Lowest prices on Madurai hotels booking, India

One of the newest proposals is an unique opportunity to instantly find the lowest prices on Madurai hotels and book a best hotel in Madurai saving up to 80%! You can do it quickly and easily with HotelsCombined, a world's leading free hotel metasearch engine that allows to search and compare the rates of all major hotel chains, top travel sites, and leading hotel booking websites, including Booking.com, Hotels.com, Agoda.com, etc., etc. The hotel price comparison service HotelsCombined means cheap Madurai hotels booking, lowest prices on hotel reservation in Madurai and airline tickets to Madurai, India!

Madurai Hotels Comparison & Online Booking

▪ Lowest prices on Madurai hotels booking
▪ The discounts on Madurai hotels up to 80%
▪ No booking fees on Madurai hotels
▪ Detailed description & photos of Madurai hotels
▪ Trusted ratings and reviews of Madurai hotels
▪ Advanced Madurai hotel search & comparison
▪ All Madurai hotels on the map
▪ Interesting sights of Madurai

What's important: you can compare and book not only Madurai hotels and resorts, but also villas and holiday cottages, inns and B&Bs (bed and breakfast), condo hotels and apartments, timeshare properties, guest houses and pensions, campsites (campgrounds), motels and hostels in Madurai. If you're going to Madurai save your money and time, don't pay for the services of the greedy travel agencies. Instead, book the best hotel in Madurai online, buy the cheapest airline tickets to Madurai, and rent a car in Madurai right now, paying the lowest price! Besides, here you can buy the Madurai related books, guidebooks, souvenirs and other goods.

By the way, we would recommend you to combine your visit to Madurai with other popular and interesting places of India, for example: Chhattisgarh, Ludhiana, Kochi, Mumbai, Chennai, Himachal Pradesh, Shimla, Indore, Varanasi, Haridwar, Ramnagar, Dharamshala, Ladakh, Kolkata, Jaipur, Aurangabad, Khajuraho, Maharashtra, Udaipur, Kerala, Sikkim, Gujarat, Jabalpur, Punjab, Ahmedabad, Amritsar, Mount Abu, Mangalore, Tamil Nadu, Kolhapur, Nashik, Pachmarhi, Pushkar, Varkala, Manali, Sawai Madhopur, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bhopal, Pune, Noida, Kanpur, Allahabad, Mathura, Madikeri, Srinagar, Andhra Pradesh, Mussoorie, Thane, Goa, Bikaner, Tirupati, Madurai, Lucknow, Visakhapatnam, Raipur, Guwahati, Chandigarh, New Delhi, Rishikesh, Navi Mumbai, Fatehpur Sikri, Munnar, Palakkad, Delhi, Ooty, Mysore, Nainital, Gangtok, Jaisalmer, Agra, Darjeeling, Ajmer, Gwalior, Thiruvananthapuram, Karnataka, Gurgaon, Nagpur, Vijayawada, Rajasthan, Leh, Jodhpur, Hyderabad, Madhya Pradesh, Jalandhar, Assam, Bangalore, Dehradun, etc.

How to Book a Hotel in Madurai

In order to book an accommodation in Madurai enter the proper dates and do the hotel search. If needed, sort the found Madurai hotels by price, star rating, property type, guest rating, hotel features, hotel theme or hotel chain. Then take a look at the found hotels on Madurai map to estimate the distance from the main Madurai attractions and sights. You can also read the guest reviews of Madurai hotels and see their ratings.

When a hotel search in Madurai is done, please select the room type, the included meals and the suitable booking conditions (for example, "Deluxe double room, Breakfast included, Non-Refundable"). Press the "View Deal" ("Book Now") button. Make your booking on a hotel booking website and get the hotel reservation voucher by email. That's it, a perfect hotel in Madurai is waiting for you!

Hotels of Madurai

A hotel in Madurai is an establishment that provides lodging paid on a short-term basis. Facilities provided may range from a basic bed and storage for clothing, to luxury features like en-suite bathrooms. Larger in Madurai hotels may provide additional guest facilities such as a swimming pool, business centre, childcare, conference facilities and social function services. Hotel rooms in Madurai are usually numbered (or named in some smaller hotels and B&Bs) to allow guests to identify their room. Some Madurai hotels offer meals as part of a room and board arrangement. Hotel operations vary in size, function, and cost. Most Madurai hotels and major hospitality companies that operate hotels in Madurai have set widely accepted industry standards to classify hotel types. General categories include the following:

Upscale luxury hotels in Madurai
An upscale full service hotel facility in Madurai that offers luxury amenities, full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and the highest level of personalized and professional service. Luxury Madurai hotels are normally classified with at least a Four Diamond or Five Diamond status or a Four or Five Star rating depending on classification standards.

Full service hotels in Madurai
Full service Madurai hotels often contain upscale full-service facilities with a large volume of full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and a variety of on-site amenities such as swimming pools, a health club, children's activities, ballrooms, on-site conference facilities, etc.

Historic inns and boutique hotels in Madurai
Boutique hotels of Madurai are smaller independent non-branded hotels that often contain upscale facilities of varying size in unique or intimate settings with full service accommodations. Madurai boutique hotels are generally 100 rooms or less. Some historic inns and boutique hotels in Madurai may be classified as luxury hotels.

Focused or select service hotels in Madurai
Small to medium-sized hotel establishments that offer a limited amount of on-site amenities that only cater and market to a specific demographic of Madurai travelers, such as the single business traveler. Most Madurai focused or select service hotels may still offer full service accommodations but may lack leisure amenities such as an on-site restaurant or a swimming pool.

Economy and limited service hotels in Madurai
Small to medium-sized Madurai hotel establishments that offer a very limited amount of on-site amenities and often only offer basic accommodations with little to no services, these facilities normally only cater and market to a specific demographic of travelers, such as the budget-minded Madurai traveler seeking a "no frills" accommodation. Limited service Madurai hotels often lack an on-site restaurant but in return may offer a limited complimentary food and beverage amenity such as on-site continental breakfast service.

Guest houses and B&Bs in Madurai
A bed and breakfast in Madurai is a small lodging establishment that offers overnight accommodation and inclusive breakfast. Usually, Madurai bed and breakfasts are private homes or family homes offering accommodations. The typical Madurai B&B has between 4 and 11 rooms, with 6 being the average. Generally, guests are accommodated in private bedrooms with private bathrooms, or in a suite of rooms including an en suite bathroom. Some homes have private bedrooms with a bathroom which is shared with other guests. Breakfast is served in the bedroom, a dining room, or the host's kitchen. Often the owners of guest house themselves prepare the breakfast and clean the rooms.

Hostels in Madurai
Madurai hostels provide budget-oriented, sociable accommodation where guests can rent a bed, usually a bunk bed, in a dormitory and share a bathroom, lounge, and sometimes a kitchen. Rooms can be mixed or single-sex, although private rooms may also be available. Hostels are often cheaper for both the operator and occupants; many Madurai hostels have long-term residents whom they employ as desk agents or housekeeping staff in exchange for experience or discounted accommodation.

Apartment hotels, extended stay hotels in Madurai
Extended stay hotels are small to medium-sized Madurai hotels that offer longer term full service accommodations compared to a traditional hotel. Extended stay hotels may offer non-traditional pricing methods such as a weekly rate that cater towards travelers in need of short-term accommodations for an extended period of time. Similar to limited and select service hotels, on-site amenities are normally limited and most extended stay hotels in Madurai lack an on-site restaurant.

Timeshare and destination clubs in Madurai
Madurai timeshare and destination clubs are a form of property ownership also referred to as a vacation ownership involving the purchase and ownership of an individual unit of accommodation for seasonal usage during a specified period of time. Timeshare resorts in Madurai often offer amenities similar that of a Full service hotel with on-site restaurant(s), swimming pools, recreation grounds, and other leisure-oriented amenities. Destination clubs of Madurai on the other hand may offer more exclusive private accommodations such as private houses in a neighborhood-style setting.

Motels in Madurai
A Madurai motel is a small-sized low-rise lodging establishment similar to that of a limited service hotel, but with direct access to individual rooms from the car park. Common during the 1950s and 1960s, motels were often located adjacent to a major road, where they were built on inexpensive land at the edge of towns or along stretches of highways. They are still useful in less populated areas of Madurai for driving travelers, but the more populated an area becomes the more hotels fill the need. Many of Madurai motels which remain in operation have joined national franchise chains, rebranding themselves as hotels, inns or lodges.

Why HotelsCombined

HotelsCombined is the leading hotel metasearch engine founded in 2005, with headquarters in Sydney, Australia. It is widely recognized as the world's best hotel price comparison site and has won many of the most prestigious tourism industry awards. The site operates in over 40 languages, handles 120 different currencies and aggregates more than 2 million deals from hundreds of travel sites and hotel chains. The number of users counts more than 300,000 people a year with over $1,000,000,000 in estimated total cost of hotel reservations.

The main purpose of HotelsCombined hotel price comparison service is to help the travelers in finding a perfect accommodation option in Madurai at the best price, eliminating the need to manually analyze hundreds of hotel booking sites and thousands of price offers. Through the partnership with the most popular hotel booking websites, online travel agencies and hotel chains, HotelsCombined allows its users to search for and compare the current rates on Madurai hotels in a single search. It also provides an aggregated summary of hotel reviews and ratings from external sites.

The HotelsCombined's advanced technology allows to instantly find the available Madurai hotels and process the offers of all leading travel websites, including Booking.com, Hotels.com, Agoda.com, etc. and many others (AccorHotels.com, AirAsiaGo.com, Amoma.com, AsiaTravel.com, BestWestern.com, Budgetplaces.com, EasyToBook.com, Elvoline.com, Expedia.com, Getaroom.com, Hilton.com, Homestay.com, Hotel.de, HotelClub.com, HotelsClick.com, HotelTravel.com, Housetrip.com, ihg.com, Interhome.com, Jovago.com, LateRooms.com, NH-Hotels.com, OnHotels.com, Otel.com, Prestigia.com, Skoosh.com, Splendia.com, Superbreak.com, Tiket.com, etc.). Due to the fast and easy-to-use search system you get the rates on available Madurai hotels and book a preferable hotel on a website providing the lowest price.

All Madurai Hotels & Hostels Online

HotelsCombined is especially recommended for those interested in Madurai, India, HotelsCombined, Trivago, sale on the hotel booking site HotelsCombined, discount coupons on the hotel booking site HotelsCombined, best rates on Madurai hotels, low prices on Madurai hotels, best hotel in Madurai, best Madurai hotel, discounted Madurai hotel booking, online Madurai hotel reservation, Madurai hotels comparison, hotel booking in Madurai, luxury and cheap accomodation in Madurai, Madurai inns, Madurai B&Bs, bed and breakfast in Madurai, condo hotels and apartments in Madurai, bargain Madurai rentals, cheap Madurai vacation rentals,Madurai pensions and guest houses, cheap hotels and hostels of Madurai, Madurai motels, dormitories of Madurai, dorms in Madurai, Madurai dormitory rooms, lowest rates on hotels in Madurai, hotel prices comparison in Madurai, travel to Madurai, vacation in Madurai, trip to Madurai, trusted hotel reviews of Madurai, sights and attractions of Madurai, Madurai guidebook, Madurai guide, hotel booking in Madurai, India, etc.

Many people are also interested in the tours to Madurai, travel company in Madurai, travel agency in Madurai, excursions in Madurai, tickets to Madurai, airline tickets to Madurai, Madurai hotel booking, Madurai hostels, dormitory of Madurai, dorm in Madurai, Madurai dormitory, Madurai airfares, Madurai airline tickets, Madurai tours, Madurai travel, must-see places in Madurai, Madurai Booking.com, Madurai hotels Trivago, Madurai Expedia, Madurai Airbnb, Madurai TripAdvisor, Hotels Combined Madurai, HotelsCombined Madurai, Madurai hotels and hostels, IN hotels and hostels, Black Friday on the hotel booking site HotelsCombined, Cyber Monday on the hotel booking site HotelsCombined, New Year's and Christmas sale HotelsCombined, hotelscombined.en, HotelsCombined.en, HotelsCombined.en, hotelscombined.com, Maduráj, and so on.

While others are looking for the मदुराई, 马杜赖, Горад Мадурай, मदुरई, Madurai (stad), Madurai, മധുര, マドゥライ, ମଦୁରାଇ, ਮਦੁਰਈ, મદુરાઇ, मदुरै, Maduraj, 마두라이, Madurajus, มทุไร, مادورای, مادورائ, مادوراي, Madurai (siâⁿ), মদুরাই, মাদুরাই, மதுரை, ಮಧುರೈ, მადურაი, మదురై, मधुरै, Мадурай, مدورای, مدورائی, Мадурај, Madurai (lungsod), Maduraja. Thousands of people have already booked the hotels in Madurai on the hotel booking site HotelsCombined. Try it for yourself!

Travelling and vacation in Madurai

.
Madurai
metropolitan city
Montage image indicating Periyar Bus stand, Teppakulam, Madurai corporation, River Vaigai Thirumalai Nayak Palace, Meenakshi Amman Temple and city of Madurai, clockwise from top.
Clockwise from top left: Periyar Bus Stand, Teppakulam Mariyamman tank, Vaigai River, Meenakshi Amman Temple, Madurai skyline, Thirumalai Nayakkar Palace and Madurai Corporation building
Nickname(s): Athens of the East
Madurai is located in Tamil Nadu
Madurai
Madurai
Madurai is located in India
Madurai
Madurai
Coordinates:  / 9.9; 78.1  / 9.9; 78.1
Country India
State Tamil Nadu
District Madurai district
Government
• Type Mayor-Council
• Body Madurai City Municipal Corporation
• Mayor Vacant
• Commissioner of Corporation Sandeep Nanduri IAS
• Commissioner of Police Shailesh Kumar Yadav IPS
Area
• metropolitan city 147.97 km (57.13 sq mi)
Area rank 2
Elevation 101 m (331 ft)
Population (2011)
• metropolitan city 1,462,420
• Rank 3
• Density 6,425/km (16,640/sq mi)
• Metro 1,561,129
Demonym(s) Maduraite, Maduraikaran
Language
• Official Tamil
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 625 xxx
Telephone code 0452
Vehicle registration TN-58 (South), TN-59 (North) and TN-64(Central)
Website maduraicorporation.co.in

Madurai is a major city in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It is the administrative headquarters of Madurai District. Madurai is the third largest city by population in Tamil Nadu, and is the 25th populated city in India. Located on the banks of River Vaigai, Madurai has been a major settlement for two millennia. Madurai has been selected as one of the hundred Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under Prime Minister Narendra Modi's flagship Smart Cities Mission.

Madurai is closely associated with the Tamil language, and the third Tamil Sangam, a major congregation of Tamil scholars said to have been held in the city. The recorded history of the city goes back to the 3rd century BCE, being mentioned by Megasthenes, the Greek ambassador to the Maurya empire, and Kautilya, a minister of the Mauryan emperor Chandragupta Maurya. Signs of human settlements and Roman trade links dating back to 300BC are evident from excavations by Archeological Survey of India in Manalur. The city is believed to be of significant antiquity and has been ruled, at different times, by the Pandyas, Cholas, Madurai Sultanate, Vijayanagar Empire, Madurai Nayaks, Carnatic kingdom, and the British.

The city has a number of historical monuments, with the Meenakshi Amman Temple and Tirumalai Nayak Palace being the most prominent. Madurai is an important industrial and educational hub in South Tamil Nadu. The city is home to various automobile, rubber, chemical and granite manufacturing industries. It has developed as a second-tier city for information technology (IT), and some software companies have opened offices in Madurai.

Madurai has important government educational institutes like the Madurai Medical College, Homeopathic Medical College, Madurai Law College, Agricultural College and Research Institute. Madurai city is administered by a municipal corporation established in 1971 as per the Municipal Corporation Act. Madurai is the second corporation in Tamil Nadu next to Chennai corporation. The city covers an area of 147.97 km and had a population of 1,017,865 in 2011. The city is also the seat of a bench of the Madras High Court.

Madurai: Etymology

The city is referred by various names including "Madurai", "Koodal", "Malligai Maanagar", "Naanmadakoodal" and "Thirualavai". The word Madurai may be derived from Madhura (sweetness) arising out of the divine nectar showered on the city by the Hindu god Shiva from his matted hair. Another theory is that Madurai is the derivative of the word Marutham, which refers to the type of landscape of the Sangam age. A town in the neighbouring Dindigul district is called Vada Madurai (North Madurai) and another in Sivagangai district is called Manamadurai. The different names by which the city has been referred to historically are listed in the 7th-century poem Thiruvilayaadal puraanam written by Paranjothi Munivar.

Koodal means an assembly or congregation of scholarly people, referring to the three Tamil Sangams held at Madurai. Naanmadakoodal, meaning the junction of four towers, refers to the four major temples for which Madurai was known for. Tevaram, the 7th- or 8th-century Tamil compositions on Shiva by the three prominent Nayanars (Saivites), namely Appar, Sundarar and Thirugnanasambandar, address the city as Thirualavai. As per Iravatham Mahadevan, a 2nd-century BCE Tamil-Brahmi inscription refers to the city as matiray, an Old Tamil word meaning a "walled city" derived from an older Dravidian source.

Madurai: History

view of city having temple towers seen through two trees
Hand coloured antique wood engraving drawn by W. Purser (1858) shows Madurai city as seen from the north bank of the Vaigai river

Madurai has been inhabited since at least the 3rd century BCE. Megasthenes may have visited Madurai during the 3rd century BCE, with the city referred as "Methora" in his accounts. The view is contested by some scholars who believe "Methora" refers to the north Indian city of Mathura, as it was a large and established city in the Mauryan Empire. Madurai is also mentioned in Kautilya's (370–283 BCE) Arthashastra. Sangam literature like Maturaikkāñci records the importance of Madurai as a capital city of the Pandyan dynasty. Madurai is mentioned in the works of Roman historians Pliny the Younger (61 – c. 112 CE), Ptolemy (c. 90 – c. CE 168), those of the Greek geographer Strabo (64/63 BCE – c. 24 CE), and also in Periplus of the Erythraean Sea.

Pandyan dynasty Map at its greatest extent
historic metal coin used for transaction
Coin of Jalaluddin Ahsan Khan, first ruler of the Sultanate of Madurai, 1335–1339 CE

After the Sangam age, most of present-day Tamil Nadu, including Madurai, came under the rule of the Kalabhra dynasty, which was ousted by the Pandyas around 590 CE. The Pandyas were outsted from Madurai by the Chola dynasty during the early 9th century. The city remained under the control of the Cholas until the early 13th century, when the second Pandyan empire was established with Madurai as its capital. After the death of Kulasekara Pandian (1268–1308 CE), Madurai came under the rule of the Delhi Sultanate. The Madurai Sultanate then seceded from Delhi and functioned as an independent kingdom until its gradual annexation by the Vijayanagar Empire in 1378 CE. Madurai became independent from Vijayanagar in 1559 CE under the Nayaks. Nayak rule ended in 1736 CE and Madurai was repeatedly captured several times by Chanda Sahib (1740 – 1754 CE), Arcot Nawab and Muhammed Yusuf Khan (1725 – 1764 CE) in the middle of 18th century.

In 1801, Madurai came under the direct control of the British East India Company and was annexed to the Madras Presidency. The British government made donations to the Meenakshi temple and participated in the Hindu festivals during the early part of their rule. The city evolved as a political and industrial complex through the 19th and 20th centuries to become a district headquarters of a larger Madurai district. In 1837, the fortifications around the temple were demolished by the British. The moat was drained and the debris was used to construct new streets – Veli, Marat and Perumaal Mesthiri streets. The city was constituted as a municipality in 1866 CE. The British government faced initial hiccups during the earlier period of the establishment of municipality in land ceiling and tax collection in Madurai and Dindigul districts under the direct administration of the officers of the government. The city, along with the district, was resurveyed between 1880 and 1885 CE and subsequently, five municipalities were constituted in the two districts and six taluk boards were set up for local administration. Police stations were established in Madurai city, housing the headquarters of the District Superintendent.

It was in Madurai, in 1921, that Mahatma Gandhi, pre-eminent leader of Indian nationalism in British-ruled India, first adopted the loin cloth as his mode of dress after seeing agricultural labourers wearing it. Leaders of the independence movement in Madurai included N.M.R. Subbaraman and Mohammad Ismail Sahib. The Temple Entry Authorization and Indemnity Act passed by the government of Madras Presidency under C. Rajagopalachari in 1939 removed restrictions prohibiting Shanars and Dalits from entering Hindu temples. The temple entry movement was first led in Madurai Meenakshi temple by independence activist A. Vaidyanatha Iyer in 1939.

Madurai: Architecture

map of city showing main streets in the centre of a city
Map of Madurai showing centre of the city and some important landmarks

Madurai is built around the Meenakshi Amman Temple, which acted as the geographic and ritual centre of the ancient city of Madurai. The city is divided into a number of concentric quadrangular streets around the temple. Vishwanatha Nayak (1529–64 CE), the first Madurai Nayak king, redesigned the city in accordance with the principles laid out by Shilpa Shastras (Sanskrit: śilpa śāstra, also anglicised as silpa sastra meaning rules of architecture) related to urban planning. These squares retain their traditional names of Aadi, Chittirai, Avani-moola and Masi streets, corresponding to the Tamil month names and also to the festivals associated. The temple prakarams (outer precincts of a temple) and streets accommodate an elobrate festival calendar in which dramatic processions circumambulate the shrines at varying distances from the centre. The temple chariots used in processions are progressively larger in size based on the size of the concentric streets. Ancient Tamil classics record the temple as the centre of the city and the surrounding streets appearing liken a lotus and its petals. The city's axes were aligned with the four quarters of the compass, and the four gateways of the temple provided access to it. The wealthy and higher echelons of the society were placed in streets close to the temple, while the poorest were placed in the fringe streets. With the advent of British rule during the 19th century, Madurai became the headquarters of a large colonial political complex and an industrial town; with urbanisation, the social hierarchical classes became unified.

Madurai: Geography and climate

river with water flowing amidst weeds
Vaigai river in Madurai
Madurai
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
20
30
20
14
32
21
18
35
23
55
37
25
70
38
26
40
38
26
50
36
25
104
35
25
119
34
24
188
32
24
145
30
23
51
29
21
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Imperial conversion
J F M A M J J A S O N D
0.8
86
68
0.5
90
70
0.7
95
73
2.2
99
77
2.8
100
79
1.6
100
79
1.9
96
77
4.1
95
77
4.7
93
75
7.4
90
75
5.7
86
73
2
84
70
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches

Madurai is located at  / 9.93; 78.12. It has an average elevation of 101 metres. The city of Madurai lies on the flat and fertile plain of the river Vaigai, which runs in the northwest-southeast direction through the city, dividing it into two almost equal halves. The Sirumalai and Nagamalai hills lie to the north and west of Madurai. The land in and around Madurai is utilised largely for agricultural activity, which is fostered by the Periyar Dam. Madurai lies southeast of the western ghats, and the surrounding region occupies the plains of South India and contains several mountain spurs. The soil type in central Madurai is predominantly clay loam, while red loam and black cotton types are widely prevalent in the outer fringes of the city. Paddy is the major crop, followed by pulses, millet, oil seed, cotton and sugarcane.

The municipal corporation of Madurai has an area of 147.977 km. Madurai is hot and dry for eight months of the year. Cold winds are experienced during February and March as in the neighbouring Dindigul. The hottest months are from March to July. The city experiences a moderate climate from August to October, tempered by heavy rain and thundershowers, and a slightly cooler climate from November to February. Fog and dew are rare, occurring only during the winter season. Being equidistant from mountains and the sea, it experiences similar monsoon pattern with Northeast monsoon and Southwest monsoon, with the former providing more rain during October to December. The average annual rainfall for the Madurai district is about 85.76 cm.

Temperatures during summer generally reach a maximum of 40 °C and a minimum of 26.3 °C, although temperatures up to 42 °C are not uncommon. Winter temperatures range between 29.6 °C and 18 °C. A study based on the data available with the Indian Meteorological Department on Madurai over a period of 62 years indicate rising trend in atmospheric temperature over Madurai city, attributed to urbanisation, growth of vehicles and industrial activity. The maximum temperature of 42 °C for the decade of 2001 – 2010 was recorded in 2004 and in 2010.

Climate data for Madurai, India (1971–2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 39.1
(102.4)
38.5
(101.3)
41.7
(107.1)
42.1
(107.8)
45.5
(113.9)
42.2
(108)
40.6
(105.1)
40.0
(104)
39.8
(103.6)
40.0
(104)
38.0
(100.4)
37.0
(98.6)
44.5
(112.1)
Average high °C (°F) 30.6
(87.1)
33.2
(91.8)
35.8
(96.4)
37.3
(99.1)
41.0
(105.8)
36.8
(98.2)
36.0
(96.8)
35.7
(96.3)
34.8
(94.6)
32.7
(90.9)
30.6
(87.1)
29.7
(85.5)
34.2
(93.6)
Average low °C (°F) 20.1
(68.2)
21.1
(70)
23.0
(73.4)
25.4
(77.7)
26.1
(79)
26.1
(79)
25.6
(78.1)
25.3
(77.5)
24.3
(75.7)
23.6
(74.5)
22.6
(72.7)
21.1
(70)
23.7
(74.7)
Record low °C (°F) 15.6
(60.1)
10.5
(50.9)
16.9
(62.4)
19.4
(66.9)
17.8
(64)
17.8
(64)
19.4
(66.9)
20.6
(69.1)
18.5
(65.3)
18.9
(66)
17.2
(63)
16.7
(62.1)
10.5
(50.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 7.4
(0.291)
11.8
(0.465)
14.1
(0.555)
37.1
(1.461)
72.6
(2.858)
32.0
(1.26)
83.2
(3.276)
80.3
(3.161)
146.9
(5.783)
159.4
(6.276)
140.3
(5.524)
53.0
(2.087)
838.0
(32.992)
Average precipitation days 0.9 1.1 1.1 2.4 4.4 2.0 3.6 4.1 7.8 8.1 6.3 3.4 45.1
Source: Indian Meteorological Department Mean data from 1971–2000

Madurai: Demographics

According to 2011 census based on per-expansion limits, the area covered under the Madurai Municipal Corporation had a population of 1,017,865 with a sex-ratio of 999 females for every 1,000 males, much above the national average of 929. A total of 100,324 were under the age of six, constituting 51,485 males and 48,839 females. Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes accounted for 6.27% and .31% of the population respectively. The average literacy of the city was 81.95%, compared to the national average of 72.99%. The urban agglomeration of Madurai had a population of 1,465,625, and is the third largest in Tamil Nadu and the 31st in India.

Religion in Madurai (2011)
Religion Percent(%)
Hinduism
85.8%
Islam
8.5%
Christianity
5.2%
Others
0.5%

According to the religious census of 2011, Madurai had 85.8% Hindus, 8.5% Muslims, 5.2% Christians and 0.5% others. Tamil is spoken by most, and the standard dialect is the Madurai Tamil dialect. Saurashtrian is the mother tongue of the Patnūlkarars who migrated from Gujarat in the 16th century CE. Roman Catholics in Madurai are affiliated with the Roman Catholic Diocese of Madurai, while Protestants are affiliated with the Madurai-Ramnad Diocese of the Church of South India.

In 2001, Slum-dwellers comprise 32.6 per cent of the total population, much higher than the national average of 15.05 per cent. The increase in growth rate to 50 per cent from 1971 to 1981 is due to the city's upgrade to a municipal corporation in 1974 and the subsequent inclusion of 13 Panchayats into the corporation limits. The decline in the population growth rate between 1981 and 2001 is due to the bifurcation of Madurai district into two, Madurai and Dindigul in 1984, and the subsequently of part of the city into the Theni district in 1997. The compounded annual growth rate dropped from 4.10 per cent during 1971–81 to 1.27 per cent during 1991–2004.

Madurai: Administration and politics

Municipal Corporation Officials
Mayor Seat vacant
Commissioner Sandeep Nanduri
Deputy Mayor K.Thiraviam
Members of Legislative Assembly
Madurai Central P.T.R. Palanivel Thiagarajan
Madurai East P.Moorthy
Madurai North V. V. Rajan Chellappa
Madurai South S.S.Saravanan
Madurai West Sellur K. Raju
Thiruparankundram A.K.Bose
Member of Parliament
Madurai| R. Gopalakrishnan
Four floored building located on a road
Building of the Madurai Bench of Madras High court

The municipality of Madurai was constituted on 1 November 1866 as per the Town Improvement Act of 1865. The municipality was headed by a chairperson and elections were regularly conducted for the post except during the period 1891 to 1896, when no elections were held due to violent factionalism. During the early years of independent India, the Madurai municipality was dominated by reformists of the Indian National Congress. Madurai was upgraded to a municipal corporation on 1 May 1971 as per the Madurai City Municipal Corporation Act, 1971. It is the second oldest municipal corporation in Tamil Nadu, after Chennai. The functions of the municipality are devolved into six departments: General, Engineering, Revenue, Public Health, Town planning and the Computer Wing. All these departments are under the control of a Municipal Commissioner, who is the supreme executive head. The legislative powers are vested in a body of 100 members, one each from the 100 wards. The legislative body is headed by an elected Mayor assisted by a Deputy Mayor. The corporation received several awards in 2008 for implementing development works.

Front view of the corporation office

The city of Madurai is represented in the Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly by six elected members, one each for the Madurai East, Madurai West, Madurai North, Madurai Central, Madurai South and thirupparankundram constituencies. Madurai is also a part of the Madurai Lok Sabha constituency and elects a member to the Lok Sabha, the lower house of the Parliament of India, once every five years. From 1957, the Madurai parliament seat was held by the Indian National Congress seven times in the 1962–67, 1971–77, 1977–80, 1980–84, 1984–89, 1989–91 and 1991 elections. The Communist Party of India (Marxist) won the seat three times during 1967–71, 1999–2004 and 2004–09 general elections. The Communist Party of India (1957–61), Tamil Maanila Congress (Moopanar) (1996–98), Janata Party (1998), Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (2009–2014) and All India Anna Dravida Munnertra Kazhagam (2014–2019) have each won once.

Law and order is enforced by the Tamil Nadu Police, which, for administrative purposes, has constituted Madurai city as a separate district. The district is divided into four sub-divisions, namely Thallakulam, Anna Nagar, Thilagar Thidal and Town, with a total of 27 police stations. The Madurai city police force is headed by a Commissioner of police, assisted by Deputy Commissioners. Enforcement of law and order in the suburban areas are handled by the Madurai district police. In 2008, the crime rate in the city was 283.2 per 100,000 people, accounting for 1.1 per cent of all crimes reported in major cities in India, and it was ranked 19th among 35 major cities in India. As of 2008, Madurai recorded the second highest SLL (Special and Local Laws) crimes, at 22,728, among cities in Tamil Nadu. However, Madurai had the second lowest crime rate at 169.1 of all the cities in Tamil Nadu. The city is also the seat of a bench of the Madras High Court, one of only a few outside the state capitals of India. It started functioning in July 2004.

Madurai: Transport

Mattuthavani Bus Stand
Madurai Railway junction, the main railway station of Madurai
A view of Madurai Airport

Madurai: Road

The National Highways NH 7, NH 45B, NH 208 and NH 49 pass through Madurai. The state highways passing through the city are SH-33, SH-72, SH-72A, SH-73 and SH-73A which connect various parts of Madurai district. Madurai is one of the seven circles of the Tamil Nadu State Highway network. Madurai is the headquarters of the Tamil Nadu State Transport Corporation (Madurai) and provides local and inter-city bus transport across the districts of Madurai, Dindigul, Sivagangai, Theni, Virudhunagar. Madurai has three bus terminals, namely, Mattuthavani Bus Terminus (MIBT) and Arappalayam (for inter city buses) and Periyar Bus stand (for intra city buses). There are 12,754 registered three-wheeled vehicles called auto rickshaws, which are commercially available for renting within the city. In addition to the government operated city buses, there are 236 registered private mini-buses that support local transportation.

Madurai: Rail

Madurai Junction is the major railway station serving the city. It is an important railway junction in southern Tamil Nadu and is one of the top 100 booking stations in Indian Railways. It is the headquarters of the Madurai division of the Southern Railway. There are direct trains from connecting Madurai with major cities and towns across India. The state government announced a Mono rail project for Madurai in 2011, which is in planning stages. There are ten other sub urban railway stations serving the city.

Madurai: Air

Madurai airfield was first used by the Royal Air Force in World War II in 1942. The first passenger flight was a Fokker Friendship aircraft from Madras in 1956. Madurai Airport was established in 1957 and is located 12 kilometres from the city. The airport was declared a customs airport in 2012 allowing limited number of international flights. It offers domestic flights to some cities in India and international services to Colombo and Dubai. It is the fourth-busiest airport in the state of Tamil Nadu after Chennai, Coimbatore and Tiruchirappalli. The carriers operating from the airport are Air India, Jet Airways, SpiceJet ,Indigo and Srilankan Airlines . The airport handled 842,300 passengers between April 2015 and March 2016. The airport was identified as one of 35 non-metro airports for modernisation and a new integrated terminal building was inaugurated on 12 September 2010.

Madurai: Education

Red coloured two floored historic college building
The American college in Madurai, started in 1881 CE – the oldest college in Madurai

Madurai has been an academic centre of learning for Tamil culture, literature, art, music and dance for centuries. All three assemblies of the Tamil language, the Tamil Sangam (about the 3rd century BCE to the 3rd century CE), were held at Madurai. Tamil poets of different epochs participated in these assemblies, and their compositions are referred to as Sangam literature. During the third Tamil sangam, the comparative merit of the poets was decided by letting the works float in the lotus tank of the temple. It was believed that a divine force would cause the work of superior merit to float on the surface, while the inferior ones would sink.

The American College is the oldest college in Madurai, and was established in 1881 by American Christian missionaries. The Lady Doak college, established in 1948, is the oldest women's college in Madurai. Thiagarajar College (established in 1949), Madura College (established in 1889), Fatima College (established in 1953), and M.S.S.Wakf Board College (established in 1964) are among the oldest educational institutions of the city. Madurai Kamaraj University (originally called Madurai University), established in 1966, is a state-run university which has 109 affiliated arts and science colleges in Madurai and neighbouring districts. There are 47 approved institutions of the university in and around the city, consisting of autonomous colleges, aided colleges, self-financing colleges, constituent colleges, evening colleges and other approved institutions. There are seven polytechnical schools and five Industrial training institutes (ITIs) in Madurai, with the Government ITI and the Government Polytechnic for Women being the most prominent of them all. There are two government medical institutes in Madurai, Madurai Medical College and Homoeopathic Medical College, Thirumangalam and 11 paramedical institutes. There are fifteen engineering colleges in Madurai affiliated to Anna University, with the Thiagarajar College of Engineering being the oldest. The Madurai Law College, established in 1979, is one of the seven government law colleges in the state. It is administered by the Tamil Nadu Government Department of Legal Studies, and affiliated with the Tamil Nadu Dr. Ambedkar Law University. There are three teacher training institutes, two music colleges, three management institutes and 30 arts and sciences colleges in Madurai. The agricultural college and research institute in Madurai, started in 1965 by the state government, provides agricultural education to aspirants in the southern districts of Tamil Nadu. There are a total of 369 primary, secondary and higher secondary schools in the city.

Madurai: Economy

Harvey Mills, circa 1914
A software company at Thirupparankundram

Madurai was traditionally an agrarian society, with rice paddies as the main crop. Cotton crop cultivation in the regions with black soil in Madurai district was introduced during the Nayaka rule during the 16th century to increase the revenue from agriculture. The paddy fields cultivated in the Vaigai delta across Madurai North, Melur, Nilakottai and Uthamapalayam are known as "double-crop paddy belts". Farmers in the district supplement their income with subsidiary occupations like dairy farming, poultry-farming, pottery, brick making, mat-weaving and carpentry. Madurai is famed for its jasmine plantations, called "Madurai Malli", primarily carried out at the foothills of Kodaikanal hills and traded at the Madurai morning flower market. An average of 2,000 farmers sell flowers daily at the flower market.

With the advent of Small Scale Industries (SSI) after 1991, the industrialisation of Madurai increased employment in the sector across the district from 63,271 in 1992–93 to 166,121 persons in 2001–02. Madurai is one of the few rubber growing areas in South India, and there are rubber-based industries in Madurai. Gloves, sporting goods, mats, other utility products and automobile rubber components are the most produced items by these industries. Automobile manufacturers are the major consumers of rubber components produced in the city. There are numerous textile, granite and chemical industries operating in Madurai.

Madurai is promoted as a second-tier city for IT and some software companies have opened their offices in Madurai. Software Technology Parks of India, an agency of the Government of India, has authorised several such companies to receive benefits under its national information technology development program. The state government proposed two IT-based Special Economic Zones (SEZ) in Madurai, and these have been fully occupied by various IT companies.

Madurai: Religious sites

Meenakshi Amman Temple North Tower - Street
Kazimar Big Mosque, the oldest Muslim place of worship in the city

Meenakshi Amman Temple is a historic Hindu temple located on the south side of the Vaigai River in Madurai and is one of the most prominent landmarks of the city. It is dedicated to Meenakshi and her consort, Sundareswarar. The complex houses 14 gopurams (gateway towers) ranging from 45–50 metres (148–164 ft) in height, the tallest being the southern tower, 51.9 metres (170 ft) high. There are also two golden sculptured vimana (shrines) over the sanctum of the main deities. The temple is a significant symbol for Tamils and has been mentioned since antiquity in Tamil literature, though the present structure was built between 1623 and 1655 CE. The temple attracts on average 15,000 visitors a day, which grows to around 25,000 on Fridays. There are an estimated 33,000 sculptures in the temple, and it was in the list of top 30 nominees for the "New7Wonders of the World".

Koodal Azhagar Temple is a Vishnu temple located in the city. It has idols of the Navagraha (nine planet deities), which are otherwise found only in Shiva temples. Alagar Koyil is a celebrated Vishnu temple 21 kilometres (13 mi) northeast of Madurai situated on the foothills of Solaimalai. The deity, Azhagar, is believed to be the brother of Meenakshi, the presiding deity at the Meenakshi temple. The festival calendars of these two temples overlap during the Meenakshi Thirukalyanam festival.

Pazhamudircholai, one of the other six abodes of the Hindu god Murugan, is located atop the Solaimalai hill. Tirupparankunram is a hill 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) away from Madurai where the Hindu god Murugan is said to have married Deivanai. The temple is the first among the Six Abodes of Murugan and is one of the most visited tourist spots in Madurai, next only to the Meenakshi Amman Temple. The temple has a wide range of Hindu gods carved on the walls.

Kazimar Big Mosque is the oldest Islamic place of worship in the city. It was constructed under the supervision of Kazi Syed Tajuddin, who is a descendant of Islamic Prophet Muhammad and the Madurai Maqbara is located inside the mosque. Kazi Syed Tajuddin came from Oman and received the piece of land as a gift from the Pandyan ruler Kulasekara Pandyan I, during the 13th century for the construction of the mosque. Goripalayam Mosque is located in Gorippalayam, the name of which is derived from the Persian word gor ("grave") and the graves of erstwhile Sultanate rulers Alauddin, Shamsuddeen and Habibuddin are found here. Tirupparankunram Dargah is located at the top of the Thiruparankundram hill where the cemetery of Sultan Sikandhar Badushah the then ruler of Jeddah and Madurai who travelled to India along with Sulthan Syed Ibrahim Shaheed of Ervadi during 12th century is located. St. Mary's Cathedral is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Madurai.

Madurai: Culture, tourism and entertainment

Pillared halls of a historic building.
Pillared halls of Thirumalai Nayakar Palace, built during 1636 CE and a national monument

Madurai is popularly called Thoonga Nagaram meaning the city that never sleeps, on account of the active night life. The city attracts a large number of tourists from within the country and abroad. About 9,100,000 tourists visited Madurai in 2010, including 524,000 foreigners. Madurai is now attracting medical tourism also. The palace complex of Thirumalai Nayak Palace was constructed in the Indo-Saracenic style by Thirumalai Nayakar in 1636 CE. It is a national monument maintained by the Tamil Nadu Archaeological Department. The daily sound and light show organised by the department explains the virtues of King Thirumalai and the features of the palace. The palace of Rani Mangamma has been renovated to house one of the five Gandhi Sanghralayas (Gandhi Memorial Museum, Madurai) in the country. It includes apart of the blood-stained garment worn by Mahatma Gandhi when he was assassinated by Nathuram Godse. A visit by Dr.Martin Luther King Jr. to the museum inspired him to lead peaceful protests against discrimination. The Eco park, situated in Tallakulam, features fountains and lighting in trees using optical fibres. Rajaji children's park, maintained by the Madurai Municipal Corporation, is situated between the Gandhi museum and the Tamukkam grounds. It has a visitor average of 5000 per day during holidays and 2000–3000 on working days. Madurai also has Theme Park, Athisayam which is situated in Paravai, Madurai – Dindugal main road. MGR Race Course Stadium is an athletic stadium which has a synthetic track and a swimming pool. Several national meets are held here. It also hosts several international and national level kabbadi championships.

Three storied building
Gandhi Memorial Museum, one of the five Gandhi Sanghralayas in India

The people of Madurai celebrate numerous festivals, including Meenakshi Tirukkalyanam, the Chittirai Festival and the Car Festival. The annual 10-day Meenakshi Tirukalyanam festival, also called Chittirai festival, is celebrated during April–May every year and attracts one million visitors. Legend has it that the Hindu god Vishnu, as Alagar, rode on a golden horse to Madurai to attend the celestial wedding of Meenakshi (Parvati) and Sundareswarar (Shiva). During the Cradle festival, the festive idols of Meenakshi and Sundareswarar are taken in procession to a mirror chamber and set on a rocking swing for nine days. Avanimoolam festival is celebrated during September when the 64 sacred games of Shiva, thiruvilayadal, are recited. The Thepporchavam festival, or float festival, is celebrated on the full moon day of the Tamil month Thai, which falls around January – February, to celebrate the birth anniversary of King Thirumalai Nayak. The decorated icons of Meenakshi and her consort are taken out in a procession from the Meenakshi Temple to the Mariamman Teppakulam. The icons are floated in the tank on a raft decked with flowers and flickering lamps. Jallikattu is one of the most popular historical sport in Tamil Nadu, and is a part of the Pongal festival (harvest festival) Mattu Pongal celebrated during January. The bull taming event is held in the villages surrounding Madurai, and people from the neighbouring villages throng to the open grounds to watch man and bull pitting their strength against each other. The event was banned in the years 2014, 2015 and 2016 following an order by Supreme court of India. Santhanakoodu festivals in Madurai are celebrated on various days during the Islamic calendar year to commemorate Islamic saints.

Madurai: Media and utility services

The city hosts several radio stations, including the state-owned All India Radio and private channels like Hello FM, Radio Mirchi, Suryan FM and Radio City. The Hindu, The New Indian Express and The Times of India are the three principal English language daily newspapers which have Madurai editions. Deccan Chronicle, though not printed in the city, is another English language daily newspaper available in the city. The most read Tamil language daily morning newspapers include Dina Malar, Dina Thanthi, Dina Mani and Dinakaran – all these newspapers have editions from Madurai. There are also daily Tamil evening newspapers like Tamil Murasu, Malai Murasu and Malai Malar published in Madurai. Television broadcasting from Chennai for whole of Tamil Nadu was started on 15 August 1975. Direct-to-home cable television services are provided by DD Direct Plus and other private service providers.

Electricity supply to the city is regulated and distributed by the Tamil Nadu Electricity Board (TNEB). The city is the headquarters of the Madurai region of TNEB and along with its suburbs, forms the Madurai Metro Electricity Distribution Circle, which is further divided into six divisions. Water supply is provided by the Madurai City Corporation with overhead tanks and power pumps. In the period 2010–2011, a total of 950.6 lakh litres of water was supplied to 87,091 connections for households in Madurai.

About 400 metric tonnes of solid waste are collected from the city every day by door-to-door collection, and the subsequent source segregation and dumping is carried out by the sanitary department of the Madurai Municipal corporation All the major channels in Madurai are linked by the corporation to receive the flood water from primary, secondary and tertiary drains constructed along the roadsides to dispose of rain water. The sewer system was first established by the British in Madurai in 1924 to cover the core city area, which covers 30 per cent of the present city area. It was further expanded in 1959 and 1983 by a corporation plan. The 2011 Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission covered 90 per cent of households with underground drainage system.

Madurai comes under the Madurai telecom district of the Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL), India's state-owned telecom and internet services provider. Both Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) and Code division multiple access (CDMA) mobile services are available. Apart from telecom, BSNL also provides broadband internet service and Caller Line Identification (CLI) based internet service Netone.

A regional passport office was opened on 17 December 2007 and caters to the needs of nine districts. The city is served by the Government Rajaji Hospital.

Madurai: See also

  • People from Madurai

Madurai: Notes

  1. .
  2. .
  3. "Primary Census Abstract - Urban Agglomeration". Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India. Archived from the original (XLS) on 15 March 2016. Retrieved 13 October 2015.
  4. .
  5. .
  6. .
  7. .
  8. .
  9. .
  10. .
  11. , pp. 30–36.
  12. , pp. 12–25.
  13. , pp. 44–47.
  14. , p. 61.
  15. , pp. 56–58.
  16. , p. 43.
  17. .
  18. , p. 27.
  19. , p. 2.
  20. , p. 17.
  21. .
  22. , p. 181.
  23. , pp. 93–96.
  24. , p. 128.
  25. , p. 16.
  26. , p. 26.
  27. , p. 115.
  28. , p. 253.
  29. , p. 582.
  30. , pp. 73–75.
  31. , p. 18.
  32. , p. 85.
  33. .
  34. , pp. 229–230.
  35. .
  36. .
  37. , p. 128.
  38. , p. 106.
  39. .
  40. .
  41. , p. 72.
  42. , p. 149.
  43. , p. 73.
  44. , p. l 73.
  45. .
  46. .
  47. , p. 404.
  48. , p. 192.
  49. .
  50. .
  51. , p. 68.
  52. .
  53. .
  54. .
  55. .
  56. , p. 407.
  57. , p. 319.
  58. .
  59. "Madurai District census handbook" (PDF). Government of India. Retrieved 29 June 2016.
  60. .
  61. .
  62. .
  63. "Population By Religious Community - Tamil Nadu" (XLS). Office of The Registrar General and Census Commissioner, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. 2011. Retrieved 13 September 2015.
  64. .
  65. .
  66. , p. 123.
  67. .
  68. .
  69. , p. 631.
  70. , p. 31.
  71. , p. 43.
  72. .
  73. .
  74. .
  75. .
  76. "Madurai South Assembly Constituency". elections.in. Retrieved 20 May 2016.
  77. .
  78. , p. 151.
  79. , p. 80.
  80. , p. 80.
  81. .
  82. , p. 2396.
  83. .
  84. .
  85. .
  86. .
  87. .
  88. .
  89. .
  90. .
  91. .
  92. .
  93. .
  94. .
  95. .
  96. .
  97. .
  98. .
  99. .
  100. .
  101. .
  102. .
  103. .
  104. .
  105. .
  106. .
  107. .
  108. .
  109. .
  110. .
  111. .
  112. .
  113. .
  114. .
  115. .
  116. .
  117. .
  118. .
  119. .
  120. .
  121. .
  122. .
  123. .
  124. , p. 155.
  125. , p. 51.
  126. , p. 271.
  127. .
  128. .
  129. .
  130. .
  131. .
  132. .
  133. .
  134. .
  135. .
  136. , p. 53.
  137. , pp. 14–16.
  138. , pp. 151–152.
  139. , p. 47.
  140. .
  141. .
  142. .
  143. .
  144. .
  145. , pp. 326–327.
  146. , pp. 996–1002.
  147. .
  148. , p. 490.
  149. .
  150. .
  151. .
  152. .
  153. , p. 52.
  154. .
  155. .
  156. , p. 57.
  157. .
  158. .
  159. .
  160. .
  161. .
  162. .
  163. .
  164. .
  165. .
  166. .
  167. .
  168. "SC refuses to review ban". The Hindu. Retrieved 20 May 2016.
  169. , p. 54.
  170. , p. 34.
  171. .
  172. .
  173. .
  174. .
  175. .
  176. .
  177. .
  178. .
  179. .
  180. .
  181. .
  182. .
  183. .
  184. .
  185. .
  186. .
  187. .
  188. .
  189. .
  190. .
  191. .
  192. .

Madurai: References

  • "36 cities that will shape India's future". Rediff. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
  • "Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai". Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai. Retrieved 26 June 2012.
  • "AIADMK revives Chennai Monorail Project – southindia – Chennai – ibnlive". IBNLive. 6 June 2011. Retrieved 29 June 2012.
  • "Airports Authority of India – Madurai Airport". Airports Authority of India. 2012. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
  • "Airports Authority of India – Madurai Airport". Aai.aero. 4 April 2011. Retrieved 29 January 2012.
  • Mahadevan, Iravatham. "Akam and Pur\am : 'Address' Signs of the Indus Script" (PDF). The Hindu. p. 4. Retrieved 23 March 2014.
  • "All India Radio Stations". Prasar Bharti. Retrieved 29 June 2012.
  • "ASI just found a 2500 year old city". Times of India. 13 October 2015. Retrieved 13 October 2015.
  • "A site of human settlements turned into a coconut grove". Times of India. Retrieved 12 October 2015.
  • "Archealogical excavation uncovers Roman Pandyan trade links". The Hindu. Retrieved 12 October 2015.
  • "An industry that can bolster the economy of Madurai". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 25 October 2007. Retrieved 24 January 2009.
  • "Catholic Diocese of Madurai". Archdiocese of Madurai. 2011. Retrieved 15 June 2008.
  • "Catholic hierarchy". Retrieved 21 August 2012.
  • "Celebrating a milestone". The Hindu. India. 9 October 2009. Retrieved 21 May 2011.
  • "Census Info 2011 Final population totals". Office of The Registrar General and Census Commissioner, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. 2013. Retrieved 26 Jan 2014.
  • "Census Info 2011 Final population totals – Madurai". Office of The Registrar General and Census Commissioner, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. 2013. Retrieved 26 Jan 2014.
  • "Cities having 1 lakh population – Census 2011" (XLS). Directorate of census operations – Tamil Nadu. Retrieved 29 June 2012.
  • "Climatology of Madurai". Indian Meteorological Department. 2011. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
  • "Climate - Record highs and lows of Madurai" (PDF). Indian Meteorological Department. 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 May 2013. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
  • "Commissionerate of Municipal Administration". Commissionerate of Municipal Administration. Archived from the original on 6 November 2012. Retrieved 26 June 2012.
  • "Crimes in cities of Tamil Nadu" (PDF). Tamil Nadu police. Retrieved 26 June 2012.
  • "Deccan Chronicle – About us". Deccan Chronicle. 2013. Retrieved 29 August 2012.
  • "Deeds of a great social reformer remembered". The Hindu. 26 February 2011. Retrieved 30 June 2012.
  • "Demonstration of DTH technology". The Hindu. India. 19 December 2004. Retrieved 21 May 2011.
  • "Wake-up call for Madurai's sleepless". The Hindu. Madurai. 3 September 2013. Retrieved 7 September 2013.
  • "Department of Agriculture". Madurai Corporation. Retrieved 30 June 2012.
  • "Dinakaran Madurai". Dinakaran. Retrieved 29 June 2012.
  • "Dinamalar e-paper Madurai". Dinamalar. Retrieved 29 June 2012.
  • "Dinathanthi e-paper Madurai". Dinathanthi. Retrieved 29 June 2012.
  • "ELCOT website". Retrieved 24 December 2008.
  • "ELCOT, Madurai". Madurai Corporation. Electronic Corporation of Tamil Nadu Ltd. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
  • "Fatima College". Fatima College. Retrieved 26 June 2012.
  • "Gandhi Memorial Museum, Madurai". Bombay Sarvodaya Mandal / Gandhi Book Centre. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
  • "Gandhi relics should be a medium to spread the message: Gandhi Museum director". Tha Indian. 5 March 2009. Retrieved 8 March 2009.
  • "Genealogy of Prophet Mohammad". Maqbara.com. Retrieved 1 January 2014.
  • "HC orders disbursal of salaries to American College staff". The Times of India. Madurai. 1 September 2011. Retrieved 29 June 2012.
  • Hindu, The (July 16, 2011). "Hospitals gear up for medical tourism". The Hindu. Retrieved 6 November 2013.
  • "IAF recruitment rally to be held in Madurai on July 22". The Times of India. Madurai. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 29 June 2012.
  • "Important Address" (PDF). Indian Wind Power Association. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 October 2012. Retrieved 18 December 2011.
  • "Industries in Madurai". National Informatics Centre, Government of Tamil Nadu. Retrieved 30 June 2012.
  • "International Air freight movement" (PDF). Airports Authority of India. 2012. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
  • "International Air traffic movement" (PDF). Airports Authority of India. 2012. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
  • "Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission" (PDF). India: Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission. Retrieved 21 May 2011.
  • "Kabaddi tournament to be held in Madurai". The Hindu. Madurai. 1 March 2010. Retrieved 29 June 2012.
  • "Kamat Research Database, Biography: N.M.R.Subbaraman". Kamat Research Database. Retrieved 30 June 2012.
  • "Key highlights of the general elections 1957 to the Second Lok Sabha" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 17. Retrieved 16 April 2011.
  • "Key highlights of the general elections 1962 to the Third Lok Sabha" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 49. Retrieved 16 April 2011.
  • "Key highlights of the general elections 1967 to the Fourth Lok Sabha" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 67. Retrieved 16 April 2011.
  • "Key highlights of the general elections 1971 to the Fifth Lok Sabha" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 71. Retrieved 16 April 2011.
  • "Key highlights of the general elections 1977 to the Sixth Lok Sabha" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 80. Retrieved 16 April 2011.
  • "Key highlights of the general elections 1980 to the Seventh Lok Sabha" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 79. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 July 2014. Retrieved 26 June 2012.
  • "Key highlights of the general elections 1984 to the Eighth Lok Sabha" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 73. Retrieved 16 April 2011.
  • "Key highlights of the general elections 1989 to the Ninth Lok Sabha" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 81. Retrieved 16 April 2011.
  • "Key highlights of the general elections 1991 to the Tenth Lok Sabha" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 51. Retrieved 16 April 2011.
  • "Key highlights of the general elections 1996 to the Eleventh Lok Sabha" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 86. Retrieved 26 June 2012.
  • "Key highlights of the general elections 1998 to the Twelfth Lok Sabha" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 85. Retrieved 16 April 2011.
  • "Key highlights of the general elections 1999 to the Thirteenth Lok Sabha" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 85. Retrieved 16 April 2011.
  • "Key highlights of the general elections 2004 to the Fourteenth Lok Sabha" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 94. Retrieved 16 April 2011.
  • "List of cities where BSNL broadband service is available (As on 01.01.2007)" (PDF). Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL). Retrieved 20 May 2011.
  • "List of cities where Calling Line Identification (CLI) Based Internet Service is available". Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited. Retrieved 19 May 2011.
  • "List of Colleges affiliated to Madurai Kamarajar University". Madurai Kamarajar University. Retrieved 26 June 2012.
  • "List of Colleges in Madurai". Government of Tamil Nadu. Retrieved 26 June 2012.
  • "List of Dealers in Tamil Nadu". DD News. Retrieved 21 May 2011.
  • "List of Members Constituency name wise". Government of Tamil Nadu. 2011. Archived from the original on 6 October 2013. Retrieved 26 June 2012.
  • "List of Parliamentary and Assembly Constituencies" (PDF). Election Commission of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 October 2008. Retrieved 26 June 2012.
  • "Madras High Court". Madras High Court. 24 July 2004. Retrieved 23 September 2009.
  • "Madurai airport all set to get international flights". The Times of India. 9 August 2011.
  • "Madurai Airport's History". Retrieved 4 July 2015.
  • "Madurai Airport". Retrieved 4 July 2015.
  • "Madurai – List of Police Stations". Tamil Nadu Police. Retrieved 26 June 2012.
  • "Madurai Airport". Chennai, India: Airport Authority of India. 29 June 2012.
  • "Madurai City Police district". Tamil Nadu Police. Retrieved 26 June 2012.
  • "Madurai Corporation – Bus stand". Madurai Corporation. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
  • "Madurai Corporation – citizen charter". Madurai Corporation. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
  • "Madurai Corporation – General information". Madurai Corporation. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
  • "Madurai Corporation bags three national awards". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 9 December 2008. Retrieved 29 June 2012.
  • "Madurai District Police". Tamil Nadu police. Retrieved 26 June 2012.
  • "Madurai Kamarajar University". Madurai Kamarajar University. Retrieved 26 June 2012.
  • "Malaimalar Madurai". Malaimalar. Retrieved 29 June 2012.
  • "Map showing the new assembly constituencies" (PDF). Election Commission of India. Retrieved 26 June 2012.
  • "Maps, Weather, and Airports for Madurai, India". Falling Rain Genomics, Inc. Retrieved 15 June 2008.
  • "Meenakshi Temple, India". 7wonders. Retrieved 6 August 2012.
  • "Members of Lok Sabha from Tamil Nadu". Government of Tamil Nadu. 2014. Retrieved 26 May 2014.
  • "Muslims in Madurai threaten to boycott polls". Deccan Chronicle. Madurai. 25 March 2011. Retrieved 29 August 2012.
  • "National Highways passing through Madurai" (PDF). National Highways Authority of India. Retrieved 17 April 2011.
  • "New Commissioner for Corporation". Madurai Today. 2012. Retrieved 30 June 2012.
  • "Notification No. 308/2009/EPS" (PDF). Election Commission of India. Retrieved 16 April 2011.
  • "Primary Census Abstract – Census 2001". Directorate of census operations – Tamil Nadu. Archived from the original on 17 February 2011. Retrieved 29 June 2012.
  • "Primary Census data – religion". Directorate of census operations – Tamil Nadu. Archived from the original on 5 March 2012. Retrieved 29 June 2012.
  • "Provincial Directory: Madurai-Ramnad". Anglician Communion. 2011. Retrieved 15 June 2008.
  • "New Terminal at Madurai airport inaugurated". Retrieved 4 July 2015.
  • "New Deputy Mayor elected". The Hindu. 19 May 2014. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
  • "Radio Mirchi Madurai". Radio Mirchi. Retrieved 29 June 2012.
  • "Rajaji Park to be spruced up at a cost of Rs.10 lakhs". The Hindu. Madurai. 15 May 2005. Retrieved 29 June 2012.
  • "Rajan Chellappa is Mayor". The Hindu. 22 October 2011. Retrieved 30 June 2012.
  • "Region's earliest interface with Islam was here". TNN. The Times of India. 27 April 2014.
  • "Regional passport office". Madurai passport office. Retrieved 28 June 2012.
  • "Regional Transport Office – Registered commercial vehicles in Tamil Nadu" (PDF). Government of Tamil Nadu. 2012. Retrieved 29 June 2012.
  • "Rs. 2.2 crores for MGR Race Course Stadium". The Hindu. Madurai. 29 May 2004. Retrieved 29 June 2012.
  • "Schools in Madurai". Government of Tamil Nadu. Retrieved 26 June 2012.
  • "Southern Railway Madurai division". Southern Railway (India). Retrieved 29 June 2012.
  • "Special postage stamp on freedom fighters and social reformers". Press Information Bureau, Government of India.
  • "SpiceJet to start Madurai-Colombo service". The Hindu. 29 August 2012. Retrieved 30 June 2012.
  • "Strike hits cable TV services". The Hindu. India. 24 September 2007. Retrieved 11 December 2011.
  • "Suryan FM Madurai". Suriyan FM Madurai. Retrieved 29 June 2012.
  • "Tamil Nādu – City Population – Cities, Towns & Provinces – Statistics & Map". Thomas Brinkhoff. 2011. Retrieved 23 September 2009.
  • "Tamil Nadu / Madurai News: Efforts on to get mega hospital for Madurai". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 23 August 2007. Retrieved 18 June 2010.
  • "Tamil Nadu State Transport Corporation (Madurai) Limited". Tamil Nadu State Transport Corporation (Madurai) Limited. 2011. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
  • "Temperature is on an increasing trend in Madurai during summer". The Hindu. 21 April 2010. Retrieved 30 June 2012.
  • "The Hindu Madurai". The Hindu. Retrieved 29 June 2012.
  • "The Indian Express Publications". The Indian Express Group. Retrieved 29 June 2012.
  • "The Lady Doak College". Lady Doak College. Retrieved 26 June 2012.
  • "The Madura College". The Madura College. Retrieved 26 June 2012.
  • "The Tamil Nadu Dr. Ambedkar Law University – Affiliated Government law colleges". Tamil Nadu Dr. Ambedkar Law University. Retrieved 26 June 2012.
  • "The Times of India Madurai". The Times of India. Retrieved 29 June 2012.
  • "TN Govt GO #220" (PDF). Government of Tamil Nadu. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
  • "Tourism in Madurai". Madurai, India: National Informatics Centre, Government of Tamil Nadu. Retrieved 30 June 2012.
  • "Tourism works around temple to be over by March". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 5 November 2007. Retrieved 24 January 2009.
  • "Tourist places in Madurai". Madurai, India: Tamil Nadu Tourism Development Corporation. Retrieved 30 June 2012.
  • "Train Running Information". Indian Railways. Retrieved 15 June 2008.
  • "Traffic Statistics-Domestic and International Passengers" (jsp). AAI. Retrieved 31 December 2014.
  • "UAs having 1 million population – Census 2011" (XLS). Directorate of census operations – Tamil Nadu. Retrieved 29 June 2012.
  • "Agglomerations & Cities". Thomas Brinkhoff. Retrieved 9 September 2013.
  • "Water Supply Details" (PDF). Corporation of Madurai. Retrieved 26 June 2012.
  • "Water year – District ground water brochure, Madurai district" (PDF). Ministry of water resources, Government of India. 2007. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
  • "Welcome to Madurai – Festivals". National Informatics Centre, Government of Tamil Nadu. Retrieved 18 June 2010.
  • "Work on provision of infrastructure begins in Information Technology parks". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 7 December 2008. Retrieved 24 December 2008.
  • "Council accepts Mayor's resignation". The Hindu. 15 May 2016. Retrieved 15 May 2016.
  • Abram, David; Edwards, Nick; Ford, Mike; Jacobs, Daniel; Meghji, Shafik; Sen, Devdan; Thomas, Gavin (2011). The Rough guide to India. Rough Guides. ISBN 978-1-84836-563-6.
  • Agarwal, S. K. (2008). Towards Improving Governance. Academic Foundation. p. 17. ISBN 978-81-7188-666-1.
  • Annamalai, S. (1 July 2006). "Madurai soil for Cleveland". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Retrieved 24 January 2009.
  • Annesley, James (1841). "Climate of Madura". Researches into the causes, nature, and treatment of the more prevalent diseases of India. London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans.
  • Ayyar, P. V. Jagadisa (1991). South Indian shrines: illustrated. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. ISBN 81-206-0151-3.
  • B.S., Chandrababu; S., Ganeshram; C., Bhavani (2011). History of People and Their Environs. Bharathi Puthakalayam. ISBN 978-93-80325-91-0.
  • Bandopadhyay, Manohar (2010). Tourist destinations in India. Delhi: Oriental Books. ISBN 978-93-80944-00-5.
  • Bansal, Sunita Pant (2005). Encyclopaedia of India. Delhi: Smriti Books. ISBN 81-87967-71-4.
  • Brockman, Norbert C. (2011). Encyclopedia of Sacred Places. California: ABC-CLIO, LLC. ISBN 978-1-59884-655-3.
  • Campantar Tirumurai 1 (2004). Moondram Thirumurai (PDF). Online: Project Madurai.
  • Campantar Tirumurai 3 (2004). Muthal Thirumurai (PDF). Online: Project Madurai.
  • City Development Plan of Madurai (2004). City Development Plan of Madurai (PDF). Madurai: Madurai Corporation.
  • Civic affairs (1970). Civic affairs. 18. Citizen Press. p. 54.
  • Dalal, Roshen (1997). The Puffin History of India for Children, 3000 BC – AD 1947. Puffin Books. pp. 128–129. ISBN 978-0-14-333544-3.
  • David Arnold (1977). The Congress in Tamilnad: nationalist politics in South India, 1919–1937. Manohar. p. 128. ISBN 978-0-88386-958-1.
  • Economic and political weekly, Volume 30 (1995). Economic and political weekly, Volume 30. Sameeksha Trust. p. 2396.
  • Ganapathy, Subramaniyan (1987). Cotton in Madurai District: An Econometric Analysis. Norther Book Centre. ISBN 81-85119-31-7.
  • Gopal, Madan (1990). K.S. Gautam, ed. India through the ages. Publication Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India.
  • Harman, William. P (1992). The sacred marriage of a Hindu goddess. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 30–36. ISBN 978-81-208-0810-2.
  • Highways Department, Government of Tamilnadu. "Highways Circle of Highways Department, Tamilnadu". Retrieved 15 July 2010.
  • Imperial gazetteer of India: Provincial series, Volume 18 (1908). Imperial gazetteer of India: Provincial series, Volume 18. Clarendon Press.
  • Imperial Gazetter of India, Volume 16 (1908). Imperial Gazetter of India, Volume 16. Clarendon Press.
  • J., Arockiaraj (11 June 2012). "Eco park to be added incentive for tourists". The Times of India. Madurai. Retrieved 29 June 2012.
  • Kersenboom Story, Saskia C. (1987). Nityasumaṅgalī: Devadasi Tradition in South India. New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited. ISBN 81-208-1527-0.
  • King, Anthony D. (2005). Buildings and Society: Essays on the Social Development of the Built Environment. Taylor & Francis e-library. ISBN 0-203-48075-9.
  • Lal, Shiv (1972). Indian elections since independence. 1. Election Archives. p. 151.
  • Mangudi Marudanar (2004). Mathuraikanchi (PDF). Online: Project Madurai.
  • Markovits, Claude (2004). A History of Modern India, 1480–1950. London: Wimbledon Publishing Company. ISBN 1-84331-152-6.
  • More J. B. P (1977). Political Evolution of Muslims in Tamilnadu and Madras 1930–1947. Orient Blackswan. p. 106. ISBN 978-81-250-1192-7.
  • Narasaiah (2009). Aalavai – Madurai Managarathin Kadhai. Palaniyappa Brothers. p. 85. ISBN 978-81-8379-517-3.
  • National Geographic (2008). Sacred Places of a Lifetime: 500 of the World's Most Peaceful and Powerful Destinations. United States: National Geographic Society. ISBN 978-1-4262-0336-7.
  • Palanithurai, Ganapathy (2007). A handbook for panchayati raj administration (Tamil Nadu). Concept Publishing Company. p. 80. ISBN 81-8069-340-6.
  • Parthasarathi, Prasannan (2007). The Transition to a Colonial Economy: Weavers, Merchants and Kings in South India, 1720–1800. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-57042-5.
  • Pletcher, Kenneth (2011). The Geography of India: Sacred and Historic Places. New York: Britannica Educational Publishing. ISBN 978-1-61530-202-4.
  • Prentiss, Karen Pechilis (1999). The embodiment of bhakti. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-512813-3.
  • Quintanilla, Sonya Rhie (2007). History of Early Stone Sculpture at Mathura, Ca. 150 BCE-100 CE. Concept Publishing Company. ISBN 90-04-15537-6.
  • Ramaswamy, Vijaya (2007). Historical dictionary of the Tamils. United States: Scarecrow Press, INC. ISBN 978-0-470-82958-5.
  • Reynolds, Holly Baker; Bardwell, Smith (1987). The city as a sacred center: essays on six Asian contexts: Annual meetings. BRILL. p. 18. ISBN 978-90-04-08471-1.
  • Salma Ahmed, Farooqui (2011). A Comprehensive History of Medieval India: From Twelfth to the Mid Eighteenth century. New Delhi: Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd. p. 26. ISBN 978-81-317-3202-1.
  • Selby, Martha Ann; Peterson, Indira Viswanathan (2008). Tamil geographies: cultural constructions of space and place in South India. New York: State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-7245-3.
  • Shokoohy, Mehrdad (2003). Muslim Architecture of South India: The Sultanate of Ma'bar and the traditions of maritime settlers on the Malabar and Coramandel Coasts (Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Goa). Inter-India Publications. ISBN 0-415-30207-2.
  • Singh, Ujagir; Dube, Kamala Kant; Singh, Alok Kumar (1988). Urban environment in India: problems and prospects. Inter-India Publications. ISBN 81-210-0205-2.
  • Sivarajah, Padmini (28 November 2012). "Tight vigil during Thiruparankundram deepam". The Times of India. Madurai. Retrieved 26 December 2012.
  • Soundara Rajan, Kodayanallur Vanamamalai (2001). Concise classified dictionary of Hinduism By Kodayanallur Vanamamalai Soundara Rajan. New Delhi: Concept Publishing Company. ISBN 81-7022-857-3.
  • Soundarapandian, Mookkiah (2009). Economic Reforms and Small Scale Industries. New Delhi: Concept Publishing Company. ISBN 978-81-8069-449-3.
  • Stanley, Selwyn (2004). Social Problems: Perspectives for Intervention. Allied Publishers Private Limited. p. 321. ISBN 81-7764-708-3.
  • Students' Britannica India. Students' Britannica India. 1–5. p. 319.
  • Thirunavukkarasar (2004). Aaram Thirumurai (PDF). Online: Project Madurai.
  • Thurston, Edgar (1913). Provincial Geographies of India Vol 4: The Madras Presidency with Mysore, Coorg and Associated States. Cambridge University. p. 123.
  • V., Vriddhagirisan (1995) [1942]. Nayaks of Tanjore. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. ISBN 81-206-0996-4.
  • ISBN 90-04-09365-6.
  • Madurai travel guide from Wikivoyage
  • Official government website of Madurai District
  • Official website of Madurai Corporation
Source of information: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. We're not responsible for the content of this article and your use of this information. Disclaimer
India: Hotels Booking & Tickets Sale
Hotels Booking & Tickets Sale
Abkhazia
Afghanistan
Albania
Algeria
American Virgin Islands
Andorra
Angola
Anguilla
Antigua and Barbuda
Argentina
Armenia
Aruba
Australia
Austria
Azerbaijan
Bahamas
Bahrain
Bangladesh
Barbados
Belarus
Belgium
Belize
Benin
Bermuda
Bhutan
Bolivia
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Botswana
Brazil
British Virgin Islands
Brunei
Bulgaria
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cambodia
Cameroon
Canada
Cape Verde
Caribbean Netherlands
Cayman Islands
Chad
Chile
China
Colombia
Comoros
Costa Rica
Croatia
Cuba
Curaçao
Cyprus
Czech Republic
Democratic Republic of the Congo
Denmark
Djibouti
Dominican Republic
East Timor
Ecuador
Egypt
El Salvador
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Estonia
Ethiopia
Falkland Islands
Faroe Islands
Fiji
Finland
France
French Guiana
French Polynesia
Gabon
Gambia
Georgia
Germany
Ghana
Gibraltar
Greece
Guadeloupe
Guam
Guatemala
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Guyana
Haiti
Honduras
Hong Kong
Hungary
Iceland
India
Indonesia
Iran
Iraq
Ireland
Isle of Man
Israel
Italy
Ivory Coast
Jamaica
Japan
Jordan
Kazakhstan
Kenya
Kiribati
Kongo
Kosovo
Kuwait
Kyrgyzstan
Laos
Latvia
Lebanon
Lesotho
Liberia
Libya
Liechtenstein
Lithuania
Luxembourg
Macau
Macedonia
Madagascar
Malawi
Malaysia
Maldives
Mali
Malta
Martinique
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mexico
Micronesia
Moldova
Monaco
Mongolia
Montenegro
Montserrat
Morocco
Mozambique
Myanmar
Namibia
Nepal
Netherlands
New Zealand
Nicaragua
Nigeria
North Korea
Northern Mariana Islands
Norway
Oman
Pakistan
Palau
Palestine
Panama
Papua New Guinea
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Poland
Portugal
Puerto Rico
Qatar
Romania
Russia
Rwanda
Réunion
Saint Barthélemy
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Lucia
Saint Martin
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Samoa
San Marino
Saudi Arabia
Senegal
Serbia
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Singapore
Sint Maarten
Slovakia
Slovenia
Solomon Islands
Somalia
Somaliland
South Africa
South Korea
Spain
Sri Lanka
Sudan
Suriname
Swaziland
Sweden
Switzerland
Syria
Taiwan
Tajikistan
Tanzania
Thailand
Togo
Tonga
Trinidad and Tobago
Tunisia
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Turks and Caicos Islands
Uganda
Ukraine
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom
United States
Uruguay
Uzbekistan
Vanuatu
Vatican
Venezuela
Vietnam
Yemen
Zambia
Zimbabwe
Vacation: Complete information and online sale
Madurai: Today's Super Sale
Vacation: Website Templates & Graphics

All trademarks, service marks, trade names, product names, and logos appearing on the site are the property of their respective owners.
© 2011-2017 Maria-Online.com ▪ DesignHosting