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How to Book a Hotel in Mathura

In order to book an accommodation in Mathura enter the proper dates and do the hotel search. If needed, sort the found Mathura hotels by price, star rating, property type, guest rating, hotel features, hotel theme or hotel chain. Then take a look at the found hotels on Mathura map to estimate the distance from the main Mathura attractions and sights. You can also read the guest reviews of Mathura hotels and see their ratings.

When a hotel search in Mathura is done, please select the room type, the included meals and the suitable booking conditions (for example, "Deluxe double room, Breakfast included, Non-Refundable"). Press the "View Deal" ("Book Now") button. Make your booking on a hotel booking website and get the hotel reservation voucher by email. That's it, a perfect hotel in Mathura is waiting for you!

Hotels of Mathura

A hotel in Mathura is an establishment that provides lodging paid on a short-term basis. Facilities provided may range from a basic bed and storage for clothing, to luxury features like en-suite bathrooms. Larger in Mathura hotels may provide additional guest facilities such as a swimming pool, business centre, childcare, conference facilities and social function services. Hotel rooms in Mathura are usually numbered (or named in some smaller hotels and B&Bs) to allow guests to identify their room. Some Mathura hotels offer meals as part of a room and board arrangement. Hotel operations vary in size, function, and cost. Most Mathura hotels and major hospitality companies that operate hotels in Mathura have set widely accepted industry standards to classify hotel types. General categories include the following:

Upscale luxury hotels in Mathura
An upscale full service hotel facility in Mathura that offers luxury amenities, full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and the highest level of personalized and professional service. Luxury Mathura hotels are normally classified with at least a Four Diamond or Five Diamond status or a Four or Five Star rating depending on classification standards.

Full service hotels in Mathura
Full service Mathura hotels often contain upscale full-service facilities with a large volume of full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and a variety of on-site amenities such as swimming pools, a health club, children's activities, ballrooms, on-site conference facilities, etc.

Historic inns and boutique hotels in Mathura
Boutique hotels of Mathura are smaller independent non-branded hotels that often contain upscale facilities of varying size in unique or intimate settings with full service accommodations. Mathura boutique hotels are generally 100 rooms or less. Some historic inns and boutique hotels in Mathura may be classified as luxury hotels.

Focused or select service hotels in Mathura
Small to medium-sized hotel establishments that offer a limited amount of on-site amenities that only cater and market to a specific demographic of Mathura travelers, such as the single business traveler. Most Mathura focused or select service hotels may still offer full service accommodations but may lack leisure amenities such as an on-site restaurant or a swimming pool.

Economy and limited service hotels in Mathura
Small to medium-sized Mathura hotel establishments that offer a very limited amount of on-site amenities and often only offer basic accommodations with little to no services, these facilities normally only cater and market to a specific demographic of travelers, such as the budget-minded Mathura traveler seeking a "no frills" accommodation. Limited service Mathura hotels often lack an on-site restaurant but in return may offer a limited complimentary food and beverage amenity such as on-site continental breakfast service.

Guest houses and B&Bs in Mathura
A bed and breakfast in Mathura is a small lodging establishment that offers overnight accommodation and inclusive breakfast. Usually, Mathura bed and breakfasts are private homes or family homes offering accommodations. The typical Mathura B&B has between 4 and 11 rooms, with 6 being the average. Generally, guests are accommodated in private bedrooms with private bathrooms, or in a suite of rooms including an en suite bathroom. Some homes have private bedrooms with a bathroom which is shared with other guests. Breakfast is served in the bedroom, a dining room, or the host's kitchen. Often the owners of guest house themselves prepare the breakfast and clean the rooms.

Hostels in Mathura
Mathura hostels provide budget-oriented, sociable accommodation where guests can rent a bed, usually a bunk bed, in a dormitory and share a bathroom, lounge, and sometimes a kitchen. Rooms can be mixed or single-sex, although private rooms may also be available. Hostels are often cheaper for both the operator and occupants; many Mathura hostels have long-term residents whom they employ as desk agents or housekeeping staff in exchange for experience or discounted accommodation.

Apartment hotels, extended stay hotels in Mathura
Extended stay hotels are small to medium-sized Mathura hotels that offer longer term full service accommodations compared to a traditional hotel. Extended stay hotels may offer non-traditional pricing methods such as a weekly rate that cater towards travelers in need of short-term accommodations for an extended period of time. Similar to limited and select service hotels, on-site amenities are normally limited and most extended stay hotels in Mathura lack an on-site restaurant.

Timeshare and destination clubs in Mathura
Mathura timeshare and destination clubs are a form of property ownership also referred to as a vacation ownership involving the purchase and ownership of an individual unit of accommodation for seasonal usage during a specified period of time. Timeshare resorts in Mathura often offer amenities similar that of a Full service hotel with on-site restaurant(s), swimming pools, recreation grounds, and other leisure-oriented amenities. Destination clubs of Mathura on the other hand may offer more exclusive private accommodations such as private houses in a neighborhood-style setting.

Motels in Mathura
A Mathura motel is a small-sized low-rise lodging establishment similar to that of a limited service hotel, but with direct access to individual rooms from the car park. Common during the 1950s and 1960s, motels were often located adjacent to a major road, where they were built on inexpensive land at the edge of towns or along stretches of highways. They are still useful in less populated areas of Mathura for driving travelers, but the more populated an area becomes the more hotels fill the need. Many of Mathura motels which remain in operation have joined national franchise chains, rebranding themselves as hotels, inns or lodges.

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Travelling and vacation in Mathura

.
This article is about the municipality in Uttar Pradesh, India. For its namesake district, see Mathura district.
For other uses, see Mathura (disambiguation).
Mathura
मथुरा
City
Mathura
Old street in front of the Krishna Temple
Mathura
Mathura
Mathura
Mathura
Mathura
Mathura
Coordinates:  / 27.49250; 77.67361  / 27.49250; 77.67361
Country India
State Uttar Pradesh
District Mathura
Area
• Total 3,709 km (1,432 sq mi)
Population (2011)
• Total 441,894
• Density 120/km (310/sq mi)
Languages
• Official Hindi
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 281001
Telephone code 0565
Vehicle registration UP-85
Website mathura.nic.in

Mathura (About this sound pronunciation ) is a city in the North Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It is located approximately 50 kilometres (31 mi) north of Agra, and 145 kilometres (90 mi) south-east of Delhi; about 11 kilometres (6.8 mi) from the town of Vrindavan, and 22 kilometres (14 mi) from Govardhan. It is the administrative centre of Mathura District of Uttar Pradesh. During the ancient period, Mathura was an economic hub, located at the junction of important caravan routes. The 2011 census of India estimated the population of Mathura to be 441,894.

Mathura is believed to be the birthplace of Krishna which is located at the centre of Braj or Brij-bhoomi, called Shri Krishna Janma-Bhoomi, literally: 'Lord Krishna's birthplace' (Shri Krishna Janmabhoomi). It is one of the seven cities (Sapta Puri) considered holy by Hindus. The Keshav Dev Temple was built in ancient times on the site of Krishna's birthplace (an underground prison). Mathura was the capital of the Surasena Kingdom, ruled by Kansa the maternal uncle of Krishna.

Mathura has been chosen as one of the heritage cities for HRIDAY - Heritage City Development and Augmentation Yojana scheme of Government of India.

Mathura: History

See also: Mathura art
Gate of Shet Lukhmeechund's Temple, a photo by Eugene Clutterbuck Impey, 1860's.
Sculpture from 1st century CE on display at Mathura museum.
Sculpture of woman from ancient Braj-Mathura ca. 2nd century AD.

Mathura has an ancient history and also homeland and birthplace of Krishna who was born in Yadu dynasty. According to the Archaeological Survey of India plaque at the Mathura Museum, the city is mentioned in the oldest Indian epic, the Ramayana. In the epic, the Ikshwaku prince Shatrughna slays a demon called Lavanasura and claims the land. Afterwards, the place came to be known as Madhuvan as it was thickly wooded, then Madhupura and later Mathura.

In the 6th century BCE Mathura became the capital of the Surasena mahajanapada. The city was later ruled by the Maurya empire (4th to 2nd centuries BCE). Megasthenes, writing in the early 3rd century BCE, mentions Mathura as a great city under the name Μέθορα (Méthora). It seems it never was under the direct control of the following Shunga dynasty (2nd century BCE) as not a single archaeological remain of a Shunga presence were ever found in Mathura. It may have come under the indirect control of Indo-Greeks some time between 180 BCE and 100 BCE, and remained so as late as 70 BCE according to the Yavanarajya inscription; which was found in Maghera, a town 17 kilometres (11 mi) from Mathura, the opening of the 3 line text of these inscriptions are in Brahmi script and were translated as: "In the 116th year of the Yavana kings..." However, this also corresponds to the presence of the native Mitra dynasty, in Mathura, in the same time frame (150 BCE-50 BCE).

After a period of local rule, Mathura was conquered by the Indo-Scythians during the 1st century BCE. The Indo-Scythian satraps of Mathura are sometimes called the "Northern Satraps", as opposed to the "Western Satraps" ruling in Gujarat and Malwa. After Rajuvula, several successors are known to have ruled as vassals to the Kushans, such as the "Great Satrap" Kharapallana and the "Satrap" Vanaspara, who are known from an inscription discovered in Sarnath, and dated to the 3rd year of Kanishka (c. 130 CE), in which they were paying allegiance to the Kushans. Mathuran art and culture reached its zenith under the Kushan dynasty which had Mathura as one of their capitals, the other being Purushapura (Peshawar).

Faxian mentions the city as a centre of Buddhism about 400 CE while his successor Xuanzang, who visited the city in 634 CE, mentions it as Mot'ulo, recording that it contained twenty Buddhist monasteries and five Brahmanical temples. Later, he went east to Thanesar, Jalandhar in the eastern Punjab, before climbing up to visit predominantly Theravada monasteries in the Kulu valley and turning southward again to Bairat and then Mathura, on the Yamuna river.

The city was sacked and many of its temples destroyed by Mahmud of Ghazni in 1018 CE and again by Sikandar Lodhi, who ruled the Sultanate of Delhi from 1489 to 1517 CE. Sikander Lodhi earned the epithet of 'Butt Shikan', the 'Destroyer of Hindu deities'. The Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb, built the Shahi-Eidgah Mosque during his rule,which is adjacent to Shri Krishna Janmabhoomi believed to be over a Hindu temple.

In 2016, 24 people including 2 police officers were killed in the Jawahar Bagh clash, when the police tried to evict a large number of squatters from the public park.

Mathura: Geography

Mathura is located at  / 27.28; 77.41. It has an average elevation of 174 metres (570 feet).

Mathura: Demographics

Religions in Mathura City
Religion Percent
Hindus
81.54%
Muslim
17.22%
Sikhism
0.30%
Jainism
0.18%
Christians
0.23%
Buddhism
0.04%
Others†
0.49%

The 2011 census of India estimates the population of Mathura to be 441,894, a decadal growth rate of 22.53 per cent from 2001 census of India. Males account for 54% (268,445) and females for 46% (173,449) of this population. Sex ratio of Mathura is 858 females per 1000 males, which has increased from 840 in 2001. However, national sex ratio is 940. Population density in 2011 has increased from 621 per km in 2001 to 761 per km. Mathura has an average literacy rate of 72.65 per cent which has increased from 61.46 percent in 2001 but still lower than the national average of 74.04 per cent. Male and female literacy rate are 84.39 and 58.93 per cent respectively. 15.61 percent of Mathura's population is under 6 years of age. This figure was 19.56 per cent in 2001 census. Mathura has large population of Jat and Yadav in rural areas and Brahmins & Baniyas in urban areas.

The famous cities/villages of Mathura District are as follows.

  • Vrindavan
  • Baldeo
  • Nandgaon
  • Barsana
  • Goverdhan
  • Gokul
  • Chaumuhan
  • Kosi Kalan

Mathura: Transportation

Mathura: Rail

Mathura is well connected by train to major cities in India such as New Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Indore, Alwar, Jaipur, Bhopal, Gwalior, Jabalpur, Ujjain, Rewa, Lucknow, Kanpur, Varanasi etc.

The city is served by four stations, Mathura Junction being the biggest one connecting to West, North and Southern India. Mathura Cantt connects to eastern Uttar Pradesh. Bhuteshwar serves for local trains for Delhi, Delhi NCR, Agra, Bharatpur and Alwar. Another station Krishnajanmabhoomi connects to Vrindavan via rail bus.

Train A local train in Mathura.

Important train that origin/terminate from Mathura: 12177/Howrah - Mathura Chambal Express.

Mathura: Road

Mathura is well connected by road to the rest of Uttar Pradesh and India. NH 19 (Delhi-Howrah) and NH 44 (Srinagar to Kanyakumari) pass through the city. UP SH 33 (Bareilly to Mathura via Badaun, Ujhani, Kasganj, Soron, Sikandra Rao, Hathras) is a prominent arterial highway. Yamuna Expressway also connects to Mathura and, in fact, is the shortest way to reach Mathura by road.

The city is served by Upsrtc, JNNURAM, Rajasthan, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, DTC, Chandigarh and Punjab state transportation bus companies. Mathura depot, run by the Uttar Pradesh State Bus Company - runs 120 buses. Direct buses are available to Alwar, Agra, Aligarh, Khair, Indore, Bhopal, Gwalior, Jabalpur, Jaipur, Udaipur, Ajmer, Delhi, Chandigarh, Lucknow, Kanpur, Meerut, Haridwar, Rohtak and other Indian cities. An intercity JNNURM bus facility also exists.

Mathura: Air

As of now, the city has no airport but the airport was proposed to Mathura in 2012. The civil aviation minister Ajit Singh suggested Mathura's name for the site of a new greenfield international airport to chief minister of Uttar Pradesh Akhilesh Yadav. Mathura's name came into play when group of ministers terminated the planning of building Taj International Airport at Greater Noida. Land has been marked, and construction is in progress near the Yamuna Expressway, with plans to open in the next five years with regular flights to Delhi, Mumbai, Ujjain and Varanasi and some international routes in future.

Mathura: Tourism

Mathura is a holy city for Hinduism, the world's third-largest religion. There are many places of historic and religious importance in Mathura and its neighbouring towns. The twin-city to Mathura is Vrindavan. As the home of Krishna in his youth, the small town is host to a multitude of temples belonging to various sects of Hinduism proclaiming Krishna in various forms and avatars. Some places of interest are:

  • Baldeo (Dauji Mandir)
  • Lohwan Mata Mandir
  • Shri Ratneshwar Mahadev
  • Gopinath Maharaj Mandir
  • Keshav Dev Temple (Shri Krishna Janma Bhoomi)
  • Vishram Ghat (Bank of River Yamuna)
  • Shri Jagannath Temple Bhuteshwar Mathura
  • Prem Mandir, Vrindavan
  • Vrindavan Chandrodaya Mandir, Vrindavan
  • Mathura Museum
  • Birla Mandir
  • Shri Krishna Janmabhoomi
  • Naam yog Sadhna Mandir (Baba Jai Gurudev Temple)
  • Banke Bihari Temple
  • Shri Krishna Janmabhoomi
  • Iskcon Temple.
  • Bhuteshwar Temple
  • The Udasin Kashni Ashram (Ramanrati) near Gokul (Mahaven)
  • Jama Mosque, Mathura
  • Shahi-Eidgah Mosque , adjacent to Shri Krishna Janmabhoomi

Mathura: Strategic importance

Mathura is the home for Indian I Corps (Strike Formation) within the Indian Army's Central Command, hosting Strike I Corps headquarters in a large classified area in the outskirts of the city known as Mathura Cantonment (Central Command itself has its headquarters at Lucknow). It hosts Strike Infantry units, Air Defence units, Armoured Divisions, Engineer brigades, Aritillery Units and classified units of Strategic Nuclear Command. Corps I is primarily responsible for western borders of India. In 2007 during Exercise Ashwamedha, all the armoured, artillery and infantry divisions performed a simulation of an overall NBC (nuclear-chemical-biological) environment. The aim was to show operational ability in high intensity, short duration and 'sudden' battles.

Mathura: Industries

Mathura Refinery located in the city is one of the biggest oil refineries of Asia with 8.0 MMTPA refining capacity. This oil refinery of the Indian Oil Corporation is a highly technologically advanced oil refinery. Mathura Refinery is the first in Asia and third in the world to receive the coveted ISO-14001 certification for Environment Management System in 1996.

Textile printing industry that includes both sari-printing and fabric dyeing and silver ornaments manufacturing are major industrial contributors to the region.

Mathura: Politics

In 2014 General Elections Mrs. Hema Malini of BJP became the Member of Parliament from Mathura Constituency. The Mayor of the city is Mrs. Manisha Gupta of BJP.

Mathura: Culture

Temple in Barsana, near Mathura, dedicated to the worship of Radha and Krishna. Being the birthplace of Krishna, Mathura is an important Hindu pilgrimage site.

Mathura has contributed a lot towards Indian Culture through its rich heritage. The ethos of Mathura, and in fact the whole of Braj mandal is centered on Krishna and his tales. Mathura sees heightened activities during the major festivities dedicated to Krishna.

The Braj culture has been expressed widely through various practices.

Sanjhee is the colourful art of decorating the ground with flowers.

Rasiya is a tradition that is integral to Mathura's culture. It is the tradition of folk-songs that describe the love of the divine couple Radha and Krshnaji. It is an inseparable part of the Holi celebrations and all other festive occasions at Mathura. (Dhulendi – Holi with drums (dholak), colours, etc. originated from Braj region hundreds of millennia before today.)

Raaslilas of Mathura have become an integral part of Indian Folklore. Krshnaji had danced the Raas with gopis on banks of Yamuna river.

Charkula is a traditional folk dance of the Braj. In this dance, a woman balances a column of deepikas on her head and dances to the accompaniment of Rasiya songs by the menfolk.

The language spoken in the Braj mandal is mainly Hindi which is spoken in a different dialect. This dialect is characteristic with the Braj region and known as Brajbhasha. Being close to haryana and uttar pradesh haryanwi is spoken by people and very few people speak Punjabi. Before Hindi and until past few centuries, Brajbhasha used to be the dominant language in literature.

Mathura is one of the seven most holy places for Hindus in India.

Ayodhyā Mathurā Māyā Kāsi Kāñchī Avantikā I

Purī Dvārāvatī chaiva saptaitā moksadāyikāh II - Garuḍa Purāṇa I XVI .14

A Kṣetra is a sacred ground, a field of active power, a place where Moksha, final release can be obtained. The Garuda Purana enumerates seven cities as giver of Moksha, They are Ayodhya, Mathura, Māyā, Kāsi, Kāñchī, Avantikā, Puri and Dvārāvatī.

Mathura: Media and communications

All India Radio has a local station in Mathura which transmits various programs of mass interest. Commissioned in 2001, Mathura has a Programme generating Facility (PGF) of Doordarshan - India's Public service Broadcasters.

Mathura: Educational institutions

B.S.A College of Engineering & Technology GLA University, Sachdeva Institute of Technology, R.K. Group of Institutions (including Rajiv Academy For Technology & Management, Rajiv Academy For Teacher's Education, Rajiv Academy For Pharmacy, K.D. Dental College and Hospital, etc.), and Sanskriti University.

Mathura is home to the Uttar Pradesh Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Veterinary University, the first of its kind in the state and the fourth in the country to be made independent. The college was established in 1947 by Govt of U.P. and it is Asia's first veterinary college which awarded Veterinary science degree. The University is located on the Mathura-Agra road, about 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) from Mathura Junction. The main campus of the University is spread over a land area of 782.32 acres (3.1659 km) in Mathura Cantt and about 1,400 acres (6 km) at Madhurikund, about 20 kilometres (12 mi) from the main campus.

Mathura: See also

  • Gokul
  • Kankali Tila
  • AQash Kuntal

Mathura: Notes

  1. Krishna: A Journey through the Lands & Legends of Krishna, by Dev Prasad
  2. Pargiter, F.E. (1972). Ancient Indian Historical Tradition, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, p.170.
  3. "Imperial Gazetteer of India. v. 18.". Digital South Asia Library. 1908. pp. 63–74.
  4. Megasthenes, fragment 23 "The Surasenians, an Indian tribe, with two great cities, Methora and Clisobora; the navigable river Iomanes flows through their territory" quoted in Arrian Indica 8.5. Also "The river Jomanes (Yamuna) flows through the Palibothri into the Ganges between the towns Methora and Carisobora." in FRAGM. LVI. Plin. Hist. Nat. VI. 21. 8-23. 11.
  5. History of Early Stone Sculpture at Mathura: Ca. 150 BCE - 100 CE, Sonya Rhie Quintanilla, BRILL, 2007, p.8-10 [1]
  6. Bulletin of the Asia Institute. Wayne State University Press. p. 70.
  7. ISBN 81-7102-109-3.
  8. Osmund Bopearachchi; Wilfried Pieper (1998). Ancient Indian coins. Brepols. ISBN 2-503-50730-1.
  9. A Catalogue of the Indian Coins in the British Museum. Andhras etc.... Rapson, p. ciii.
  10. Mathura Public Domain This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. .
  11. Hsuan Tsang Public Domain This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. .
  12. Sultan Sikandar Lodi The Muntakhabu-'rūkh by Al-Badāoni (16th century historian), Packard Humanities Institute.
  13. Lodi Kings: Chart The Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1909, v. 2, p. 369..
  14. Asher, Catherine B (24 September 1992). "Architecture of Mughal India". ISBN 9780521267281.
  15. Shailaja Neelakantan (3 June 2016). "Mathura violence death toll now 24, opposition blames Akhilesh govt". The Times of India.
  16. "Maps, Weather, and Airports for Mathura, India". Retrieved 3 June 2016.
  17. "Provisional Population Totals Paper 1 of 2011 : Uttar Pradesh". 2011 Census of India. Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
  18. "Manth bypoll: CM steps in to attract 'indifferent' Jats". Indian Express. 2012-06-10. Retrieved 2013-11-17.
  19. "Chambal Express".
  20. "International airport now at Mathura". Retrieved 3 June 2016.
  21. [2]
  22. "Centre invites proposal from UP for airport near Mathura - Times of India". Retrieved 3 June 2016.
  23. Pike, John. "India - Army Central Command Order of Battle". Retrieved 3 June 2016.
  24. "http://www.bharat-rakshak.com/LAND-FORCES/Army/Organisation.html". Retrieved 3 June 2016. External link in |title= (help)
  25. "http://www.india-defence.com/reports/3115". Retrieved 3 June 2016. External link in |title= (help)
  26. "IndianOil Corporation | Mathura Refinery". Iocl.com. Retrieved 2013-11-17.
  27. "Mathura Industries". Mapsofindia.com. Retrieved 2013-11-17.
  28. Kramrisch, Stella; Burnier, Raymond (1 January 1976). "The Hindu Temple". Motilal Banarsidass Publ. Retrieved 3 June 2016 – via Google Books.
  29. "Mathura University". Upvetuniv.edu.in. 2001-10-25. Retrieved 2013-11-17.

Mathura: References

  • Mathura-The Cultural Heritage. Edited by Doris Meth Srinivasan, published in 1989 by AIIS/Manohar.
  • Bowker, John (2002). The Cambridge Illustrated History of Religions, p. 60.
  • Konow, Sten. Editor. 1929. Kharoshthī Inscriptions with Exception of those of Ashoka. Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum, Vol. II, Part I. Reprint: Indological Book House, Varanasi, 1969.
  • Mukherjee, B. N. 1981. Mathurā and its Society: The Śaka-Pahlava Phase. Firma K. L. M. Private Limited, Calcutta.
  • Sharma, R. C. 1976. Mathura Museum and Art. 2nd revised and enlarged edition. Government Museum, Mathura.
  • Growse, F. S. 1882. " Mathura A District Memoir.
  • Drake-Brockman, D. L. 1911. " Muttra A Gaztteer.
  • The Jain stûpa and other antiquities of Mathura, by Smith, Vincent Arthur, 1848-1920. (1901)
  • Mathura City E-Portal
  • Entry on Mathura in the Dictionary on Pali Proper Names
  • Mathura HRIDAY city
Source of information: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. We're not responsible for the content of this article and your use of this information. Disclaimer
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