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Hotels of Nuremberg

A hotel in Nuremberg is an establishment that provides lodging paid on a short-term basis. Facilities provided may range from a basic bed and storage for clothing, to luxury features like en-suite bathrooms. Larger in Nuremberg hotels may provide additional guest facilities such as a swimming pool, business centre, childcare, conference facilities and social function services. Hotel rooms in Nuremberg are usually numbered (or named in some smaller hotels and B&Bs) to allow guests to identify their room. Some Nuremberg hotels offer meals as part of a room and board arrangement. Hotel operations vary in size, function, and cost. Most Nuremberg hotels and major hospitality companies that operate hotels in Nuremberg have set widely accepted industry standards to classify hotel types. General categories include the following:

Upscale luxury hotels in Nuremberg
An upscale full service hotel facility in Nuremberg that offers luxury amenities, full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and the highest level of personalized and professional service. Luxury Nuremberg hotels are normally classified with at least a Four Diamond or Five Diamond status or a Four or Five Star rating depending on classification standards.

Full service hotels in Nuremberg
Full service Nuremberg hotels often contain upscale full-service facilities with a large volume of full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and a variety of on-site amenities such as swimming pools, a health club, children's activities, ballrooms, on-site conference facilities, etc.

Historic inns and boutique hotels in Nuremberg
Boutique hotels of Nuremberg are smaller independent non-branded hotels that often contain upscale facilities of varying size in unique or intimate settings with full service accommodations. Nuremberg boutique hotels are generally 100 rooms or less. Some historic inns and boutique hotels in Nuremberg may be classified as luxury hotels.

Focused or select service hotels in Nuremberg
Small to medium-sized hotel establishments that offer a limited amount of on-site amenities that only cater and market to a specific demographic of Nuremberg travelers, such as the single business traveler. Most Nuremberg focused or select service hotels may still offer full service accommodations but may lack leisure amenities such as an on-site restaurant or a swimming pool.

Economy and limited service hotels in Nuremberg
Small to medium-sized Nuremberg hotel establishments that offer a very limited amount of on-site amenities and often only offer basic accommodations with little to no services, these facilities normally only cater and market to a specific demographic of travelers, such as the budget-minded Nuremberg traveler seeking a "no frills" accommodation. Limited service Nuremberg hotels often lack an on-site restaurant but in return may offer a limited complimentary food and beverage amenity such as on-site continental breakfast service.

Guest houses and B&Bs in Nuremberg
A bed and breakfast in Nuremberg is a small lodging establishment that offers overnight accommodation and inclusive breakfast. Usually, Nuremberg bed and breakfasts are private homes or family homes offering accommodations. The typical Nuremberg B&B has between 4 and 11 rooms, with 6 being the average. Generally, guests are accommodated in private bedrooms with private bathrooms, or in a suite of rooms including an en suite bathroom. Some homes have private bedrooms with a bathroom which is shared with other guests. Breakfast is served in the bedroom, a dining room, or the host's kitchen. Often the owners of guest house themselves prepare the breakfast and clean the rooms.

Hostels in Nuremberg
Nuremberg hostels provide budget-oriented, sociable accommodation where guests can rent a bed, usually a bunk bed, in a dormitory and share a bathroom, lounge, and sometimes a kitchen. Rooms can be mixed or single-sex, although private rooms may also be available. Hostels are often cheaper for both the operator and occupants; many Nuremberg hostels have long-term residents whom they employ as desk agents or housekeeping staff in exchange for experience or discounted accommodation.

Apartment hotels, extended stay hotels in Nuremberg
Extended stay hotels are small to medium-sized Nuremberg hotels that offer longer term full service accommodations compared to a traditional hotel. Extended stay hotels may offer non-traditional pricing methods such as a weekly rate that cater towards travelers in need of short-term accommodations for an extended period of time. Similar to limited and select service hotels, on-site amenities are normally limited and most extended stay hotels in Nuremberg lack an on-site restaurant.

Timeshare and destination clubs in Nuremberg
Nuremberg timeshare and destination clubs are a form of property ownership also referred to as a vacation ownership involving the purchase and ownership of an individual unit of accommodation for seasonal usage during a specified period of time. Timeshare resorts in Nuremberg often offer amenities similar that of a Full service hotel with on-site restaurant(s), swimming pools, recreation grounds, and other leisure-oriented amenities. Destination clubs of Nuremberg on the other hand may offer more exclusive private accommodations such as private houses in a neighborhood-style setting.

Motels in Nuremberg
A Nuremberg motel is a small-sized low-rise lodging establishment similar to that of a limited service hotel, but with direct access to individual rooms from the car park. Common during the 1950s and 1960s, motels were often located adjacent to a major road, where they were built on inexpensive land at the edge of towns or along stretches of highways. They are still useful in less populated areas of Nuremberg for driving travelers, but the more populated an area becomes the more hotels fill the need. Many of Nuremberg motels which remain in operation have joined national franchise chains, rebranding themselves as hotels, inns or lodges.

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Travelling and vacation in Nuremberg

Nuremberg Castle
Nuremberg Castle
Flag of Nuremberg
Coat of arms of Nuremberg
Coat of arms
Nuremberg   is located in Germany
Coordinates:  / 49.450; 11.083  / 49.450; 11.083
Country Germany
State Bavaria
Admin. region Middle Franconia
District Urban district
• Mayor Ulrich Maly (SPD)
• City 186.46 km (71.99 sq mi)
Elevation 302 m (991 ft)
Population (2015-12-31)
• City 509,975
• Density 2,700/km (7,100/sq mi)
• Urban 763,854 (includes Erlangen, Fürth and Schwabach)
• Metro 3,500,000
Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Postal codes 90000-90491
Dialling codes 0911, 09122, 09129
Vehicle registration N
Website nuernberg.de

Nuremberg (/ˈnjʊərəmbɜːrɡ/; German: Nürnberg; pronounced [ˈnʏɐ̯nbɛɐ̯k]) is a city on the river Pegnitz and on the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal in the German state of Bavaria, in the administrative region of Middle Franconia, about 170 kilometres (110 mi) north of Munich. It is the second-largest city in Bavaria (after Munich), and the largest in Franconia (German: Franken). As of February 2015 it had a population of 517,498, making it Germany's fourteenth-largest city. The urban area also includes Fürth, Erlangen and Schwabach, with a total population of 763,854. As of 2016 the "European Metropolitan Area Nuremberg" had approximately 3.5 million inhabitants.

Nuremberg: History

Nuremberg: Middle Ages

Old fortifications of Nuremberg

Nuremberg was, according to the first documentary mention of the city in 1050, the location of an Imperial castle between the East Franks and the Bavarian March of the Nordgau. From 1050 to 1571, the city expanded and rose dramatically in importance due to its location on key trade routes. King Conrad III established a burgraviate, with the first burgraves coming from the Austrian House of Raab but, with the extinction of their male line around 1190, the burgraviate was inherited by the last count's son-in-law, of the House of Hohenzollern. From the late 12th century to the Interregnum (1254–73), however, the power of the burgraves diminished as the Hohenstaufen emperors transferred most non-military powers to a castellan, with the city administration and the municipal courts handed over to an Imperial mayor (German: Reichsschultheiß) from 1173/74. The strained relations between the burgraves and the castellan, with gradual transferral of powers to the latter in the late 14th and early 15th centuries, finally broke out into open enmity, which greatly influenced the history of the city.

The Imperial Castle

Nuremberg is often referred to as having been the 'unofficial capital' of the Holy Roman Empire, particularly because Imperial Diet (Reichstag) and courts met at Nuremberg Castle. The Diets of Nuremberg were an important part of the administrative structure of the empire. The increasing demand of the royal court and the increasing importance of the city attracted increased trade and commerce to Nuremberg. In 1219, Frederick II granted the Großen Freiheitsbrief (Great Letter of Freedom), including town rights, Imperial immediacy (Reichsfreiheit), the privilege to mint coins, and an independent customs policy, almost wholly removing the city from the purview of the burgraves. Nuremberg soon became, with Augsburg, one of the two great trade centers on the route from Italy to Northern Europe.

In 1298, the Jews of the town were accused of having desecrated the host, and 698 of them were killed in one of the many Rintfleisch Massacres. Behind the massacre of 1298 was also the desire to combine the northern and southern parts of the city, which were divided by the Pegnitz. The Jews of the German lands suffered many massacres during the plague years. In 1349, Nuremberg's Jews were subjected to a pogrom. They were burned at the stake or expelled, and a marketplace was built over the former Jewish quarter.

The plague returned to the city in 1405, 1435, 1437, 1482, 1494, 1520 and 1534.

Nuremberg in 1493
(from the Nuremberg Chronicle).

The largest gains for Nuremberg were in the 14th century; including Charles IV's Golden Bull of 1356, naming Nuremberg as the city where newly elected kings of Germany must hold their first Imperial Diet, making Nuremberg one of the three most important cities of the Empire. Charles was the patron of the Frauenkirche, built between 1352 and 1362 (the architect was likely Peter Parler), where the Imperial court worshipped during its stays in Nuremberg. The royal and Imperial connection was strengthened when Sigismund of Luxembourg granted the Imperial regalia to be kept permanently in Nuremberg in 1423, where they remained until 1796, when the advancing French troops required their removal to Regensburg and thence to Vienna.

In 1349 the members of the guilds unsuccessfully rebelled against the patricians in the Handwerkeraufstand (Craftsmen's Uprising), supported by merchants and some councillors, leading to a ban on any self-organisation of the artisans in the city, abolishing the guilds that were customary elsewhere in Europe; the unions were then dissolved, and the oligarchs remained in power while Nuremberg was a free city. Charles IV conferred upon the city the right to conclude alliances independently, thereby placing it upon a politically equal footing with the princes of the empire. Frequent fights took place with the burgraves without, however, inflicting lasting damage upon the city. After the castle had been destroyed by fire in 1420 during a feud between Frederick IV (since 1417 margrave of Brandenburg) and the duke of Bavaria-Ingolstadt, the ruins and the forest belonging to the castle were purchased by the city (1427), resulting in the city's total sovereignty within its borders. Through these and other acquisitions the city accumulated considerable territory. The Hussite Wars, recurrence of the Black Death in 1437, and the First Margrave War led to a severe fall in population in the mid-15th century. At the beginning of the 16th century, siding with Albert IV, Duke of Bavaria-Munich, in the Landshut War of Succession led the city to gain substantial territory, resulting in lands of 25 sq mi (64.7 km), becoming one of the largest Imperial cities. During the Middle Ages, Nuremberg's literary culture was rich, varied, and influential.

Nuremberg: Early modern age

Map of Nuremberg, 1648

The cultural flowering of Nuremberg, in the 15th and 16th centuries, made it the centre of the German Renaissance. In 1525, Nuremberg accepted the Protestant Reformation, and in 1532, the religious Peace of Nuremberg, by which the Lutherans gained important concessions, was signed there. During the 1552 revolution against Charles V, Nuremberg tried to purchase its neutrality, but the city was attacked without a declaration of war and was forced into a disadvantageous peace. At the Peace of Augsburg, the possessions of the Protestants were confirmed by the Emperor, their religious privileges extended and their independence from the Bishop of Bamberg affirmed, while the 1520s' secularisation of the monasteries was also approved.

Wolffscher Bau of the old city hall

The state of affairs in the early 16th century, increased trade routes elsewhere and the ossification of the social hierarchy and legal structures contributed to the decline in trade. Frequent quartering of Imperial, Swedish and League soldiers, the financial costs of the war and the cessation of trade caused irreparable damage to the city and a near-halving of the population. In 1632, the city, occupied by the forces of Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, was besieged by the army of Imperial general Albrecht von Wallenstein. The city declined after the war and recovered its importance only in the 19th century, when it grew as an industrial centre. Even after the Thirty Years' War, however, there was a late flowering of architecture and culture – secular Baroque architecture is exemplified in the layout of the civic gardens built outside the city walls, and in the Protestant city's rebuilding of the Egidienkirche, destroyed by fire at the beginning of the 18th century, considered a significant contribution to the baroque church architecture of Middle Franconia.

After the Thirty Years' War, Nuremberg attempted to remain detached from external affairs, but contributions were demanded for the War of the Austrian Succession and the Seven Years' War and restrictions of imports and exports deprived the city of many markets for its manufactures. The Bavarian elector, Charles Theodore, appropriated part of the land obtained by the city during the Landshut War of Succession, to which Bavaria had maintained its claim; Prussia also claimed part of the territory. Realising its weakness, the city asked to be incorporated into Prussia but Frederick William II refused, fearing to offend Austria, Russia and France. At the Imperial diet in 1803, the independence of Nuremberg was affirmed, but on the signing of the Confederation of the Rhine on 12 July 1806, it was agreed to hand the city over to Bavaria from 8 September, with Bavaria guaranteeing the amortisation of the city's 12.5 million guilder public debt.

Nuremberg: After the Great French War

Old town of Nuremberg in the 19th century
The British-built Adler was the locomotive of the first German Railway between Nuremberg and Fürth.

After the fall of Napoleon, the city's trade and commerce revived; the skill of its inhabitants together with its favourable situation soon made the city prosperous, particularly after its public debt had been acknowledged as a part of the Bavarian national debt. Having been incorporated into a Catholic country, the city was compelled to refrain from further discrimination against Catholics, who had been excluded from the rights of citizenship. Catholic services had been celebrated in the city by the priests of the Teutonic Order, often under great difficulties. After their possessions had been confiscated by the Bavarian government in 1806, they were given the Frauenkirche on the Market in 1809; in 1810 the first Catholic parish was established, which in 1818 numbered 1,010 souls.

In 1817, the city was incorporated into the district of Rezatkreis (named for the river Franconian Rezat), which was renamed to Middle Franconia (German: Mittelfranken) on 1 January 1838. The first German railway, the Bavarian Ludwigsbahn, from Nuremberg to nearby Fürth, was opened in 1835. The establishment of railways and the incorporation of Bavaria into Zollverein (the 19th-century German Customs Union), commerce and industry opened the way to greater prosperity. In 1852, there were 53,638 inhabitants: 46,441 Protestants and 6,616 Catholics. It subsequently grew to become the most important industrial city of Bavaria and one of the most prosperous towns of southern Germany. In 1905, its population, including several incorporated suburbs, was 291,351: 86,943 Catholics, 196,913 Protestants, 3,738 Jews and 3,766 members of other creeds.

Nuremberg: Nazi era

Nuremberg rally, 1935

Nuremberg held great significance during the Nazi Germany era. Because of the city's relevance to the Holy Roman Empire and its position in the centre of Germany, the Nazi Party chose the city to be the site of huge Nazi Party conventions - the Nuremberg rallies. The rallies were held 1927, 1929 and annually 1933–1938 in Nuremberg. After Adolf Hitler's rise to power in 1933 the Nuremberg rallies became huge Nazi propaganda events, a centre of Nazi ideals. The 1934 rally was filmed by Leni Riefenstahl, and made into a propaganda film called Triumph des Willens (Triumph of the Will). At the 1935 rally, Hitler specifically ordered the Reichstag to convene at Nuremberg to pass the anti-Semitic Nuremberg Laws which revoked German citizenship for all Jews and other non-Aryans. A number of premises were constructed solely for these assemblies, some of which were not finished. Today many examples of Nazi architecture can still be seen in the city. The city was also the home of the Nazi propagandist Julius Streicher, the publisher of Der Stürmer.

Map of city centre with air raid destruction
The bombed-out city of Nuremberg, 1945

During the Second World War, Nuremberg was the headquarters of Wehrkreis (military district) XIII, and an important site for military production, including aircraft, submarines and tank engines. A subcamp of Flossenbürg concentration camp was located here. Extensive use was made of slave labour. The city was severely damaged in Allied strategic bombing from 1943 to 1945. On 29 March 1944, RAF endured its heaviest losses in the bombing campaign of Germany. Out of more than 700 planes participating, 106 were shot down or crash landed on the way home to their base, and more than 700 men were missing, as many as 545 of them dead. More than 160 became prisoners of war. On 2 January 1945, the medieval city centre was systematically bombed by the Royal Air Force and the U.S. Army Air Forces and about ninety percent of it was destroyed in only one hour, with 1,800 residents killed and roughly 100,000 displaced. In February 1945, additional attacks followed. In total, about 6,000 Nuremberg residents are estimated to have been killed in air raids.

Nuremberg was a heavily fortified city that was captured in a fierce battle lasting from 17 to 21 April 1945 by the U.S. 3rd Infantry Division, 42nd Infantry Division and 45th Infantry Division, which fought house-to-house and street-by-street against determined German resistance, causing further urban devastation to the already bombed and shelled buildings. Despite this intense degree of destruction, the city was rebuilt after the war and was to some extent, restored to its pre-war appearance including the reconstruction of some of its medieval buildings. However, over half of the historic look of the center, and especially the northeastern half of the old Imperial Free City was lost forever.

Nuremberg: Nuremberg trials

Defendants in the dock at the Nuremberg trials

Between 1945 and 1946, German officials involved in war crimes and crimes against humanity were brought before an international tribunal in the Nuremberg trials. The Soviet Union had wanted these trials to take place in Berlin. However, Nuremberg was chosen as the site for the trials for specific reasons:

  • The city had been the location of the Nazi Party's Nuremberg rallies and the laws stripping Jews of their citizenship were passed there. There was symbolic value in making it the place of Nazi demise.
  • The Palace of Justice was spacious and largely undamaged (one of the few that had remained largely intact despite extensive Allied bombing of Germany). The already large courtroom was reasonably easily expanded by the removal of the wall at the end opposite the bench, thereby incorporating the adjoining room. A large prison was also part of the complex.
  • As a compromise, it was agreed that Berlin would become the permanent seat of the International Military Tribunal and that the first trial (several were planned) would take place in Nuremberg. Due to the Cold War, subsequent trials never took place.

The same courtroom in Nuremberg was the venue of the Nuremberg Military Tribunals, organized by the United States as occupying power in the area.

Nuremberg: Geography and climate

Map of Nuremberg

Several old villages now belong to the city, for example Grossgründlach, Kraftshof, Thon, and Neunhof in the north-west; Ziegelstein in the north-east, Altenfurt and Fischbach in the south-east; and Katzwang, Kornburg in the south. Langwasser is a modern suburb.

Nuremberg has an oceanic climate (Koppen: Cfb), influenced by its inland position and higher altitude causing seasonal differences reminiscent of continental climates, although its winters are somewhat milder. Winters are diverse, with either mild or cold weather: the average temperature is around −3 °C (27 °F) to 4 °C (39 °F), while summers are generally warm, mostly around 13 °C (55 °F) at night to 25 °C (77 °F) in the afternoon. Precipitation is evenly spread throughout the year, although February and April tend to be a bit drier whereas July tends to have more rainfall.

Climate data for Nuremberg, Germany for 1981–2010, record temperatures for 1955-2013 (Source: DWD)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 15.0
Average high °C (°F) 2.5
Daily mean °C (°F) 0.0
Average low °C (°F) −3.1
Record low °C (°F) −25.4
Average precipitation mm (inches) 41.7
Mean monthly sunshine hours 58.2 87.2 116.8 175.0 216.0 217.9 234.7 219.9 161.2 114.4 57.2 43.2 1,701.6
Source: Data derived from Deutscher Wetterdienst

Nuremberg: Demographics

Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1397 5,626 -
1750 30,000 +433.2%
1810 28,544 −4.9%
1825 33,018 +15.7%
1830 39,870 +20.8%
1840 46,824 +17.4%
1855 56,398 +20.4%
1864 70,492 +25.0%
1875 91,018 +29.1%
1900 261,081 +186.8%
1910 333,142 +27.6%
1920 364,093 +9.3%
1930 416,700 +14.4%
1940 429,400 +3.0%
1950 362,459 −15.6%
1960 458,401 +26.5%
1970 478,181 +4.3%
1980 484,405 +1.3%
1990 493,692 +1.9%
2000 488,400 −1.1%
2005 499,237 +2.2%
2010 505,664 +1.3%
2015 509,975 +0.9%

Nuremberg has been a popular destination for immigrants. 39.5 % of the residents had an immigrant background in 2010 (counted with MigraPro).

Rank Nationality Population (2017)
1 Turkey 27,483
2 Yugoslavia 15,204
3 Soviet Union 13,983
4 Greece 12,817
5 Romania 8,783
6 Poland 8,246
7 Italy 7,945
8 Syria 7,117
9 Bulgaria 5,224
10 Iraq 5,119

Nuremberg: Economy

Nuremberg for many people is still associated with its traditional gingerbread (Lebkuchen) products, sausages, and handmade toys. Pocket watches - Nuremberg eggs - were made here in the 16th century by Peter Henlein. In the 19th century Nuremberg became the "industrial heart" of Bavaria with companies such as Siemens and MAN establishing a strong base in the city. Nuremberg is still an important industrial centre with a strong standing in the markets of Central and Eastern Europe. Items manufactured in the area include electrical equipment, mechanical and optical products, motor vehicles, writing and drawing paraphernalia, stationery products, and printed materials. The city is also strong in the fields of automation, energy, and medical technology. Siemens is still the largest industrial employer in the Nuremberg region but a good third of German market research agencies are also located in the city. The Nuremberg International Toy Fair is the largest of its kind in the world. The city also hosts several specialist hi-tech fairs every year, attracting experts from every corner of the globe.

Nuremberg: Culture

Albrecht Dürer's House
Christkindlesmarkt with Schöner Brunnen

Nuremberg was an early centre of humanism, science, printing, and mechanical invention. The city contributed much to the science of astronomy. In 1471 Johannes Mueller of Königsberg (Bavaria), later called Regiomontanus, built an astronomical observatory in Nuremberg and published many important astronomical charts. In 1515, Albrecht Dürer, a native of Nuremberg, created woodcuts of the first maps of the stars of the northern and southern hemispheres, producing the first printed star charts, which had been ordered by Johannes Stabius. Around 1515 Dürer also published the "Stabiussche Weltkarte", the first perspective drawing of the terrestrial globe. Perhaps most famously, the main part of Nicolaus Copernicus's work was published in Nuremberg in 1543.

Printers and publishers have a long history in Nuremberg. Many of these publishers worked with well-known artists of the day to produce books that could also be considered works of art. In 1470 Anton Koberger opened Europe's first print shop in Nuremberg. In 1493, he published the Nuremberg Chronicles, also known as the World Chronicles (Schedelsche Weltchronik), an illustrated history of the world from the creation to the present day. It was written in the local Franconian dialect by Hartmann Schedel and had illustrations by Michael Wohlgemuth, Wilhelm Pleydenwurff, and Albrecht Dürer. Others furthered geographical knowledge and travel by map making. Notable among these was navigator and geographer Martin Behaim, who made the first world globe.

Sculptors such as Veit Stoss, Adam Kraft and Peter Vischer are also associated with Nuremberg.

Composed of prosperous artisans, the guilds of the Meistersingers flourished here. Richard Wagner made their most famous member, Hans Sachs, the hero of his opera Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg. Baroque composer Johann Pachelbel was born here and was organist of St. Sebaldus Church.

The academy of fine arts situated in Nuremberg is the oldest art academy in central Europe and looks back to a tradition of 350 years of artistic education.

Nuremberg is also famous for its Christkindlesmarkt (Christmas market), which draws well over a million shoppers each year. The market is famous for its handmade ornaments and delicacies.

Nuremberg: Museums

Documentation centre at the former Nazi party rally grounds
Documentation Centre
Neues Museum, museum of modern art and design
Neues Museum Nürnberg
Germanisches Nationalmuseum
Renaissance art gallery of the Germanisches Nationalmuseum
  • Germanisches Nationalmuseum
  • House of Albrecht Dürer
  • Kunsthalle Nürnberg
  • Kunstverein Nürnberg
  • Neues Museum Nürnberg (Modern Art Museum)
  • Nuremberg Toy Museum
  • Nuremberg Transport Museum

Nuremberg: Performing arts

The Nuremberg State Theatre
Bardentreffen 2013

The Nuremberg State Theatre, founded in 1906, is dedicated to all types of opera, ballet and stage theatre. During the season 2009/2010, the theatre presented 651 performances for an audience of 240,000 persons. The State Philharmonic Nuremberg (Staatsphilharmonie Nürnberg) is the orchestra of the State Theatre. Its name was changed in 2011 from its previous name: The Nuremberg Philharmonic (Nürnberger Philharmoniker). It is the second-largest opera orchestra in Bavaria. Besides opera performances, it also presents its own subscription concert series in the Meistersingerhalle. Christof Perick was the principal conductor of the orchestra between 2006–2011. Marcus Bosch heads the orchestra since September 2011 .

The Nuremberg Symphony Orchestra (Nürnberger Symphoniker) performs around 100 concerts a year to a combined annual audience of more than 180,000. The regular subscription concert series are mostly performed in the Meistersingerhalle but other venues are used as well, including the new concert hall of the Kongresshalle and the Serenadenhof. Alexander Shelley has been the principal conductor of the orchestra since 2009.

The Nuremberg International Chamber Music Festival (Internationales Kammermusikfestival Nürnberg) takes place in early September each year, and in 2011 celebrated its tenth anniversary. Concerts take place around the city; opening and closing events are held in the medieval Burg. The Bardentreffen, an annual folk festival in Nuremberg, has been deemed the largest world music festival in Germany and takes place since 1976. 2014 the Bardentreffen starred 368 artists from 31 nations.

Nuremberg: Cuisine

Nürnberger Bratwurst

Nuremberg is known for Nürnberger Bratwurst (grilled sausage), which is shorter and thinner than other bratwurst sausages.

Another Nuremberg speciality is Nürnberger Lebkuchen, a kind of ginger bread eaten mainly around Christmas time.

Nuremberg: Education

The FAU Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg.

There are One join university and one Applied University in Nuremberg.

Nuremberg: Higher education

The Georg Simon OhmTechnische Hochschule Nürnberg.

The university got its name in honor of Georg Simon Ohm who was a professor and headmaster of the predecessor of the Hochschule, the Polytechnische Schule, between 1839 and 1849.

Nuremberg: Main sights

A panoramic city view
Nuremberg, seen from the castle
  • Nuremberg Castle: the three castles that tower over the city including central burgraves' castle, with Free Reich's buildings to the east, the Imperial castle to the west.
  • Heilig-Geist-Spital. In the centre of the city, on the bank of the river Pegnitz, stands the Hospital of the Holy Spirit. Founded in 1332, this is one of the largest hospitals of the Middle Ages. Lepers were kept here at some distance from the other patients. It now houses elderly persons and a restaurant.
  • The Hauptmarkt, dominated by the front of the unique Gothic Frauenkirche (Our Lady's Church), provides a picturesque setting for the famous Christmas market. A main attraction on the square is the Gothic Schöner Brunnen (Beautiful Fountain) which was erected around 1385 but subsequently replaced with a replica (the original fountain is kept in the Germanisches Nationalmuseum). The unchanged Renaissance bridge Fleischbrücke crosses the Pegnitz nearby.
  • The Gothic Lorenzkirche (St. Laurence church) dominates the southern part of the walled city and is one of the most important buildings in Nuremberg. The main body was built around 1270–1350.
  • The even earlier and equally impressive Sebalduskirche is St. Lorenz's counterpart in the northern part of the old city.
  • The church of the former Katharinenkloster is preserved as a ruin, the charterhouse (Kartause) is integrated into the building of the Germanisches Nationalmuseum and the choir of the former Franziskanerkirche is part of a modern building.
  • Other churches located inside the city walls are: St. Laurence's, Saint Clare's, Saint Martha's, Saint James the Greater's, Saint Giles's, and Saint Elisabeth's.
  • The Germanisches Nationalmuseum is Germany's largest museum of cultural history, among its exhibits are works of famous painters such as Albrecht Dürer, Rembrandt, and Ernst Ludwig Kirchner.
  • The Neues Museum Nürnberg is a museum for modern and contemporary art.
  • The Walburga Chapel and the Romanesque Doppelkapelle (Chapel with two floors) are part of Nuremberg Castle.
  • The Johannisfriedhof is a medieval cemetery, containing many old graves (Albrecht Dürer, Willibald Pirckheimer, and others). The Rochusfriedhof or the Wöhrder Kirchhof are near the Old Town.
  • The Chain Bridge (Kettensteg), the first chain bridge on the European continent.
  • The Tiergarten Nürnberg is a zoo stretching over more than 60 hectares (148 acres) in the Nürnberger Reichswald forest.
  • There is also a medieval market just inside the city walls, selling handcrafted goods.
  • The German National Railways Museum (in German) (an Anchor Point of ERIH, The European Route of Industrial Heritage) is located in Nuremberg.
  • The Nuremberg Ring (now welded within an iron fence of Schöner Brunnen) is said to bring good luck to those that spin it.
  • The Nazi party rally grounds with the documentation-center.
Nuremberg from Spittlertor
St. Sebaldus Church and Nuremberg Castle in winter
Heilig-Geist-Spital (Hospice of the Holy Spirit)
Pilatushaus and Nuremberg Castle
Nuremberg Business Area

Nuremberg: Transport

The city's location next to numerous highways, railways, and a waterway has contributed to its rising importance for trade with Eastern Europe.

Nuremberg: Railways

The main railway station
A subway station in Nuremberg.

Nürnberg Hauptbahnhof is a stop for IC and ICE trains on the German long-distance railway network. The Nuremberg–Ingolstadt–Munich high-speed line with 300 km/h (186 mph) operation opened 28 May 2006, and was fully integrated into the rail schedule on 10 December 2006. Travel times to Munich have been reduced to as little as one hour. The Nuremberg–Erfurt high-speed railway is scheduled to open in December 2017.

Nuremberg: City and regional transport

An automatic U-Bahn train on the line U3

The Nuremberg tramway network was opened in 1881. As of 2008, it extended a total length of 36 km (22 mi), had six lines, and carried 39.152 million passengers annually. The first segment of the Nuremberg U-Bahn metro system was opened in 1972. Nuremberg's trams, buses and metro system are operated by the VAG Nürnberg (Verkehrsaktiengesellschaft Nürnberg or Nuremberg Transport Corporation), itself a member of the VGN (Verkehrsverbund Grossraum Nürnberg or Greater Nuremberg Transport Network).

There is also a Nuremberg S-Bahn suburban metro railway and a regional train network, both centred on Nürnberg Hauptbahnhof. Since 2008, Nuremberg has had the first U-Bahn in Germany (U2/U21 and U3) that works without a driver. It also was the first subway system worldwide in which both driver-operated trains and computer-controlled trains shared tracks.

Tramway Network
S- and U-Bahn network
S-, U-Bahn and Tramway network
S-Bahn network
U-Bahn network

Nuremberg: Motorways

Nuremberg is conveniently located at the junction of several important Autobahn routes. The A3 (Netherlands–Frankfurt–Würzburg–Vienna) passes in a south-easterly direction along the north-east of the city. The A9 (Berlin–Munich) passes in a north–south direction on the east of the city. The A6 (France–Saarbrücken–Prague) passes in an east–west direction to the south of the city. Finally, the A73 begins in the south-east of Nuremberg and travels north-west through the city before continuing towards Fürth and Bamberg.

Nuremberg: Airport

Nuremberg Airport has flights to major German cities and many European destinations, and is a focus city for Air Berlin, Germany's second largest airline. A significant amount of the airport's traffic flies in and out during the peak winter season. The airport (Flughafen) is the terminus of subway line 2; it is the only airport in Germany served by a subway.

Nuremberg: Canals

Nuremberg is an important port on the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal.

Nuremberg: Sport

Grundig-Stadion is the football stadium of Bundesliga club 1. FC Nuremberg

Nuremberg: Football

1. FC Nürnberg, known locally as Der Club (English: "The Club"), was founded in 1900 and plays in the 2. Bundesliga (2016-2017 season). The official colours of the association are red and white, but the traditional colours are red and black. The current chairmen are Andreas Bornemann and Michael Meeske. They play in Max-Morlock-Stadion which was refurbished for the 2006 FIFA World Cup and accommodates 50,000 spectators.

  • German Champion: 1920, 1921, 1924, 1925, 1927, 1936, 1948, 1961, 1968
  • German Cup: 1935, 1939, 1962, 2007

Nuremberg: Basketball

The SELLBYTEL Baskets Nürnberg played in the Basketball Bundesliga from 2005 to 2007. Since then, teams from Nuremberg have attempted to return to Germany's elite league. The recently founded Nürnberg Falcons BC have already established themselves as one of the main teams in Germany's second division ProA and aim to take on the heritage of the SELLBYTEL Baskets Nürnberg. The Falcons play their home games at the Halle im Berufsbildungszentrum (BBZ).

Nuremberg: International relations

Nuremberg: Twin towns – Sister cities

Nuremberg is twinned with:

  • Nice, France, since 1954
  • Kraków, Poland, since 1979
  • Skopje, Macedonia, since 1982
  • Glasgow, UK, since 1985
  • San Carlos, Nicaragua, since 1985
  • Prague, Czech Republic, since 1990
  • Kharkiv, Ukraine, since 1990
  • Hadera, Israel, since 1995
  • Shenzhen, China since 1997
  • Antalya, Turkey, since 1997
  • Kavala, Greece, since 1998
  • Atlanta, Georgia, since 1998
  • Córdoba, Spain, since 2010

Nuremberg: Associated cities

Apart from the official twin towns (sister cities), there are a number with which Nuremberg maintains "cordial relations":

  • Klausen / Chiusa, Italy 1970
  • Gera, Germany, since 1988, renewed 1997
  • Kalkudah, Sri Lanka 2005
  • Verona, Italy 2006
  • Braşov, Romania 2006
  • Bar, Montenegro 2006

Nuremberg: Cooperation

Nuremberg also engages in cooperation with various other cities internationally:

  • Bologna, Italy 2006
  • Changping, China 2006

Nuremberg: Notable residents

Albrecht Dürer is the best-known son of the city
  • Peter Angermann
  • Chaya Arbel (Israeli composer)
  • Heinz Bernard (British Israeli actor-director)
  • Ernst von Bibra (naturalist and author)
  • Peter Bucher
  • Kevin Coyne (English musician, singer, composer, film-maker, and a writer of lyrics, stories and poems)
  • Albrecht Dürer (painter and engraver)
  • Heinrich Egersdörfer (artist)
  • Ludwig Andreas Feuerbach
  • Hans Folz (poet)
  • Kaspar Hauser
  • Johann Kaspar Hechtel (board game designer)
  • Peter Henlein (1485-1542), clockmaker
  • Siegfried Bettmann
  • Augustin Hirschvogel
  • Siegfried Jerusalem (operatic tenor)
  • Hermann Kesten (1900-1996), (writer)
  • Anton Koberger
  • Eliyahu Koren (graphic designer)
  • Adam Kraft (sculptor and architect)
  • Robert Kurz (author and social critic)
  • Katerina Lemmel (businesswoman, patron of the arts, Birgittine nun)
  • Kunz Lochner
  • Maria Sybilla Merian (naturalist and scientific illustrator)
  • Max Morlock (1925-1994), German footballer
  • Peter Owen (British publisher)
  • Johann Pachelbel (Baroque composer)
  • Caritas Pirckheimer (abbess)
  • Willibald Pirckheimer (humanist)
  • Conrad Paumann
  • Lorenz Ritter (painter and etcher)
  • Hans Sachs (poet)
  • Hartmann Schedel
  • Martina Schradi (author, cartoonist and psychologist)
  • Alexander Schreiner (organist, Mormon Tabernacle)
  • Veit Stoss (Renaissance sculptor)
  • Peter Vischer the Elder
  • Johann Christoph Volckamer, who wrote his Hesperides here
  • Arnold Hans Weiss (1924-2010), (German-born U.S. Army investigator who helped find Hitler's will)
  • Michael Wolgemut
  • Johann Philipp von Wurzelbauer

Nuremberg: See also

  • List of mayors of Nuremberg
  • Norisring Racetrack, where Pedro Rodriguez died in 1971
  • Tinsel (invented in Nuremberg)

Nuremberg: Notes and references

Nuremberg: Notes

  1. Not according Verona's official listing.

Nuremberg: References

  1. "Fortschreibung des Bevölkerungsstandes". Bayerisches Landesamt für Statistik und Datenverarbeitung (in German). June 2016.
  2. Mangold, Max, ed. (1995). Duden, Aussprachewörterbuch (in German) (6th ed.). Dudenverlag. pp. 590, 54. ISBN 978-3-411-20916-3.
  3. "Key Data for Investors – City of Nuremberg", Nuernberg.de, September 2016, Nde-keydata.
  4. (in German) Nürnberg, Reichsstadt: Politische und soziale Entwicklung (Political and Social Development of the Imperial City of Nuremberg), Historisches Lexikon Bayerns
  5. PD-icon.svg Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Nuremberg". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  6. "Black Death". JewishEncyclopedia.com
  7. Cities and People: A Social and Architectural History, Mark Girouard, Yale University Press, 1985, p.69
  8. Jerry Stannard, Katherine E. Stannard, Richard Kay (1999). Herbs and herbalism in the Middle Ages and Renaissance. University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-86078-774-5
  9. Sobecki, Sebastian (2016). "Nuremberg". Europe: A Literary History, 1348-1418, ed. David Wallace. Oxford: Oxford University Press: 566–581.
  10. Keeffe, Christine O. "Concentration Camps List". Tartanplace.com. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
  11. Hardman, Robert. "Still we insult their sacrifice:Exactly 70 years ago, the RAF suffered its worst night ever, losing 106 bombers and 545 men in a raid on Nuremberg. So why is it going unmarked?". dailymail.co.uk. Retrieved 24 May 2015.
  12. Stanton, Shelby, World War II Order of Battle: An Encyclopedic Reference to U.S. Army Ground Forces from Battalion through Division, 1939–1946, Stackpole Books (Revised Edition 2006), p. 90, 129, 135
  13. Neil Gregor, Haunted City. Nuremberg and the Nazi Past (New Haven, 2008
  14. "Ausgabe der Klimadaten: Monatswerte". Dwd.de. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
  15. "Amt für Stadtforschung und Statistik für Nürnberg und Fürth: Menschen mit Migrationshintergrund in Nürnberg" (PDF). Destatis.de. November 2011. Retrieved 30 April 2017.
  16. "Audience of the Staatstheater (Mehr Besucher im Staatstheater Nürnberg)" (in German). Mittelbayerische.de. 2011. Retrieved 5 March 2011.
  17. "Die Staatsphilharmonie Nürnberg" (in German). Staatstheater-nuernberg.de. 2012. Retrieved 11 February 2012.
  18. "Nuremberg Symphony Orchestra, audience and concerts stats." (in German). 2011. Retrieved 3 March 2011.
  19. ""Krieg und Frieden" – Pippo Pollina eröffnet Bardentreffen". Frankenfernsehen.tv. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
  20. "Partnerstädte". Official Web site of the city of Nuremberg (in German). Nuremberg Office for International Relations. Retrieved 31 May 2016.
  21. "Villes jumelées avec la Ville de Nice" (in French). Ville de Nice. Retrieved 24 June 2013.
  22. "Kraków - Miasta Bliźniacze" [Kraków - Twin Cities]. Miejska Platforma Internetowa Magiczny Kraków (in Polish). Archived from the original on 2 July 2013. Retrieved 10 August 2013.
  23. "Skopje - Twin towns & Sister cities". Official portal of City of Skopje. © Grad Skopje - 2006 - 2013, www.skopje.gov.mk. Archived from the original on 24 October 2013. Retrieved 4 November 2013.
  24. "Skopje – Die Partnerschaft" (in German). Town of Nürnberg. Retrieved 10 June 2012.
  25. "Partnerská města HMP" [Prague - Twin Cities HMP]. Portál „Zahraniční vztahy“ [Portal "Foreign Affairs"] (in Czech). 18 July 2013. Archived from the original on 25 June 2013. Retrieved 5 August 2013.
  26. [1] Archived 19 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine.
  27. [2] Archived 13 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
  28. [3] Archived 12 November 2014 at the Wayback Machine.
  29. "Befreundete Kommunen". Official Web site of the city of Nuremberg (in German). Nuremberg Office for International Relations. Retrieved 31 May 2016.
  30. "Gemellaggi" (official site) (in Italian). Verona, Italy: Comune di Verona. Retrieved 2017-04-07.
  31. "Befreundete Kommunen". Official Web site of the city of Nuremberg (in German). Nuremberg Office for International Relations. Retrieved 31 May 2016.
  32. "Biography of Peter Angermann". Biographies.net. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
  33. "Chaya Arbel". Jwa.org. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
  34. "OBITUARIES: Heinz Bernard". The Independent. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
  35. http://www.thebookseller.com/news/peter-owen-dies-330731
  36. "Caritas Pirckheimer". Home.infionline.net. Archived from the original on 3 April 2013. Retrieved 12 January 2015.

Nuremberg: Bibliography

See also: Bibliography of the history of Nuremberg
  • Media related to Nuremberg at Wikimedia Commons
  • Nuremberg travel guide from Wikivoyage
  • Wikisource-logo.svg "Nuremberg". Encyclopædia Britannica. 19 (11th ed.). 1911.
  • English website of the city
  • KUNSTNÜRNBERG - Online - Magazine for Contemporary Art and History of Art in Nuremberg and Franconia
  • 49 digitised objects on Nuremberg in The European Library
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