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Hotels of N'Djamena

A hotel in N'Djamena is an establishment that provides lodging paid on a short-term basis. Facilities provided may range from a basic bed and storage for clothing, to luxury features like en-suite bathrooms. Larger in N'Djamena hotels may provide additional guest facilities such as a swimming pool, business centre, childcare, conference facilities and social function services. Hotel rooms in N'Djamena are usually numbered (or named in some smaller hotels and B&Bs) to allow guests to identify their room. Some N'Djamena hotels offer meals as part of a room and board arrangement. Hotel operations vary in size, function, and cost. Most N'Djamena hotels and major hospitality companies that operate hotels in N'Djamena have set widely accepted industry standards to classify hotel types. General categories include the following:

Upscale luxury hotels in N'Djamena
An upscale full service hotel facility in N'Djamena that offers luxury amenities, full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and the highest level of personalized and professional service. Luxury N'Djamena hotels are normally classified with at least a Four Diamond or Five Diamond status or a Four or Five Star rating depending on classification standards.

Full service hotels in N'Djamena
Full service N'Djamena hotels often contain upscale full-service facilities with a large volume of full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and a variety of on-site amenities such as swimming pools, a health club, children's activities, ballrooms, on-site conference facilities, etc.

Historic inns and boutique hotels in N'Djamena
Boutique hotels of N'Djamena are smaller independent non-branded hotels that often contain upscale facilities of varying size in unique or intimate settings with full service accommodations. N'Djamena boutique hotels are generally 100 rooms or less. Some historic inns and boutique hotels in N'Djamena may be classified as luxury hotels.

Focused or select service hotels in N'Djamena
Small to medium-sized hotel establishments that offer a limited amount of on-site amenities that only cater and market to a specific demographic of N'Djamena travelers, such as the single business traveler. Most N'Djamena focused or select service hotels may still offer full service accommodations but may lack leisure amenities such as an on-site restaurant or a swimming pool.

Economy and limited service hotels in N'Djamena
Small to medium-sized N'Djamena hotel establishments that offer a very limited amount of on-site amenities and often only offer basic accommodations with little to no services, these facilities normally only cater and market to a specific demographic of travelers, such as the budget-minded N'Djamena traveler seeking a "no frills" accommodation. Limited service N'Djamena hotels often lack an on-site restaurant but in return may offer a limited complimentary food and beverage amenity such as on-site continental breakfast service.

Guest houses and B&Bs in N'Djamena
A bed and breakfast in N'Djamena is a small lodging establishment that offers overnight accommodation and inclusive breakfast. Usually, N'Djamena bed and breakfasts are private homes or family homes offering accommodations. The typical N'Djamena B&B has between 4 and 11 rooms, with 6 being the average. Generally, guests are accommodated in private bedrooms with private bathrooms, or in a suite of rooms including an en suite bathroom. Some homes have private bedrooms with a bathroom which is shared with other guests. Breakfast is served in the bedroom, a dining room, or the host's kitchen. Often the owners of guest house themselves prepare the breakfast and clean the rooms.

Hostels in N'Djamena
N'Djamena hostels provide budget-oriented, sociable accommodation where guests can rent a bed, usually a bunk bed, in a dormitory and share a bathroom, lounge, and sometimes a kitchen. Rooms can be mixed or single-sex, although private rooms may also be available. Hostels are often cheaper for both the operator and occupants; many N'Djamena hostels have long-term residents whom they employ as desk agents or housekeeping staff in exchange for experience or discounted accommodation.

Apartment hotels, extended stay hotels in N'Djamena
Extended stay hotels are small to medium-sized N'Djamena hotels that offer longer term full service accommodations compared to a traditional hotel. Extended stay hotels may offer non-traditional pricing methods such as a weekly rate that cater towards travelers in need of short-term accommodations for an extended period of time. Similar to limited and select service hotels, on-site amenities are normally limited and most extended stay hotels in N'Djamena lack an on-site restaurant.

Timeshare and destination clubs in N'Djamena
N'Djamena timeshare and destination clubs are a form of property ownership also referred to as a vacation ownership involving the purchase and ownership of an individual unit of accommodation for seasonal usage during a specified period of time. Timeshare resorts in N'Djamena often offer amenities similar that of a Full service hotel with on-site restaurant(s), swimming pools, recreation grounds, and other leisure-oriented amenities. Destination clubs of N'Djamena on the other hand may offer more exclusive private accommodations such as private houses in a neighborhood-style setting.

Motels in N'Djamena
A N'Djamena motel is a small-sized low-rise lodging establishment similar to that of a limited service hotel, but with direct access to individual rooms from the car park. Common during the 1950s and 1960s, motels were often located adjacent to a major road, where they were built on inexpensive land at the edge of towns or along stretches of highways. They are still useful in less populated areas of N'Djamena for driving travelers, but the more populated an area becomes the more hotels fill the need. Many of N'Djamena motels which remain in operation have joined national franchise chains, rebranding themselves as hotels, inns or lodges.

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Travelling and vacation in N'Djamena

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N’Djamena
انجامينا Injāmīnā
Fort-Lamy
Chad central bank in late December 2011
Chad central bank in late December 2011
Coat of arms of N’Djamena
Coat of arms
N’Djamena is located in Chad
N’Djamena
N’Djamena
N’Djamena is located in Africa
N’Djamena
N’Djamena
Location in Chad and Africa
Coordinates:  / 12.13472; 15.05583
Country Chad
Region N’Djamena
Area
• City 100 km (40 sq mi)
Elevation 298 m (978 ft)
Population (2012)
• City 1,092,066
• Density 11,000/km (28,000/sq mi)
• Metro 1,605,696
Time zone +1
Area code(s) 235

N’Djamena (/ənɑːˈmnɑː/; French: N'Djaména; Arabic: انجامينا‎‎ Injāmīnā) is the capital and largest city of Chad. A port on the Chari River, near the confluence with the Logone River, it directly faces the Cameroonian town of Kousséri, to which the city is connected by a bridge. It is also a special statute region, divided into 10 arrondissements. It is a regional market for livestock, salt, dates, and grains. Meat, fish and cotton processing are the chief industries, and the city continues to serve as the center of economic activity in Chad.

N'Djamena: History

N’Djamena was founded as Fort-Lamy by French commander Émile Gentil on May 29, 1900, and named after Amédée-François Lamy, an army officer who had been killed in the Battle of Kousséri a few days earlier. It was a major trading city and became the capital of the region and nation.

During the Second World War, the French relied heavily upon the city's airport to move troops and supplies. On 21 January 1942, a lone German He 111 of the Sonderkommando Blaich successfully bombed the airfield at Fort-Lamy, destroying oil supplies and ten aircraft. Fort-Lamy received its first bank branch in 1950, when the Bank of West Africa (BAO) opened a branch there.

On April 6, 1973, the President François Tombalbaye changed its name to N’Djamena (taken from the Arab name of a nearby village, Niǧāmīnā, meaning "place of rest") as part of his authenticité program of Africanization. The city was occupied by Libya during the 1980–81 Libyan intervention as part of the Chadian–Libyan conflict, and the associated Transitional Government of National Unity.

The city was partly destroyed during the Chadian Civil War, in 1979 and again in 1980. In these years, almost all of the population fled the town, searching for refuge on the opposite bank of the Chari River in Cameroon, next to the city of Kousseri. The residents did not return until 1981–82, after the end of the clashes. Until 1984, facilities and services were subject to strict rationing, and schools remained closed.

The period of turmoil in the city was started by the abortive coup attempted by the northerner Prime Minister Hissène Habré against the southerner President Félix Malloum: while Malloum and the national army loyal to him were defeated, the intervention in the battle of other northern factions rival to that of Habré complicated the situation. A temporary truce was reached in 1979 through international mediation, establishing the warlord Goukouni Oueddei as head of a government of national unity with his rival Habré as Defense Minister. The intense rivalry between Goukouni and Habré caused the eruption of new clashes in the city in 1980; N’Djamena found itself divided into sectors controlled by the various warlords. The tug-of-war reached a conclusion after many months only when Goukouni asked for the intervention of the Libyans, whose tanks overwhelmed Habré's defenses in the capital.

Following differences between Goukouni and Muammar Gaddafi and international disapproval of Libyan intervention, the Libyan troops left the capital and Chad in 1981. This opened the door to Habré, who marched on N’Djamena, occupying the city with little resistance in 1982 and installing himself as the new president. He was eventually dislodged in a similar fashion in 1990 by a former general of his, Idriss Déby, as of 2016 the head of state of Chad.

The city had only 9,976 inhabitants in 1937, but a decade later, in 1947, the population had almost doubled to 18,435. In 1968, after independence, the population reached 126,483. In 1993, it surpassed half a million with 529,555. A good deal of this growth has been due to refugees fleeing into N’Djamena for security, although many people fled N’Djamena, also depending on the political situation.

On April 13, 2006, a rebel United Front for Democratic Change attack on the city was defeated in the Battle of N’Djamena. The city was once again attacked on February 2, 2008, by UFDD and RFC rebels. (See Battle of N'Djamena (2008))

N'Djamena: Demographics

Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1937 9,976 -
1940 12,552 +25.8%
1947 18,375 +46.4%
1960 60,000 +226.5%
1970 130,000 +116.7%
1993 529,555 +307.4%
2000 728,000 +37.5%
2010 860,000 +18.1%
2012 1,092,066 +27.0%

In N’Djamena, only about twenty- six percent of the area is urbanized. Most residents of Chad live in the capital city, N’Djamena, or the Logone Occidental Region just south of the capital. Just about half of the population is under the age of fifteen. Of these people, it is a uniform divide of males and females. While the division between genders is even, the divide among ethnic groups and religion are significantly different. A variety of religions are practiced in the city, but with a clear Islamic predominance. The main ethnic groups are: Daza (16.97%), Chadian Arabs (11.08%), Hadjerai (9.15%), Ngambaye (6.41%), Bilala (5.83%), Kanembu (5.80%), Maba (4.84%), Kanuri (4.39%), Gor (3.32%), Kuka (3.20%), Sara (2.24%), and Barma (2.10%).

N'Djamena: Economy

N'Djamena's primary economic source is agricultural work. About 80% of the population within N'Djamena works within farming-based industries, including cultivation of crops and growing livestock. The economy in N'Djamena is therefore almost totally reliant on good weather, making the economy struggle in years with low rainfall. N'Djamena receives financial aid from the World Bank, as well as the African Development Bank. There is a high demand for skilled laborers within N'Djamena to work for oil and gas sectors, as well as laborers for foreign non-governmental organizations, medical services, and English teaching. Residents in N'Djamena are to be held accountable for up to 60% of total income, regardless of the source of income.

N'Djamena: Geography

Astronaut's view of N’Djamena (Fort-Lamy)

N’Djamena is located at  / 12.11306; 15.04917  / 12.11306; 15.04917, on the confluence of the Chari and Logone rivers.

While primarily an administrative center, the city includes the Nassara Strip commercial centre and residential areas, such as Mbololo, Chagoua, Paris Congo and Moursal. The main commercial avenue of the city is the Avenue Charles de Gaulle.

N'Djamena: Climate

N’Djamena has a semi-arid climate with a short wet season and a lengthy dry season. Despite the fact that the city receives on average approximately 510 mm (20 in) of rain annually, due to the area's very high evapotranspiration, N'Djamena still falls into the semi-arid climate category. The wet season lasts from June to September, with the heaviest precipitation occurring in August. The dry season essentially covers the remaining eight months. Based on annual temperatures, N'Djamena is one of the hottest major cities on the planet. In only one month of the year (August) do average monthly high temperatures fail to cross the 32 °C (90 °F) mark. The city's highest temperatures are usually seen between March and June, just before the onset of the heavier rains. However, outside of the warmest months of the year, nights in N'Djamena are generally tolerable.

Climate data for N'Djamena (1961–1990, extremes 1904–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 41.8
(107.2)
47.6
(117.7)
46.5
(115.7)
48.3
(118.9)
49.1
(120.4)
44.0
(111.2)
46.0
(114.8)
38.6
(101.5)
40.5
(104.9)
43.6
(110.5)
47.5
(117.5)
40.5
(104.9)
49.1
(120.4)
Average high °C (°F) 32.4
(90.3)
35.2
(95.4)
38.7
(101.7)
41.0
(105.8)
39.9
(103.8)
37.2
(99)
33.5
(92.3)
31.6
(88.9)
33.7
(92.7)
36.9
(98.4)
35.8
(96.4)
33.5
(92.3)
35.8
(96.4)
Daily mean °C (°F) 23.4
(74.1)
25.9
(78.6)
29.9
(85.8)
32.9
(91.2)
32.9
(91.2)
30.9
(87.6)
28.3
(82.9)
27.0
(80.6)
28.2
(82.8)
29.4
(84.9)
26.8
(80.2)
24.2
(75.6)
28.32
(82.96)
Average low °C (°F) 14.3
(57.7)
16.6
(61.9)
21.0
(69.8)
24.8
(76.6)
25.8
(78.4)
24.7
(76.5)
23.1
(73.6)
22.4
(72.3)
22.7
(72.9)
21.8
(71.2)
17.8
(64)
14.8
(58.6)
20.8
(69.5)
Record low °C (°F) 6.5
(43.7)
8.0
(46.4)
11.3
(52.3)
16.2
(61.2)
16.8
(62.2)
18.2
(64.8)
17.7
(63.9)
18.5
(65.3)
15.1
(59.2)
13.5
(56.3)
10.3
(50.5)
8.4
(47.1)
6.5
(43.7)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.3
(0.012)
10.3
(0.406)
25.8
(1.016)
51.0
(2.008)
143.8
(5.661)
174.4
(6.866)
84.3
(3.319)
20.3
(0.799)
0.1
(0.004)
0.0
(0)
510.3
(20.091)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 0 0 1 3 6 9 13 15 9 3 1 0 60
Average relative humidity (%) 29 23 21 28 39 52 68 76 72 49 33 31 43
Mean monthly sunshine hours 297.6 277.2 282.1 273.0 285.2 258.0 213.9 201.5 228.0 285.2 300.0 303.8 3,205.5
Mean daily sunshine hours 9.6 9.9 9.1 9.1 9.2 8.6 6.9 6.5 7.6 9.2 10.0 9.8 8.8
Source #1: World Meteorological Organization (precipitation)
Source #2: NOAA (sun, humidity, temperatures), Meteo Climat (record highs and lows)

N'Djamena: Tourism and culture

The National Centre of Cultural Activity

Attractions in the city include the Chad National Museum, a cathedral and several mosques. Within the Chad National Museum, one can view the partial skull of Sahelanthropus or "Toumaï." This skull was discovered in the northern part of Chad and is considered to be from one of the earliest human ancestors. Views of sunset across the Chari River can also be spectacular. N’Djamena was named Capital of Islamic Culture for 2009.

N'Djamena: Education

In Africa, education can be thought of as a luxury even though it is compulsory and free and has been since Chad's independence in 1960. SOS schools have been set up around the continent to provide children with a quality education. Currently, not more than forty percent of elementary age children in Chad have an opportunity to attend classes and with N'Djamena's poor state stability it is even harder for children to get and education. After progressing through elementary school, some students go on to a university. N’Djamena has two universities: the University of N’Djamena with French as the language of instruction, built in 1971; and King Faisal University - Chad with Arabic as the language of instruction, built in 1991. Secondary schools include the long established Lycée Félix Éboué and Lycée technique commercial, Lycée Montaigne de N'Djamena (French international school), and the American International School of N’Djamena. Secondary school within Chad is mandatory, however only 68% of students over the age of 12 attend school. Of that 68%, 70% of these students attend school within N'Djamena. The American International School of N'Djamena is a popular choice within the city for secondary schools as international institutions are of a higher standard than public schools. Many of the students in international schools are children of executives, diplomats, and non-governmental organization employees.

N'Djamena: Government

N’Djamena is the home of the National Assembly of Chad, along with many political organisations and parties, and every national ministry. The Supreme Court and Court of Appeal are also in N’Djamena, along with every major embassy in Chad, including the French and US embassies. It is sometimes considered within the region of Chari-Baguirmi, although separate.

N'Djamena: Transport

The city is the eastern terminus of the Trans-Sahelian Highway, and is linked to East Africa by the (largely unpaved) N’Djamena–Djibouti Highway. The Tripoli-Cape Town Highway also passes through N’Djamena, making it a key Central African location in the Trans-African Highway network. N’Djamena is linked by road bridge to Kousseri in Cameroon.

N’Djamena International Airport Hassan Djamous (IATA code NDJ) is located on the outskirts of the city.

Historically, N’Djamena's main link to the exterior was by river boat up the Chari and Logone rivers, but these now carry little trade.

The city has no railway links. However, railways have been proposed.

N'Djamena: Twin cities

  • France Toulouse, France, since 1980.
  • Russia Stupino, Russia, since 2000.

N'Djamena: References

  1. "World Gazetteer". Archived from the original on 11 January 2013.
  2. "Definition of Ndjamena". The Free Dictionary. Retrieved 2014-07-27.
  3. "Define Ndjamena". Dictionary.com. Retrieved 2014-07-27.
  4. Zurocha-Walske, Christine (2009). Chad in Pictures. Twenty-First Century Books. p. 17. ISBN 978-1-57505-956-3.
  5. Zeleza, Tiyambe; Dickson Eyoh (2003). Encyclopedia of twentieth-century African history. Taylor & Francis. p. 379. ISBN 978-0-415-23479-5.
  6. MESSERSCHMITT Bf 108 – 'TAIFUN' accessed: 29 April 2011
  7. "N’Djamena (Chad)". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 2009. Retrieved 29 November 2009.
  8. Samuel Decalo, Historical Dictionary of Chad, Scarecrow, 1987, pp. 229–230
  9. Robert Buijtenhuijs, Le Frolinat et les guerres civiles du Tchad, Karthala, 1987, pp. 67–175
  10. R. Buijtenhuijs, Le Frolinat et les guerres civiles du Tchad, pp. 177–225
  11. BBC: UN condemns rebel attack in Chad
  12. "Rebels clash with Chadian forces inside capital". February 2, 2008.
  13. "Chad Population (2016) - World Population Review". worldpopulationreview.com. Retrieved 2016-10-28.
  14. "Working in N'Djamena". InterNations. Retrieved 2016-11-12.
  15. "World Weather Information Service–Ndjamena". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved October 19, 2015.
  16. "ND'Jamena Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved October 19, 2015.
  17. "Station N'Djamena" (in French). Meteo Climat. Retrieved October 19, 2016.
  18. "Chad National Museum". Afrotourism. Retrieved 2016-11-13.
  19. Brunet, Michel; Guy, Franck; Pilbeam, David; Mackaye, Hassane Taisso; Likius, Andossa; Ahounta, Djimdoumalbaye; Beauvilain, Alain; Blondel, Cécile; Bocherens, Hervé (2002-07-11). "A new hominid from the Upper Miocene of Chad, Central Africa". Nature. 418 (6894): 145–151. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 12110880. doi:10.1038/nature00879.
  20. "N’Djamena, Capital of Islamic Culture for 2009". 2009. Archived from the original on August 26, 2009. Retrieved 1 December 2009.
  21. "Education & Jobs". Our Africa. Retrieved 2016-10-28.
  22. "Chad facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Chad". www.encyclopedia.com. Retrieved 2016-10-28.
  23. Official website
  24. "Chad's education system follows the model of its former colonizer, France". Bibl.u-szeged.hu. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
  25. "Living in N'Djamena". InterNations. Retrieved 2016-11-13.
  26. Europa Publications (2004). Africa South of the Sahara. Routledge. pp. 235–6. ISBN 978-1-85743-183-4.
  27. "N'Djamena, Chari-Baguirmi, Chad". Mbendi Information Services. Retrieved 1 December 2009.
  28. https://au.int/web/sites/default/files/newsevents/workingdocuments/29736-wd-e_-_tah_annex_i_tah_network.pdf
  29. http://www.railwaygazette.com/news/infrastructure/single-view/view/work-to-begin-on-chad-rail-network.html
  30. "Toulouse-N’Djamena: une solidarité durable". Adequations (in French). 2008. Retrieved 30 November 2009.
  31. Российско-чадские отношения (in Russian). Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 16 February 2009. Retrieved 2009-07-23.
  • "Chad Population (2016) - World Population Review". worldpopulationreview.com. Retrieved 2016-10-28.
  • Map of N'Djamena
  • Best travel guide
  • earth-info.nga.mil
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N'Djamena: Information in other languages
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አማርኛ ንጃመና
العربية انجمينا
Arpetan N’Dj·amèna
Asturianu Xamena
Azərbaycanca Ncamena
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Беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎ Нджамэна
Български Нджамена
བོད་ཡིག ཇ་མི་ན།
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Brezhoneg Ndjamena
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Español Yamena
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客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî N'Djamena
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Македонски Нџамена
Malagasy N'Djamena
മലയാളം ൻഡ്ജാമെന
मराठी इंजामिना
მარგალური ნჯამენა
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Nāhuatl Yamena
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日本語 ンジャメナ
Нохчийн Нджамена
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Norsk N'Djamena
Norsk nynorsk N'Djamena
Occitan N'Djamena
Oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча Njamena
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ ਨਿਜਾਮੀਨਾ
پنجابی نجمینا
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Piemontèis N'Djamena
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Slovenščina N'Djamena
Soomaaliga Injamiina
کوردی نجامێنا
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Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски N'Djamena
Suomi N’Djamena
Svenska N'Djamena
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தமிழ் நிஜாமீனா
Taqbaylit Nǧamena
ไทย อึนจาเมนา
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中文 恩賈梅納
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