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Hotels of Makassar

A hotel in Makassar is an establishment that provides lodging paid on a short-term basis. Facilities provided may range from a basic bed and storage for clothing, to luxury features like en-suite bathrooms. Larger in Makassar hotels may provide additional guest facilities such as a swimming pool, business centre, childcare, conference facilities and social function services. Hotel rooms in Makassar are usually numbered (or named in some smaller hotels and B&Bs) to allow guests to identify their room. Some Makassar hotels offer meals as part of a room and board arrangement. Hotel operations vary in size, function, and cost. Most Makassar hotels and major hospitality companies that operate hotels in Makassar have set widely accepted industry standards to classify hotel types. General categories include the following:

Upscale luxury hotels in Makassar
An upscale full service hotel facility in Makassar that offers luxury amenities, full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and the highest level of personalized and professional service. Luxury Makassar hotels are normally classified with at least a Four Diamond or Five Diamond status or a Four or Five Star rating depending on classification standards.

Full service hotels in Makassar
Full service Makassar hotels often contain upscale full-service facilities with a large volume of full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and a variety of on-site amenities such as swimming pools, a health club, children's activities, ballrooms, on-site conference facilities, etc.

Historic inns and boutique hotels in Makassar
Boutique hotels of Makassar are smaller independent non-branded hotels that often contain upscale facilities of varying size in unique or intimate settings with full service accommodations. Makassar boutique hotels are generally 100 rooms or less. Some historic inns and boutique hotels in Makassar may be classified as luxury hotels.

Focused or select service hotels in Makassar
Small to medium-sized hotel establishments that offer a limited amount of on-site amenities that only cater and market to a specific demographic of Makassar travelers, such as the single business traveler. Most Makassar focused or select service hotels may still offer full service accommodations but may lack leisure amenities such as an on-site restaurant or a swimming pool.

Economy and limited service hotels in Makassar
Small to medium-sized Makassar hotel establishments that offer a very limited amount of on-site amenities and often only offer basic accommodations with little to no services, these facilities normally only cater and market to a specific demographic of travelers, such as the budget-minded Makassar traveler seeking a "no frills" accommodation. Limited service Makassar hotels often lack an on-site restaurant but in return may offer a limited complimentary food and beverage amenity such as on-site continental breakfast service.

Guest houses and B&Bs in Makassar
A bed and breakfast in Makassar is a small lodging establishment that offers overnight accommodation and inclusive breakfast. Usually, Makassar bed and breakfasts are private homes or family homes offering accommodations. The typical Makassar B&B has between 4 and 11 rooms, with 6 being the average. Generally, guests are accommodated in private bedrooms with private bathrooms, or in a suite of rooms including an en suite bathroom. Some homes have private bedrooms with a bathroom which is shared with other guests. Breakfast is served in the bedroom, a dining room, or the host's kitchen. Often the owners of guest house themselves prepare the breakfast and clean the rooms.

Hostels in Makassar
Makassar hostels provide budget-oriented, sociable accommodation where guests can rent a bed, usually a bunk bed, in a dormitory and share a bathroom, lounge, and sometimes a kitchen. Rooms can be mixed or single-sex, although private rooms may also be available. Hostels are often cheaper for both the operator and occupants; many Makassar hostels have long-term residents whom they employ as desk agents or housekeeping staff in exchange for experience or discounted accommodation.

Apartment hotels, extended stay hotels in Makassar
Extended stay hotels are small to medium-sized Makassar hotels that offer longer term full service accommodations compared to a traditional hotel. Extended stay hotels may offer non-traditional pricing methods such as a weekly rate that cater towards travelers in need of short-term accommodations for an extended period of time. Similar to limited and select service hotels, on-site amenities are normally limited and most extended stay hotels in Makassar lack an on-site restaurant.

Timeshare and destination clubs in Makassar
Makassar timeshare and destination clubs are a form of property ownership also referred to as a vacation ownership involving the purchase and ownership of an individual unit of accommodation for seasonal usage during a specified period of time. Timeshare resorts in Makassar often offer amenities similar that of a Full service hotel with on-site restaurant(s), swimming pools, recreation grounds, and other leisure-oriented amenities. Destination clubs of Makassar on the other hand may offer more exclusive private accommodations such as private houses in a neighborhood-style setting.

Motels in Makassar
A Makassar motel is a small-sized low-rise lodging establishment similar to that of a limited service hotel, but with direct access to individual rooms from the car park. Common during the 1950s and 1960s, motels were often located adjacent to a major road, where they were built on inexpensive land at the edge of towns or along stretches of highways. They are still useful in less populated areas of Makassar for driving travelers, but the more populated an area becomes the more hotels fill the need. Many of Makassar motels which remain in operation have joined national franchise chains, rebranding themselves as hotels, inns or lodges.

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Travelling and vacation in Makassar


 / -5.133; 119.417

Ujung Pandang
City of Makassar
Other transcription(s)
• Makassarese ᨆᨀᨔᨑ
• Buginese ᨆᨃᨔ / ᨍᨘᨇᨉ
• Chinese 望加锡 / 锡江
• Pinyin Wàng jiā xī / Xī jiāng
Makassar CBD Skyline.jpg
FortRotterdam3.jpg TransStudioStreet.JPG
Makassar, old harbour (6965255799).jpg Mal Ratu Indah Makassar.jpg
Clockwise from top :
Karebosi Skyline, Trans Studio Makassar, Ratu Indah Mall, Makassar Waterfront, Paotere Harbour, Fort Rotterdam
Official seal of Makassar
Nickname(s): "City of Daeng"
Motto: Sekali Layar Terkembang Pantang Biduk Surut Ke Pantai
Makassar is located in Sulawesi
Location of Makassar in Sulawesi
Coordinates:  / -5.133; 119.417
Country Indonesia
Province Coat of arms of South Sulawesi.svg South Sulawesi
Founded 9 November 1607
• Mayor Ir. H. Mohammad Ramdhan Pomanto
• Deputy Mayor Syamsu Rizal
• City 199.3 km (77.0 sq mi)
• Metro 1,145.9 km (442.4 sq mi)
Elevation 0–25 m (0–82 ft)
Population (2010 census)
• City 1,338,663
• Density 6,700/km (17,000/sq mi)
• Metro 1,976,168
• Metro density 1,700/km (4,500/sq mi)
2010 decennial census
Demonym(s) Makassarian
Time zone WITA (UTC+8)
• Summer (DST) not observed (UTC+8)
Area code (+62) 411
Vehicle registration DD



Makassar (Buginese-Makassar language: ᨀᨚᨈ ᨆᨀᨔᨑ) – sometimes spelled Macassar – is the provincial capital of South Sulawesi, Indonesia. It is the largest city on Sulawesi Island in terms of population, and the fifth largest city in Indonesia after Jakarta, Surabaya, Bandung, and Medan. From 1971 to 1999, the city was named Ujung Pandang, after a precolonial fort in the city, and the two names are often used interchangeably. The city is located on the southwest coast of the island of Sulawesi, facing the Makassar Strait.

The city's area is 199.3 square kilometres (77.0 sq mi) and it had a population of around 1.6 million in 2013. Its built-up (or metro) area has 1,976,168 inhabitants covering Makassar City and 15 districts. Its official metropolitan area, known as Mamminasata, with 17 additional districts, covers an area of 2,548 square kilometres (984 sq mi) and had a population of around 2.4 million according to 2010 Census.

Makassar: History

Fort Rotterdam in 2010

The trade in spices figured prominently in the history of Sulawesi, which involved frequent struggles between rival native and foreign powers for control of the lucrative trade during the pre-colonial and colonial period, when spices from the region were in high demand in the West. Much of South Sulawesi's early history was written in old texts that can be traced back to the 13th and 14th centuries.

Makassar: Between 14th to 18th century

Makassar is mentioned in the Nagarakretagama, a Javanese eulogy composed in 14th century during the reign of Majapahit king Hayam Wuruk. In the text, Makassar is mentioned as an island under Majapahit dominance, alongside Butun, Salaya and Banggawi. Nevertheless, the 9th King of Gowa Tumaparisi Kallonna (1510-1546) is thought to be the first person who actually developed the city of Makassar. He moved the royal center from the interior to the coast, built a fortress at the mouth of the Jeneberang River, and appointed a Shahbandar to regulate trade.

Beginning in the sixteenth century, Makassar was the dominant trading center of eastern Indonesia, and soon became one of the largest cities in island Southeast Asia. The Makassar kings maintained a policy of free trade, insisting on the right of any visitor to do business in the city, and rejecting the attempts of the Dutch to establish a monopoly.

Tolerant religious attitudes meant that as Islam became the dominant faith in the region, Christians and others were still able to trade in the city. With these attractions, Makassar was a key center for Malays working in the spice trade, as well as a valuable base for European and Arab traders from much further afield.

The first European settlers were Portuguese sailors. When the Portuguese reached Sulawesi in 1511, they found Makassar a thriving cosmopolitan Entrepôt, where Chinese, Arabs, Indians, Siamese, Javanese, and Malays came to trade their manufactured metal goods and textiles for pearls, gold, copper, camphor and spices – nutmeg, cloves and mace imported from the interior and the neighbouring Spice Islands of Maluku. By the 16th century, Makassar had become Sulawesi's major port and centre of the powerful Gowa and Tallo sultanates which between them had a series of 11 fortresses and strongholds and a fortified sea wall that extended along the coast. Portuguese rulers called the city Macáçar.

Makassar: Dutch colonial period

The arrival of the Dutch in the early 17th century altered events dramatically. They finally replaced the Portuguese as colonial masters in 1667. Their first objective was to create a hegemony over the spice trade and their first move was to capture the fort of Makassar in 1667, which they rebuilt and renamed Fort Rotterdam. From this base they managed to destroy the strongholds of the Sultan of Gowa who was then forced to live on the outskirts of Makassar. Following the Java War (1825–30), Prince Diponegoro was exiled to Fort Rotterdam until his death in 1855.

The character of this old trading center changed as a walled city known as Vlaardingen grew. Gradually, in defiance of the Dutch, the Arabs, Malays and Buddhist returned to trade outside the fortress walls, and were joined later by the Chinese.

Market Street (De Passarstraat) in the early 20th century

The town again became a collecting point for the produce of eastern Indonesia – the copra, rattan, Pearls, trepang and sandalwood and the famous oil made from bado nuts used in Europe as men's hair dressing – hence the anti-macassars (embroidered cloths protecting the head-rests of upholstered chairs).

Although the Dutch controlled the coast, it was not until the early 20th century that they gained power over the southern interior through a series of treaties with local rulers. Meanwhile, Dutch missionaries converted many of the Toraja people to Christianity. By 1938, the population of Makassar had reached around 84,000 – a town described by writer Joseph Conrad as "the prettiest and perhaps, cleanest looking of all the towns in the islands".

In World War II the Makassar area was defended by approximately 1000 men of the Royal Netherlands East Indies Army commanded by Colonel M. Vooren. He decided that he could not defend the coast, and was planning to fight a guerrilla war inland. The Japanese landed near Makassar on 9 February 1942. The defenders retreated but were soon overtaken and captured.

Makassar: After Independence

Following the Indonesian National Revolution in 1950, Makassar was the site of fighting between pro-Federalist forces under Captain Abdul Assiz and Republican forces under Colonel Sunkono during the Makassar uprising. By the 1950s, the population had increased to such a degree that many of the historic sites gave way to modern development, and today one needs to look very carefully to find the few remains of the city's once grand history.

Makassar: Connection with Australia

Makassar is also a major fishing center in Sulawesi. One of its major industries is the trepang (sea-cucumber) industry. Trepang fishing brought the Makassan people into contact with Indigenous Australian peoples of northern Australia, long before European settlement (from 1788).

C. C. MacKnight in his 1976 work entitled Voyage to Marriage: Macassan Trepangers in Northern Australia has shown that they began frequenting the north of Australia around 1700 in search of trepang (sea-slug, sea cucumber, Beche-de-mer), an edible Holothurian. They left their waters during the Northwest Monsoon in December or January for what is now Arnhem Land, Marriage or Marega and the Kimberley region or Kayu Djawa. They returned home with the south-east trade winds in April.

A fleet of between 24 and 26 Macassan perahus was seen in 1803 by French explorers under Nicolas Baudin on the Holothuria Banks in the Timor Sea. In February 1803, Matthew Flinders in the Investigator met six perahus with 20–25 men each on board and was told by the fleet's chief Pobasso, that there were 60 perahus then on the north Australian coast. They were fishing for trepang and appeared to have only a small compass as a navigation aid. In June 1818 Macassan trepang fishing was noted by Phillip Parker King in the vicinity of Port Essington in the Arafura Sea. In 1865 R.J. Sholl, then Government Resident for the British settlement at Camden Sound (near Augustus Island in the Kimberley region) observed seven 'Macassan' perahus with a total of around 300 men on board. He believed that they made kidnapping raids and ranged as far south as Roebuck Bay (later Broome) where 'quite a fleet' was seen around 1866. Sholl believed that they did not venture south into other areas such as Nickol Bay (where the European pearling industry commenced around 1865) due to the absence of trepang in those waters. The Macassan voyages appear to have ceased sometime in the late nineteenth century, and their place was taken by other sailors operating from elsewhere in the Indonesian Archipelago.

Makassar: Economy

Bank Rakyat Indonesia's Makassar Branch Office, one of the largest banks operated in the city.

The city is southern Sulawesi's primary port, with regular domestic and international shipping connections. It is nationally famous as an important port of call for the pinisi boats, sailing ships which are among the last in use for regular long-distance trade.

During the colonial era, the city was widely known as the namesake of Makassar oil, which it exported in great quantity. Makassar ebony is a warm black hue, streaked with tan or brown tones, and highly prized for use in making fine cabinetry and veneers.

Nowadays, as the largest city in Sulawesi Island and Eastern Indonesia, the city's economy depends highly on the service sector, which makes up approximately 70% of activity. Restaurant and hotel services are the largest contributor (29.14%), followed by transportation and communication (14.86%), trading (14.86), and finance (10.58%). Industrial activity is next most important after the service sector, with 21.34% of overall activity.

Makassar: Transportation

Pete-pete minibuses in Makassar

Makassar has a public transportation system called pete-pete. A pete-pete (known elsewhere in Indonesia as an angkot) is a minibus that has been modified to carry passengers. The route of Makassar's pete-petes is denoted by the letter on the windshield. Makassar is also known for its becak (pedicabs), which are smaller than the "becak" in the island of Java. In Makassar, people who drive pedicabs are called Daeng. In addition to becak and pete-pete, the city has a government-run bus system, and taxis.

A bus rapid transit (BRT), which is known as "Trans Mamminasata" was started in 2014. It has some routes through Makassar to cities around Makassar region such as Maros, Takallar, and Gowa. Run by Indonesian Transportation Department, each bus has 20 seats and space for 20 standing passengers.

A 35-kilometer monorail in the areas of Makassar, Maros Regency, Sungguminasa (Gowa Regency), and Takalar Regency (the Mamminasata region) will be realised in 2014 with cost predicted Rp.4 trillion ($468 million). The memorandum of understanding has been signed on 25 July 2011 by Makassar city, Maros Regency and Gowa Regency.

The city of Makassar, its outlying districts, and the South Sulawesi Province are served by Hasanuddin International Airport. The airport is located outside the Makassar city administration area, being situated in the nearby Maros Regency.

The city is served by Soekarno-Hatta Sea Port. In January 2012 it was announced that due to limited capacity of the current dock at Soekarno-Hatta sea port, it will be expanded to 150x30 square meters to avoid the need for at least two ships to queue every day.

Makassar: Administration and governance

Executive head of the city is a mayor, which is elected by direct vote for a period of 5 year. Mayor is assisted by a Deputy-mayor, who is also an elected person. There is a legislative assembly for the city, member of which are also elected for a period of 5 years. Makassar City is divided into 15 administrative districts and 153 urban villages. Districts in Makassar city are, Biringkanaya,Bontoala,Sangkarrang Islands, Makassar, Mamajang, Manggala, Mariso, Panakkukang, Rappocini, Tallo, Tamalanrea, Tamalate, Ujung Pandang, Land Edge and Wajo.

Makassar: Geography

This official metropolitan area covers 2,473 km and had a population of 2,225,048 at the 2010 Census. The metropolitan area of Makassar (Mamminasata) extends over 46 administrative districts (kecamatan), consisting of all 14 districts within the city, all 9 districts of Takalar Regency, 11 (out of 18) districts of Gowa Regency and 12 (out of 14) districts of Maros Regency.

Districts of Takalar Regency which included in the metro area are, Mangara Bombang, Mappakasunggu, Sanrobone, Polombangkeng Selatan, Pattallassang, Polombangkeng Utara, Galesong Selatan, Galesong and Galesong Utara. Districts of Gowa Regency which included in the metro area are, Somba Opu, Bontomarannu, Pallangga, Bajeng, Bajeng Barat, Barombong, Manuju, Pattallassang, Parangloe, Bontonompo and Bontonompo Selatan. Districts of Maros Regency which included in the metro area are, Maros Baru, Turikale, Marusu, Mandai, Moncongloe, Bontoa, Lau, Tanralili, Tompo Bulu, Bantimurung, Simbang and Cenrana.

Makassar: Climate

The Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Am". (Tropical monsoon climate).

The average temperature for the year in Makassar is 81.5 °F (27.5 °C). The warmest month, on average, is October with an average temperature of 82.7 °F (28.2 °C). The coolest month on average is February, with an average temperature of 80.3 °F (26.8 °C).

The average amount of precipitation for the year in Makassar is 121.5" (3086.1 mm). The month with the most precipitation on average is January with 28.9" (734.1 mm) of precipitation. The month with the least precipitation on average is August with an average of 0.6" (15.2 mm). In terms of liquid precipitation, there are an average of 187.0 days of rain, with the most rain occurring in January with 27.0 days of rain, and the least rain occurring in August with 2.0 days of rain.

Climate data for Makassar
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 30.7
Average low °C (°F) 23.2
Average precipitation mm (inches) 734
Source: Weatherbase

Makassar: Main sights

Trans Studio Makassar

Makassar is home to several prominent landmarks including:

  • the 17th century Dutch fort Fort Rotterdam
  • the Trans Studio Makassar-the third largest indoor theme park in the world
  • the Karebosi Link-the first underground shopping center in Indonesia
  • the floating mosque located at Losari Beach.
  • the Nusantara
  • the Bantimurung - Bulusaraung National Park well-known karst area, famous for the remarkable collection of butterflies in the local area, is nearby to Makassar (around 40 km to the north).

Makassar: Population

Circle frame.svg

Religion in Makassar (2010)

Islam (87.19%)
Protestantism (8.17%)
Catholicism (2.82%)
Buddhism (1.26%)
Hinduism (0.14%)
Confusianism and others (0.42%)

Makassar is a multi-ethnic city, populated mostly by Makassarese and Buginese. The remainder come from Toraja, Mandar, Buton, China, Java, and other areas. The current population is approximately 1.5 million, with a Metropolitan total of 2.2 million.

Year 1971 1980 1990 2000 2008 2009 2010 2012
Total Population Green Arrow Up.svg 434,766 Green Arrow Up.svg 708,465 Green Arrow Up.svg 944,372 Green Arrow Up.svg 1,130,384 Green Arrow Up.svg 1,253,656 Green Arrow Up.svg 1,272,349 Green Arrow Up.svg 1,338,663 Green Arrow Up.svg 1,645,216

The city is divided into fourteen districts (kecamatan), tabulated below with their 2010 Census population.

Makassar in per kecamatan.svg
Name Population
Census 2010
Mariso 56,313
Mamajang 59,133
Tamalate 169,890
Rappocini 151,357
Makassar 81,901
Ujung Padang 27,206
Wajo 29,670
Bontoala 54,268
Ujung Tanah 46,771
Tallo 133,815
Panukkukang 141,524
Manggala 117,303
Biring Kanaya 167,843
Tamalanrea 101,669

Makassar: Education

By 2007 the city government began requiring all skirts of schoolgirls be below the knee.

Makassar: Traditional food

Makassar has several famous traditional foods. The most famous is Coto Makassar. It is a stew made from the mixture of nuts, spices, and selected offal which may include beef brain, tongue and intestine. Konro rib dish is also a popular traditional food in Makassar. Both Coto Makassar and Konro are usually eaten with Burasa or Ketupat, a glutinous rice cake. Another famous cuisine from Makassar is Ayam Goreng Sulawesi (Celebes fried chicken); the chicken is marinated with traditional soy sauce recipe for up to 24 hours before being fried to a golden colour. The dish is usually served with chicken broth, rice and special sambal (chilli sauce).

In addition, Makassar is the home of Pisang Epe (pressed banana), as well as Pisang Ijo (green banana). Pisang Epe is a banana which is pressed, grilled, and covered with palm sugar sauce and sometimes eaten with Durian. Many street vendors sell Pisang Epe, especially around the area of Losari beach. Pisang Ijo is a banana covered with green colored flours, coconut milk, and syrup. Pisang Ijo is sometimes served iced, and often eaten during Ramadan.

Makassar: See also

  • List of twin towns and sister cities in Indonesia

Makassar: References

  1. Ministry of Internal Affairs: Registration Book for Area Code and Data of 2013
  2. 10 kota berpenduduk terbesar di Indonesia
  3. Andi Hajramurni: "Autonomy Watch: Makassar grows with waterfront city concept", The Jakarta Post, 13 June 2011
  4. http://www.citypopulation.de/php/indonesia-sulawesi-admin.php
  5. 2010 Census of Indonesia.
  6. Riana, I Ketut (2009). Kakawin dēśa warṇnana, uthawi, Nāgara kṛtāgama: masa keemasan Majapahit. Indonesia: Penerbit Buku Kompas. p. 102. ISBN 9797094332. 49. Ikang saka sanusa nusa maksar butun banggawi kunir galiyau mwangi salaya sumba solot muar, muwah tikang-i wandhanambwanathawa maloko wwanin, ri serani timur makadiningangeka nusa tutur.
  7. , pp. 22-23.
  8. Andaya, Leonard. "Makasar's Moment of Glory." Indonesian Heritage: Early Modern History. Vol. 3, ed. Anthony Reid, Sian Jay and T. Durairajoo. Singapore: Editions Didier Millet, 2001. 58–59.
  9. Carey, Peter. "Dipanagara and the Java War." Indonesian Heritage: Early Modern History. Vol. 3, ed. Anthony Reid, Sian Jay and T. Durairajoo. Singapore: Editions Didier Millet, 2001. 112–13.
  10. L, Klemen (1999–2000). "The capture of Makassar, February 1942". Forgotten Campaign: The Dutch East Indies Campaign 1941–1942.
  11. Westerling (1952), p. 210
  12. MacKnight
  13. Sholl, Robert J. (26 July 1865). "Camden Harbour". The Inquirer & Commercial News. p. 3. Retrieved 19 December 2013.
  14. "Pertumbuhan Ekonomi Makassar Membaik". Makassarterkini.com. Retrieved 9 July 2013.
  15. "Mamminasata Railway Realised in 2015". Indii.co.id. 19 May 2011. Retrieved 9 July 2013.
  16. "Makassar, neighbors to commence monorail construction next year". The Jakarta Post. 25 July 2011. Retrieved 9 July 2013.
  17. "Pelindo IV needs Rp 150b to expand Soekarno-Hatta seaport". 12 January 2012.
  18. "Weatherbase: Makassar Indonesia Records and Averages". Weatherbase. Retrieved 22 November 2011.
  19. [1]
  20. Biro Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2011.
  21. Warburton, Eve (January–March 2007). "No longer a choice" (89 ed.). Inside Indonesia. Retrieved 2017-06-20.

Makassar: Further reading

  • MacKnight, C.C., Voyage to Marege. Macassan Trepangers in Northern Australia, Melbourne University Press, 1976.
  • Reid, Anthony. 1999. Charting the shape of early modern Southeast Asia. Chiang Mai: Silkworm Books. ISBN 9747551063. pp. 100–154.
  • McCarthy, M., 2000, Indonesian divers in Australian waters. The Great Circle, vol. 20, No.2:120–137.
  • Turner, S. 2003: Indonesia’s Small Entrepreneurs: Trading on the Margins. London, RoutledgeCurzon ISBN 070071569X 288pp. Hardback.
  • Turner, S. 2007: Small-Scale Enterprise Livelihoods and Social Capital in Eastern Indonesia: Ethnic Embeddedness and Exclusion. Professional Geographer. 59 (4), 407–20.
  • Makassar travel guide from Wikivoyage
  • Indonesia Official Tourism Website
  • Pinisi at Poatere Harbour, 2012. Photographs by Peter Loud
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