Madeira, Portugal
Hotels

Online hotels booking on Madeira
Tickets

Cheapest tickets to Madeira
Car Hire

Cheap and easy car hire on Madeira
Info

Detailed description of Madeira
Goods

Madeira related books and other goods

Best prices on Madeira hotel booking and tickets to Madeira, Portugal

One of the super offers is an unique opportunity to instantly find the lowest prices on Madeira hotels and book a best hotel on Madeira saving up to 80%! You can do it quickly and easily with HotelsCombined, a world's leading free hotel metasearch engine that allows to search and compare the rates of all major hotel chains, top travel sites, and leading hotel booking websites, including Booking.com, Hotels.com, Agoda.com, etc. The hotel price comparison service HotelsCombined means cheap Madeira hotel booking, lowest prices on hotels on Madeira and airline tickets to Madeira, Portugal!

Madeira Hotels Comparison & Online Booking

▪ Lowest prices on Madeira hotels booking
▪ The discounts on Madeira hotels up to 80%
▪ No booking fees on Madeira hotels
▪ Detailed description & photos of Madeira hotels
▪ Trusted ratings and reviews of Madeira hotels
▪ Advanced Madeira hotel search & comparison
▪ All Madeira hotels on the map
▪ Interesting sights of Madeira

What's important: you can compare and book not only Madeira hotels and resorts, but also villas and holiday cottages, inns and B&Bs (bed and breakfast), condo hotels and apartments, timeshare properties, guest houses and pensions, campsites (campgrounds), motels and hostels on Madeira. If you're going to Madeira save your money and time, don't pay for the services of the greedy travel agencies. Instead, book the best hotel on Madeira online, buy the cheapest airline tickets to Madeira, and rent a car on Madeira right now, paying the lowest price! Besides, here you can buy the Madeira related books, guidebooks, souvenirs and other goods.

By the way, we would recommend you to combine your visit to Madeira with other popular and interesting places of Portugal, for example: Carvoeiro, Praia da Luz, Azores, Loulé, Cabanas de Tavira, Portimão, Nazaré, Funchal, Coimbra, Quarteira, Sintra, Estoril, Aljezur, Almancil, Vilamoura, Cascais, Lagos, Guimarães, Monte Gordo, Évora, Lisbon, Lagoa, Vila do Bispo, Vila Real de Santo António, Castro Marim, Porto, Albufeira, Olhão, Faro, Fátima, Tavira, Madeira, Algarve, Armação de Pêra, Sesimbra, Silves, Braga, etc.

How to Book a Hotel on Madeira

In order to book an accommodation on Madeira enter the proper dates and do the hotel search. If needed, sort the found Madeira hotels by price, star rating, property type, guest rating, hotel features, hotel theme or hotel chain. Then take a look at the found hotels on Madeira map to estimate the distance from the main Madeira attractions and sights. You can also read the guest reviews of Madeira hotels and see their ratings.

When a hotel search on Madeira is done, please select the room type, the included meals and the suitable booking conditions (for example, "Deluxe double room, Breakfast included, Non-Refundable"). Press the "View Deal" ("Book Now") button. Make your booking on a hotel booking website and get the hotel reservation voucher by email. That's it, a perfect hotel on Madeira is waiting for you!

Hotels of Madeira

A hotel on Madeira is an establishment that provides lodging paid on a short-term basis. Facilities provided may range from a basic bed and storage for clothing, to luxury features like en-suite bathrooms. Larger on Madeira hotels may provide additional guest facilities such as a swimming pool, business centre, childcare, conference facilities and social function services. Hotel rooms on Madeira are usually numbered (or named in some smaller hotels and B&Bs) to allow guests to identify their room. Some Madeira hotels offer meals as part of a room and board arrangement. Hotel operations vary in size, function, and cost. Most Madeira hotels and major hospitality companies that operate hotels on Madeira have set widely accepted industry standards to classify hotel types. General categories include the following:

Upscale luxury hotels on Madeira
An upscale full service hotel facility on Madeira that offers luxury amenities, full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and the highest level of personalized and professional service. Luxury Madeira hotels are normally classified with at least a Four Diamond or Five Diamond status or a Four or Five Star rating depending on classification standards.

Full service hotels on Madeira
Full service Madeira hotels often contain upscale full-service facilities with a large volume of full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and a variety of on-site amenities such as swimming pools, a health club, children's activities, ballrooms, on-site conference facilities, etc.

Historic inns and boutique hotels on Madeira
Boutique hotels of Madeira are smaller independent non-branded hotels that often contain upscale facilities of varying size in unique or intimate settings with full service accommodations. Madeira boutique hotels are generally 100 rooms or less. Some historic inns and boutique hotels on Madeira may be classified as luxury hotels.

Focused or select service hotels on Madeira
Small to medium-sized hotel establishments that offer a limited amount of on-site amenities that only cater and market to a specific demographic of Madeira travelers, such as the single business traveler. Most Madeira focused or select service hotels may still offer full service accommodations but may lack leisure amenities such as an on-site restaurant or a swimming pool.

Economy and limited service hotels on Madeira
Small to medium-sized Madeira hotel establishments that offer a very limited amount of on-site amenities and often only offer basic accommodations with little to no services, these facilities normally only cater and market to a specific demographic of travelers, such as the budget-minded Madeira traveler seeking a "no frills" accommodation. Limited service Madeira hotels often lack an on-site restaurant but in return may offer a limited complimentary food and beverage amenity such as on-site continental breakfast service.

Guest houses and B&Bs on Madeira
A bed and breakfast on Madeira is a small lodging establishment that offers overnight accommodation and inclusive breakfast. Usually, Madeira bed and breakfasts are private homes or family homes offering accommodations. The typical Madeira B&B has between 4 and 11 rooms, with 6 being the average. Generally, guests are accommodated in private bedrooms with private bathrooms, or in a suite of rooms including an en suite bathroom. Some homes have private bedrooms with a bathroom which is shared with other guests. Breakfast is served in the bedroom, a dining room, or the host's kitchen. Often the owners of guest house themselves prepare the breakfast and clean the rooms.

Hostels on Madeira
Madeira hostels provide budget-oriented, sociable accommodation where guests can rent a bed, usually a bunk bed, in a dormitory and share a bathroom, lounge, and sometimes a kitchen. Rooms can be mixed or single-sex, although private rooms may also be available. Hostels are often cheaper for both the operator and occupants; many Madeira hostels have long-term residents whom they employ as desk agents or housekeeping staff in exchange for experience or discounted accommodation.

Apartment hotels, extended stay hotels on Madeira
Extended stay hotels are small to medium-sized Madeira hotels that offer longer term full service accommodations compared to a traditional hotel. Extended stay hotels may offer non-traditional pricing methods such as a weekly rate that cater towards travelers in need of short-term accommodations for an extended period of time. Similar to limited and select service hotels, on-site amenities are normally limited and most extended stay hotels on Madeira lack an on-site restaurant.

Timeshare and destination clubs on Madeira
Madeira timeshare and destination clubs are a form of property ownership also referred to as a vacation ownership involving the purchase and ownership of an individual unit of accommodation for seasonal usage during a specified period of time. Timeshare resorts on Madeira often offer amenities similar that of a Full service hotel with on-site restaurant(s), swimming pools, recreation grounds, and other leisure-oriented amenities. Destination clubs of Madeira on the other hand may offer more exclusive private accommodations such as private houses in a neighborhood-style setting.

Motels on Madeira
A Madeira motel is a small-sized low-rise lodging establishment similar to that of a limited service hotel, but with direct access to individual rooms from the car park. Common during the 1950s and 1960s, motels were often located adjacent to a major road, where they were built on inexpensive land at the edge of towns or along stretches of highways. They are still useful in less populated areas of Madeira for driving travelers, but the more populated an area becomes the more hotels fill the need. Many of Madeira motels which remain in operation have joined national franchise chains, rebranding themselves as hotels, inns or lodges.

Why HotelsCombined

HotelsCombined is the leading hotel metasearch engine founded in 2005, with headquarters in Sydney, Australia. It is widely recognized as the world's best hotel price comparison site and has won many of the most prestigious tourism industry awards. The site operates in over 40 languages, handles 120 different currencies and aggregates more than 2 million deals from hundreds of travel sites and hotel chains. The number of users counts more than 300,000 people a year with over $1,000,000,000 in estimated total cost of hotel reservations.

The main purpose of HotelsCombined hotel price comparison service is to help the travelers in finding a perfect accommodation option on Madeira at the best price, eliminating the need to manually analyze hundreds of hotel booking sites and thousands of price offers. Through the partnership with the most popular hotel booking websites, online travel agencies and hotel chains, HotelsCombined allows its users to search for and compare the current rates on Madeira hotels in a single search. It also provides an aggregated summary of hotel reviews and ratings from external sites.

The HotelsCombined's advanced technology allows to instantly find the available Madeira hotels and process the offers of all leading travel websites, including Booking.com, Hotels.com, Agoda.com and many others (AccorHotels.com, AirAsiaGo.com, Amoma.com, AsiaTravel.com, BestWestern.com, Budgetplaces.com, EasyToBook.com, Elvoline.com, Expedia.com, Getaroom.com, Hilton.com, Homestay.com, Hotel.de, HotelClub.com, HotelsClick.com, HotelTravel.com, Housetrip.com, ihg.com, Interhome.com, Jovago.com, LateRooms.com, NH-Hotels.com, OnHotels.com, Otel.com, Prestigia.com, Skoosh.com, Splendia.com, Superbreak.com, Tiket.com, etc.). Due to the fast and easy-to-use search system you get the rates on available Madeira hotels and book a preferable hotel on a website providing the lowest price.

All Madeira Hotels & Hostels Online

HotelsCombined is ideal for those interested in Madeira, Portugal, HotelsCombined, Trivago, sale on the hotel booking site HotelsCombined, discount coupons on the hotel booking site HotelsCombined, best rates on Madeira hotels, low prices on Madeira hotels, best hotel on Madeira, best Madeira hotel, discounted Madeira hotel booking, online Madeira hotel reservation, Madeira hotels comparison, hotel booking on Madeira, luxury and cheap accomodation on Madeira, Madeira inns, Madeira B&Bs, bed and breakfast on Madeira, condo hotels and apartments on Madeira, bargain Madeira rentals, cheap Madeira vacation rentals,Madeira pensions and guest houses, cheap hotels and hostels of Madeira, Madeira motels, dormitories of Madeira, dorms on Madeira, Madeira dormitory rooms, lowest rates on hotels on Madeira, hotel prices comparison on Madeira, travel to Madeira, vacation on Madeira, trip to Madeira, trusted hotel reviews of Madeira, sights and attractions of Madeira, Madeira guidebook, Madeira guide, hotel booking on Madeira, Portugal, tours to Madeira, travel company on Madeira, travel agency on Madeira, excursions on Madeira, etc.

Many people are also interested in the tickets to Madeira, airline tickets to Madeira, Madeira hotel booking, Madeira hostels, dormitory of Madeira, dorm on Madeira, Madeira dormitory, Madeira airfares, Madeira airline tickets, Madeira tours, Madeira travel, must-see places on Madeira, Madeira Booking.com, Madeira hotels Trivago, Madeira Expedia, Madeira Airbnb, Madeira TripAdvisor, Hotels Combined Madeira, HotelsCombined Madeira, Madeira hotels and hostels, PT hotels and hostels, Black Friday on the hotel booking site HotelsCombined, Cyber Monday on the hotel booking site HotelsCombined, New Year's and Christmas sale HotelsCombined, hotelscombined.en, HotelsCombined.en, HotelsCombined.en, hotelscombined.com, Madiera, Madère, Região Autónoma da Madeira, Madeira (gebied), マデイラ諸島, Мадейра, دوورگەکانی مادیرا, Мадейрæ, Madeira adaları, and so on.

While others are looking for the Мадэйра, Visiwa vya Madeira, Madeiraeyjar, مادیرا, Regiuun Madeira, Мадеира, มาเดรา, Insulae Materiae, Madeyra, Rexión Autónoma de Madeira, Μαδέρα, 마데이라 제도, Madeira Islands, Autonome Region Madeira, मदेरा, Maidéara, Madejro, Madera, Մադեյրա, Madeira-szigetek, Madeira, Madeara, Region Outónoma de la Madeira, Ishujt Medeira, Archipèla de Madèira, ماديرا, مادیعیرا, מדיירה, Madeiraeilande, मादेईरा, 馬德拉, Madéra, IMadira, მადეირა, Мадейра (архіпелаг), Madeira (souostroví), மதீரா. Many people have already booked the hotels on Madeira on the hotel booking site HotelsCombined. Don't miss this opportunity!

Travelling and vacation on Madeira

.
This article is about the archipelago. For other uses, see Madeira (disambiguation).
Madeira
Autonomous Region (Região Autónoma)
Madeira 19 2014.jpg
A January 2014 view of Funchal, the capital city of the autonomous region.
Flag
Coat of Arms
Official name: Região Autónoma da Madeira
Name origin: madeira, Portuguese for wood
Motto: Das Ilhas as Mais Belas e Livres
(English: Of all islands, the most beautiful and free)
Country Portugal
Autonomous Region Madeira
Region Atlantic Ocean
Subregion Tore-Madeira Ridge
Position Madeira Platform,
Savage Islands submarine mount
Islands Madeira, Porto Santo, Desertas, Selvagens
Municipalities Calheta, Câmara de Lobos, Funchal, Machico, Ponta do Sol, Porto Moniz, Porto Santo, Ribeira Brava, Santa Cruz, Santana, São Vicente
Capital Funchal
Largest city Funchal
- coordinates  / 32.65111; -16.90972  / 32.65111; -16.90972
Highest point Pico Ruivo
- location Paul da Serra, Santana, Madeira
- elevation 1,862 m (6,109 ft)
Lowest point Sea level
- location Atlantic Ocean, Madeira
- elevation 0 m (0 ft)
Area 801 km (309 sq mi)
Population 289,000 (2016) EstimateIncrease
Density 308.5/km (799/sq mi)
Settlement c. 1420
- Administrative autonomy c. 1895
- Political autonomy 1 July 1976
Discovery c. 1415
Management
- location Assembleia Regional, , Funchal
- elevation 16 m (52 ft)
- coordinates  / 32.6472111; -16.9082194
Government
- location Quinta Vigia, , Funchal
- elevation 51 m (167 ft)
- coordinates  / 32.6451083; -16.9158778
President (Government) Miguel Albuquerque (PPD/PSD)
- President (Assembleia) José Lino Tranquada Gomes (PPD/PSD)
Timezone WET (UTC+0)
- summer (DST) WEST (UTC+1)
ISO 3166-2 code PT-30
Postal code 9XXX-XXX
Area code (+351) 291 XXX XXX
ccTLD .pt
Date format dd-mm-yyyy
Drive right-side
Demonym Madeiran; Madeirense
Patron Saint Nossa Senhora do Monte
Holiday 1 July
Anthem A Portuguesa (national)
Hino da Madeira (regional)
Currency Euro (€)
GDP (nominal) 2010 estimate
- Total € 5.224 billion
- Per capita € 21,100
EU-Portugal with Madeira circled.svg
Location of Madeira relative to Portugal (green) and the rest of the European Union (light green)
Madeira topographic map-fr.svg
Distribution of the islands of the archipelago (not including the Savage Islands)
Wikimedia Commons: Madeira
Statistics: Instituto Nacional de Estatística
Website: www.gov-madeira.pt
Geographic detail from CAOP (2010) produced by Instituto Geográfico Português (IGP)

Madeira (/məˈdɪərə/ mə-DEER or /məˈdɛərə/ mə-DAIR; Portuguese: [mɐˈðejɾɐ] or [mɐˈðɐjɾɐ]) is a Portuguese archipelago situated in the north Atlantic Ocean, southwest of Portugal. Its total population was estimated in 2011 at 267,785. The capital of Madeira is Funchal, located on the main island's south coast.

The archipelago is just under 400 kilometres (250 mi) north of Tenerife, Canary Islands. Since 1976, the archipelago has been one of the two Autonomous regions of Portugal (the other being the Azores, located to the northwest). It includes the islands of Madeira, Porto Santo, and the Desertas, administered together with the separate archipelago of the Savage Islands. The region has political and administrative autonomy through the Administrative Political Statue of the Autonomous Region of Madeira provided for in the Portuguese Constitution. The autonomous region is an integral part of the European Union, having pronounced status as an outermost region of the European Union, as detailed in Article 299-2 of the Treaty of the European Union.

Madeira was claimed by Portuguese sailors in the service of Prince Henry the Navigator in 1419 and settled after 1420. The archipelago is considered to be the first territorial discovery of the exploratory period of the Portuguese Age of Discovery, which extended from 1415 to 1542.

Today, it is a popular year-round resort, being visited every year by about one million tourists. The region is noted for its Madeira wine, gastronomy, historical and cultural value, its flora and fauna, landscapes (Laurel forest) which are classified as a UNESCO World Heritage Site and embroidery artisans. Its annual New Year celebrations feature the largest fireworks show in the world, as officially recognised by Guinness World Records in 2006. The main harbour in Funchal is the leading Portuguese port in cruise liner dockings, being an important stopover for commercial and trans-Atlantic passenger cruises between Europe, the Caribbean and North Africa. Madeira is the second richest region of Portugal by GDP per capita, only surpassed by Lisbon.

Madeira: History

Main article: History of Madeira

Madeira: Exploration

Plutarch (Sertorius, 75 CE) referring to the military commander Quintus Sertorius (d. 72 BC), relates that after his return to Cádiz: "The islands are said to be two in number separated by a very narrow strait and lie 10,000 furlongs (2,011.68 km) from Africa. They are called the Isles of the Blessed...".

Archeological evidence suggests that the islands may have been visited by the Vikings sometime between 900-1030.

Madeira: Legend

During the reign of King Edward III of England, lovers Robert Machim and Anna d'Arfet were said to flee from England to France in 1346. They were driven off their course by a violent storm and their ship went aground along the coast of an island, that may have been Madeira. Later this legend was the basis of the naming of the city of Machico, in memory of the young lovers.

Madeira: Discovery

Knowledge of some Atlantic islands, such as Madeira, existed before their formal discovery and settlement, as the islands were shown on maps as early as 1339.

The Santa Maria de Colombo, a replica of the types of ship typical during the Portuguese discovery, built by craftsmen from Câmara de Lobos, Madeira
Statue of João Gonçalves Zarco
Cathedral of Funchal with its tower of 15th-century Gothic style in the background

In 1418, two captains under service to Prince Henry the Navigator, João Gonçalves Zarco and Tristão Vaz Teixeira, were driven off course by a storm to an island which they named Porto Santo (English: holy harbour) in gratitude for divine deliverance from a shipwreck. The following year, an organised expedition, under the captaincy of Zarco, Vaz Teixeira, and Bartolomeu Perestrello, traveled to the island to claim it on behalf of the Portuguese Crown. Subsequently, the new settlers observed "a heavy black cloud suspended to the southwest." Their investigation revealed it to be the larger island they called Madeira.

Madeira: Settlement

The first Portuguese settlers began colonizing the islands around 1420 or 1425.

Grain production began to fall and the ensuing crisis forced Henry the Navigator to order other commercial crops to be planted so that the islands could be profitable. The planting of sugarcane, and later Sicilian sugar beet, allowed the introduction of the "sweet salt" (as sugar was known) into Europe, where it was a rare and popular spice. These specialised plants, and their associated industrial technology, created one of the major revolutions on the islands and fuelled Portuguese industry. The expansion of sugar plantations in Madeira began in 1455, using advisers from Sicily and financed by Genoese capital. (Genoa acted as an integral part of the island economy until the 17th century). The accessibility of Madeira attracted Genoese and Flemish traders, who were keen to bypass Venetian monopolies.

"By 1480 Antwerp had some seventy ships engaged in the Madeira sugar trade, with the refining and distribution concentrated in Antwerp. By the 1490s Madeira had overtaken Cyprus as a producer of sugar."

Sugarcane production was the primary engine of the island's economy, increasing the demand for labour. African slaves were used during portions of the island's history to cultivate sugar cane, and the proportion of imported slaves reached 10% of the total population of Madeira by the 16th century.

Barbary corsairs from North Africa, who enslaved Europeans from ships and coastal communities throughout the Mediterranean region, captured 1,200 people in Porto Santo in 1617. After the 17th century, as Portuguese sugar production was shifted to Brazil, São Tomé and Príncipe and elsewhere, Madeira's most important commodity product became its wine.

The British first amicably occupied the island in 1801 whereafter Colonel William Henry Clinton became governor. A detachment of the 85th Regiment of Foot under Lieutenant-colonel James Willoughby Gordon garrisoned the island. After the Peace of Amiens, British troops withdrew in 1802, only to reoccupy Madeira in 1807 until the end of the Peninsular War in 1814.

After the death of King John VI of Portugal, his usurper son Miguel of Portugal seized power from the rightful heir, his niece Maria II, and proclaimed himself 'Absolute King.'

Madeira: World War I

On 31 December 1916 during the Great War, a German U-boat, SM U-38, captained by Max Valentiner, entered Funchal harbour on Madeira. U-38 torpedoed and sank three ships, bringing the war to Portugal by extension. The ships sunk were

  • CS Dacia (1,856 tons), a British cable-laying vessel. Dacia had previously undertaken war work off the coast of Casablanca and Dakar. It was in the process of diverting the German South American cable into Brest, France.
  • SS Kanguroo (2,493 tons), a French specialized "heavy-lift" transport.
  • Surprise (680 tons), a French gunboat. Her commander and 34 crewmen (including 7 Portuguese) were killed.

After attacking the ships, U-38 bombarded Funchal for two hours from a range of about 2 miles (3 km). Batteries on Madeira returned fire and eventually forced U-38 to withdraw.

On 12 December 1917, two German U-boats, SM U-156 and SM U-157 (captained by Max Valentiner), again bombarded Funchal. This time the attack lasted around 30 minutes. The U-boats fired 40 4.7-and-5.9-inch (120 and 150 mm) shells. There were 3 fatalities and 17 wounded; a number of houses and Santa Clara church were hit.

Charles I (Karl I), the last Emperor of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, went to Madeira after the war. Determined to prevent an attempt to restore Charles to the throne, the Council of Allied Powers agreed he could go into exile on Madeira because it was isolated in the Atlantic and easily guarded. He died there on 1 April 1922 and is buried in Monte.

Madeira: Autonomy and recent history

On 1 July 1976, following the democratic revolution of 1974, Portugal granted political autonomy to Madeira, celebrated on Madeira Day. The region now has its own government and legislative assembly.

In October 2012, it was reported that there was a dengue fever epidemic on the island. There was a total of 2,168 cases reported of dengue fever since the start in October 2012. The number of cases was on the decline since mid November 2012 and by 4 February 2013, no new cases had been reported.

In August 2016, wildfires spread on Madeira and reached Funchal, killing three and destroying 150 homes.

Madeira: Geography

Madeira
Island (Ilha)
Madeira 3d este luisfreitas.png
A three-dimensional rendering of topographic maps characterizing the island of Madeira
Official name: Ilha da Madeira
Name origin: madeira, Portuguese for the wood
Motto: Das ilhas, as mais belas e livres
(Of all islands, the most beautiful and free)
Nickname: Pérola do Atlântico
(Pearl of the Atlantic)
Country Portugal
Autonomous Region Madeira
Location Tore-Madeira Ridge, African Tectonic Plate, Atlantic Ocean
Municipalities Calheta, Câmara de Lobos, Funchal, Machico, Ponta do Sol, Porto Moniz, Ribeira Brava, Santa Cruz, Santana, São Vicente
Highest point Pico Ruivo
- location Pico Ruivo, [(Santana)], Santana
- elevation 1,862 m (6,109 ft)
Lowest point Sea level
- location Atlantic Ocean
- elevation 0 m (0 ft)
Length 57 km (35 mi), West-East
Width 22 km (14 mi), North-South
Area 740.7 km (286 sq mi)
Biomes Temperate, Mediterranean
Geology Alkali basalt, Tephra, Trachyte, Trachybasalt
Orogeny Volcanism
Period Miocene
Demonym Madeirense; Madeiran
Ethnic groups Portuguese
Wikimedia Commons: Madeira
Website: www.gov-madeira.pt
Statistics from INE (2001); geographic detail from Instituto Geográfico Português (2010)
The interior of Madeira around Curral das Freiras
Sights from Bica da Cana showing Madeira's high orography
A reef on Selvagem Pequena, Savage Islands

The archipelago of Madeira is located 520 km (280 nmi) from the African coast and 1,000 km (540 nmi) from the European continent (approximately a one-and-a-half hour flight from the Portuguese capital of Lisbon). It is found in the extreme south of the Tore-Madeira Ridge, a bathymetric structure of great dimensions oriented along a north-northeast to south-southwest axis that extends for 1,000 kilometres (540 nmi). This submarine structure consists of long geomorphological relief that extends from the abyssal plain to 3500 metres; its highest submersed point is at a depth of about 150 metres (around latitude 36ºN). The origins of the Tore-Madeira Ridge are not clearly established, but may have resulted from a morphological buckling of the lithosphere.

Madeira: Islands and islets

Madeira (740.7 km), including Ilhéu de Agostinho, Ilhéu de São Lourenço, Ilhéu Mole (northwest);

Porto Santo (42.5 km), including Ilhéu de Baixo ou da Cal, Ilhéu de Ferro, Ilhéu das Cenouras, Ilhéu de Fora, Ilhéu de Cima;

Desertas Islands (14.2 km), including the three uninhabited islands: Deserta Grande Island, Bugio Island and Ilhéu de Chão;

Savage Islands (3.6 km), archipelago 280 km south-southeast of Madeira Island including three main islands and 16 uninhabited islets in two groups: the Northwest Group (Selvagem Grande Island, Ilhéu de Palheiro da Terra, Ilhéu de Palheiro do Mar) and the Southeast Group (Selvagem Pequena Island, Ilhéu Grande, Ilhéu Sul, Ilhéu Pequeno, Ilhéu Fora, Ilhéu Alto, Ilhéu Comprido, Ilhéu Redondo, Ilhéu Norte).

Madeira: Madeira Island

Detailed, true-colour image of Madeira. The image shows that deep green forest Laurissilva survives intact on the steep northern slopes of the island, but in the south, where terrain is gentler, the terracotta colour of towns and the light green colour of agriculture are more dominant

The island of Madeira is at the top of a massive shield volcano that rises about 6 km (20,000 ft) from the floor of the Atlantic Ocean, on the Tore underwater mountain range. The volcano formed atop an east-west rift in the oceanic crust along the African Plate, beginning during the Miocene epoch over 5 million years ago, continuing into the Pleistocene until about 700,000 years ago. This was followed by extensive erosion, producing two large amphitheatres open to south in the central part of the island. Volcanic activity later resumed, producing scoria cones and lava flows atop the older eroded shield. The most recent volcanic eruptions were on the west-central part of the island only 6,500 years ago, creating more cinder cones and lava flows.

It is the largest island of the group with an area of 741 km (286 sq mi), a length of 57 km (35 mi) (from Ponte de São Lourenço to Ponte do Pargo), while approximately 22 km (14 mi) at its widest point (from Ponte da Cruz to Ponte São Jorge), with a coastline of 150 km (90 mi). It has a mountain ridge that extends along the centre of the island, reaching 1,862 metres (6,109 feet) at its highest point (Pico Ruivo), while much lower (below 200 metres) along its eastern extent. The primitive volcanic foci responsible for the central mountainous area, consisted of the peaks: Ruivo (1,862 m), Torres (1,851 m), Arieiro (1,818 m), Cidrão (1,802 m), Cedro (1,759 m), Casado (1,725 m), Grande (1,657 m), Ferreiro (1,582 m). At the end of this eruptive phase, an island circled by reefs was formed, its marine vestiges are evident in a calcareous layer in the area of Lameiros, in São Vicente (which was later explored for calcium oxide production). Sea cliffs, such as Cabo Girão, valleys and ravines extend from this central spine, making the interior generally inaccessible. Daily life is concentrated in the many villages at the mouths of the ravines, through which the heavy rains of autumn and winter usually travel to the sea.

Madeira: Climate

Madeira has been classified as a Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification: Csa/Csb). Based on differences in sun exposure, humidity, and annual mean temperature, there are clear variations between north- and south-facing regions, as well as between some islands. The islands are strongly influenced by the Gulf Stream and Canary Current, giving mild year-round temperatures; according to the Instituto de Meteorologia (IM), the average annual temperature at Funchal weather station is 19.6 °C (67.3 °F) for the 1980–2010 period. For the 1960–1990 period, IM published an article showing that some regions in the South Coastline surpass 20 °C (68 °F) in annual average. Other microclimates are expected to exist, from the constantly humid wettest points of the mountains to the desert and arid Selvagens islands. Porto Santo has at least one weather station with a semiarid climate (BSh). On the highest windward slopes of Madeira, rainfall exceeds 1,250 mm (50 inches) per year, mostly falling between October and April. In most winters snowfall occurs in the mountains of Madeira.

Climate data for Funchal, capital of Madeira
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 25.5
(77.9)
27.0
(80.6)
30.5
(86.9)
32.6
(90.7)
34.2
(93.6)
34.7
(94.5)
37.7
(99.9)
38.5
(101.3)
38.4
(101.1)
34.1
(93.4)
29.5
(85.1)
25.9
(78.6)
38.5
(101.3)
Average high °C (°F) 19.7
(67.5)
19.7
(67.5)
20.4
(68.7)
20.6
(69.1)
21.6
(70.9)
23.4
(74.1)
25.1
(77.2)
26.4
(79.5)
26.4
(79.5)
24.9
(76.8)
22.6
(72.7)
20.7
(69.3)
22.6
(72.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) 16.7
(62.1)
16.6
(61.9)
17.2
(63)
17.5
(63.5)
18.6
(65.5)
20.6
(69.1)
22.2
(72)
23.2
(73.8)
23.2
(73.8)
21.8
(71.2)
19.6
(67.3)
17.9
(64.2)
19.6
(67.3)
Average low °C (°F) 13.7
(56.7)
13.4
(56.1)
13.9
(57)
14.4
(57.9)
15.6
(60.1)
17.7
(63.9)
19.2
(66.6)
20.0
(68)
20.0
(68)
18.6
(65.5)
16.6
(61.9)
15.0
(59)
16.5
(61.7)
Record low °C (°F) 8.2
(46.8)
7.4
(45.3)
8.1
(46.6)
9.8
(49.6)
9.7
(49.5)
13.2
(55.8)
14.6
(58.3)
16.4
(61.5)
16.6
(61.9)
13.4
(56.1)
9.8
(49.6)
6.4
(43.5)
6.4
(43.5)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 74.1
(2.917)
83.0
(3.268)
60.2
(2.37)
44.0
(1.732)
28.9
(1.138)
7.2
(0.283)
1.6
(0.063)
2.0
(0.079)
32.9
(1.295)
89.5
(3.524)
88.8
(3.496)
115.0
(4.528)
627.2
(24.693)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 12 10 9 8 6 3 1 2 6 9 10 13 87
Mean monthly sunshine hours 167.4 171.1 204.6 225.0 213.9 198.0 244.9 260.4 225.0 204.6 168.0 164.3 2,447.2
Source: Instituto de Meteorologia, ClimaTemps.com for Sunshine hours data

Madeira: Wildfires

NASA satellite image of wildfires on the island of Madeira from 19 July 2012
Nonnative flowers which thrive on Madeira

Drought conditions, coupled with hot and windy weather in summer, have caused numerous wildfires in recent years. The largest of the fires in August 2010 burned through 95 percent of the Funchal Ecological Park, a 1,000-hectare preserve set aside to restore native vegetation to the island. In July 2012 Madeira was suffering again from severe drought. Wildfires broke out on 18 July, in the midst of temperatures up to 40 °C (more than 100 °F) and high winds. By 20 July, fires had spread to the nearby island of Porto Santo, and firefighters were sent from mainland Portugal to contain the multiple blazes.

In August 2013, a hospital and some private homes were evacuated as a wildfire approached Funchal. A number of homes were destroyed when the fire hit Monte, a suburb of Funchal.

In August 2016, wildfires caused over 1,000 people to be evacuated, and led to the death of three people - all of which are said to have been elderly. The wildfires threatened the capital of Madeira -Funchal - specifically, however other administrative regions of Madeira were also threatened by separate wildfires - e.g. Calheta.

In the south, there is very little left of the indigenous subtropical rainforest which once covered the whole island (the original settlers set fire to the island to clear the land for farming) and gave it the name it now bears (Madeira means "wood" in Portuguese). However, in the north, the valleys contain native trees of fine growth. These "laurisilva" forests, called lauraceas madeirense, notably the forests on the northern slopes of Madeira Island, are designated as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. The critically endangered vine Jasminum azoricum is one of the plant species that is endemic to Madeira.

Madeira: Levadas

A levada
Main article: Levadas

The island of Madeira is wet in the northwest but dry in the southeast. In the 16th century the Portuguese started building levadas or aqueducts to carry water to the agricultural regions in the south. Madeira is very mountainous, and building the levadas was difficult and often sentenced criminals or slaves were used. Many are cut into the sides of mountains, and it was also necessary to dig 25 miles (40 km) of tunnels, some of which are still accessible.

Today the levadas not only supply water to the southern parts of the island but provide hydro-electric power. There are over 1,350 miles (2,170 km) of levadas and they provide a network of walking paths. Some provide easy and relaxing walks through the countryside, but others are narrow, crumbling ledges where a slip could result in serious injury or death.

Two of the most popular levadas to hike are the Levada do Caldeirão Verde and the Levada do Caldeirão do Inferno which should not be attempted by hikers prone to vertigo or without torches and helmets. The Levada do Caniçal is a much easier walk, running 7.1 miles (11.4 km) from Maroços to the Caniçal Tunnel. It is known as the mimosa levada because mimosa trees are found all along the route.

Madeira: Governance

Lido, São Martinho
Partial view of the capital as seen from the mountains above it
Sea port of Funchal
Hotels in Lido, Funchal's hotel zone
Promenade in Funchal

Administratively, Madeira (with a population of 267,302 inhabitants in 2011) and covering an area of 768.0 km (296.5 sq mi) is organised into eleven municipalities:

Municipality Population
(2011)
Area Main settlement Parishes
Funchal 111,892 75.7 km (29.2 sq mi) Funchal 10
Santa Cruz 43,005 68.0 km (26.3 sq mi) Santa Cruz 5
Câmara de Lobos 35,666 52.6 km (20.3 sq mi) Câmara de Lobos 5
Machico 21,828 67.6 km (26.1 sq mi) Machico 5
Ribeira Brava 13,375 64.9 km (25.1 sq mi) Ribeira Brava 4
Calheta 11,521 110.3 km (42.6 sq mi) Calheta 8
Ponta do Sol 8,862 46.8 km (18.1 sq mi) Ponta do Sol 3
Santana 7,719 93.1 km (35.9 sq mi) Santana 6
São Vicente 5,723 80.8 km (31.2 sq mi) São Vicente 3
Porto Santo 5,483 42.4 km (16.4 sq mi) Vila Baleira 1
Porto Moniz 2,711 82.6 km (31.9 sq mi) Porto Moniz 4

Madeira: Funchal

Main article: Funchal

Funchal is the capital and principal city of the Autonomous Region of Madeira, located along the southern coast of the island of Madeira. It is a modern city, located within a natural geological "amphitheatre" composed of vulcanological structure and fluvial hydrological forces. Beginning at the harbour (Porto de Funchal), the neighbourhoods and streets rise almost 1,200 metres (3,900 ft), along gentle slopes that helped to provide a natural shelter to the early settlers.

Madeira: Population

Madeira: Demographics

See also: Demographics of Madeira

The island was settled by Portuguese people, especially farmers from the Minho region, meaning that Madeirans (Portuguese: Madeirenses), as they are called, are ethnically Portuguese, though they have developed their own distinct regional identity and cultural traits.

The region has a total population of just under 270,000, the majority of whom live on the main island of Madeira where the population density is 337/km; meanwhile only around 5,000 live on the Porto Santo Island where the population density is 112/km.

Madeira: Diaspora

Main article: Portuguese diaspora
Map of the European Union in the world, with overseas countries and territories (OCT) and outermost regions (OMR) for which Madeira is included

Madeirans migrated to the United States, Venezuela, Brazil, British Guiana, St. Vincent and Trinidad. Madeiran immigrants in North America mostly clustered in the New England and mid-Atlantic states, Toronto, Northern California, and Hawaii. The city of New Bedford is especially rich in Madeirans, hosting the Museum of Madeira Heritage, as well as the annual Madeiran and Luso-American celebration, the Feast of the Blessed Sacrament, the world's largest celebration of Madeiran heritage, regularly drawing crowds of tens of thousands to the city's Madeira Field.

In 1846, when a famine struck Madeira over 6,000 of the inhabitants migrated to British Guiana. In 1891 they numbered 4.3% of the population. In 1902 in Honolulu, Hawaii there were 5,000 Portuguese people, mostly Madeirans. In 1910 this grew to 21,000.

1849 saw an emigration of Protestant religious exiles from Madeira to the United States, by way of Trinidad and other locations in the West Indies. Most of them settled in Illinois with financial and physical aid of the American Protestant Society, headquartered in New York City. In the late 1830s the Reverend Robert Reid Kalley, from Scotland, a Presbyterian minister as well as a physician, made a stop at Funchal, Madeira on his way to a mission in China, with his wife, so that she could recover from an illness. The Rev. Kalley and his wife stayed on Madeira where he began preaching the Protestant gospel and converting islanders from Catholicism. Eventually, the Rev. Kalley was arrested for his religious conversion activities and imprisoned. Another missionary from Scotland, William Hepburn Hewitson, took on Protestant ministerial activities in Madeira. By 1846, about 1,000 Protestant Madeirenses, who were discriminated against and the subjects of mob violence because of their religious conversions, chose to immigrate to Trinidad and other locations in the West Indies in answer for a call for sugar plantation workers. The Madeirenses exiles did not fare well in the West Indies. The tropical climate was unfamiliar and they found themselves in serious economic difficulties. By 1848, the American Protestant Society raised money and sent the Rev. Manuel J. Gonsalves, a Baptist minister and a naturalized U.S. citizen from Madeira, to work with the Rev. Arsenio da Silva, who had emigrated with the exiles from Madeira, to arrange to resettle those who wanted to come to the United States. The Rev. da Silva died in early 1849. Later in 1849, the Rev. Gonsalves was then charged with escorting the exiles from Trinidad to be settled in Sangamon and Morgan counties in Illinois on land purchased with funds raised by the American Protestant Society. Accounts state that anywhere from 700 to 1,000 exiles came to the United States at this time.

There are several large Madeiran communities around the world, such as the great number in the UK, including Jersey, the Portuguese British community mostly made up of Madeirans celebrate Madeira Day.

Madeira: Economy

The port of Funchal

The setting-up of a free trade zone has led to the installation, under more favourable conditions, of infrastructure, production shops and essential services for small and medium-sized industrial enterprises. The Madeira Free Trade Zone, also called the Madeira International Business Centre, being a tax-privileged economic area, provides an incentive for companies, offering them financial and tax advantages via a whole range of activities exercised in the Industrial Free Zone, the Off-Shore Financial Centre, the International Shipping Register organisation, and the International Service Centre.

Madeira has been a significant recipient of European Union aid, totalling up to €2 billion. In 2012, it was reported that despite a population of just 250,000, the local administration owes some €6 billion.

Madeira: Tourism

Madeira's landscapes.
The manufactured coastal beach of Calheta: replacing the dark rock/sand of the volcanic island with beach sand.

Tourism is an important sector in the region's economy since it contributes 20% to the region's GDP, providing support throughout the year for commercial, transport and other activities and constituting a significant market for local products. The share in Gross Value Added of hotels and restaurants (9%) also highlights this phenomenon. The island of Porto Santo, with its 9 km (5.6 mi) long beach and its climate, is entirely devoted to tourism.

Visitors are mainly from the European Union, with German, British, Scandinavian and Portuguese tourists providing the main contingents. The average annual occupancy rate was 60.3% in 2008, reaching its maximum in March and April, when it exceeds 70%.

Bryde's whale swimming off Madeira.

Madeira: Whale watching

Whale watching has become very popular in recent years. Many species of dolphins such as common dolphin, spotted dolphin, striped dolphin, bottlenose dolphin, short-finned pilot whale, and whales such as Bryde's whale, Sei whale, fin whale, sperm whale, beaked whales can be spotted near the coast or offshore.

Madeira: Immigration

Madeira is part of the Schengen Area.

In 2009, there were 7,105 legal immigrants living in Madeira Islands. They come mostly from Brazil (1,300), the United Kingdom (912), Venezuela (732) and Ukraine (682), according to Serviço de Estrangeiros e Fronteiras (SEF). In 2013, that number dropped to 5,829, also according to SEF. The latest figures available (2015) detail another slight drop to 5,745; the majority of which are from the United Kingdom (818), Brazil (752) and Venezuela (581).

Madeira: Electricity

Electricity on Madeira is provided solely through EEM - Empresa de Electricidade da Madeira, SA - who hold a monopoly for the provision of electrical supply on the autonomous region - and consists largely of fossil fuels, but with a significant supply of seasonal hydroelectricity from the Levada system, wind power and a small amount of solar. In 2011, renewable energy formed 26.5% of the electricity used in Madeira.

Madeira: Transport

Main article: Transport in Madeira
Part of Madeira Airport's runway.
A ferry makes daily trips between Madeira and Porto Santo.

The Islands have two airports, Madeira Airport (which is set to be renamed to 'Cristiano Ronaldo Airport') and Porto Santo Airport, on the islands of Madeira and Porto Santo respectively. From Madeira Airport the most frequent flights are to Lisbon. There are also direct flights to over 30 other airports in Europe and nearby islands.

Transport between the two main islands is by plane, or ferries from the Porto Santo Line, the latter also carrying vehicles. Visiting the interior of the islands is now easy thanks to construction of the Vias Rápidas, major roads built during Portugal's economic boom. Modern roads reach all points of interest on the islands.

Funchal has an extensive public transportation system. Bus companies, including Horários do Funchal which has been operating for over a hundred years, have regularly scheduled routes to all points of interest on the island.

Madeira: Culture

Bailinho da Madeira
Black scabbardfish with banana
"Lapas", the true limpet species Patella vulgata
Bottles of Madeira labelled by the different grape varieties used to produce the many styles of wine
Coral Beer
Poncha, a traditional drink of Madeira

Madeira: Music

Folklore music in Madeira is widespread and mainly uses local musical instruments such as the machete, rajao, brinquinho and cavaquinho, which are used in traditional folkloric dances like the bailinho da Madeira.

Emigrants from Madeira also influenced the creation of new musical instruments. In the 1880s, the ukulele was created, based on two small guitar-like instruments of Madeiran origin, the cavaquinho and the rajao. The ukulele was introduced to the Hawaiian Islands by Portuguese immigrants from Madeira and Cape Verde. Three immigrants in particular, Madeiran cabinet makers Manuel Nunes, José do Espírito Santo, and Augusto Dias, are generally credited as the first ukulele makers. Two weeks after they disembarked from the SS Ravenscrag in late August 1879, the Hawaiian Gazette reported that "Madeira Islanders recently arrived here, have been delighting the people with nightly street concerts."

Madeira: Cuisine

Because of the geographic situation of Madeira in the Atlantic Ocean, the island has an abundance of fish of various kinds. The species that are consumed the most are espada (black scabbardfish), blue fin tuna, white marlin, blue marlin, albacore, bigeye tuna, wahoo, spearfish, skipjack tuna and many others are found in the local dishes as they are found up and down the coast of Madeira. Espada is often served with banana. Bacalhau is also popular just like in Portugal.

There are many meat dishes on Madeira, one of the most popular being espetada. Espetada is traditionally made of large chunks of beef rubbed in garlic, salt and bay leaf and marinated for 4 to 6 hours in Madeira wine, red wine vinegar and olive oil then skewered onto a bay laurel stick and left to grill over smouldering wood chips. These are so integral a part of traditional eating habits that a special iron stand is available with a T-shaped end, each branch of the "T" having a slot in the middle to hold a brochette (espeto in Portuguese); a small plate is then placed underneath to collect the juices. The brochettes are very long and have a V-shaped blade in order to pierce the meat more easily. It is usually accompanied with the local bread called bolo do caco.

Other popular dishes in Madeira include açorda, feijoada, carne de vinha d'alhos.

Traditional pastries in Madeira usually contain local ingredients, one of the most common being mel de cana, literally "sugarcane honey" (molasses). The traditional cake of Madeira is called Bolo de Mel, which translates as (Sugarcane) "Honey Cake" and according to custom, is never cut with a knife, but broken into pieces by hand. It is a rich and heavy cake. The cake commonly well known as "Madeira Cake" in England also finds its naming roots in the Island of Madeira.

Malasadas are a Madeiran creation which were taken around the world by emigrants to places such as Hawaii. In Madeira, Malasadas are mainly consumed during the Carnival of Madeira. Pastéis de nata, as in the rest of Portugal, are also very popular.

Milho frito is a very popular dish in Madeira which is very similar to the Italian dish polenta. Açorda Madeirense is another popular local dish.

Madeira: Beverages

Main article: Madeira wine

Madeira is a fortified wine, produced in the Madeira Islands; varieties may be sweet or dry. It has a history dating back to the Age of Exploration when Madeira was a standard port of call for ships heading to the New World or East Indies. To prevent the wine from spoiling, neutral grape spirits were added. However, wine producers of Madeira discovered, when an unsold shipment of wine returned to the islands after a round trip, that the flavour of the wine had been transformed by exposure to heat and movement. Today, Madeira is noted for its unique winemaking process which involves heating the wine and deliberately exposing the wine to some levels of oxidation. Most countries limit the use of the term Madeira to those wines that come from the Madeira Islands, to which the European Union grants Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) status.

A local beer called Coral is produced by the Madeira Brewery, which dates from 1872. Other alcoholic drinks are also popular in Madeira, such as the locally created Poncha, Niquita, Pé de Cabra, Aniz, as well as Portuguese drinks such as Macieira Brandy, Licor Beirão.

Laranjada is a type of carbonated soft drink with an orange flavour, its name being derived from the Portuguese word laranja ("orange"). Launched in 1872 it was the first soft drink to be produced in Portugal, and remains very popular to the present day. Brisa drinks, a brand name, are also very popular and come in a range of flavours.

There is also a huge coffee culture in Madeira. Like in mainland Portugal, popular coffee-based drinks include Garoto, Galão, Bica, Café com Cheirinho, Mazagran, Chinesa and many more.

Madeira: Sports

Main article: Sport in Madeira

Madeira: Sister provinces

Madeira Island has the following sister provinces:

  • Italy: Autonomous Region of Aosta Valley, Italy (1987)
  • Jersey: Bailiwick of Jersey, British Crown Dependencies (1998)
  • South Africa: Eastern Cape Province, South Africa
  • South Korea: Jeju Province, South Korea (2007)
  • Gibraltar: Gibraltar, British Overseas Territory (2009)

Madeira: Postage stamps

Main article: Postage stamps and postal history of Madeira

Portugal has issued postage stamps for Madeira during several periods, beginning in 1868.

Madeira: Notable citizens

Cristiano Ronaldo, born in Madeira, was the 2008, 2013, 2014 and 2016 FIFA World Player of the Year
Joe Berardo is a businessman, stock investor, speculator and art collector. He is also one of the wealthiest people in Portugal.

The following people were either born or have lived part of their lives in Madeira:

  • Joe Berardo, Portuguese millionaire, and art collector
  • Rubina Berardo, Portuguese politician
  • António de Abreu, naval officer and navigator
  • Nadia Almada, a winner of the British reality show Big Brother
  • Menasseh Ben Israel, Jewish Rabbi.
  • Charles I of Austria, deposed monarch, died in exile on Madeira in 1922
  • Catarina Fagundes, Olympic athlete for windsurf
  • Vânia Fernandes, Portuguese singer who represented Portugal in Eurovision 2008
  • José Vicente de Freitas, military and politician
  • Vasco da Gama Rodrigues, poet, born in Paul do Mar
  • Teodósio Clemente de Gouveia, Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church
  • George Walter Grabham, geologist
  • Herberto Hélder, poet
  • Moisés Henriques, former Australian Under-19 Captain and current NSW Blues and Australian international Twenty20 cricketer
  • Alberto João Jardim, second President of the Regional Government
  • Luís Jardim, producer of music
  • Paul Langerhans, German pathologist and biologist
  • Fátima Lopes, fashion designer
  • Jaime Ornelas Camacho, first and former President of the Regional Government
  • Aires de Ornelas e Vasconcelos, former Archbishop of the former Portuguese colonial enclave Goa (in India)
  • Lloyd Mathews, British naval officer, politician and abolitionist
  • Dionísio Pestana, president of the Pestana Group
  • Rigo 23, artist
  • João Rodrigues, Olympic windsurfer
  • Cristiano Ronaldo, Real Madrid, Portugal and former Manchester United football player
  • John Santos, photographer
  • Ana da Silva, founding member of the post-punk band The Raincoats
  • Pedro Macedo Camacho, Composer
  • Manoel Dias Soeyro or Menasseh Ben Israel (1604–1657), Sephardi Rabbi and publisher
  • Artur de Sousa Pinga, former CS Marítimo and FC Porto football player
  • Maximiano de Sousa (Max), popular singer, born in Funchal
  • Virgílio Teixeira, actor
  • José Travassos Valdez, 1st Count of Bonfim, governor in 1827–1828
  • Miguel Albuquerque, third and current President of the Regional Government
  • Bernardo Sousa, rally driver in the WRC

Madeira: See also

  • "Have Some Madeira M'Dear"
  • List of birds of Madeira
  • Madeira Airport
  • Madeira Islands Open, an annual European Tour golf tournament
  • Surfing in Madeira

Madeira: References

Madeira: Notes

  1. http://www.ine.pt/scripts/flex_v10/Main.html
  2. Until 2002, the Portuguese escudo was used in financial transactions, and until 1910 the Portuguese real was the currency used by the monarchy of Portugal.
  3. "Regiões de Portugal". AICEP.
  4. INE, ed. (2010), Censos 2011 - Resultadas Preliminares [2011 Census - Preliminary Results] (in Portuguese), Lisbon, Portugal: Instituto Nacional de Estatística, retrieved 1 July 2011
  5. IGP, ed. (2010), Carta Administrativa Oficial de Portugal (in Portuguese), Lisbon, Portugal: Instituto Geográfico Português, retrieved 1 July 2011
  6. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:12002E299:EN:HTML
  7. "Hotelaria da Madeira suaviza quebras em 2010 apesar de impacto devastador dos temporais". presstur.com. October 2, 2011. Retrieved 16 September 2011.
  8. [1] Archived 23 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine.
  9. "A Guinness World Record Fireworks Show – Madeira Island, 2006-2007 New Year Eve at Wayfaring Travel Guide". Wayfaring.info. Retrieved 16 September 2011.
  10. "Madeira welcomes most cruisers". The Portugal News. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
  11. "New Eurostat website - Eurostat". Retrieved 10 July 2016.
  12. Plutarch, The Parallel Lives : Sertorius, ch. 8
  13. World Archaeology, Issue 66, August/September 2014, Volume 6, No. 6, page 64.
  14. Nicholas Cayetano de Bettencourt Pitta, 1812, p.11-17
  15. Fernández-Armesto, Felipe (2004). "Machim (supp. fl. 14th cent.)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/17535. Retrieved 2 September 2009.
  16. Nicholas Cayetano de Bettencourt Pitta, 1812, p.20
  17. The discoveries of Porto Santo and Madeira were first described by Gomes Eanes de Zurara in Chronica da Descoberta e Conquista da Guiné. (Eng. version by Edgar Prestage in 2 vols. issued by the Hakluyt Society, London, 1896–1899: The Chronicle of Discovery and Conquest of Guinea.) French author Arkan Simaan refers to these discoveries in his historical novel based on Azurara's Chronicle: L'Écuyer d'Henri le Navigateur (2007), published by Éditions l'Harmattan, Paris.
  18. Dervenn, Claude (1957). Madeira. Translated by Hogarth-Gaute, Frances. London, UK: George G. Harrap and Co. p. 20. OCLC 645870163. Retrieved 2016-06-07. And when he returned in May 1420 to take possession of "his" island, it was with his wife and the sons and daughters that the virtuous Constanga had given him.
  19. ISBN 0-7011-6834-X.
  20. Godinho, V. M. Os Descobrimentos e a Economia Mundial, Arcádia, 1965, Vol 1 and 2, Lisboa
  21. Fernando Augusto da Silva & Carlos Azevedo de Menezes, "Porto Santo", Elucidário Madeirense, vol. 3 (O-Z), Funchal, DRAC, p. 124.
  22. Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast and Italy, 1500–1800. Robert Davis (2004). p.7. Buy book ISBN 1-4039-4551-9.
  23. "Officer's presentation sword given to Brigadier General William Henry Clinton from the British Consul and Factory in Madeira, 1802". National Army Museum. Retrieved 15 August 2016.
  24. "GORDON, Sir James Willoughby, 1st bt. (1772-1851), of Niton, I.o.W". UK Parliament. Retrieved 15 August 2016.
  25. "The Map Room: Africa: Madeira". British Empire. Retrieved 30 July 2010.
  26. "Cable ship Dacia". Ships hit by U-boats - German and Austrian U-boats of World War One - Kaiserliche Marine. uboat.net. 13 November 2010. Retrieved 13 November 2010.
  27. Glover, Bill (10 July 2015). "CS Dacia". History of the Atlantic Cable & Undersea Communications. Retrieved 7 June 2016.
  28. "Submarine carrier Kanguroo". Ships hit by U-boats - German and Austrian U-boats of World War One - Kaiserliche Marine. uboat.net. 13 November 2010. Retrieved 13 November 2010.
  29. "Gunboat Surprise". Ships hit by U-boats - German and Austrian U-boats of World War One - Kaiserliche Marine. uboat.net. 13 November 2010. Retrieved 13 November 2010.
  30. "A bit of History". Retrieved 2016-10-16.
  31. Valentiner, Max (1917). 300000 tonnen versenkt! Meine U-boots-fahrten (50. bis 100. tausend. ed.). Berlin: Ullstein & co. p. 118. Retrieved 27 January 2017.
  32. The New York Times, 6 November 1921 (accessed 4 May 2009)
  33. "Denguekuume leviää Madeiralla ('Dengue Fever Spreads In Madeira')". YLE.fi. 10 October 2012. Retrieved 20 October 2012.
  34. "Dengue Fever in Madeira, Portugal". WHO. 17 October 2012. Retrieved 20 October 2012.
  35. "Dengue outbreak in Madeira controlled". Retrieved 11 April 2013.
  36. Minder, Raphael (August 11, 2016). "Deadly Wildfires on Portuguese Island of Madeira Reach Its Largest City". nytimes.com. Retrieved August 11, 2016.
  37. "Madeira Islands Tourism". Madeiraislands.travel. Archived from the original on 30 May 2010. Retrieved 30 July 2010.
  38. Ribeiro et al., 1996
  39. Kullberg & Kullberg, 2000
  40. Geldemacher et al., 2000
  41. Ribeiro, 2001
  42. "Madeira". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution.
  43. "MadeiraHelp.com". MadeiraHelp.com. 22 February 1999. Retrieved 30 July 2010.
  44. Robert White, 1851, p.4
  45. "World Map of Köppen−Geiger Climate Classification".
  46. "Lava Pools". tripadvisor.com.
  47. "Weather Information for Funchal".
  48. "Funchal, Madeira Climate, Temperature, Average Weather History, Rainfall/Precipitation, Sunshine".
  49. Riebeek, Holli. "Fires in Madeira, Portugal". Earth Observatory. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Retrieved 8 September 2013.
  50. Sapa-DPA (16 August 2010). "Wildfires ravage Portuguese nature parks". IOL News. Retrieved 8 September 2013. Fires that had raged there in the recent days had devastated 95 percent of Funchal Ecological Park, destroying a decade of efforts to replant indigenous species in the area measuring 1 000 hectares, the daily Publico quoted environmentalists as saying.
  51. "Fires ravage Madeira islands and mainland Portugal". Reuters. 19 July 2012. Retrieved 8 September 2013. .
  52. Scott, Michon. "Madeira Wildfires". Earth Observatory. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Retrieved 8 September 2013.
  53. Miller, Shari (20 July 2012). "Holiday resorts under threat as towering walls of flame ravage Madeira islands". Daily Mail. Retrieved 8 September 2013. Dds.
  54. "Portugal's Madeira hit by forest fires". BBC News. 20 July 2012. Retrieved 8 September 2013. ces.
  55. Porter, Tom (17 August 2013). "Hospital Evacuated as Fire Rages on Madeira". IBTimes UK. Retrieved 8 September 2013. .
  56. "Wildfire inferno forces hospital and homes to be evacuated on Portuguese island Madeira". euronews. 17 August 2013. Retrieved 8 September 2013. .
  57. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-37030217
  58. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2016/08/10/three-dead-including-elderly-woman-as-wildfire-hits-island-of-ma/
  59. Fernandes, F. (2011). "Jasminum azoricum". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. Retrieved 8 January 2013.
  60. "Censos 2011 Resultados Preliminares 2011". INE.
  61. Map of municipalities at FreguesiasDePortugas l.com
  62. Statistics include Savage Islands, which are administered by the parish of Sé
  63. Statistics include the mainland parish of Santa Cruz and the islands of the Desertas
  64. Statistics represent island population; Porto Santo is the second largest island in the archipelago of Madeira
  65. "Alberto Vieira, ''O Infante e a Madeira: dúvidas e certezas, Centro Estudos História Atlântico". Ceha-madeira.net. Archived from the original on 31 May 2010. Retrieved 30 July 2010.
  66. "Madeiran Portuguese Migration to Guyana, St. Vincent, Antigua and Trinidad: A Comparative Overview" (PDF). Jo-Anne S. Ferreira, University of the West Indies, St. Augustine
  67. "Madeira and Emigration"
  68. "Portuguese emigration from Madeira to British Guiana"
  69. "Protestant Exiles from Madeira in Illinois". loc.gov.
  70. "Portuguese Immigration To Jacksonville In 1849". orgsites.com.
  71. "History of Sangamon County, Illinois". google.com.
  72. "Historical Encyclopedia of Illinois". google.com.
  73. "The Christian World". google.com.
  74. "BBC – Jersey Voices"
  75. "International Business Centre of Madeira - About IBC". ibc-madeira.com.
  76. "Billions of euros of EU money yet Madeira has built up massive debts". Retrieved 10 July 2016.
  77. "Telegraph article". www.telegraph.co.uk. 23 February 2010. Retrieved 8 March 2015.
  78. "Statistics from DRE of Madeira tourism (2008)" (PDF). Retrieved 30 July 2010.
  79. Sei Whale, Balaenoptera borealis off Madeira, Portugal. YouTube. 3 January 2013.
  80. "Madeira whale and Dolphin watching". www.madeirawindbirds.com. 30 August 2010. Retrieved 10 December 2010.
  81. "SEFSTAT – Portal de Estatística". Sefstat.sef.pt. Retrieved 30 July 2010.
  82. http://www.apca.pt/publicacoes/6/paper64.pdf
  83. "Madeira > Departures > Destinations and Airlines > Destinations and Airlines". Retrieved 10 July 2016.
  84. Administrator. "Porto Santo Line". Retrieved 10 July 2016.
  85. Nidel, Richard (2004). World Music: The Basics. Routledge. p. 312. ISBN 978-0-415-96800-3.
  86. Roberts, Helen (1926). Ancient Hawaiian Music. Bernice P. Bishop Museum. pp. 9–10.
  87. King, John (2000). "Prolegomena to a History of the 'Ukulele". Ukulele Guild of Hawai'i. Archived from the original on 3 August 2004. Retrieved February 2, 2016.
  88. "Madeira Espetada". theworldwidegourmet.com. Retrieved 30 August 2010.
  89. T. Stevenson "The Sotheby's Wine Encyclopedia" pg 340–341 Dorling Kindersley 2005 Buy book ISBN 0-7566-1324-8
  90. "Labelling of wine and certain other wine sector products". Europa.eu. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
  91. http://www.cm-funchal.pt/en/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=210%3Agibraltar&catid=79%3Asister-cities&Itemid=331

Madeira: Bibliography

  • Pitta, Nicholas Cayetano de Bettencourt (1812). Account of the Island of Madeira. London, UK: C.Stewart Printer.
  • Koebel, William Henry (1909). Madeira : old and new. London, UK: Francis Griffiths.
  • Dervenn, Claude (1957). Madeira. Translated by Hogarth-Gaute, Frances. London, UK: George G. Harrap and Co.
  • Walvin, James (2000). Making the Black Atlantic: Britain and the African Diaspora. London, UK: Cassell.
  • Wikimedia Atlas of Madeira
  • Madeira's Government Website
  • Madeira at DMOZ
Source of information: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. We're not responsible for the content of this article and your use of this information. Disclaimer
no
+ Abkhazia
+ Afghanistan
+ Albania
+ Algeria
+ Andorra
+ Angola
+ Anguilla
+ Antigua And Barbuda
+ Argentina
+ Armenia
+ Aruba
+ Australia
+ Austria
+ Azerbaijan
+ Bahamas
+ Bahrain
+ Bangladesh
+ Barbados
+ Belarus
+ Belgium
+ Belize
+ Benin
+ Bermuda
+ Bhutan
+ Bolivia
+ Bosnia and Herzegovina
+ Botswana
+ Brazil
+ British Virgin Islands
+ Brunei
+ Bulgaria
+ Burkina Faso
+ Burundi
+ Cambodia
+ Cameroon
+ Canada
+ Cape Verde
+ Caribbean Netherlands
+ Cayman Islands
+ Chad
+ Chile
+ China
+ Colombia
+ Costa Rica
+ Croatia
+ Cuba
+ Curaçao
+ Cyprus
+ Czech Republic
+ Democratic Republic of the Congo
+ Denmark
+ Djibouti
+ Dominican Republic
+ Ecuador
+ Egypt
+ El Salvador
+ Equatorial Guinea
+ Eritrea
+ Estonia
+ Ethiopia
+ Faroe Islands
+ Fiji
+ Finland
+ France
+ French Guiana
+ French Polynesia
+ Gabon
+ Gambia
+ Georgia
+ Germany
+ Ghana
+ Gibraltar
+ Greece
+ Guadeloupe
+ Guam
+ Guatemala
+ Guinea
+ Guyana
+ Haiti
+ Honduras
+ Hong Kong
+ Hungary
+ Iceland
+ India
+ Indonesia
+ Iran
+ Iraq
+ Ireland
+ Isle of Man
+ Israel
+ Italy
+ Ivory Coast
+ Jamaica
+ Japan
+ Jordan
+ Kazakhstan
+ Kenya
+ Kiribati
+ Kongo
+ Kosovo
+ Kuwait
+ Kyrgyzstan
+ Laos
+ Latvia
+ Lebanon
+ Lesotho
+ Libya
+ Liechtenstein
+ Lithuania
+ Luxembourg
+ Macau
+ Macedonia
+ Madagascar
+ Malawi
+ Malaysia
+ Maldives
+ Mali
+ Malta
+ Martinique
+ Mauritania
+ Mauritius
+ Mexico
+ Moldova
+ Monaco
+ Mongolia
+ Montenegro
+ Morocco
+ Mozambique
+ Myanmar
+ Namibia
+ Nepal
+ Netherlands
+ New Zealand
+ Nicaragua
+ Nigeria
+ North Korea
+ Northern Mariana Islands
+ Norway
+ Oman
+ Pakistan
+ Palau
+ Palestine
+ Panama
+ Papua New Guinea
+ Paraguay
+ Peru
+ Philippines
+ Poland
+ Portugal
+ Puerto Rico
+ Qatar
+ Romania
+ Russia
+ Rwanda
+ Réunion
+ Saint Barthélemy
+ Saint Kitts and Nevis
+ Saint Lucia
+ Saint Martin
+ Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
+ Samoa
+ San Marino
+ Saudi Arabia
+ Senegal
+ Serbia
+ Seychelles
+ Sierra Leone
+ Singapore
+ Sint Maarten
+ Slovakia
+ Slovenia
+ Solomon Islands
+ South Africa
+ South Korea
+ Spain
+ Sri Lanka
+ Sudan
+ Suriname
+ Swaziland
+ Sweden
+ Switzerland
+ Syria
+ Taiwan
+ Tajikistan
+ Tanzania
+ Thailand
+ Togo
+ Tonga
+ Trinidad and Tobago
+ Tunisia
+ Turkey
+ Turkmenistan
+ Turks and Caicos Islands
+ U.S. Virgin Islands
+ Uganda
+ Ukraine
+ United Arab Emirates
+ United Kingdom
+ United States
+ Uruguay
+ Uzbekistan
+ Vanuatu
+ Vatican City
+ Venezuela
+ Vietnam
+ Yemen
+ Zambia
+ Zimbabwe
Vacation: Popular Goods
Popular Goods
Clothing
Tops
Trousers & shorts
Skirts
Dresses
Suits
Uniforms
Outerwear
Underwear
Lingerie
Footwear
Headwear
Nightwear
Swimsuits
Accessories

Cosmetics
Perfumery
Skin care
Hygiene products

Jewellery
Watches
Gemstones

Home appliances
Interior design
Furniture
Bedding
Linens
Plumbing
Lamps
Hand tools
Gardening tools
Building materials

Culinary (Cooking)
Foods
Vegetables
Fruits
Beverages
Condiments
Food preparation appliances
Cooking appliances
Cooking utensils
Kitchenware
Crockery
Cookware & bakeware

Toys
Children's clothing

Electronics
Activity trackers
Audio electronics
Apple electronics
Batteries
BlackBerry
Computer hardware
Computer peripherals
Consumer electronics
Digital electronics
iPhone
GPS
Laptops (notebooks)
Mobile phones
Musical instruments
Optical devices
Photography equipment
PlayStation
Rechargeable batteries
Radio
Satellite navigation
Smartphones
Smartwatches
Tablet computers
Television
Video game consoles
Wearable computers
Wireless
Xbox

Sports
Sports equipment
Sports clothing

Travel
Tourism
Tourism by country
Capitals
Tourist attractions
Airlines
Low-cost airlines
Airports
Airliners
Hotels
Tourism companies
Travel websites
Cruise lines
Cruise ships
Travel gear
Luggage
Camping equipment
Hiking equipment
Fishing equipment

Automobiles
Auto accessories
Automotive electronics
Auto parts
Auto chemicals
Tires

Software
Windows software
Mac OS software
Linux software
Android software
IOS software
Access Control Software
Business Software
Communication Software
Computer Programming
Digital Typography Software
Educational Software
Entertainment Software
Genealogy Software
Government Software
Graphics Software
Health Software
Industrial Software
Knowledge Representation Software
Language Software
Legal Software
Library & Info Science Software
Multimedia Software
Music Software
Personal Info Managers
Religious Software
Scientific Software
Simulation Software
System Software
Transportation Software
Video games, PC games

Finance
Advertising
Accounting
Auditing
Business
Banking
Credit
Credit cards
Currency
Debt
E-commerce
Economics
Employment
Financial markets
Forex
Human resource management
Insurance
Investment
Labor
Law
Loans
Management
Marketing
Money
Mortgage
Payment systems
Pensions
Philanthropy
Property
Real estate
Securities
Stationery
Taxation
Universities & colleges

Books
Films
Music

Health
Dietary supplements
Diets
Medical equipment
Vitamins
Weight loss

All trademarks, service marks, trade names, product names, and logos appearing on the site are the property of their respective owners.
© 2011-2017 Maria-Online.com ▪ DesignHosting