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Hotels of Mombasa

A hotel in Mombasa is an establishment that provides lodging paid on a short-term basis. Facilities provided may range from a basic bed and storage for clothing, to luxury features like en-suite bathrooms. Larger in Mombasa hotels may provide additional guest facilities such as a swimming pool, business centre, childcare, conference facilities and social function services. Hotel rooms in Mombasa are usually numbered (or named in some smaller hotels and B&Bs) to allow guests to identify their room. Some Mombasa hotels offer meals as part of a room and board arrangement. Hotel operations vary in size, function, and cost. Most Mombasa hotels and major hospitality companies that operate hotels in Mombasa have set widely accepted industry standards to classify hotel types. General categories include the following:

Upscale luxury hotels in Mombasa
An upscale full service hotel facility in Mombasa that offers luxury amenities, full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and the highest level of personalized and professional service. Luxury Mombasa hotels are normally classified with at least a Four Diamond or Five Diamond status or a Four or Five Star rating depending on classification standards.

Full service hotels in Mombasa
Full service Mombasa hotels often contain upscale full-service facilities with a large volume of full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and a variety of on-site amenities such as swimming pools, a health club, children's activities, ballrooms, on-site conference facilities, etc.

Historic inns and boutique hotels in Mombasa
Boutique hotels of Mombasa are smaller independent non-branded hotels that often contain upscale facilities of varying size in unique or intimate settings with full service accommodations. Mombasa boutique hotels are generally 100 rooms or less. Some historic inns and boutique hotels in Mombasa may be classified as luxury hotels.

Focused or select service hotels in Mombasa
Small to medium-sized hotel establishments that offer a limited amount of on-site amenities that only cater and market to a specific demographic of Mombasa travelers, such as the single business traveler. Most Mombasa focused or select service hotels may still offer full service accommodations but may lack leisure amenities such as an on-site restaurant or a swimming pool.

Economy and limited service hotels in Mombasa
Small to medium-sized Mombasa hotel establishments that offer a very limited amount of on-site amenities and often only offer basic accommodations with little to no services, these facilities normally only cater and market to a specific demographic of travelers, such as the budget-minded Mombasa traveler seeking a "no frills" accommodation. Limited service Mombasa hotels often lack an on-site restaurant but in return may offer a limited complimentary food and beverage amenity such as on-site continental breakfast service.

Guest houses and B&Bs in Mombasa
A bed and breakfast in Mombasa is a small lodging establishment that offers overnight accommodation and inclusive breakfast. Usually, Mombasa bed and breakfasts are private homes or family homes offering accommodations. The typical Mombasa B&B has between 4 and 11 rooms, with 6 being the average. Generally, guests are accommodated in private bedrooms with private bathrooms, or in a suite of rooms including an en suite bathroom. Some homes have private bedrooms with a bathroom which is shared with other guests. Breakfast is served in the bedroom, a dining room, or the host's kitchen. Often the owners of guest house themselves prepare the breakfast and clean the rooms.

Hostels in Mombasa
Mombasa hostels provide budget-oriented, sociable accommodation where guests can rent a bed, usually a bunk bed, in a dormitory and share a bathroom, lounge, and sometimes a kitchen. Rooms can be mixed or single-sex, although private rooms may also be available. Hostels are often cheaper for both the operator and occupants; many Mombasa hostels have long-term residents whom they employ as desk agents or housekeeping staff in exchange for experience or discounted accommodation.

Apartment hotels, extended stay hotels in Mombasa
Extended stay hotels are small to medium-sized Mombasa hotels that offer longer term full service accommodations compared to a traditional hotel. Extended stay hotels may offer non-traditional pricing methods such as a weekly rate that cater towards travelers in need of short-term accommodations for an extended period of time. Similar to limited and select service hotels, on-site amenities are normally limited and most extended stay hotels in Mombasa lack an on-site restaurant.

Timeshare and destination clubs in Mombasa
Mombasa timeshare and destination clubs are a form of property ownership also referred to as a vacation ownership involving the purchase and ownership of an individual unit of accommodation for seasonal usage during a specified period of time. Timeshare resorts in Mombasa often offer amenities similar that of a Full service hotel with on-site restaurant(s), swimming pools, recreation grounds, and other leisure-oriented amenities. Destination clubs of Mombasa on the other hand may offer more exclusive private accommodations such as private houses in a neighborhood-style setting.

Motels in Mombasa
A Mombasa motel is a small-sized low-rise lodging establishment similar to that of a limited service hotel, but with direct access to individual rooms from the car park. Common during the 1950s and 1960s, motels were often located adjacent to a major road, where they were built on inexpensive land at the edge of towns or along stretches of highways. They are still useful in less populated areas of Mombasa for driving travelers, but the more populated an area becomes the more hotels fill the need. Many of Mombasa motels which remain in operation have joined national franchise chains, rebranding themselves as hotels, inns or lodges.

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Travelling and vacation in Mombasa

Clockwise: Fort Jesus, Mombasa Town Hall, Mombasa Old Town, Nyali beach, sunset panorama, Moi Avenue's elephant tusks and Downtown Mombasa
Clockwise: Fort Jesus, Mombasa Town Hall, Mombasa Old Town, Nyali beach, sunset panorama, Moi Avenue's elephant tusks and Downtown Mombasa
Motto: Utangamano kwa Maendeleo
(Unity for Development)
Mombasa is located in Kenya
Location of Mombasa
Coordinates:  / -4.050; 39.667  / -4.050; 39.667
Country Kenya
County Mombasa County
Founded 900 A.D.
Elevation 50 m (160 ft)
Population (2016)
• Total 1,200,000
Demonym(s) Mombasite
Time zone EAT (UTC+3)
Area code(s) 020
Website mombasa.go.ke
Skyline of Mombasa from old town
An aerial view of Mombasa skyline at sunset from the old town

Mombasa (/məmˈbɑːsə/; Kenyan English: [mɔmˈbɑːsə]) is a city on the coast of Kenya. It is the country's second-largest city, after the capital Nairobi, with an estimated population of about 1.2 million people in 2016. Its metropolitan region is the second largest in the country and has a population of approximately two million people. Administratively, Mombasa is the capital of Mombasa County.

A regional cultural and economic hub, Mombasa has an extra-large port and an international airport, and is an important regional tourism centre. Located on the east coast of Kenya, in Mombasa County and the former Coast Province, Mombasa's situation on the Indian Ocean made it a historical trading centre, and it has been controlled by many countries because of its strategic location.

Mombasa: Description

The city had a population of about 939,000 per the 2009 census. It is located on Mombasa Island and sprawls to the surrounding mainlands. The island is separated from the mainland by two creeks: Tudor Creek and Kilindini Harbour. It is connected to the mainland to the north by the Nyali Bridge, to the south by the Likoni Ferry, and to the west by the Makupa Causeway, alongside which runs the Kenya-Uganda Railway. The port serves both Kenya and countries of the interior, linking them to the ocean. The city is served by Moi International Airport located in the northwest mainland suburb of Chaani.

Mombasa has a cosmopolitan population, with the Swahili people and Mijikenda predominant. Other communities include the Akamba and Taita Bantus as well as a significant population of Luo and Luhya peoples from Western Kenya. The major religions practised in the city are Islam, Christianity and Hinduism. Over the centuries, many immigrants and traders have settled in Mombasa, particularly from the Middle East, Somalia, and the Indian sub-continent, who came mainly as traders and skilled craftsmen.

Mombasa: History

Historical affiliations
Sultan of Mombasa Before 1593

Portuguese Empire 1593–1698
Sultanate of Oman 1698–1728
Portuguese Empire 1728–1729
Sultanate of Oman 1729–1824
British Empire 1824–1826
Sultanate of Oman 1826–1887
British East Africa/Kenya 1887–1963

Kenya 1963–present
Kenya–Uganda railway near Mombasa, circa 1899

The founding of Mombasa is associated with two rulers: Mwana Mkisi (female) and Shehe Mvita. According to oral history and medieval commentaries, Shehe Mvita superseded the dynasty of Mwana Mkisi and established his own town on Mombasa Island. Shehe Mvita is remembered as a Muslim of great learning and so is connected more directly with the present ideals of Swahili culture that people identify with Mombasa. The ancient history associated with Shehe Mvita and the founding of an urban settlement on Mombasa Island is still linked to present-day peoples living in Mombasa. The Thenashara Taifa (or Twelve Nations) Swahili lineages recount this ancient history today and are the keepers of local Swahili traditions. Even though today Mombasa is a very heterogeneous cultural mix, families associated with the Twelve Nations are still considered the original inhabitants of the city.

Most of the early information on Mombasa comes from Portuguese chroniclers writing in the 16th century. In 1331, the famous Moroccan scholar and traveller Ibn Battuta also visited the area during his travels to the Swahili Coast and made some mention of the city, although he only stayed one night. He noted that the people of Mombasa were Shãfi'i Muslims, "a religious people, trustworthy and righteous. Their mosques are made of wood, expertly built."

The exact founding date of the city is unknown, but it has a long history. Kenyan school history books place the founding of Mombasa as 900 A.D. It must have been already a prosperous trading town in the 12th century, as the Arab geographer Al Idrisi mentions it in 1151.

1572 Mombasa from Civitates orbis terrarum by Georg Braun and Franz Hogenberg

During the pre-modern period, Mombasa was an important centre for the trade in spices, gold, and ivory. Its trade links reached as far as the Indian subcontinent and modern-day China and oral historians today can still recall this period of local history. History shows that there was trade links between Mombasa and Cholas of South India. Throughout the early modern period, Mombasa was a key node in the complex and far reaching Indian Ocean trading networks, its key exports then were ivory, millet, sesamum and coconuts.

In the late pre-colonial period (late 19th century), it was the metropolis of a plantation society, which became dependent on slave labour (sources contradict whether the city was ever an important place for exporting slaves) but ivory caravans remained a major source of economic prosperity. Mombasa became the major port city of pre-colonial Kenya in the Middle Ages and was used to trade with other African port cities, the Persian Empire, the Arabian Peninsula, the Indian Subcontinent and China. 16th-century Portuguese voyager Duarte Barbosa claimed, "[Mombasa] is a place of great traffic and has a good harbour in which there are always moored small craft of many kinds and also great ships, both of which are bound from Sofala and others which come from Cambay and Melinde and others which sail to the island of Zanzibar."

Vasco da Gama was the first known European to visit Mombasa, receiving a chilly reception in 1498. Two years later, the town was sacked by the Portuguese. In 1502, the sultanate became independent from Kilwa Kisiwani and was renamed as Mvita (in Swahili) or Manbasa (Arabic). Portugal attacked the city again in 1528. In 1585 the Ottoman Turks led by Emir 'Ali Bey caused revolts in Mombasa against the Portuguese landlords; only Malindi remained loyal to Portugal. The Zimba overcame the towns of Sena and Tete on the Zambezi, and in 1587 they took Kilwa, killing 3,000 people. At Mombasa the Zimba slaughtered the Muslim inhabitants; but they were halted at Malindi by the Bantu-speaking Segeju and went home. This stimulated the Portuguese to take over Mombasa a third time in 1589, and four years later they built Fort Jesus to administer the region. Between Lake Malawi and the Zambezi mouth, Kalonga Mzura made an alliance with the Portuguese in 1608 and fielded 4,000 warriors to help defeat their rival Zimba, who were led by chief Lundi.

After the building of Fort Jesus Mombasa was put by the Portuguese under the rule of members of the ruling family of Malindi. In 1631 Dom Jeronimo the ruler of Mombasa slaughtered the Portuguese garrison in the city and defeated the relief force sent by the Portuguese. In 1632 Dom Jeronimo left Mombasa and became a pirate. That year the Portuguese returned and established direct rule over Mombasa.

With the capture of Fort Jesus in 1698, the town came under the influence of the Sultanate of Oman, subordinate to the Omani rulers on the island of Unguja, prompting regular local rebellions. Oman appointed three consecutive Governors (Wali in Arabic, Liwali in Swahili):

  • 12 December 1698 – December 1698: Imam Sa'if ibn Sultan
  • December 1698 – 1728: Nasr ibn Abdallah al-Mazru'i
  • 1728–12 March 1728: Shaykh Rumba

Next, Mombasa returned to Portuguese rule by captain-major Álvaro Caetano de Melo Castro (12 March 1728 – 21 September 1729), then four new Omani Liwali until 1746, when the last of them made it independent again (disputed by Oman), as the first of its recorded Sultans:

  • 1746–1755: 'Ali ibn Uthman al-Mazru'i
  • 1755–1773: Masud ibn Nasr al-Mazru'i
  • 1773–1782: Abdallah ibn Muhammad al-Mazru'i
  • 1782–1811: Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Mazru'i (born 17–died 1814)
  • 1812–1823: 'Abdallah ibn Ahmad al-Mazru'i (died 1823)
  • 1823–1826: Sulayman ibn 'Ali al-Mazru'i

From 9 February 1824 to 25 July 1826, there was a British protectorate over Mombasa, represented by Governors. Omani rule was restored in 1826; seven liwalis where appointed. On 24 June 1837, it was nominally annexed by Said bin Sultan of Muscat and Oman. On 25 May 1887, its administration was relinquished to the British East Africa Association, later the Imperial British East Africa Company. It soon became the capital of the British East Africa Protectorate and the sea terminal of the Uganda Railway, which was started in 1896. Many workers were brought in from British India to build the railway, and the city's fortunes revived. The Sultan of Zanzibar formally presented the town to the British in 1898.

Mombasa became the capital of the Protectorate of Kenya, sometime between 1887 and around 1906 then Kenya's capital was moved to Nairobi at around 1906. Nairobi has since been Kenya's capital to date.

Old Town

On 28 November 2002, a suicide car bomb exploded at the Israeli-owned beachfront Paradise Hotel, killing three Israelis and ten Kenyans. About 20 minutes earlier, an unsuccessful attempt was made to shoot down an Arkia Israel Airlines Boeing 757 chartered tourist plane taking off from nearby Moi International Airport using surface-to-air missiles; nobody was hurt on the plane, which landed safely in Tel Aviv. The main suspect for both attacks is al Qaeda (see Kenyan hotel bombing).

Mombasa Republican Council is a separatist organisation based in Mombasa. The group claims areas around the city and the broader coastal region. It was formed in 1999 to address perceived political and economic discrimination against the people of the coast province. The Mombasa Republican Council traces its secession claims to the 1895 and 1963 agreements transferring the 16 km (10 mi) strip of land along the coast to the Government of Kenya from Zanzibar. The group contests these agreements as invalid because they were enacted without the consent of coastal stakeholders, and asserts that the Kenyan government has not honoured the provisions designed to protect the coastal population.

Mombasa: Political divisions

Mombasa is also a county and divided into six constituencies and thirty wards.

Constituency Wards
Changamwe Port Reitz · Kipevu · Airport · Miritini · Chaani
Jomvu Jomvu Kuu · Magongo · Mikindani
Kisauni Mjambere · Junda · Bamburi · Mwakirunge · Mtopanga · Magogoni · Shanzu
Nyali Frere Town · Ziwa La Ng'ombe · Mkomani · Kongowea · Kadzandani
Likoni Mtongwe · Shika Adabu · Bofu · Likoni · Timbwani
Mvita Mji wa Kale/ Makadara · Tudor · Tononoka · Shimanzi/ Ganjoni · Majengo

Mombasa: Geography

Being a coastal town, Mombasa is characterised by a flat topography. The town of Mombasa is centred on Mombasa Island, but extends to the mainland. The island is separated from the mainland by two creeks, Port Reitz in the south and Tudor Creek in the north.

Mombasa: Suburbs

Mombasa: Mombasa Island

Tudor, Mombasa

Kizingo: Considered the prime residential area of Mombasa. The State House of Mombasa, Provincial Headquarters, The Mombasa Law Courts, and the Municipal Council are located in Kizingo. The Aga Khan Academy, Aga Khan High School, Serani Primary School, Serani High School, Santokben Nursery School, Coast Academy, Jaffery Academy, Mombasa Primary School, Loreto Convent, Mama Ngina Girls' High School and the Government Training Institute (GTI) Mombasa are all in Kizingo as well.

Kibokoni: Part of Old Town with Swahili architecture. Fort Jesus is in Baghani.

Englani: Part of Old town between Kibokoni and Makadara.

Kuze: Part of Old Town with Swahili culture and architecture. Originally flourishing with Swahili people but currently becoming a more cosmopolitan neighbourhood.

Makadara: Part of Old Town consisting of a high number of descendants of Baluchi former soldiers who settled within this area before it developed into a town. The name is derived from the Arabic word Qadr-ur-Rahman meaning fate of God.

Ganjoni: Primarily a middle class residential, home of second biggest dry dock of Africa after the one in South Africa.

Tudor: Another middle class residential area with homes and shops. The Technical University of Mombasa (TUM) is situated in this neighbourhood.

Mombasa: North Coast

Seafront of Nyali Beach, north coast (from the Voyager Resort).

Nyali: Also considered a prime and up-market residential area, it is on the mainland north of the island and is linked by the New Nyali Bridge. It has numerous beach front hotels in the area known as the "North Coast". Nyali has two distinct sections – the posh Old Nyali and the upcoming New Nyali. For many residents, Nyali has now become a self-contained residential area, with two Nakumatts, a multiplex cinema, shopping malls, banks, schools and post offices. This often eliminates the need for residents to cross the bridge and to go into the congested Mombasa city centre. Nyali is home for the Nyali Cinemax complex, Mamba Village, the Nyali Golf Club, and some of the most prestigious academic institutions of the Coast Province.

Kongowea: is a densely populated area with 15 villages, two sub-locations and an estimated population of 106,180 residents. Kongowea is a cosmopolitan settlement mainly inhabited by people from mainland who migrated into the city in search of employment, mainly in service and manufacturing sector. The area is adjacent to the rich suburb of Nyali which employs a portion of the village residents. They are mainly hired as cheap labour as watchmen, gardeners, masons for up coming houses and house help. The most well known villages inside Kongowea include Kisumu Ndogo, Shauri Yako and Mnazi Mmoja, despite being located in this prime area, many residents live under extreme conditions – poor sanitation, high crime rate and lack of basic essential amenities like schools, hospitals and tap water. Kongowea is also home to one of the largest open-air markets in the African Great Lakes.

Bamburi: also an outlying township (fifteen minutes drive) along the Malindi road. Bamburi is the location of Bamburi Portland Cement Company. Other notable features in the area are the Mijikenda public beach, commonly known as Pirates, and Haller Park, a nature trail and wildlife conservatory. Kiembeni Estate, also in the Bamburi area, hosts around 100,000 residents. The estate has its own supermarket, several retail shops, salons and boutiques, and a number of licensed drinking dens. The establishments include The Shilla Bar, Turkey Base, Stars Garden and Sensera pub. Kiembeni is arguably the largest estate in Mombasa, and growing even faster.

Other areas include, Shanzu, Mkomani, Bombolulu, Kisauni and, across the Mtwapa creek, the popular area of Mtwapa[2], which is already located in Kilifi county.

The North Coast is famous for its broad entertainment industry which attracts locals and tourists as well.

Mombasa: South Coast

Likoni: is a lower income and lower-middle-class neighbourhood connected to Mombasa Island by ferry. It is south of Mombasa Island and made up of mostly non-Swahili Bantu tribes. The ferry was the target of the Likoni Riots of 1997.

Diani Beach[3]: a beach resort area situated over the Likoni Ferry on the south coast of Mombasa. It is located some 36 km (22 mi) south of Mombasa city on the mainland coast and is a prime resort for many local and international tourists. Diani Beach has an airport at Ukunda town to cater for tourists who fly there directly from Nairobi Wilson or any other airports and airfields in the country.

Mombasa: Mombasa Mainland

Magongo: is an outlying township 20 minutes driving distance northwest of Mombasa Island, situated on the Nairobi Highway. This fringe community lacks any effective electricity, water or sewer systems, with a general lack of infrastructure. Poverty, lack of sanitation, and unemployment continue to be the greatest issues for the Mikindani Township, which have ensured low health and safety standards for its residents. Poor, lower class housing is widespread, ranging from simple stone, two-storey structures to mud and earth homes fitted with corrugated iron roofs. Much of the community works outside of the township, within Mombasa Island itself as there is a lack of employment and industry. There are number of small health clinics, shops, and a few public primary schools: Nazarene primary is one school, which is known in particular as being staffed by a revolving volunteer teacher base from Western, and predominately English speaking nations. This small town serves as a link between the city and Moi International Airport. Magongo is also home to the Akamba Handicraft Cooperative.

Mikindani, a suburban area: This is an outlying township on the mainland along the Nairobi Highway. It is built in the heavy industrial sections of Changamwe and mainly accommodate the working class who either work in the industries, the town centre on the Island and the Port at Kilindini harbour.

Miritini: outlying township on the Mombasa Nairobi Highway which is first growing as a suburban area.

Changamwe: Industrial area which contains the Kipevu power generation projects, the Kenya Oil Refinery Company facility and housing estates such as Chaani and is the gateway to the Moi International Airport. The area has administrative offices of the D.O and the chiefs who serve the administrative division.

Migadini & Chaani: They are two adjacent estate that are located east of Airport road and east of Kenya Port Authority. They are bordered by Port Reitz, Magongo and KPA

Port Reitz: Is a suburb on the mainland which contains a beach, oil refineries, housing estates etc. Moi International Airport and the Port Reitz District Hospital are in Port Reitz.

Mombasa: Culture

Moonlit boats in Mombasa

A major cultural hub in Kenya and the African Great Lakes, Mombasa's proximity to Zanzibar, Nairobi and the Indian subcontinent, as well as its large shipping and maritime industries gives it a diverse mosaic of cultures. Music is a main feature of Mombasa's culture.

Mombasa: Religion

The majority of Mombasa's population is Muslim. This large population has recently adapted Arab immigrant practices into Swahili New Year. The celebrations of maulidi, a celebration of the Prophet Muhammad’s birth, and shirk, the Mombasa adopted name for the Swahili New Year, have witnessed an increasing overlap of cultures within the city. This parallels increased migration of Muslim Arab immigrants in the region.

The Catholics are pastorally served by the Metropolitan Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Mombasa.

Mombasa: Music and nightlife

Taarab music, which originates from Zanzibar, has a prominent local presence. Styles of music native to Mombasa include the smooth and mellow Bango, fast-paced Chakacha and traditional Mwanzele.

Musicians of note are Mombasa Roots, Safari Sounds, Them Mushrooms, Anwar Juma Bhalo and Princess Farida. Mombasa has been the home or base for former greats like Fundi Konde, known for his song "Tausi"; Fadhili Williams and Grand Charo, famous for the song "Malaika"; Sal Davies; Malika Mohammed; Stara Butte; Juma Bhalo. Contemporary hip-hop fusion artistes are Susumila, Majizee, Nyota Ndogo, Cannibal (musician), Sharama and Ukoo Flani super group which once could boast up to 40 rappers.

Recently, hip hop, reggae, soul, blues, salsa and (among the Indian community) bhangra have become popular, especially amongst the youth. Mombasa is mainly a tourism centre populated by hundreds of entertainment spots of all categories from night clubs, bars, hotels, fancy restaurants and many more. It has the most vibrant night life in Kenya catering to the mainly tourist population.

Mombasa: Sports

Currently, Mombasa is represented in the Kenyan Premier League by Bandari F.C, which plays at the Mbaraki Sports Grounds. Also, the Congo United FC, Promoted and dropped in 2011, are in the second tier Nationwide Super League with 4 other hometown clubs – Admiral F.C.; Magongo Rangers; Sparki Youth and Coast United. Derbies between Mombasa teams have become intriguing affairs recently. Another team, Coast Stars, was relegated several years ago from the league. The only Mombasa-based team to win the league is Feisal F.C., the 1965 champions. Kiziwi leopards was a popular team in the 1980s as was Mombasa Wanderers decades before. There are several cricket teams in Mombasa. One of them is Mombasa Sports Club (MSC), whose ground was given ODI status in 2006. MSC has also a rugby union team playing in the Kenya Cup League, the premier rugby competition in Kenya. Mvita XI men and MSC ladies represent Mombasa in Kenyan field hockey leagues.

The 2007 World Cross Country Championships were held in Mombasa. Mombasa Marathon is competed annually in Mombasa. The town also hosts the biennial classic edition of Safari Rally and annually a Kenya National Rally Championship round.

Scuba diving takes place mostly within the Mombasa Marine National Park and Reserve, which is managed and maintained by Kenya Wildlife Service. The park has a length of about 8 km (5.0 mi).

Mombasa: Economy

Biashara Street, Mombasa

Mombasa is a major trade centre and home to Kenya's only large seaport, the Kilindini Harbour. Kilindini is an old Swahili term meaning "deep". The port is so-called because the channel is naturally very deep. Kilindini Harbor is an example of a natural geographic phenomenon called a ria, formed at the end of the last glacial period when the sea level rose and engulfed a river that was flowing from the mainland.

Mombasa is a centre of coastal tourism in Kenya. Mombasa Island itself is not a main attraction, although many people visit the Old Town and Fort Jesus. The Nyali, Bamburi, and Shanzu beaches are located north of the city. The Shelly, Tiwi, and Diani beaches are located south of Mombasa. Several luxury hotels exist on these beaches, while the less expensive hotels are located further away.

Mombasa's northern shoreline is renowned for its vibrant 24-hour entertainment offers, including both family entertainment (water parks, cinemas, bowling, etc.), sports (watersports, mountain biking and gokarting), culinary offers (restaurants offering a wide range of specialties from Kenya, China, Japan, India, Italy, Germany and other countries) and nightlife (bars, pubs, clubs, discothèques, etc.).

Other local industries include an oil refinery with a capacity of 80,000 barrels a day, and a cement factory capable of producing over 1.1 million tons per year. The major intercontinental undersea telecom cables reach shore next to Mombasa, connecting the African Great Lakes to the rest of the world and supporting a fast-growing call centre business in the area. The estimated real GDP growth for Kenya in 2016 is 5.7-6.0%. This growth will be in response to the construction of a railway system from Nairobi to Mombasa which will aid in trade and transportation between Kenya’s two major cities.

Mombasa will become a Special Economic Zone (SEZ) in which certain industries such as tea, garments, and footwear will be exempt from certain taxes to promote domestic growth. This is in response to the deficiencies in Export Processing Zones (EPZ).

The Kenyan Dock Worker’s Union is situated in Mombasa and has roughly 5,000 members.

President Kenyatta has made it a priority to deepen economic ties with Asia at the onset of his presidency. Japan has played a role in financially sponsoring the expansion of the Mombasa port in phase one and two of the expansion project.

At 44%, the rate of youth unemployment in Mombasa is more than double the national average of 21% (2016).

Mombasa: Climate

Mombasa has a tropical wet and dry climate (Köppen: As). The amount of rainfall essentially depends on the season. The rainiest months are April and May, while rainfall is minimal between January and February.

As a sea port, Mombasa is subject to detrimental consequences of a fluctuating climate. In October 2006, Mombasa experienced a large flood that affected 60,000 people.

Costal erosion has become a problem for Mombasa infrastructure. Due to rising sea levels, the coastline has been eroding at 2.5–20 cm per year. This has increased the number of annual floods.

Climate data for Mombasa (1961–1990, extremes 1890–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 35.9
Average high °C (°F) 33.2
Daily mean °C (°F) 27.6
Average low °C (°F) 22.0
Record low °C (°F) 16.8
Average precipitation mm (inches) 33.9
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 3 1 5 10 14 10 10 8 9 9 8 7 94
Average relative humidity (%) 77 75 77 80 82 82 82 82 80 81 82 80 80
Mean monthly sunshine hours 269.7 254.8 269.7 225.0 204.6 207.0 210.8 244.9 246.0 272.8 264.0 260.4 2,929.7
Mean daily sunshine hours 8.7 9.1 8.7 7.5 6.6 6.9 6.8 7.9 8.2 8.8 8.8 8.4 8.03
Source #1: NOAA
Source #2: Deutscher Wetterdienst (humidity, 1962–1993), Meteo Climat (record highs and lows)

Mombasa: Transport

Mombasa: Air

Sunrise at Moi International Airport

Moi International Airport serves the city of Mombasa. It is located in Port Reitz area, also known locally as Chaani area on the mainland metropolitan area. Flights to Nairobi and other Kenyan, European and Middle Eastern destinations depart from the airport. Besides Mombasa and Nairobi is well connected by chartered flights operated via Wilson airport. It takes approximately 45 minutes

Moi International Airport

Mombasa: Train

Mombasa has a railway station. Kenya Railways which transports passengers and cargo through the Standard Gauge Railway from Nairobi to Mombasa. Major stations are located in Syokimau in Nairobi and Miritini in Mombasa. It takes approximately four hours.

Mombasa: Road

Moi Avenue in Mombasa

Driving in Mombasa is straightforward and the majority of the roads are tarmacked. Main roads include Jomo Kenyatta Avenue, Digo Road, Nyerere Road, Nkurumah Road, Moi Avenue, Mama Ngina Drive, Barack Obama Road, Nairobi Highway and Nyali Road.

Highways connect Mombasa to Nairobi, Dar es Salaam while northward road link to Malindi and Lamu, which also extends towards the border with Somalia.

Within Mombasa, most local people use matatus (mini-buses) which are extremely common in Kenya, to move around the city and its suburbs. The tuk-tuk-a motor vehicle with three wheels-is widely used as transport around the city and its suburbs. No more than three passengers may be carried. A boda-boda is originally a bicycle taxi. Especially in cities, the bicycles are more and more replaced by motorbikes.

Mombasa: Sea

Mombasa Waterfront with ferry

Mombasa's port is the largest in Kenya, with 19 deep water berths with two additional berths nearing completion and two oil terminals. Rail connects the port to the interior. There is little or no scheduled passenger service. International cruise ships frequent the port.

Mombasa: Ferry

There is no bridge between Mombasa Island and south coast, instead the distance is served by ferries operated by the Kenya Ferry Service from Kilindini and Mtongwe to Likoni in the south coast of Mombasa. In 1994, a ferry serving Mtongwe route sank and 270 or more perished.

As a result of the major build-up of more luxurious hotels in South Coast and a lack of a direct bridge linking the South Coast to the North Coast, visiting tourists have the option of flying directly into the South Coast airstrip using the domestic airline, Air Kenya.

Mombasa: Twin towns – sister cities

  • Mombasa is twinned with:
Country City County/District/Province/Region/State Date
USA Seattle Washington 6 April 1981
USA Long Beach California 20 November 2007
USA Charlotte Amalie United States Virgin Islands unknown
USA Honolulu Hawaii 2008
South Africa eThekwini KwaZulu-Natal 20 February 2012
Norway Bergen Hordaland unknown
China Lianyungang Jiangsu unknown
China Fuzhou Fujian unknown

Mombasa: Notable residents

During its history, Mombasa was visited by numerous pioneers of the maritime exploration, such as the Arabs Al Idrissi (1151) and Ibn Battuta (1330), the Chinese Zheng He (1413) or the Portuguese Vasco da Gama (1498), Pedro Álvares Cabral (1500) João da Nova (1505) and Afonso de Albuquerque (1507).

  • Swaleh Nguru (Arab businessman, conservationist and philanthropist)
  • Karen Blixen (Danish novellist: [kʰɑːɑn ˈb̥leɡ̊sn̩]; 17 April 1885 – 7 September 1962)
  • Thomas Risley Odhiambo (1931 Mombasa–2003 Nairobi)
  • Fadhili William (1938 Mombasa–2001 Nairobi), musician, singer, composer. He is also the composer of the song Malaika.
  • Abdilatif Abdalla (born 1946 Mombasa), writer, university professor and political protestor.
  • Ayub Ogada (born 1952 Mombasa), musician, singer and composer known for having composed two songs of the movie The Constant Gardener.
  • Timothy R. McClanahan (born 1957 in Wallingford, Connecticut), marine ecologist who lives and works in Mombasa since 1991.

Mombasa is a pivotal setting in the highly popular Halo video game series. Mombasa appears as a major setting in Halo 2, and the entirety of Halo 3: ODST takes place in Mombasa. The science fiction games are set in the year 2552, and the city has been divided into "Old Mombasa" and "New Mombasa" (a prosperous section filled with futuristic skyscrapers and an iconic orbital elevator). The city comes under attack by humanity's alien adversaries, "The Covenant", who focus their planetary invasion in and around Mombasa in search of a massive, technologically advanced artifact buried nearby.

The Finnish pop hit Mombasa (by Taiska) is about the city.

In the US, the Walt Disney World resort recreated a Kenyan village in the Africa section of the Disney's Animal Kingdom theme park named "Harambe", which is modelled after Mombasa. The village features a store called the "Mombasa Marketplace".

In the 2010 film Inception, Mombasa features as a scene in the movie though it was filmed in Morocco. It appears that Cobb is an ‘extractor’, with the ability to enter people’s dreams and extract content. As he’s explaining the concept of ‘extraction’ to the elderly Japanese gentleman, Cobb wakes up in ‘Mombasa, Kenya’ – a sequence filmed in the Old Souk of Tangier, on the northern coast of Morocco.

Mombasa: See also

  • Ngomongo Villages

Mombasa: References

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  2. The World Factbook. Cia.gov. Retrieved on 17 August 2013.
  3. History of Mombasa | Mombasa, Kenya. Mombasainfo.com. Retrieved on 17 August 2013.
  4. City of Mombasa; at Geo Hive .com; "Kenya National Bureau of Statistics and the final report by the IEBC as ratified in: National Assembly Constituencies and County Assembly Wards Order, 2012"; retrieved June 2016
  5. Kenya Census 2009 (Page 7). Total Population by county Retrieved on 19 August 2014.
  6. Kenya 2009 Census
  7. Hybrid Urbanism By Nezar Al-Sayyad
  8. The African Dispersal in the Deccan By Shanti Sadiq Ali
  9. Timothy J. Stapleton, A Military History of Africa, p. 114
  10. "Mombasa History – Culture, Religion and Lifestyle in Mombasa". Mombasa.com. Retrieved 13 August 2012.
  11. "The People Nairobi, Kenya". library.thinkquest.org. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
  12. Insight – Separatist storm brewing on Kenya's coast
  13. Kithi, Ngumbao (2012). "Standard Digital News : 'Gang' seeks 'independence' for Mombasa from Kenya". standardmedia.co.ke. Standard Group Limited. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
  14. http://www.economist.com/news/middle-east-and-africa/21565641-muslim-extremism-spreads-down-east-africa%E2%80%99s-coastline-contagion-discontent
  15. "Kenya's Mombasa Republican Council : The Coast calls for freedom [501811752] | African news, analysis and opinion – The Africa Report.com". theafricareport.com. 17 May 2012. Retrieved 20 July 2012. political and economic discrimination
  16. Goldsmith PhD, Paul (November 2011). "MRC Conflict Assessment: Threats and Opportunities for Engagement.pdf" (PDF). kecosce.org. Retrieved 26 July 2012. independent demographics
  17. Kenya National Bureau of Statistics; and the final report of the IEBC as ratified in the National Assembly Constituencies and County Assembly Wards Order, 2012.
  18. [1] 2009 Kenya National Bureau of Statistics
  19. https://www.hrw.org/reports/2002/kenya/Kenya0502-06.htm
  20. Oded, Arye (2000). Islam and Politics in Kenya. Lynne Rienner Publishers, p. 11
  21. Ray D. ""Celebrating Swahili New Year: A Performative Critique of Textual Islam in Costal-Kenya,"". Muslim World. 105.
  22. Taraab Music : National Geographic World Music. Worldmusic.nationalgeographic.com (17 October 2002). Retrieved on 17 August 2013.
  23. "Kenya – Division One Zone A 2012". Futaa.com. Retrieved 13 August 2012.
  24. "Bandari come out tops in Coastal derby – SuperSport – Football". SuperSport. 8 August 2012. Retrieved 13 August 2012.
  25. KPA. KPA. Retrieved on 17 August 2013.
  26. Mombasa Refinery – A Barrel Full. Abarrelfull.wikidot.com (8 December 2012). Retrieved on 17 August 2013.
  27. http://mombasacement.com/
  28. "Country Reports: Kenya". Kenya Country Monitor. 1.
  29. https://www.theguardian.com/global-development-professionals-network/adam-smith-international-partner-zone/mombasa-economy-youth-employment
  30. Kebede, A. S., Nicholls, R. J., Hanson, S., & Mokrech, M. "Impacts of Climate Change and Sea-Level Rise: A Preliminary Case Study of Mombasa, Kenya.". Journal Of Coastal Research.
  31. "Mombase (Mombasa) Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved August 31, 2015.
  32. "Klimatafel von Mombasa (Flugh. Port Reitz) / Kenia" (PDF). Baseline climate means (1961-1990) from stations all over the world (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved August 31, 2016.
  33. "Station Mombasa" (in French). Meteo Climat. Retrieved August 31, 2016.
  34. Home. Kpa.co.ke. Retrieved on 17 August 2013.
  35. Francis Thoya, "The restless ghosts of Mtongwe", Wednesday magazine, 19 November 2003.
  36. Flying into South Coast, Mombasa
  37. Twinning of Cities. Mombasacity.go.ke. Retrieved on 17 August 2013.
  38. http://www.seattlemombasa.org/
  39. Thomas R. Odhiambo, The World Food Prize
  40. "Mombasa's Malaika", We Said Go Travel, 21 February 2013
  41. "Prison Literature in Kenya: Q & A with Abdilatif Abdalla", kimaniwawanjiru, 6 October 2010
  42. Ayub Ogada, IMusic
  43. Marine Fellow: Tim R. McClanahan, Ph.D., Environmental Initiatives, The Pew Charitable Trusts
  44. "article on Mombasa". Halopedia.
  45. Mombasa; Taiska listing; accessed October 2015
  46. "Mombasa". Safari Travel Plus. Retrieved 10 Feb 2016.
  47. Mombasa Marketplace; Mouse Planet Guide; Walt Disney's Animal Kingdom; accessed October 2015
  48. "Inception Movie locations - 2010". http://www.movie-locations.com/movies/i/Inception.html#.V9EIGxDnakp. External link in |website= (help)

Mombasa: Bibliography

  • Mombasa County Government
  • WorldStatesmen – Kenya
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