian.

In the late 6th century BC, the Achaemenid Persians under Darius the Great conquered the Paeonians, incorporating what is today the Republic of Macedonia within their vast territories. Following the loss in the Second Persian invasion of Greece in 479 BC, the Persians eventually withdrew from their European territories, including from what is today the Republic of Macedonia.

In 356 BC Philip II of Macedon absorbed the regions of Upper Macedonia (Lynkestis and Pelagonia) and the southern part of Paeonia (Deuriopus) into the kingdom of Macedon. Philip's son Alexander the Great conquered the remainder of the region, and incorporated it in his empire, reaching as far north as Scupi, but the city and the surrounding area remained part of Dardania.

The Romans established the Province of Macedonia in 146 BC. By the time of Diocletian, the province had been subdivided between Macedonia Prima ("first Macedonia") on the south, encompassing most of the kingdom of Macedon, and Macedonia Salutaris (known also as Macedonia Secunda, "second Macedonia") on the north, encompassing partially Dardania and the whole of Paeonia; most of the country's modern boundaries fell within the latter, with the city of Stobi as its capital. Roman expansion brought the Scupi area under Roman rule in the time of Domitian (81–96 AD), and it fell within the Province of Moesia. Whilst Greek remained the dominant language in the eastern part of the Roman empire, Latin spread to some extent in Macedonia.

Republic of Macedonia: Medieval and Ottoman period

Slavic peoples settled in the Balkan region including Macedonia by the late 6th century AD. During the 580s, Byzantine literature attests to the Slavs raiding Byzantine territories in the region of Macedonia, later aided by Bulgars. Historical records document that in c. 680 a group of Bulgars, Slavs and Byzantines led by a Bulgar called Kuber settled in the region of the Keramisian plain, centred on the city of Bitola. Presian's reign apparently coincides with the extension of Bulgarian control over the Slavic tribes in and around Macedonia. The Slavic peoples that settled in the region of Macedonia converted to Christianity around the 9th century during the reign of Tsar Boris I of Bulgaria.

In 1014, the Byzantine Emperor Basil II defeated the armies of Tsar Samuil of Bulgaria, and within four years the Byzantines restored control over the Balkans (including Macedonia) for the first time since the 7th century. However, by the late 12th century, Byzantine decline saw the region contested by various political entities, including a brief Norman occupation in the 1080s.

In the early 13th century, a revived Bulgarian Empire gained control of the region. Plagued by political difficulties, the empire did not last, and the region came once again under Byzantine control in the early 14th century. In the 14th century, it became part of the Serbian Empire, who saw themselves as liberators of their Slavic kin from Byzantine despotism. Skopje became the capital of Tsar Stefan Dusan's empire.

Following Dusan's death, a weak successor appeared, and power struggles between nobles divided the Balkans once again. These events coincided with the entry of the Ottoman Turks into Europe. The Kingdom of Prilep was one of the short-lived states that emerged from the collapse of the Serbian Empire in the 14th century. Gradually, all of the central Balkans were conquered by the Ottoman Empire and remained under its domination for five centuries.

Republic of Macedonia: Macedonian nationalism

Nikola Karev, president of the short-lived Kruševo Republic during the Ilinden Uprising
Avtonomna Makedonia periodical, Belgrade, 1905

With the beginning of the Bulgarian National Revival in the 18th century, many of the reformers were from this region, including the Miladinov Brothers, Rajko Žinzifov, Joakim Krčovski, Kiril Pejčinoviḱ and others. The bishoprics of Skopje, Debar, Bitola, Ohrid, Veles and Strumica voted to join the Bulgarian Exarchate after it was established in 1870.

Several movements whose goals were the establishment of an autonomous Macedonia, which would encompass the entire region of Macedonia, began to arise in the late 19th century; the earliest of these was the Macedonian Revolutionary Organization, later becoming Secret Macedonian-Adrianople Revolutionary Organization (SMARO). In 1905 it was renamed the Internal Macedonian-Adrianople Revolutionary Organization (IMARO), and after World War I the organisation separated into the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (IMRO) and the Internal Thracian Revolutionary Organisation (ITRO).

In the early years of the organisation, membership was open to only Bulgarians, but later it was opened to all inhabitants of European Turkey, regardless of their nationality or religion. The majority of its members, however, were Macedonian Bulgarians. In 1903, IMRO organised the Ilinden-Preobrazhenie Uprising against the Ottomans, which after some initial successes, including the forming of the "Kruševo Republic", was "crushed with much loss of life. The uprising and the forming of the Kruševo Republic are considered the cornerstone and precursors to the eventual establishment of the Macedonian state.

Republic of Macedonia: Kingdoms of Serbia and Yugoslavia

The division of the region of Macedonia after the Balkan Wars according to the Treaty of Bucharest

Following the two Balkan wars of 1912 and 1913 and the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, most of its European-held territories were divided between Greece, Bulgaria and Serbia. The territory of the modern Macedonian state was annexed by Serbia and named Južna Srbija, "Southern Serbia". Following the partition, an anti-Bulgarian campaign was carried out in the areas under Serbian and Greek control. As many as 641 Bulgarian schools and 761 churches were closed by the Serbs, while Exarchist clergy and teachers were expelled. The use of Bulgarian (including all Macedonian dialects) was proscribed.

In the fall of 1915, Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in the First World War and gained control over most of the territory of the present-day Republic of Macedonia. After the end of the First World War, the area returned to Serbian control as part of the newly formed Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes and saw a reintroduction of the anti-Bulgarian measures of the first occupation (1913–1915): Bulgarian teachers and clergy were expelled, Bulgarian language signs and books removed, and all Bulgarian organisations dissolved.

The Serbian government pursued a policy of forced Serbianisation in the region, which included systematic repression of Bulgarian activists, altering family surnames, internal colonisation, forced labor, and intense propaganda. To aid the implementation of this policy, some 50,000 Serbian army and gendermerie were stationed in Macedonia. By 1940 about 280 Serbian colonies (comprising 4,200 families) were established as part of the government's internal colonisation program (initial plans envisaged 50,000 families settling in Macedonia).

In 1929, the Kingdom was officially renamed the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and divided into provinces called banovinas. Southern Serbia, including all of what is now the Republic of Macedonia, became known as the Vardar Banovina of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.

The concept of a United Macedonia was used by the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (IMRO) in the interbellum. Its leaders – including Todor Alexandrov, Aleksandar Protogerov, and Ivan Mihailov – promoted independence of the Macedonian territory split between Serbia and Greece for the whole population, regardless of religion and ethnicity. The Bulgarian government of Alexander Malinov in 1918 offered to give Pirin Macedonia for that purpose after World War I, but the Great Powers did not adopt this idea because Serbia and Greece opposed it. In 1924, the Communist International suggested that all Balkan communist parties adopt a platform of a "united Macedonia" but the suggestion was rejected by the Bulgarian and Greek communists.

IMRO followed by starting an insurgent war in Vardar Banovina, together with Macedonian Youth Secret Revolutionary Organization, which also conducted guerilla attacks against the Serbian administrative and army officials there. In 1923 in Stip, a paramilitary organisation called Association against Bulgarian Bandits was formed by Serbian chetniks, IMRO renegades and Macedonian Federative Organization (MFO) members to oppose IMRO and MMTRO.

The Macedonist ideas increased during the interbellum, in Yugoslav Vardar Macedonia, and among the left diaspora in Bulgaria, and were supported by the Comintern. In 1934, it issued a special resolution in which for the first time directions were provided for recognizing the existence of a separate Macedonian nation and Macedonian language.

Republic of Macedonia: World War II period

Metodija Andonov-Čento greeted in Skopje after the National Liberation War of Macedonia in 1944.

During World War II, Yugoslavia was occupied by the Axis Powers from 1941 to 1945. The Vardar Banovina was divided between Bulgaria and Italian-occupied Albania. Bulgarian Action Committees were established to prepare the region for the new Bulgarian administration and army. The Committees were mostly formed by former members of IMRO, but some communists such as Panko Brashnarov, Strahil Gigov and Metodi Shatorov also participated.

As leader of the Vardar Macedonia communists, Shatorov switched from the Yugoslav Communist Party to the Bulgarian Communist Party and refused to start military action against the Bulgarian army. The Bulgarian authorities, under German pressure, were responsible for the round-up and deportation of over 7,000 Jews in Skopje and Bitola. Harsh rule by the occupying forces encouraged many Macedonians to support the Communist Partisan resistance movement of Josip Broz Tito after 1943, and the National Liberation War ensued, with German forces being driven out of Macedonia by the end of 1944.

In Vardar Macedonia, after the Bulgarian coup d'état of 1944, the Bulgarian troops, surrounded by German forces, fought their way back to the old borders of Bulgaria. Under the leadership of the new Bulgarian pro-Soviet government, four armies, 455,000 strong in total, were mobilised and reorganised. Most of them re-entered occupied Yugoslavia in early October 1944 and moved from Sofia to Niš, Skopje and Pristina with the strategic task of blocking the German forces withdrawing from Greece. Compelled by the Soviet Union with a view towards the creation of a large South Slav Federation, the Bulgarian government once again offered to give Pirin Macedonia to such a United Macedonia in 1945.

Republic of Macedonia: Socialist Yugoslavia period

Macedonia (dark red) was one of the republics within the Socialist Yugoslavia.

In 1944 the Anti-Fascist Assembly for the National Liberation of Macedonia (ASNOM) proclaimed the People's Republic of Macedonia as part of the People's Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ASNOM remained an acting government until the end of the war. The Macedonian alphabet was codified by linguists of ASNOM, who based their alphabet on the phonetic alphabet of Vuk Stefanović Karadžić and the principles of Krste Petkov Misirkov.

The new republic became one of the six republics of the Yugoslav federation. Following the federation's renaming as the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in 1963, the People's Republic of Macedonia was likewise renamed, becoming the Socialist Republic of Macedonia. During the civil war in Greece (1946–1949), Macedonian communist insurgents supported the Greek communists. Many refugees fled to the Socialist Republic of Macedonia from there. The state dropped the "Socialist" from its name in 1991 when it peacefully seceded from Yugoslavia.

Republic of Macedonia: Declaration of independence

The country officially celebrates 8 September 1991 as Independence day (Macedonian: Ден на независноста, Den na nezavisnosta), with regard to the referendum endorsing independence from Yugoslavia, albeit legalising participation in future union of the former states of Yugoslavia. The anniversary of the start of the Ilinden Uprising (St. Elijah's Day) on 2 August is also widely celebrated on an official level as the Day of the Republic.

Robert Badinter, as the head of the Arbitration Commission of the Peace Conference on Yugoslavia, recommended EC recognition in January 1992.

Macedonia remained at peace through the Yugoslav wars of the early 1990s. A few very minor changes to its border with Yugoslavia were agreed upon to resolve problems with the demarcation line between the two countries. However, it was seriously destabilised by the Kosovo War in 1999, when an estimated 360,000 ethnic Albanian refugees from Kosovo took refuge in the country. Although they departed shortly after the war, Albanian nationalists on both sides of the border took up arms soon after in pursuit of autonomy or independence for the Albanian-populated areas of Macedonia.

Republic of Macedonia: Albanian insurgency

A conflict took place between the government and ethnic Albanian insurgents, mostly in the north and west of the country, between February and August 2001. The war ended with the intervention of a NATO ceasefire monitoring force. Under the terms of the Ohrid Agreement, the government agreed to devolve greater political power and cultural recognition to the Albanian minority. The Albanian side agreed to abandon separatist demands and to recognise all Macedonian institutions fully. In addition, according to this accord, the NLA were to disarm and hand over their weapons to a NATO force.

Republic of Macedonia: Geography

Mount Korab, the highest mountain in Macedonia
Galičica, view from Korita

Macedonia has a total area of 25,713 km (9,928 sq mi). It lies between latitudes 40° and 43° N, and mostly between longitudes 20° and 23° E (a small area lies east of 23°). Macedonia has some 748 km (465 mi) of boundaries, shared with Serbia (62 km or 39 mi) to the North, Kosovo (159 km or 99 mi) to the northwest, Bulgaria (148 km or 92 mi) to the east, Greece (228 km or 142 mi) to the south, and Albania (151 km or 94 mi) to the west. It is a transit way for shipment of goods from Greece, through the Balkans, towards Eastern, Western and Central Europe and through Bulgaria to the east. It is part of a larger region also known as Macedonia, which also includes Macedonia (Greece) and the Blagoevgrad province in southwestern Bulgaria.

Republic of Macedonia: Topography

Macedonia is a landlocked country that is geographically clearly defined by a central valley formed by the Vardar river and framed along its borders by mountain ranges. The terrain is mostly rugged, located between the Šar Mountains and Osogovo, which frame the valley of the Vardar river. Three large lakes - Lake Ohrid, Lake Prespa and Dojran Lake - lie on the southern borders, bisected by the frontiers with Albania and Greece. Ohrid is considered to be one of the oldest lakes and biotopes in the world. The region is seismically active and has been the site of destructive earthquakes in the past, most recently in 1963 when Skopje was heavily damaged by a major earthquake, killing over 1,000.

Macedonia also has scenic mountains. They belong to two different mountain ranges: the first is the Šar Mountains that continues to the West Vardar/Pelagonia group of mountains (Baba Mountain, Nidže, Kozuf and Jakupica), also known as the Dinaric range. The second range is the Osogovo–Belasica mountain chain, also known as the Rhodope range. The mountains belonging to the Šar Mountains and the West Vardar/Pelagonia range are younger and higher than the older mountains of the Osogovo-Belasica mountain group. Mount Korab of the Šar Mountains on the Albanian border, at 2,764 m (9,068 ft), is the tallest mountain in Macedonia.

Republic of Macedonia: Hydrography

Matka Canyon

In the Republic of Macedonia there are 1,100 large sources of water. The rivers flow into three different basins: the Aegean, the Adriatic and the Black Sea.

The Aegean basin is the largest. It covers 87% of the territory of the Republic, which is 22,075 square kilometres (8,523 sq mi). Vardar, the largest river in this basin, drains 80% of the territory or 20,459 square kilometres (7,899 sq mi). Its valley plays an important part in the economy and the communication system of the country. The project named 'The Vardar Valley' is considered to be crucial for the strategic development of the country.

The river Black Drin forms the Adriatic basin, which covers an area of about 3,320 km (1,282 sq mi), i.e., 13% of the territory. It receives water from Lakes Prespa and Ohrid.

The Black Sea basin is the smallest with only 37 km (14 sq mi). It covers the northern side of Mount Skopska Crna Gora. This is the source of the river Binachka Morava, which joins the Morava, and later, the Danube, which flows into the Black Sea.

Macedonia has around fifty ponds and three natural lakes, Lake Ohrid, Lake Prespa and Lake Dojran.

In Macedonia there are nine spa towns and resorts: Banište, Banja Bansko, Istibanja, Katlanovo, Kežovica, Kosovrasti, Banja Kočani, Kumanovski Banji and Negorci.

Republic of Macedonia: Climate

Macedonia map of Köppen climate classification.

Macedonia has a transitional climate from Mediterranean to continental. The summers are hot and dry, and the winters are moderately cold. Average annual precipitation varies from 1,700 mm (66.9 in) in the western mountainous area to 500 mm (19.7 in) in the eastern area. There are three main climatic zones in the country: temperate Mediterranean, mountainous, and mildly continental. Along the valleys of the Vardar and Strumica rivers, in the regions of Gevgelija, Valandovo, Dojran, Strumica, and Radoviš, the climate is temperate Mediterranean. The warmest regions are Demir Kapija and Gevgelija, where the temperature in July and August frequently exceeds 40 °C (104 °F). The mountainous climate is present in the mountainous regions of the country, and it is characterised by long and snowy winters and short and cold summers. The spring is colder than the fall. The majority of Macedonia has a moderate continental climate with warm and dry summers and relatively cold and wet winters. There are thirty main and regular weather stations in the country.

Republic of Macedonia: National parks

The country has three national parks:

Name Established Size Map Picture
Mavrovo 1948 731 km²
Republic of Macedonia is located in Earth
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Galičica 1958 227 km²
Republic of Macedonia is located in Earth
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Pelister 1948 125 km²
Republic of Macedonia is located in Earth
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Mount Pelister MK.jpg

Republic of Macedonia: Flora

Pinus peuce, the Macedonian Pine or Molika, one of Macedonia's most recognisable trees

The flora of Republic of Macedonia is represented by around 210 families, 920 genera, and around 3,700 plant species. The most abundant group are the flowering plants with around 3,200 species, followed by mosses (350 species) and ferns (42).

Phytogeographically, Macedonia belongs to the Illyrian province of the Circumboreal Region within the Boreal Kingdom. According to the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) and the Digital Map of European Ecological Regions by the European Environment Agency, the territory of the Republic can be subdivided into four ecoregions: the Pindus Mountains mixed forests, Balkan mixed forests, Rhodopes mixed forests and Aegean sclerophyllous and mixed forests.

National Park of Pelister in Bitola is known for the presence of the endemic Macedonian Pine, as well as some 88 species of plants representing almost 30 percent of Macedonian dendroflora. The Macedonian Pine forests on Pelister are divided into two communities: pine forests with ferns and pine forests with junipers. The Macedonian Pine, as a specific conifer species, is a relict of tertiary flora, and the five-needle pine Molika, was first noted on Pelister in 1893.

Macedonia's limited forest growth also includes Macedonian Oaks, the sycamore, weeping willows, white willows, alders, poplars, elms, and the common ash. Near the rich pastures on Šar Mountain and Bistra, Mavrovo, is another plant species characteristic of plant life in Macedonia-the poppy. The quality of thick poppy juice is measured worldwide by morphine units; while Chinese opium contains eight such units and is considered to be of high quality, Indian opium contains seven units, and Turkish opium only six, Macedonian opium contains a full 14 morphine units and is one of the best quality opiums in the world.

Republic of Macedonia: Fauna

The Eurasian lynx and the Šarplaninec.

The fauna of Macedonian forests is abundant and includes bears, wild boars, wolves, foxes, squirrels, chamois and deer. The lynx is found, although very rarely, in the mountains of western Macedonia, while deer can be found in the region of Demir Kapija. Forest birds include the blackcap, the grouse, the black grouse, the imperial eagle and the forest owl.

The three artificial lakes of the country represent a separate fauna zone, an indication of long-lasting territorial and temporal isolation. The fauna of Lake Ohrid is a relict of an earlier era and the lake is widely known for its letnica trout, lake whitefish, gudgeon, roach, podust, and pior, as well as for certain species of snails of a genus older than 30 million years; similar species can be found only in Lake Baikal. Lake Ohrid is also noted in zoology texts for the European eel and its baffling reproductive cycle: it comes to Lake Ohrid from the distant Sargasso Sea, thousands of kilometres away, and lurks in the depths of the lake for 10 years. When sexually mature, the eel is driven by unexplained instincts in the autumn to set off back to its point of birth. There it spawns and dies, leaving its offspring to seek out Lake Ohrid to begin the cycle anew.

Republic of Macedonia: Domestic animals

The shepherd dog of Šar Mountain is known worldwide as Šarplaninec (Yugoslav shepherd). It stands some 60 centimetres (2.0 ft) tall and is a brave and fierce fighter that may be called upon to fight bears or wolf packs while guarding and defending flocks. The Šarplaninec originates from the shepherd's dog of the ancient Epirotes, the molossus, but the Šarplaninec was recognised as its own breed in 1939 under the name of "Illyrian shepherd" and since 1956 has been known as Šarplaninec.

Republic of Macedonia: Politics

Map of the Republic of Macedonia.

Macedonia is a parliamentary democracy with an executive government composed of a coalition of parties from the unicameral legislature (Собрание, Sobranie) and an independent judicial branch with a constitutional court. The Assembly is made up of 120 seats and the members are elected every four years. The role of the President of the Republic is mostly ceremonial, with the real power resting in the hands of the President of the Government. The President is the commander-in-chief of the state armed forces and a president of the state Security Council. The President is elected every five years and he or she can be elected twice at most. On the second run of the presidential elections held on 5 April 2009, Gjorge Ivanov was elected as new Macedonian president.

With the passage of a new law and elections held in 2005, local government functions are divided between 78 municipalities (општини, opštini; singular: општина, opština). The capital, Skopje, is governed as a group of ten municipalities collectively referred to as the "City of Skopje". Municipalities in Macedonia are units of local self-government. Neighbouring municipalities may establish co-operative arrangements.

The country's main political divergence is between the largely ethnically based political parties representing the country's ethnic Macedonian majority and Albanian minority. The issue of the power balance between the two communities led to a brief war in 2001, following which a power-sharing agreement was reached. In August 2004, Macedonia's parliament passed legislation redrawing local boundaries and giving greater local autonomy to ethnic Albanians in areas where they predominate.

After a troublesome pre-election campaign, Macedonia saw a relatively calm and democratic change of government in the elections held on 5 July 2006. The elections were marked by a decisive victory of the centre-right party VMRO-DPMNE led by Nikola Gruevski. Gruevski's decision to include the Democratic Party of Albanians in the new government, instead of the Democratic Union for Integration – Party for Democratic Prosperity coalition which won the majority of the Albanian votes, triggered protests throughout the parts of the country with a respective number of Albanian population. However, a dialogue was later established between the Democratic Union for Integration and the ruling VMRO-DMPNE party as an effort to talk about the disputes between the two parties and to support European and NATO aspirations of the country.

After the early parliamentary elections held in 2008, VMRO-DPMNE and Democratic Union for Integration formed a ruling coalition in Macedonia.

In April 2009, presidential and local elections in the country were carried out peacefully, which was crucial for Macedonian aspirations to join the EU. The ruling conservative VMRO-DPMNE party won a victory in the local elections and the candidate supported by the party, Gjorgi Ivanov, was elected as the new president.

As of 31 May 2017, the Prime Minister of Macedonia is Zoran Zaev, who also heads the SDUM, and the current President of the Parliament is Talat Xhaferi. The election of Xhaferi was immediately met with protests led by VMRO-DPMNE, which was quickly handled by Macedonian police.

Republic of Macedonia: Governance

The interior of the Parliament Building in Skopje

Parliament, or Sobranie (Macedonian: Собрание), is the country's legislative body. It makes, proposes and adopts laws. The Constitution of the Republic of Macedonia has been in use since the formation of the republic in the 1993. It limits the power of the government's, both local and national. The military is also limited by the constitution. The constitution states that Macedonia is a social free state, and that Skopje is the capital. The 120 members are elected for a mandate of four years through a general election. Each citizen aged 18 years or older can vote for one of the political parties. The current president of Parliament is Talat Xhaferi.

Executive power in Macedonia is exercised by the Government, whose prime minister is the most politically powerful person in the country. The members of the government are chosen by the Prime Minister and there are ministers for each branch of the society. There are ministers for economy, finance, information technology, society, internal affairs, foreign affairs and other areas. The members of the Government are elected for a mandate of four years. The current Prime Minister is Zoran Zaev.

Republic of Macedonia: Law and courts

Judiciary power is exercised by courts, with the court system being headed by the Judicial Supreme Court, Constitutional Court and the Republican Judicial Council. The assembly appoints the judges.

Republic of Macedonia: Foreign relations

The Macedonian Embassy to the U.S. in Washington, D.C.

Macedonia became a member state of the UN on 8 April 1993, eighteen months after its independence from Yugoslavia. It is referred to within the UN as "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia", pending a resolution of the long-running dispute with Greece about the country's name.

The major interest of the country is a full integration in the European and the Trans-Atlantic integration processes. Five foreign policy priorities are:

  • Commencing negotiations for full-fledged membership in the European Union
  • Lifting the visa regime for Macedonian nationals
  • NATO membership
  • Resolving the naming issue with Greece
  • Strengthening the economic and public diplomacy

Macedonia is a member of the following international and regional organisations: IMF (since 1992), WHO (since 1993), EBRD (since 1993), Central European Initiative (since 1993), Council of Europe (since 1995), OSCE (since 1995), SECI (since 1996), WTO (since 2003), CEFTA (since 2006), La Francophonie (since 2001).

In 2005, the country was officially recognised as a European Union candidate state.

On the NATO summit held in Bucharest in April 2008, Macedonia failed to gain an invitation to join the organisation because Greece vetoed the move after the dispute over the name issue. The USA had previously expressed support for an invitation, but the summit then decided to extend an invitation only on condition of a resolution of the naming conflict with Greece.

In March 2009, the European Parliament expressed support for Macedonia's EU candidacy and asked the EU Commission to grant the country a date for the start of accession talks by the end of 2009. The parliament also recommended a speedy lifting of the visa regime for Macedonian citizens. However, Macedonia has so far failed to receive a start date for accession talks as a result of the naming dispute. The EU's stance is similar to NATO's in that resolution of the naming dispute is a precondition for the start of accession talks.

In October 2012, the EU Enlargement Commissioner Štefan Füle proposed a start of accession negotiations with Macedonia for the fourth time, while the previous efforts were blocked each time by Greece. At the same time Füle visited Bulgaria in a bid to clarify the state's position with respect to Macedonia. He established that Bulgaria almost has joined Greece in vetoing the accession talks with Macedonia. The Bulgarian position was that Sofia cannot grant an EU certificate to Skopje, which is systematically employing an ideology of hate towards Bulgaria.

Republic of Macedonia: Naming dispute

After the breakup of Yugoslavia in 1991, the name of Macedonia became the object of a dispute between Greece and the newly independent Republic of Macedonia. In the south, the Republic of Macedonia borders the region of Greek Macedonia, which administratively is split into three peripheries (one of them comprising both Western Thrace and a part of Greek Macedonia). Citing historical and territorial concerns resulting from the ambiguity between the Republic of Macedonia, the adjacent Greek region of Macedonia and the ancient kingdom of Macedon which falls within Greek Macedonia, Greece opposes the use of the name "Macedonia" by the Republic of Macedonia without a geographical qualifier, supporting a compound name (such as "Northern Macedonia") for use by all and for all purposes (erga omnes). As millions of ethnic Greeks identify themselves as Macedonians, unrelated to the Slavic people who are associated with the Republic of Macedonia, Greece further objects to the use of the term "Macedonian" for the neighboring country's largest ethnic group. The Republic of Macedonia is accused of appropriating symbols and figures that are historically considered parts of Greece's culture (such as Vergina Sun, a symbol associated with the ancient kingdom of Macedon, and Alexander the Great), and of promoting the irredentist concept of a United Macedonia, which would include territories of Greece, Bulgaria, Albania, and Serbia.

From 1992 to 1995, the two countries engaged in a dispute over the Macedonian state's new flag, which incorporated the Vergina Sun symbol. This aspect of the dispute was resolved when the flag was changed under the terms of an interim accord agreed between the two states in October 1995.

The first flag of the sovereign Republic of Macedonia (from 9/1991 to 8/1992) was simply the former SRM flag, used until a replacement was legislated.
The second flag of sovereign Macedonia (1992–1995) became part of the dispute with Greece.

The UN adopted the provisional reference "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia" (Macedonian: Поранешна Југословенска Република Македонија) when the country was admitted to the organisation in 1993. Most international organisations, such as the European Union, the European Broadcasting Union, and the International Olympic Committee, adopted the same convention. NATO also uses the reference in official documents but adds an explanation on which member countries recognise the constitutional name. The same reference is also used in any discussion to which Greece is a party

However, most UN member countries have abandoned the provisional reference and have recognised the country as the Republic of Macedonia instead. These include four of the five permanent UN Security Council members: the United States, Russia, United Kingdom and the People's Republic of China; several members of the European Union such as Bulgaria, Poland, and Slovenia; and over 100 other UN members. The UN has set up a negotiating process with a mediator, Matthew Nimetz, and the two parties to the dispute, Macedonia and Greece, to try to mediate the dispute. Negotiations continue between the two sides but have yet to reach any settlement of the dispute.

Initially the European Community-nominated Arbitration Commission's opinion was that "the use of the name 'Macedonia' cannot therefore imply any territorial claim against another State"; despite the commission's opinion, Greece continued to object to the establishment of relations between the Community and the Republic under its constitutional name.

Since the coming to power in 2006, and especially since Macedonia's non-invitation to NATO in 2008, the VMRO-DPMNE government has pursued a policy of "Antiquisation" ("Antikvizatzija") as a way of putting pressure on Greece as well as for the purposes of domestic identity-building. Statues of Alexander the Great and Philip of Macedon have been built in several cities across the country. Additionally, many pieces of public infrastructure, such as airports, highways, and stadiums have been renamed after Alexander and Philip. These actions are seen as deliberate provocations in neighboring Greece, exacerbating the dispute and further stalling Macedonia's EU and NATO applications. The policy has also attracted criticism domestically, as well as from EU diplomats.

In November 2008, Macedonia instituted proceedings before the International Court of Justice (ICJ) against Greece alleging violations of the 1995 Interim Accord that blocked its accession to NATO. The ICJ was requested to order Greece to observe its obligations within the Accord, which is legally binding for both countries. In 2011, The United Nations' International Court of Justice ruled that Greece violated Article 11 of the 1995 Interim Accord by vetoing Macedonia's bid for NATO membership at the 2008 summit in Bucharest. The court, however, did not consider it necessary to grant Macedonia's request that it instruct Greece to refrain from similar actions in the future since "[a]s a general rule, there is no reason to suppose that a State whose act or conduct has been declared wrongful by the Court will repeat that act or conduct in the future, since its good faith must be presumed"; nor has there been to date a change in the EU's stance that Macedonia's accession negotiations cannot begin until the name issue is resolved.

Republic of Macedonia: Administrative divisions

Macedonian statistical regions

Macedonia's statistical regions exist solely for legal and statistical purposes. The regions are:

  • Eastern
  • Northeastern
  • Pelagonia
  • Polog
  • Skopje
  • Southeastern
  • Southwestern
  • Vardar

In August 2004, the Republic of Macedonia was reorganised into 84 municipalities (opštini; sing. opština); 10 of the municipalities constitute the City of Skopje, a distinct unit of local self-government and the country's capital.

Most of the current municipalities were unaltered or merely amalgamated from the previous 123 municipalities established in September 1996; others were consolidated and their borders changed. Prior to this, local government was organised into 34 administrative districts, communes, or counties (also opštini).

Republic of Macedonia: Human rights

The Republic of Macedonia is a signatory to the European Convention on Human Rights and the U.N. Geneva Convention relating to the Status of Refugees and Convention against Torture, and the Constitution guarantees basic human rights to all Macedonian citizens.

There do, however, continue to be problems with human rights. According to human rights organisations, in 2003 there were suspected extrajudicial executions, threats against, and intimidation of, human rights activists and opposition journalists, and allegations of torture by the police.

Republic of Macedonia: Military

Macedonian Air Force Mi-24 helicopter

The Macedonian Armed Forces comprise the army, air force and Special Forces. The government's national defence policy aims to guarantee the preservation of the independence and sovereignty of the state, the integrity of its land area and airspace and its constitutional order. Its main goals remain the development and maintenance of a credible capability to defend the nation's vital interests and development of the Armed Forces in a way that ensures their interoperability with the armed forces of NATO and the European Union member states and their capability to participate in the full range of NATO missions.

The Ministry of Defence develops the Republic's defence strategy and assesses possible threats and risks. It is also responsible for the defence system, including training, readiness, equipment, and development, and for drawing up and presenting the defence budget.

Republic of Macedonia: Economy

Graphical depiction of Macedonia's product exports.

Ranked as the fourth "best reformatory state" out of 178 countries ranked by the World Bank in 2009, Macedonia has undergone considerable economic reform since independence. The country has developed an open economy with trade accounting for more than 90% of GDP in recent years. Since 1996, Macedonia has witnessed steady, though slow, economic growth with GDP growing by 3.1% in 2005. This figure was projected to rise to an average of 5.2% in the 2006–2010 period. The government has proven successful in its efforts to combat inflation, with an inflation rate of only 3% in 2006 and 2% in 2007, and has implemented policies focused on attracting foreign investment and promoting the development of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The current government introduced a flat tax system with the intention of making the country more attractive to foreign investment. The flat tax rate was 12% in 2007 and was further lowered to 10% in 2008.

Despite these reforms, as of 2005 Macedonia's unemployment rate was 37.2% and as of 2006 its poverty rate was 22%. However, due to a number of employment measures as well as the successful process of attracting multinational corporations, and according to the Macedonian State Statistical Office, country's unemployment rate in the first quarter of 2015 decreased to 27.3%. Government's policies and efforts in regards to foreign direct investments have resulted with the establishment of local subsidiaries of several world leading manufacturing companies, especially from the automotive industry, such as: Johnson Controls Inc., Van Hool NV, Johnson Matthey plc, Lear Corp., Visteon Corp., Kostal GmbH, Gentherm Inc., Dräxlmaier Group, Kromberg & Schubert, Marquardt GmbH, Amphenol Corp., Tekno Hose SpA, KEMET Corp., Key Safety Systems Inc., ODW-Elektrik GmbH, etc.

Macedonia has one of the highest shares of people struggling financially, with 72% of its citizens stating that they could manage on their household’s income only "with difficulty" or "with great difficulty", though Macedonia, along with Croatia, was the only country in the Western Balkans to not report an increase in this statistic. Corruption and a relatively ineffective legal system also act as significant restraints on successful economic development. Macedonia still has one of the lowest per capita GDPs in Europe. Furthermore, the country's grey market is estimated at close to 20% of GDP.

In terms of GDP structure, as of 2013 the manufacturing sector, including mining and construction constituted the largest part of GDP at 21.4%, up from 21.1% in 2012. The trade, transportation and accommodation sector represents 18.2% of GDP in 2013, up from 16.7% in 2012, while agriculture represents 9.6%, up from 9.1% in the previous year.

In terms of foreign trade, the largest sector contributing to the country's export in 2014 was "chemicals and related products" at 21.4%, followed by the "machinery and transport equipment" sector at 21.1%. Macedonia's main import sectors in 2014 were "manufactured goods classified chiefly by material" with 34.2%, "machinery and transport equipment" with 18.7% and "mineral fuels, lubricants and related materials" with 14.4% of the total imports. Even 68.8% of the foreign trade in 2014 was done with the EU which makes the Union by far the largest trading partner of Macedonia (23.3% with Germany, 7.9% with the UK, 7.3% with Greece, 6.2% with Italy, etc.). Almost 12% of the total external trade in 2014 was done with the Western Balkan countries.

With a GDP per capita of US$9,157 at purchasing power parity and a Human Development Index of 0.701, Macedonia is less developed and has a considerably smaller economy than most of the former Yugoslav states.

According to Eurostat data, Macedonian PPS GDP per capita stood at 36% of the EU average in 2014.

Republic of Macedonia: Infrastructure and e-infrastructure

Macedonia (along with Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Kosovo) belongs to the less-developed southern region of the former Yugoslavia. It suffered severe economic difficulties after independence, when the Yugoslav internal market collapsed and subsidies from Belgrade ended. In addition, it faced many of the same problems faced by other former socialist East European countries during the transition to a market economy. Its main land and rail exports route, through Serbia, remains unreliable with high transit costs, thereby affecting the export of its formerly highly profitable, early vegetables market to Germany. Macedonia's IT market increased 63.8% year on year in 2007, which is the fastest growing in the Adriatic region.

Republic of Macedonia: Trade and investment

The outbreak of the Yugoslav wars and the imposition of sanctions on Serbia and Montenegro caused great damage to the Republic's economy, with Serbia constituting 60% of its markets before the disintegration of Yugoslavia. When Greece imposed a trade embargo on the Republic in 1994–95, the economy was also affected. Some relief was afforded by the end of the Bosnian war in November 1995 and the lifting of the Greek embargo, but the Kosovo War of 1999 and the 2001 Albanian crisis caused further destabilisation.

Since the end of the Greek embargo, Greece has become the country's most important business partner. (See Greek investments in the Republic of Macedonia.) Many Greek companies have bought former state companies in Macedonia, such as the oil refinery Okta, the baking company Zhito Luks, a marble mine in Prilep, textile facilities in Bitola, etc., and employ 20,000 people. However, local cross-border trade between Greece and the Republic of Macedonia sees thousands of Greek shoppers visiting to purchase cheaper domestic products. The moving of business to Macedonia in the oil sector has been caused by the rise of Greece in the oil markets.

Other key partners are Germany, Italy, the United States, Slovenia, Austria and Turkey.

Republic of Macedonia: Tourism

Tourism is an important part of the economy of the Republic of Macedonia. The country's abundance of natural and cultural attractions make it an attractive destination of visitors. It receives about 700,000 tourists annually.

Bitola, Kratovo, Mavrovo

Republic of Macedonia: Demographics

Predominant ethnic group in each municipality of Republic of Macedonia, 2002.
Ethnic groups in 2002
The above table shows ethnic affiliation of the population according to the 2002 census:

The last census data from 2002 shows a population of 2,022,547 inhabitants. The last official estimate from 2009, without significant change, gives a figure of 2,050,671. According to the last census data, the largest ethnic group in the country are the ethnic Macedonians. The second largest group are the Albanians who dominated much of the northwestern part of the country, and are discriminated against. Following them, Turks are the third biggest ethnic group of the country where official census data put them close to 80,000 and unofficial estimates suggest numbers between 170,000 and 200,000. Some unofficial estimates indicate that in the Republic of Macedonia, there are possibly up to 260,000 Romani.

Republic of Macedonia: Religion

Circle frame.svg

Religion in Macedonia (2002)

Eastern Orthodoxy (64.8%)
Islam (33.3%)
Other Christian (0.4%)
Others/None (1.5%)
The Church of St. George in Kumanovo (left) and Šarena Džamija Mosque in Tetovo (right).

Eastern Orthodoxy is the majority faith of the Republic of Macedonia, making up 65% of the population, the vast majority of whom belong to the Macedonian Orthodox Church. Various other Christian denominations account for 0.4% of the population. Muslims constitute 33.3% of the population. Macedonia has the fifth-highest proportion of Muslims in Europe, after those of Kosovo (96%), Turkey (90%), Albania (59%), and Bosnia-Herzegovina (51%). Most Muslims are Albanians, Turks, or Romani, although few are Macedonian Muslims. The remaining 1.4% was determined to be "unaffiliated" by a 2010 Pew Research estimation.

Altogether, there were 1,842 churches and 580 mosques in the country at the end of 2011. The Orthodox and Islamic religious communities have secondary religion schools in Skopje. There is an Orthodox theological college in the capital. The Macedonian Orthodox Church has jurisdiction over 10 provinces (seven in the country and three abroad), has 10 bishops and about 350 priests. A total of 30,000 people are baptised in all the provinces every year.

Between the Macedonian and Serbian Orthodox Churches, there is a tension which arose from the former's separation and self-declared autocephaly in 1967. After the negotiations between the two churches were suspended, the Serbian Orthodox Church recognised a group led by Zoran Vraniškovski (also known as Archbishop Jovan of Ohrid), a former Macedonian church bishop, as the Archbishop of Ohrid.

A 19th-century Macedonian silver Hanukkah Menorah

The reaction of the Macedonian Orthodox Church was to cut off all relations with the new Ohrid Archbishopric and to prevent bishops of the Serbian Orthodox Church from entering Macedonia. Bishop Jovan was jailed for 18 months for "defaming the Macedonian Orthodox church and harming the religious feelings of local citizens" by distributing Serbian Orthodox church calendars and pamphlets.

The Macedonian Byzantine Catholic Church has approximately 11,000 adherents in Macedonia. The Church was established in 1918, and is made up mostly of converts to Catholicism and their descendants. The Church is of the Byzantine Rite and is in communion with the Roman and Eastern Catholic Churches. Its liturgical worship is performed in Macedonian.

There is a small Protestant community. The most famous Protestant in the country is the late president Boris Trajkovski. He was from the Methodist community, which is the largest and oldest Protestant church in the Republic, dating back to the late 19th century. Since the 1980s the Protestant community has grown, partly through new confidence and partly with outside missionary help.

The Macedonian Jewish community, which numbered some 7,200 people on the eve of World War II, was almost entirely destroyed during the war: only 2% of Macedonian Jews survived the Holocaust. After their liberation and the end of the War, most opted to emigrate to Israel. Today, the country's Jewish community numbers approximately 200 persons, almost all of whom live in Skopje. Most Macedonian Jews are Sephardic – the descendants of 15th-century refugees who had been expelled from Castile, Aragon and Portugal.

According to the 2002 Census, 46.5% of the children aged 0–4 were Muslim.

Republic of Macedonia: Languages

Linguistic map of Macedonia, 2002 census.
Languages of Macedonia
2002 census

The official and most widely spoken language is Macedonian, which belongs to the Eastern branch of the South Slavic language group. In municipalities where ethnic groups are represented with over 20% of the total population, the language of that ethnic group is co-official.

Macedonian is closely related to and mutually intelligible with Standard Bulgarian. It also has some similarities with standard Serbian and the intermediate Torlakian and Shop dialects spoken mostly in southern Serbia and western Bulgaria (and by speakers in the north and east of Macedonia). The standard language was codified in the period following World War II and has accumulated a thriving literary tradition. Although it is the only language explicitly designated as an official national language in the constitution, in municipalities where at least 20% of the population is part of another ethnic minority, those individual languages are used for official purposes in local government, alongside Macedonian.

A wide variety of languages are spoken in Macedonia, reflecting its ethnic diversity. Besides the official national language, Macedonian, minority languages with substantial numbers of speakers are Albanian, Romani, Turkish (including Balkan Gagauz), Serbian/Bosnian and Aromanian (including Megleno-Romanian). There are a few villages of Adyghe speakers and an immigrant Greek community. Macedonian Sign Language is the primary language of those of the deaf community who did not pick up an oral language in childhood.

According to the last census, 1,344,815 Macedonian citizens declared that they spoke Macedonian, 507,989 declared Albanian, 71,757 Turkish, 38,528 Romani, 6,884 Aromanian, 24,773 Serbian, 8,560 Bosnian, and 19,241 spoke other languages.

Republic of Macedonia: Cities

Republic of Macedonia: Education

The state university Ss. Cyril and Methodius in Skopje

The higher levels of education can be obtained at one of the five state universities: Ss. Cyril and Methodius University of Skopje, St. Clement of Ohrid University of Bitola, Goce Delčev University of Štip, State University of Tetovo and University for Information Science and Technology "St. Paul The Apostle" in Ohrid. There are a number of private university institutions, such as the European University, Slavic University in Sveti Nikole, the South East European University and others.

The United States Agency for International Development has underwritten a project called "Macedonia Connects" which has made Macedonia the first all-broadband wireless country in the world. The Ministry of Education and Sciences reports that 461 schools (primary and secondary) are now connected to the internet. In addition, an Internet Service Provider (On.net), has created a MESH Network to provide WIFI services in the 11 largest cities/towns in the country. The national library of Macedonia, National and University Library "St. Kliment of Ohrid", is in Skopje.

The Macedonian education system consists of:

  • pre-school education
  • primary
  • secondary
  • higher

Republic of Macedonia: Culture

Robevi family house – typical Macedonian architecture

Macedonia has a rich cultural heritage in art, architecture, poetry, and music. It has many ancient, protected religious sites. Poetry, cinema, and music festivals are held annually. Macedonian music styles developed under the strong influence of Byzantine church music. Macedonia has a significant number of preserved Byzantine fresco paintings, mainly from the period between the 11th and 16th centuries. There are several thousands square metres of fresco painting preserved, the major part of which is in very good condition and represent masterworks of the Macedonian School of ecclesiastical painting.

The most important cultural events in the country are the Ohrid Summer festival of classical music and drama, the Struga Poetry Evenings which gather poets from more than 50 countries in the world, International Camera Festival in Bitola, Open Youth Theatre and Skopje Jazz Festival in Skopje etc. The Macedonian Opera opened in 1947 with a performance of Cavalleria rusticana under the direction of Branko Pomorisac. Every year, the May Opera Evenings are held in Skopje for around 20 nights. The first May Opera performance was that of Kiril Makedonski's Tsar Samuil in May 1972.

Republic of Macedonia: Cuisine

Tavče Gravče

Macedonian cuisine is a representative of that of the Balkans-reflecting Mediterranean (Greek) and Middle Eastern (Turkish) influences, and to a lesser extent Italian, German and Eastern European (especially Hungarian) ones. The relatively warm climate in Macedonia provides excellent growth conditions for a variety of vegetables, herbs and fruits. Thus, Macedonian cuisine is particularly diverse.

Famous for its rich Šopska salad, an appetiser and side dish which accompanies almost every meal, Macedonian cuisine is also noted for the diversity and quality of its dairy products, wines, and local alcoholic beverages, such as rakija. Tavče Gravče and mastika are considered the national dish and drink of the Republic of Macedonia, respectively.

Republic of Macedonia: Sport

Macedonia basketball team at a time out during a match with Latvia

Football and handball are the most popular sports in Macedonia. The national football team is controlled by the Football Federation of Macedonia. Their home stadium is the Philip II Arena.

Handball is the other important team sport in the country. In 2002 Kometal Skopje won the EHF Women's Champions League European Cup. The European Women's Handball Championship took place in 2008 in Macedonia. The venues in which the tournament took place were located in Skopje and Ohrid; the national team finished seventh place. Macedonian clubs enjoyed success in European competitions. RK Vardar won Champions League in 2017, while Kometal Gjorče Petrov Skopje won women's event in 2002.

The Macedonian national basketball team represents the Republic of Macedonia in international basketball. The team is run by the Basketball Federation of Macedonia, the governing body of basketball in Macedonia which was created in 1992 and joined FIBA in 1993. Macedonia has participated in three Eurobaskets since then with its best finish at 4th place in 2011. It plays its home games at the Boris Trajkovski Arena in Skopje.

In the summer months The Ohrid Swimming Marathon is an annual event on Lake Ohrid and during the winter months there is skiing in Macedonia's winter sports centres. Macedonia also takes part in the Olympic Games. Participation in the Games is organised by the Macedonian Olympic Committee.

Republic of Macedonia: Cinema

The history of film making in the republic dates back over 110 years. The first film to be produced on the territory of the present-day the country was made in 1895 by Janaki and Milton Manaki in Bitola. Throughout the past century, the medium of film has depicted the history, culture and everyday life of the Macedonian people. Over the years many Macedonian films have been presented at film festivals around the world and several of these films have won prestigious awards. The first Macedonian feature film was Frosina, released in 1952. The first feature film in colour was Miss Stone, a movie about a Protestant missionary in Ottoman Macedonia. It was released in 1958. The highest grossing feature film in the Republic of Macedonia was Bal-Can-Can, having been seen by over 500,000 people in its first year alone. In 1994 Milco Manchevski's film Before the Rain was nominated as Best Foreign Film. Manchevski continues to be the most prominent modern filmmaker in the country having subsequently written and directed Dust and Shadows.

Republic of Macedonia: Media

The oldest newspaper in the country is Nova Makedonija from 1944. Other well known newspaper and magazines are: Utrinski Vesnik, Dnevnik, Vest, Fokus, Večer, Tea Moderna, Makedonsko Sonce, and Koha. Public channel is Macedonian Radio-Television founded in 1993 by the Assembly of the Republic of Macedonia. TEKO TV (1989) from Štip is the first private television channel in the country. Other popular private channels are: Sitel, Kanal 5, Telma, Alfa TV, and Alsat-M.

Republic of Macedonia: Public holidays

The main public holidays in the Republic of Macedonia are:

Date English name Macedonian name Remarks
1–2 January New Year Нова Година, Nova Godina
7 January Christmas Day (Orthodox) Прв ден Божик, Prv den Božik
April/May Good Friday (Orthodox) Велики Петок, Veliki Petok Ortodox Easter and other Easter dates do not match; see: List of dates for Easter
April/May Easter Sunday (Orthodox) Прв ден Велигден, Prv den Veligden
April/May Easter Monday (Orthodox) Втор ден Велигден, Vtor den Veligden
1 May Labour Day Ден на трудот, Den na trudot
24 May Saints Cyril and Methodius Day Св. Кирил и Методиј, Ден на сèсловенските просветители; Sv. Kiril i Metodij, Den na sèslovenskite prosvetiteli
2 August Day of the Republic Ден на Републиката, Den na Republikata Day when the Republic was established in 1944, also Ilinden uprising in 1903.
8 September Independence Day Ден на независноста, Den na nezavisnosta Day of independence from Yugoslavia
11 October Revolution Day Ден на востанието, Den na vostanieto Beginning of Anti-fascist war during WWII in 1941
23 October Day of the Macedonian Revolutionary Struggle Ден на македонската револуционерна борба,Den na makedonskata revolucionarna borba Day when the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (IMRO) was established in 1893.
1 Shawwal Eid ul-Fitr Рамазан Бајрам, Ramazan Bajram moveable, see: Islamic Calendar
8 December Saint Clement of Ohrid Day Св. Климент Охридски, Sv. Kliment Ohridski

Besides these, there are several major religious & minorities holidays. (See:Public holidays in the Republic of Macedonia)

Republic of Macedonia: International rankings

Organisation Survey Ranking
Institute for Economics and Peace Global Peace Index 79 out of 162
Reporters Without Borders Worldwide Press Freedom Index 2013 116 out of 179
The Heritage Foundation/The Wall Street Journal Index of Economic Freedom 2013 43 out of 177
Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index 2013 67 out of 177
United Nations Development Programme Human Development Index 2013 78 out of 207
World Bank Ease of doing business index 2016 12 out of 189

Republic of Macedonia: See also

  • Outline of the Republic of Macedonia

Republic of Macedonia – Wikipedia book

Republic of Macedonia: Notes

^ Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo and the Republic of Serbia. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the Brussels Agreement. Kosovo has received formal recognition as an independent state from 111 out of 193 United Nations member states.

Republic of Macedonia: References

Republic of Macedonia: Bibliography

  • Nicolle, David (2008). The Ottomans: Empire of Faith. Thalamus Publishing. ISBN 1902886119.
  • Howe, Timothy; Reames, Jeanne (2008). Macedonian Legacies: Studies in Ancient Macedonian History and Culture in Honor of Eugene N. Borza. Regina Books. ISBN 978-1-930-05356-4. Retrieved 2016-02-10.
  • Roisman, Joseph; Worthington, Ian (2011). A Companion to Ancient Macedonia. John Wiley and Sons. ISBN 978-1-44-435163-7. Retrieved 2016-02-10.

Republic of Macedonia: Notes

  1. "The Macedonian language, written using its Cyrillic alphabet, is the official language in the Republic of Macedonia" – Article 7 of the Constitution of the Republic of Macedonia
  2. "Languages Law passed in Parliament". macedoniaonline.eu. 26 July 2008. Retrieved 27 July 2008. Using the Badenter principles, the Parliament had passed the use of languages law that will touch all ethnicities in Macedonia. The law doesn't allow for use of Albanian or any other minority language as a second official language on Macedonia's territory.
  3. "Law on the use of the gestural language". 2009. Retrieved 28 July 2017.
  4. "Regional Languages of Macedonia". CIA World Factbook. 2002. Retrieved 2016-02-10.
  5. "Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in the Republic of Macedonia, 2002 – Book XIII, Skopje, 2005." (PDF). State Statistical Office of the Republic of Macedonia. Retrieved 2016-02-10.
  6. "Republic of Macedonia, State Statistical Office: Official Population Estimate".
  7. "FYR Macedonia". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 14 August 2016.
  8. "CIA – The World Factbook – Field Listing :: Distribution of family income – Gini index". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 15 May 2017.
  9. "2016 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2016. Retrieved 23 March 2017.
  10. "Св. Климент Охридски е патрон на македонскиот народ и неговата историја". dnevnik.mk.
  11. United Nations, A/RES/47/225, 8 April 1993
  12. United Nations Security Council Resolutions 817 of 7 April and 845 June 18 of 1993, see UN resolutions made on 1993
  13. "The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia". Retrieved 12 March 2016.
  14. "The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia – 47 States, one Europe". Retrieved 12 March 2016.
  15. "NATO's relations with the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia". Retrieved 12 March 2016.
  16. The Republic of Macedonia – BASIC FACTS, Republic of Macedonia, Ministry of foreign affairs Archived 16 November 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
  17. "Paeonia - historical region".
  18. Μακεδονία, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus
  19. Macedonia, Online Etymology Dictionary
  20. μακεδνός, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus
  21. μακρός, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus
  22. ISBN 0-941690-65-2, p.114: The "highlanders" or "Makedones" of the mountainous regions of western Macedonia are derived from northwest Greek stock; they were akin both to those who at an earlier time may have migrated south to become the historical "Dorians".
  23. Nigel Guy Wilson, Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece, Routledge, 2009, p.439: The latest archaeological findings have confirmed that Macedonia took its name from a tribe of tall, Greek-speaking people, the Makednoi.
  24. Beekes, Robert (2010), Etymological Dictionary of Greek, II, Leiden, Boston: Brill, p. 894
  25. Ovid (2005). Green, Peter, ed. The Poems of Exile: Tristia and the Black Sea Letters. University of California Press. p. 319. ISBN 0520242602. Ovid was lax in his geography, not least over Paeonia (in fact roughly coextensive with the present Slav republic of Macedonia).
  26. Roisman, Joseph; Worthington, Ian (2010). A Companion to Ancient Macedonia. John Wiley and Sons. p. 13. ISBN 1-4051-7936-8. Retrieved 2016-02-10.
  27. Reames, Jeanne; Howe, Timothy (2008). Macedonian Legacies: Studies in Ancient Macedonian History and Culture in Honor of Eugene N. Borza. Regina Books. p. 239. ISBN 1930053568. Having just conquered Paeonia (roughly where the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia is today).
  28. Peshkopia, Ridvan (2015). Conditioning Democratization: Institutional Reforms and EU Membership Conditionality in Albania and Macedonia. Anthem Press. p. 189. ISBN 0857283251. Indeed, the territory of the Republic of Macedonia encompasses little of the ancient kingdom of Macedon, which, in most part, overlaps with the current region of the contemporary Greece, but the name Macedonia “flowed” northward with the creation of Roman region of Macedonia, after the Romans occupied Greece in 168 BCE. Besides the former kingdom of Macedon, the Roman region included the territories of Paeonia, where the contemporary FYR Macedonia rests.
  29. Strabo, Geography, Book 7, Frg. 4:
  30. Bauer, Susan Wise: The History of the Ancient World: From the Earliest Accounts to the Fall of Rome (2007), ISBN 0-393-05974-X, page 518: "...to the north, Thracian tribes known collectively as the Paeonians."
  31. Willkes, John (1996). The Illyrians. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 49. ISBN 978-0-631-19807-9. Retrieved 2016-02-10.
  32. Sealey, Raphael (1976). A history of the Greek city states, ca. 700-338 B.C. University of California Press. p. 442. ISBN 978-0-520-03177-7.
  33. Evans, Thammy (2007). Macedonia. Bradt Travel Guides. p. 13. ISBN 978-1-84162-186-9.
  34. Borza, Eugene N. (8 September 1992). In the shadow of Olympus: the emergence of Macedon. Princeton University Press. pp. 74–75. ISBN 978-0-691-00880-6.
  35. Lewis, D.M. et al. (ed.) (1994). The Cambridge ancient history: The fourth century B.C. Cambridge University Press. pp. 723–724. ISBN 978-0-521-23348-4. Retrieved 2016-02-10.
  36. The Cambridge Ancient History Volume 3, Part 3: The Expansion of the Greek World, Eighth to Sixth Centuries BC by John Boardman and N. G. L. Hammond,1982,ISBN 0-521-23447-6, page 284
  37. Howe & Reames 2008, p. 239.
  38. Roisman & Worthington 2011, pp. 135–138, 342–345.
  39. "Persian influence on Greece (2)". Retrieved 17 December 2014.
  40. Warfare in the ancient world: from the Bronze Age to the fall of Rome. By Stefan G. Chrissanthos, page 75
  41. Poulton, Hugh (23 February 2000). Who are the Macedonians?. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. p. 14. ISBN 978-1-85065-534-3.
  42. Macedonia yesterday and today Author Giorgio Nurigiani, Publisher Teleurope, 1967 p. 77.
  43. A Companion to Ancient Macedonia, By Joseph Roisman and Ian Worthington, page 549
  44. "Encyclopædia Britannica – Scopje". Britannica.com. Retrieved 6 June 2011.
  45. A. F. Christidis, A History of Ancient Greek: From the Beginnings to Late Antiquity, Cambridge University Press, 2007, p.351: "Despite Roman domination, there was no retreat on the part of Greek tradition in the eastern part of the empire, and only in Macedonia did Latin spread in some extent".
  46. "Acta Sancti Demetrii", V 195–207, Гръцки извори за българската история, 3, стр. 159–166
  47. Nicol, Donald Macgillivray (1993). The last Centuries of Byzantium, (1261–1453). Cambridge University Press. p. 500. ISBN 978-0-521-43991-6. Retrieved 2016-02-10.
  48. Phillips, John (2004). Macedonia: Warlords and Rebels in the Balkans. I.B.Tauris. p. 41. ISBN 1-86064-841-X.
  49. Becoming Bulgarian: The Articulation of Bulgarian Identity in the Nineteenth Century in its International Context: an Intellectual History, Ost-European studies, Janette Sampimon, Pegasus, 2006, ISBN 90-6143-311-8, p. 234.
  50. James Franklin Clarke, Dennis P. Hupchick – "The pen and the sword: studies in Bulgarian history", Columbia University Press, 1988, ISBN 0-88033-149-6, page. 221 (...Peichinovich of Tetovo, Macedonia, author of one of the first Bulgarian books...)
  51. Gawrych, George Walter (2006). The Crescent and the Eagle: Ottoman Rule, Islam and the Albanians, 1874–1913. I.B.Tauris. p. 28. ISBN 1-84511-287-3.
  52. Historical dictionary of the Republic of Macedonia, Dimitar Bechev, Scarecrow Press, 2009, ISBN 0-8108-5565-8, p. 100. Google Books. Retrieved 14 November 2011.
  53. Roth, Klaus; Brunnbauer, Ulf (1 January 2008). "Region, Regional Identity and Regionalism in Southeastern Europe". LIT Verlag Münster – via Google Books.
  54. Stanford J. Shaw (27 May 1977). History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey: Volume 2, Reform, Revolution, and Republic: The Rise of Modern Turkey 1808–1975. Cambridge University Press. p. 209. ISBN 978-0-521-29166-8.
  55. There was even an attempt to form a kind of revolutionary government led by the socialist Nikola Karev. The Krushevo manifesto was declared, assuring the population that the uprising was against the Sultan and not against Muslims in general, and that all peoples would be included. As the population of Krushevo was two thirds hellenised Vlachs and Patriarchist Slavs, this was a wise move. Despite these promises, the insurgent flew Bulgarian flags everywhere and in many places the uprising did entail attacks on Muslim Turks and Albanians who themselves organised for self-defence." Who are the Macedonians? Hugh Poulton, C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, 1995, ISBN 1850652384, p. 57.
  56. In fact Macedonian historians as ISBN 9639776289, p. 124.
  57. "The IMARO activists saw the future autonomous Macedonia as a multinational polity, and did not pursue the self-determination of Macedonian Slavs as a separate ethnicity. Therefore, Macedonian was an umbrella term covering Bulgarians, Turks, Greeks, Vlachs, Albanians, Serbs, Jews, and so on." Historical Dictionary of Macedonia, Historical Dictionaries of Europe, Dimitar Bechev, Scarecrow Press, 2009, ISBN 0810862956, Introduction.
  58. The political and military leaders of the Slavs of Macedonia at the turn of the century seem not to have heard the call for a separate Macedonian national identity; they continued to identify themselves in a national sense as Bulgarians rather than Macedonians.[...] (They) never seem to have doubted "the predominantly Bulgarian character of the population of Macedonia". "The Macedonian conflict: ethnic nationalism in a transnational world", Princeton University Press, Danforth, Loring M. 1997, ISBN 0691043566, p. 64.
  59. Nicolle 2008, p. 162
  60. Banac, Ivo (1984). The National Question in Yugoslavia. Origins, History, Politics. London and Ithaka: Cornell University Press. p. 317. ISBN 0801416752.
  61. "Kraljevina Jugoslavija! Novi naziv naše države. No, mi smo itak med seboj vedno dejali Jugoslavija, četudi je bilo na vseh uradnih listih Kraljevina Srbov, Hrvatov in Slovencev. In tudi drugi narodi, kakor Nemci in Francozi, so pisali že prej v svojih listih mnogo o Jugoslaviji. 3. oktobra, ko je kralj Aleksander podpisal "Zakon o nazivu in razdelitvi kraljevine na upravna območja", pa je bil naslov kraljevine Srbov, Hrvatov in Slovencev za vedno izbrisan." (Naš rod ("Our Generation", a monthly Slovenian language periodical), Ljubljana 1929/30, št. 1, str. 22, letnik I.)
  62. Dejan Djokić, Yugoslavism: histories of a failed idea, 1918–1992, p. 123, at Google Books
  63. R. J. Crampton, Eastern Europe in the twentieth century-and after, p. 20, at Google Books
  64. "An article by Dimiter Vlahov about the persecution of the Bulgarian population in Macedonia". newspaper "Balkanska federatsia", No. 140, 20 August 1930, Vienna, original in Bulgarian. Retrieved 2007-08-03.
  65. War of words: Washington tackles the Yugoslav conflict, p. 43, at Google Books
  66. Fischer, Bernd Jürgen (1 January 2007). "Balkan Strongmen: Dictators and Authoritarian Rulers of South Eastern Europe". Purdue University Press – via Google Books.
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  68. Victor Roudometof, Collective Memory, National Identity, and Ethnic Conflict: Greece, Bulgaria, and the Macedonian Question, Praeger, 2002 p.100
  69. Vassil Karloukovski. "Гиза, Антони, "Балканските държави и Македония", Македонски Научен Институт София, 2001 г". Promacedonia.org. Retrieved 28 April 2010.
  70. Bechev, Dimitar (13 April 2009). "Historical Dictionary of the Republic of Macedonia". Scarecrow Press – via Google Books.
  71. Duncan Perry, "The Republic of Macedonia: finding its way" in Karen Dawisha and Bruce Parrot (eds.), Politics, power and the struggle for Democracy in South-Eastern Europe, Cambridge University Press, 1997, pp. 228–229.
  72. Bulgarian Campaign Committees in Macedonia – 1941 Dimitre Mičev
  73. "Forming of the Local Campaign Committees". kroraina.com.
  74. Historical dictionary of the Republic of Macedonia, Valentina Georgieva, Sasha Konechni, Scarecrow Press, 1998, ISBN 0-8108-3336-0, p. 223.
  75. Hugh Poulton (1995). Who are the Macedonians?. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. p. 102. ISBN 978-1-85065-238-0. Retrieved 2016-02-10.
  76. Miller, Marshall Lee (1975). Bulgaria during the Second World War. Stanford University Press. p. 314. ISBN 978-0-8047-0870-8. Retrieved 2016-02-10.
  77. Bulgaria managed to save its entire 48,000-strong Jewish population during World War II from deportation to Nazi concentration camps, but under German pressure those Jews from their newly annexed territories without Bulgarian citizenship were deported, such as those from Vardar Macedonia and Western Thrace. The Holocaust in Macedonia: Deportation of Monastir Jewry United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
  78. Mark Cohen, The Holocaust in Macedonia: Deportation of Monastir Jewry, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
  79. This policy changed after 1943 with the arrival of Tito's envoy Montenegrin Serb Svetozar Vukmanović-Tempo. He began in earnest to organise armed resistance to the Bulgarian rule and sharply criticised Sharlo's pro-Bulgarian policy. At a meeting of the partisan brigades, as well as a group of battalions in the Resen region on 21 December 1943, Tempo makes the following comments about Shatorov and the leadership of the MCP: "They thought that the Macedonian people were Bulgarians and that they were oppressed by the hegemony of Great Serbia and had to be transferred to Bulgaria. Their basic slogan is: 'All non-Macedonians out of Macedonia'. The capital J [Serbo-Croatian spelling of Yugoslavia, Yugoslavian, etc.] was deleted from all documents. In fact they did not want Yugoslavia, no matter where it stood politically. When the war started, the initial decision of this leadership was to be separate from Yugoslavia and from Tito. They declared that Macedonia would be free as soon as the Bulgarians came...."
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Republic of Macedonia: Information in other languages
Acèh Makèdonia
Адыгэбзэ Республикэ Македониэ
Адыгабзэ Республикэу Македоние
Afrikaans Republiek van Masedonië
Alemannisch Republik Mazedonien
አማርኛ የመቄዶንያ ሬፑብሊክ
Ænglisc Macedonia Cynewīse
العربية جمهورية مقدونيا
Aragonés Republica de Macedonia
ܐܪܡܝܐ ܩܘܛܢܝܘܬܐ ܕܡܩܕܘܢܝܐ
Armãneashti Republica Machedonia
Arpetan Rèpublica de Macèdonie
Asturianu República de Macedonia
Avañe'ẽ Masendoña
Авар Республика Македония
Azərbaycanca Makedoniya Respublikası
تۆرکجه مقدونیه جومهوریتی
বাংলা ম্যাসেডোনিয়া প্রজাতন্ত্র
Bân-lâm-gú Macedonia Kiōng-hô-kok
Башҡортса Македония Республикаһы
Беларуская Рэспубліка Македонія
Беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎ Рэспубліка Македонія
भोजपुरी मेसीडोनिया
Bikol Central Republika kan Masedonya
Bislama Macedonia
Български Република Македония
Boarisch Mazedonien
བོད་ཡིག མ་སེ་ཌོ་ནིཡ། (རྒྱལ་ཁབ།)
Bosanski Makedonija
Brezhoneg Republik Makedonia
Буряад Македони Улас
Català República de Macedònia
Чӑвашла Македони Республики
Cebuano Republika sa Macedonia
Čeština Makedonie
ChiShona Macedonia
Corsu Macedonia
Cymraeg Gweriniaeth Macedonia
Dansk Makedonien
Deutsch Mazedonien
ދިވެހިބަސް މެސެޑޯނިއާ
Dolnoserbski Makedońska
Eesti Makedoonia
Ελληνικά Πρώην Γιουγκοσλαβική Δημοκρατία της Μακεδονίας
Эрзянь Македония Мастор
Español República de Macedonia
Esperanto Respubliko Makedonio
Estremeñu Repúbrica de Macedónia
Euskara Mazedoniako Errepublika
Eʋegbe Republic of Macedonia
فارسی جمهوری مقدونیه
Fiji Hindi Republic of Macedonia
Føroyskt Lýðveldið Makedónia
Français Macédoine (pays)
Frysk Masedoanje
Fulfulde Masedoniya
Furlan Macedonie
Gaeilge Poblacht na Macadóine
Gaelg Pobblaght ny Massadoan
Gagauz Makedoniya
Gàidhlig Masadoinia
Galego República de Macedonia
ગુજરાતી મેસેડોનિયા
𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌹𐍃𐌺 𐌼𐌰𐌺𐌰𐌹𐌳𐍉𐌽𐌾𐌰
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni मॅसिडोनिया
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî Macedonia Khiung-fò-koet
Хальмг Масидин Орн
한국어 마케도니아 공화국
Hausa Masadoiniya
Hawaiʻi Repupalika o Masedonia
Հայերեն Մակեդոնիայի Հանրապետություն
हिन्दी मैसिडोनिया
Hornjoserbsce Makedonska
Hrvatski Makedonija
Ido Republiko Macedonia
Igbo Macedonia
Ilokano Macedonia
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী মেসিডোনিয়া
Bahasa Indonesia Republik Makedonia
Interlingua Republica de Macedonia
Interlingue Macedonia
Ирон Республикæ Македони
IsiZulu IMakedoniya
Íslenska Lýðveldið Makedónía
Italiano Repubblica di Macedonia
עברית מקדוניה
Basa Jawa Républik Makédonia
Kalaallisut Makedonia
ಕನ್ನಡ ಮ್ಯಾಸೆಡೊನಿಯ ಗಣರಾಜ್ಯ
Kapampangan Republika ning Makedonia
Къарачай-малкъар Македония
ქართული მაკედონია
Kaszëbsczi Macedońskô
Қазақша Македония Республикасы
Kernowek Repoblek Makedoni
Kinyarwanda Masedoniya
Kiswahili Jamhuri ya Masedonia
Коми Македония Республика
Kongo Makedonia
Kreyòl ayisyen Repiblik d Masedoni
Kurdî Komara Makedonyayê
Кыргызча Македония
Ladino Makedonia
ລາວ ປະເທດມາເຊດວນ
Latgaļu Makedonejis Republika
Latina Res publica Macedonica
Latviešu Maķedonija
Lëtzebuergesch Republik Mazedonien
Lietuvių Makedonija
Ligure Maçedònia
Limburgs Macedonië (land)
Livvinkarjala Makedounii
Lumbaart Macedonia
Magyar Macedónia
मैथिली म्यासेडोनिया
Македонски Македонија
Malagasy Masedonia
മലയാളം റിപ്പബ്ലിക് ഓഫ് മാസിഡോണിയ
Malti Repubblika tal-Maċedonja
Māori Makerōnia
मराठी मॅसिडोनिया
მარგალური მაკედონია
مصرى جمهورية مقدونيا
مازِرونی مقدونیه
Bahasa Melayu Republik Macedonia
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄ Mā-gì-dóng Gê̤ṳng-huò-guók
Mirandés Macedónia
Мокшень Македоние
Монгол Бүгд Найрамдах Македон Улс
မြန်မာဘာသာ မက်စီဒိုးနီးယားနိုင်ငံ
Nāhuatl Tlācatlahtohcāyōtl Macedonia
Dorerin Naoero Matedoniya
Nederlands Macedonië (land)
Nedersaksies Massedonië (laand)
नेपाल भाषा म्यासेडोनिया
日本語 マケドニア共和国
Нохчийн Македони
Nordfriisk Mazedoonien
Norfuk / Pitkern Repablik o' Masedoenya
Norsk Republikken Makedonia
Norsk nynorsk Republikken Makedonia
Novial Republike de Makedonia
Occitan Republica de Macedònia
Олык марий Македоний
ଓଡ଼ିଆ ମାସିଡୋନିଆ
Oromoo Maqedooniyaa
Oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча Makedoniya Respublikasi
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ ਮਕਦੂਨੀਆ ਗਣਰਾਜ
पालि मेसेडोनिया
Pangasinan Masedoniya
پنجابی مقدونیہ
Papiamentu Macedonia
پښتو د مقدونيې ولسمشريزه
Patois Ripoblik a Masiduonia
Перем Коми Республика Македония
Picard Machédoène (païs)
Piemontèis Macedònia
Tok Pisin Republic of Macedonia
Plattdüütsch Republiek Makedonien
Polski Macedonia
Ποντιακά ΠΓΔΜ
Português República da Macedónia
Qaraqalpaqsha Makedoniya
Qırımtatarca Makedoniya Cumhuriyeti
Română Republica Macedonia
Romani Republika Makedoniya
Runa Simi Makidunya
Русский Республика Македония
Саха тыла Македония Республиката
Sámegiella Makedonia
Gagana Samoa Ripapelika o Maketonia
संस्कृतम् मेसेडोनिया
Sardu Repùblica de Matzedònia
Scots Republic o Macedonie
Seeltersk Makedonien
Shqip Republika e Maqedonisë
Sicilianu Ripùbblica di Macidonia
සිංහල මැසිඩෝනියා ජනරජය
Simple English Republic of Macedonia
SiSwati IMakhedoniya
Slovenčina Macedónsko
Slovenščina Makedonija
Словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ Макєдонїꙗ
Ślůnski Macedůńijo
Soomaaliga Jamhuriyada Masedonia
کوردی کۆماری مەقدوونیا
Sranantongo Masedoniyakondre
Српски / srpski Република Македонија
Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски Republika Makedonija
Basa Sunda Makédonia
Suomi Makedonia
Svenska Makedonien
Tagalog Republika ng Macedonia
தமிழ் மாக்கடோனியக் குடியரசு
Tarandíne Repubbleche de Macidonie
Татарча/tatarça Македония Җөмһүрияте
తెలుగు మేసిడోనియా
Tetun Masedónia
ไทย ประเทศมาซิโดเนีย
Тоҷикӣ Ҷумҳурии Мақдуния
Türkçe Makedonya Cumhuriyeti
Türkmençe Makedoniýa Respublikasy
Удмурт Македония Республика
Українська Республіка Македонія
اردو جمہوریہ مقدونیہ
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche ماكېدونىيە
Vèneto Republica de Macedonia
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