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In order to book an accommodation in Opole enter the proper dates and do the hotel search. If needed, sort the found Opole hotels by price, star rating, property type, guest rating, hotel features, hotel theme or hotel chain. Then take a look at the found hotels on Opole map to estimate the distance from the main Opole attractions and sights. You can also read the guest reviews of Opole hotels and see their ratings.

When a hotel search in Opole is done, please select the room type, the included meals and the suitable booking conditions (for example, "Deluxe double room, Breakfast included, Non-Refundable"). Press the "View Deal" ("Book Now") button. Make your booking on a hotel booking website and get the hotel reservation voucher by email. That's it, a perfect hotel in Opole is waiting for you!

Hotels of Opole

A hotel in Opole is an establishment that provides lodging paid on a short-term basis. Facilities provided may range from a basic bed and storage for clothing, to luxury features like en-suite bathrooms. Larger in Opole hotels may provide additional guest facilities such as a swimming pool, business centre, childcare, conference facilities and social function services. Hotel rooms in Opole are usually numbered (or named in some smaller hotels and B&Bs) to allow guests to identify their room. Some Opole hotels offer meals as part of a room and board arrangement. Hotel operations vary in size, function, and cost. Most Opole hotels and major hospitality companies that operate hotels in Opole have set widely accepted industry standards to classify hotel types. General categories include the following:

Upscale luxury hotels in Opole
An upscale full service hotel facility in Opole that offers luxury amenities, full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and the highest level of personalized and professional service. Luxury Opole hotels are normally classified with at least a Four Diamond or Five Diamond status or a Four or Five Star rating depending on classification standards.

Full service hotels in Opole
Full service Opole hotels often contain upscale full-service facilities with a large volume of full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and a variety of on-site amenities such as swimming pools, a health club, children's activities, ballrooms, on-site conference facilities, etc.

Historic inns and boutique hotels in Opole
Boutique hotels of Opole are smaller independent non-branded hotels that often contain upscale facilities of varying size in unique or intimate settings with full service accommodations. Opole boutique hotels are generally 100 rooms or less. Some historic inns and boutique hotels in Opole may be classified as luxury hotels.

Focused or select service hotels in Opole
Small to medium-sized hotel establishments that offer a limited amount of on-site amenities that only cater and market to a specific demographic of Opole travelers, such as the single business traveler. Most Opole focused or select service hotels may still offer full service accommodations but may lack leisure amenities such as an on-site restaurant or a swimming pool.

Economy and limited service hotels in Opole
Small to medium-sized Opole hotel establishments that offer a very limited amount of on-site amenities and often only offer basic accommodations with little to no services, these facilities normally only cater and market to a specific demographic of travelers, such as the budget-minded Opole traveler seeking a "no frills" accommodation. Limited service Opole hotels often lack an on-site restaurant but in return may offer a limited complimentary food and beverage amenity such as on-site continental breakfast service.

Guest houses and B&Bs in Opole
A bed and breakfast in Opole is a small lodging establishment that offers overnight accommodation and inclusive breakfast. Usually, Opole bed and breakfasts are private homes or family homes offering accommodations. The typical Opole B&B has between 4 and 11 rooms, with 6 being the average. Generally, guests are accommodated in private bedrooms with private bathrooms, or in a suite of rooms including an en suite bathroom. Some homes have private bedrooms with a bathroom which is shared with other guests. Breakfast is served in the bedroom, a dining room, or the host's kitchen. Often the owners of guest house themselves prepare the breakfast and clean the rooms.

Hostels in Opole
Opole hostels provide budget-oriented, sociable accommodation where guests can rent a bed, usually a bunk bed, in a dormitory and share a bathroom, lounge, and sometimes a kitchen. Rooms can be mixed or single-sex, although private rooms may also be available. Hostels are often cheaper for both the operator and occupants; many Opole hostels have long-term residents whom they employ as desk agents or housekeeping staff in exchange for experience or discounted accommodation.

Apartment hotels, extended stay hotels in Opole
Extended stay hotels are small to medium-sized Opole hotels that offer longer term full service accommodations compared to a traditional hotel. Extended stay hotels may offer non-traditional pricing methods such as a weekly rate that cater towards travelers in need of short-term accommodations for an extended period of time. Similar to limited and select service hotels, on-site amenities are normally limited and most extended stay hotels in Opole lack an on-site restaurant.

Timeshare and destination clubs in Opole
Opole timeshare and destination clubs are a form of property ownership also referred to as a vacation ownership involving the purchase and ownership of an individual unit of accommodation for seasonal usage during a specified period of time. Timeshare resorts in Opole often offer amenities similar that of a Full service hotel with on-site restaurant(s), swimming pools, recreation grounds, and other leisure-oriented amenities. Destination clubs of Opole on the other hand may offer more exclusive private accommodations such as private houses in a neighborhood-style setting.

Motels in Opole
A Opole motel is a small-sized low-rise lodging establishment similar to that of a limited service hotel, but with direct access to individual rooms from the car park. Common during the 1950s and 1960s, motels were often located adjacent to a major road, where they were built on inexpensive land at the edge of towns or along stretches of highways. They are still useful in less populated areas of Opole for driving travelers, but the more populated an area becomes the more hotels fill the need. Many of Opole motels which remain in operation have joined national franchise chains, rebranding themselves as hotels, inns or lodges.

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Travelling and vacation in Opole

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Opole
Old Town
Old Town
Flag of Opole
Flag
Coat of arms of Opole
Coat of arms
Opole is located in Poland
Opole
Opole
Coordinates:  / 50.667; 17.933
Country Poland
Voivodeship Opole
County city county
Town rights 1217
Government
• Mayor Arkadiusz Wiśniewski
Area
• City 148.99 km (57.53 sq mi)
Elevation 176 m (577 ft)
Population (2017)
• City 127,792
• Density 860/km (2,200/sq mi)
• Metro 267,000
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
• Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 45-001 to 45-960
Area code(s) +48 077
Car plates OP
Website http://www.opole.pl

Opole [ɔˈpɔlɛ] (German: Oppeln, Silesian German: Uppeln, Silesian: Uopole) is a city located in southern Poland on the Oder River (Odra). With a population of approximately 127,792 (January 2017), it is the capital of the Opole Voivodeship and, also the seat of Opole County.

With it long history dating back to the 9th century, Opole is considered to be one of the oldest towns in Poland. The origins of the first settlement are connected with the town being granted Magdeburg Rights in 1217 by Casimir I of Opole, the great-grandson of Polish Duke Bolesław III Wrymouth. During the Medieval Period and the Renaissance the city was known as a centre of commerce due to its position on the intersection of several main trade routes, which helped to generate steady profits from transit trade. The rapid development of the town was also caused by the establishment of a seat of regency in Opole in 1816. The first railway connection between Opole, Brzeg and Wrocław was opened in 1843 and the first proper manufacturing plants were constructed in 1859, which greatly contributed to the city's regional significance.

During its existence Opole belonged to Poland, Bohemia, Prussia and Germany. Prior to World War II it was located in eastern Germany and was one of the largest centres of Polish minority in the entire country. In 1945, according to Yalta and Potsdam Agreements, the region was assigned to Poland. Many German Upper Silesians and Poles of German ancestry still live in the Opole region; in the city itself, however, ethnic Germans make up less than 3% of the population. It was also the capital of the historical region of Upper Silesia.

Today there are four higher education establishments in the city: The Opole University, Opole University of Technology, a Medical College and the private Higher College of Management and Administration. The National Festival of Polish Song has been held here annually since 1963 and each year new regular events, fairs, shows and competitions take place.

Opole is sometimes referred to as "Polish Venice", because of its picturesque Old Town and several canals and bridges connecting parts of the city.

Opole: Name

The name "Opole" likely originated from the medieval Slavic term for a group of settlements.

Opole: History

Opole: In Medieval Poland

Opole's history begins in the 8th century. At this time, according to the archeological excavations, the first Slavic settlement was founded on the Ostrówek - the northern part of the Pasieka Island in the middle of the Oder river. In the early 10th century it developed into one of the main gróds of the Slavic Opolanie. At the end of the century Silesia became part of Poland and was ruled by the Piast dynasty; the land of the pagan Opolanie was conquered by Duke Mieszko I in 992. From the 11th-12th centuries it was also a castellany. After the death of Duke Władysław II the Exile, Silesia was divided in 1163 between two Piast lines- the Wrocławska line in Lower Silesia and the Opolsko-Raciborska of Upper Silesia. Opole would become a duchy in 1172 and would share much in common with the Duchy of Racibórz, with which it was often combined. In 1281 Upper Silesia was divided further between the heirs of the dukes. The Duchy of Opole was temporarily reestablished in 1290.

Oldest known general view of Opole seen from southeast, circa 1535

In the early 13th century, Duke Casimir I of Opole decided to move the settlement from the Pasieka Island into the right shore of the Oder river (since the 17th century it is the old stream bed of Oder known as Młynówka). All of the inhabitants had to be moved in order to make place for the castle that was eventually built in the place of the old city. Former inhabitants of Ostrówek together with German merchants that immigrated here from the West, received first town rights probably as early as around, 1217 though this date is disputed. Opole received German town law in 1254, which was expanded with Neumarkt law in 1327. Opole developed during the rule of duke Bolko I of Opole. In this time the castle was finally completed and new buildings, including the city walls and the Holy Cross Church, were constructed. Along with most of Silesia, in 1327 the Duchy of Opole came under the sovereignty of the Kingdom of Bohemia, itself part of the Holy Roman Empire. In 1521 the Duchy of Racibórz (Ratibor) was inherited by the Duchy of Opole, by then also known by its German equivalent - Oppeln. The second castle of Opole was probably founded in the 14th century by duke Vladislaus II, though some sources claim that it was originally a wooden stronghold of Opole's castellan dating into 12th century.

Opole: In the Habsburg Monarchy

With the death of King Ludvík II of Bohemia at the Battle of Mohács, Silesia was inherited by Ferdinand I, placing Opole under the sovereignty of the Habsburg Monarchy of Austria. The Habsburgs took control of the region in 1532 after the last Piast duke of Opole - Jan II the Good died. In those days the city was still mainly Polish-speaking (around 63%), with other nationalities represented mainly by Germans, Czechs and Jews. The last two dukes of Opole, Nicholas II and Janusz II the Good, did not master the German language.

Cathedral of Opole

Beginning in 1532 the Habsburgs pawned the duchy to different rulers including several monarchs of Poland (see Dukes of Opole). With the abdication of King John II Casimir of Poland as the last Duke of Opole in 1668, the region passed to the direct control of the Habsburgs. At the beginning of the 18th century the German population of Opole was estimated at around 20%.

Opole: In Prussian Silesia

King Frederick II of Prussia conquered most of Silesia from Austria in 1740 during the Silesian Wars; Prussian control was confirmed in the Peace of Breslau in 1742. During the Prussian rule the ethnic structure of the city began to change. In the early 20th century the number of Polish and bilingual citizens of Opole, according to the official German statistics, varied from only 25% to 31%. From 1816–1945 Opole was the capital of Regierungsbezirk Oppeln within Prussia. The city became part of the German Empire during the unification of Germany in 1871.

Opole: After World War I

After the defeat of Imperial Germany in World War I, a plebiscite was held on 20 March 1921 in Opole to determine if the city would be in the Weimar Republic or become part of the Second Polish Republic. 20,816 (94.7%) votes were cast for Germany, 1,098 (5.0%) for Poland, and 70 (0.3%) votes were declared invalid. Voter participation was 95.9%. Results of the plebiscite in the Opole-Land county were different, with 30% of population voting for Poland.

Opole was the administrative seat of the Province of Upper Silesia from 1919–1939. With the defeat of Poland in the Invasion of Poland at the beginning of World War II in 1939, formerly Polish Eastern Upper Silesia was re-added to the Province of Upper Silesia and Opole lost its status as provincial capital to Katowice (renamed Kattowitz).

OPPELN after the plebiscite, under international ruling in August 1921

On 15 February 1941 and 26 February 1941, two deportation transports with 2,003 Jewish men, women and children on board left Vienna Aspang Station for the ghetto which had been set up in Opole. By March 1941, 8,000 Jews were deported to Opole. From May 1941, 800 men capable of work were deployed as forced labourers in Deblin. The "Liquidation" of the Opole ghetto began in the spring 1942. A transport to Belzec extermination camp left on 31 March 1942 and deportations to Sobibor followed in May and October 1942. Of the 2,003 Viennese Jews, only twenty-eight are known to have survived.

Opole: In modern Poland

After the end of the Second World War in 1945, Opole was transferred from Germany to Poland according to the Potsdam Conference, and given its original Slavic name of Opole. Opole became part of the Katowice Voivodeship from 1946–1950, after which it became part of the Opole Voivodeship. Unlike other parts of the so-called Recovered Territories, Opole and the surrounding region's indigenous population remained and was not forcibly expelled as elsewhere. Over 1 million Silesians who considered themselves Poles or were treated as such by the authorities due to their language and customs were allowed to stay after they were verified as Poles in a special verification process. It involved declaring Polish nationality and an oath of allegiance to the Polish nation.

In the later years however many of them left to West Germany to flee the communist Eastern Bloc (see Emigration from Poland to Germany after World War II). Today Opole, along with the surrounding region, is known as a centre of the German minority in Poland that recruits mainly from the descendants of the positively verified autochthons. In the city itself however only 2.46% of the inhabitants declared German nationality according to the last national census of 2002.

On January 1, 2017, Borki, Chmielowice, Czarnowąsy, Krzanowice, Sławice, Świerkle, Winów, Wrzoski, Żerkowice as well as parts of Brzezie, Dobrzeń Mały and Karczów became a part of Opole, enlargening its population by about 9,500, and its area by over 5,300 ha.

Opole: Historical population

In the early 20th century the amount of Polish and bilingual citizens of Opole, according to the official German statistics, varied from 25 to 31%.

City hall on the Main Market Square
Water canal along the Old Town
Year Population
1533 ¹ 1,420
1691 1,191
1700 1,150
1746 1,161
1750 2,450
1787 2,802
1800 3,073
1816 4,050
1819 4,896
1825 5,987
1834 6,496
Year Population
1850 8,280
1858 ² 8,877
1875 12,694
1890 19,000
1905 30,112
1910 ³ 33,907
1924 43,000
1932 45,532
1936 50,561
17 May 1939 50,540
24 March 1945 170
Year Population
July 1945 13,000
1946 40,000
1950 50,300
1956 56,400
1960 63,500
1965 70,000
1971 87,800
1973 92,600
31 December 1989 127,653
Census 1992 129,552
Census 2002 129,946
30 June 2004 125,992

¹ First census of the city

² 8,320 German nationality (93.7%) and 557 Polish nationality (6.3%)

³ 80% German-speaking, 16% Polish-speaking, and 4% bilingual Polish-German-speaking

Opole - a view of the city centre

Opole: German minority

General view of Opole

Alongside German and Polish, many citizens of Opole-Oppeln before 1945 used a strongly German-influenced Silesian dialect (sometimes called wasserpolnisch or wasserpolak). Because of this, the post-war Polish state administration after the annexation of Silesia in 1945 did not initiate a general expulsion of all former inhabitants of Opole, as was done in Lower Silesia, for instance, where the population almost exclusively spoke the German language. Because they were considered "autochthonous" (Polish), the Wasserpolak-speakers instead received the right to remain in their homeland after declaring themselves as Poles. Some German speakers took advantage of this decision, allowing them to remain in their Oppeln, even when they considered themselves to be of German nationality. The city surroundings currently contain the largest German and Upper Silesian minorities in Poland. However, Opole itself is only 2.46% German. (See also Germans of Poland.)

Opole: Main sights

Piast tower, built under Bolko I of Opole, circa 1300

Opole hosts the annual National Festival of Polish Song. The city is also known for its 10th-century Church of St. Adalbert and the 14th-century Church of the Holy Cross. There is a zoo, the Ogród Zoologiczny w Opolu.

Structures and buildings

  • Piast tower on the island (only part that remained of Piast castle)
  • a 14th-century Franciscan church, a Piast mausoleum
  • a 19th-century Town Hall
  • the Church of our Lady of Sorrows and St. Adalbert (Kościół Matki Boskiej Bolesnej i św. Wojciecha)
  • the 14th-century Holy Cross Cathedral (Bazylika katedralna Podwyższenia Krzyża Świętego)
  • The art nouveau Penny Bridge (Most Groszowy), currently named Green Bridge (Zielony Mostek)
  • Opole Main Station, an eclectic building from early 20th century.

Museums

  • Diocesan Museum (Muzeum Diecezjalne)
  • Opole Regional Museum (Muzeum Śląska Opolskiego)
  • Opole Village Museum (Muzeum Wsi Opolskiej)

Cemeteries

  • The Jewish Cemetery in Opole was established in 1822, and it is a peculiar pantheon of the Jews of Opole.

Opole: Geography

Opole is one of the warmest cities in Poland. The national all time heat record was measured in Prószków, near Opole.

Climate data for Opole
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 15.8
(60.4)
19.3
(66.7)
25.0
(77)
28.2
(82.8)
32.6
(90.7)
35.5
(95.9)
38.0
(100.4)
39.0
(102.2)
35.4
(95.7)
26.2
(79.2)
21.9
(71.4)
16.1
(61)
39.0
(102.2)
Average high °C (°F) 1.9
(35.4)
3.7
(38.7)
8.4
(47.1)
15.7
(60.3)
20.0
(68)
23.1
(73.6)
25.6
(78.1)
24.7
(76.5)
19.9
(67.8)
14.0
(57.2)
8.5
(47.3)
2.8
(37)
14.0
(57.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) −0.5
(31.1)
0.6
(33.1)
4.2
(39.6)
10.1
(50.2)
14.4
(57.9)
17.7
(63.9)
19.9
(67.8)
19.1
(66.4)
14.8
(58.6)
10.0
(50)
5.6
(42.1)
0.6
(33.1)
9.7
(49.5)
Average low °C (°F) −2.9
(26.8)
−2.3
(27.9)
0.0
(32)
4.4
(39.9)
8.9
(48)
12.3
(54.1)
14.4
(57.9)
13.5
(56.3)
9.5
(49.1)
5.9
(42.6)
2.8
(37)
−1.6
(29.1)
5.4
(41.7)
Record low °C (°F) −25.2
(−13.4)
−22.9
(−9.2)
−15.6
(3.9)
−6.8
(19.8)
−4.4
(24.1)
1.8
(35.2)
5.0
(41)
1.0
(33.8)
−1.5
(29.3)
−6.7
(19.9)
−12.9
(8.8)
−22.5
(−8.5)
−25.2
(−13.4)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 34
(1.34)
29
(1.14)
32
(1.26)
29
(1.14)
59
(2.32)
66
(2.6)
73
(2.87)
46
(1.81)
47
(1.85)
29
(1.14)
31
(1.22)
34
(1.34)
494
(19.45)
Average precipitation days 16 13 14 11 13 12 13 9 11 11 13 15 151
Average relative humidity (%) 83 81 76 71 72 73 72 74 78 79 83 84 77
Mean monthly sunshine hours 48 70 127 191 225 224 238 221 151 108 56 41 1,698
Source #1: [1]
Source #2: http://climatebase.ru/station/12530/?lang=en

Opole: Education

The building of Collegium Maius of Opole University
  • state-run universities and colleges:
    • Opole University of Technology (Politechnika Opolska)
    • University of Opole (Uniwersytet Opolski)
    • Public Higher Medical Professional School in Opole (Państwowa Medyczna Wyższa Szkoła Zawodowa w Opolu)
  • privately run colleges:
    • Management and Administration College in Opole (Wyższa Szkoła Zarządzania i Administracji w Opolu)
    • Bogdan Jański Academy (Szkoła Wyższa im. Bogdana Jańskiego)
    • WSB Universities - WSB University in Wrocław, departments of Economics

Opole: Politics

Opole Główne Railway Station

Members of Parliament (Sejm) elected from Opole constituency

  • Danuta Jazłowiecka, PO
  • Tadeusz Jarmuziewicz, PO
  • Ryszard Knosala, PO
  • Leszek Korzeniowski, PO
  • Sławomir Kłosowski, PiS
  • Teresa Ceglecka-Zielonka, PiS
  • Mieczysław Walkiewicz, PiS
  • Henryk Kroll, German minority
  • Ryszard Galla, German minority
  • Józef Stępkowski, Samoobrona
  • Sandra Lewandowska, Samoobrona
  • Tomasz Garbowski, SLD
  • Marek Kawa, LPR

Opole: Economy

Opole city budget income sources as of 2015.

Opole is the Opole Voivodeship's centre for commerce, banking, industrial complexes and other major service sector industries.

Prior to World War II, due to major limestone deposits in Opole's vicinity, the city developed as a centre for cement production in Germany, with the Cementownia "Odra" being active till this day. The French building materials company Lafarge is also active in the area, having its roofing division, Lafarge Roofing, together with its German subsidiary Schiedel (chimney manufacturing) based in Opole.

Other companies in the city include: the German valve manufacturer Kludi; the German men's fashion manufacturer Ahlers and the American automotive manufacturer Tower Automative. As is the case with the entire Opole Voivodeship, there is a strong presence of food industry services in the city. The largest companies in the food sector include: Zott, the Dutch baby food and nutrition company Nutricia, part of the Danone food-products corporation.

Opole has branches of all major banks, including: PKO, Pekao, Deutsche Bank and Raiffeisen Zentralbank.

The retail sector in Opole includes major Metro AG brand stores: Metro Cash and Carry and Media-Saturn-Holding, as well as Real. The city has a plethora of other major supermarket chains, namely: the Polish supermarket chains Biedronka, Lidl, Aldi and Netto. Other major brand stores include the shoe retailer Deichmann and Rossmann drugstores.

Furthermore, the city has three major shopping centres. The Solaris Center, with a total of 86 shops, opened in May 2009 and is located in the centre of Mikołaj Kopernik Square. In the city's suburbs, by Wrocławska Street (ul. Wrocławska) is the location of Karolinka Shopping Centre (Centrum Handlowe Karolinka). The shopping centre, which opened in September 2008, has a total area of 38,000 m², with a total of 99 stores, including fashion, hardware and electronics stores. To the east of the city, by the National Road 46, is the smallest of the three shopping centres, Turawa Park, with a total of 50 stores. Other shopping centres include Galeria Opolanin, built between 1974 and 1981 and upon its completion, was the largest shopping centre in Poland.

Opole: Famous residents

Burgher houses near the Main Market
Church of St. Adalbert, also known as the "Church on the Rock"
  • Władysław Opolczyk, count palatine of Poland 1378
  • Edwin von Drenkmann (1826–1904), famous German lawyer
  • Paul Kleinert (1837–1920), German theologian
  • Emin Pasha (born Eduard Schnitzer) (1840–1892), explorer and governor of Africa
  • Jan Kasprowicz (1860–1926), poet
  • Ferdinand von Prondzynski, 19th-century Prussian general, whose direct descendant Ferdinand von Prondzynski is Principal and Vice-Chancellor of Robert Gordon University in Aberdeen, Scotland
  • Bronisław Koraszewski (1863–1924), Polish activist, founder of Gazeta Opolska
  • Oscar Slater (1872–1948), German/Scottish victim of miscarriage of justice
  • Jakub Kania (1872–1957), Polish poet and writer, soldier in the Silesian Uprisings
  • Leo Baeck (1873–1956), rabbi
  • Szymon Koszyk (1891–1972), reporter, teacher and Polish activist from Opole
  • Karol Musioł (1902–1983), president of Opole, founder of the National Festival of Polish Song in Opole
  • Joachim Prinz (1902, Bierdzan – 1988), rabbi, born here
  • Edmund Osmańczyk (1913–1989), reporter, politician (6 times elected to the sejm and once to the senat)
  • Rochus Misch (1917-2013), communications' chief of the Reichskanzlei and member of the Leibstandarte-SS Adolf Hitler
  • Jerzy Grotowski (1933–1999), theater director
  • Jerzy Buzek (born 1940), academic and politician, President of the European Parliament, former Prime Minister of Poland
  • Chester Marcol (born 1949), American football placekicker for the Green Bay Packers
  • Bolesław Polnar (born 1952), graphic artist and painter
  • Andrzej Jerzy Lech (born 1955), artist and photographer
  • Anna Brzezińska (born 1971), fantasy writer
  • Miroslav Klose (born 1978), football player (playing in the German national football team)
  • Krzysztof Szramiak (born 1984), Polish weightlifter
  • Marcin Pontus (born 1985), football player
  • Karolina Wydra (born 1981), actress

Opole: International relations

Signs showing direction of twin cities

Opole: Twin towns - Sister cities

Opole is twinned with:

  • Lithuania Alytus in Lithuania
  • Russia Belgorod in Russia
  • Czech Republic Bruntál in Czech Republic
  • Italy Carrara in Italy
  • France Grasse in France
  • Germany Ingolstadt in Germany
  • Ukraine Ivano-Frankivsk in Ukraine
  • Finland Kuopio in Finland
  • Germany Mülheim in Germany
  • Germany Potsdam in Germany
  • United States Roanoke in United States
  • Hungary Székesfehérvár in Hungary

Opole: References

  • The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia. "Opole". Columbia University Press. Accessed June 4, 2006.
  1. http://www.mapofpoland.net/Opole,description.html
  2. http://www.sztetl.org.pl/en/article/opole/3,local-history/
  3. http://www.poland.travel/en-gb/cities/opole-history-and-song-festivals
  4. http://studiowac.pl/2235/studia-w-opolu-polska-wenecja-moze-zaoferowac-wam-nie-tylko-wspaniale-widoki-ale-takze-cudowna-atmosfere/
  5. Opole, Słownik geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego i innych krajów słowiańskich, Tom VII, nakł. Filipa Sulimierskiego i Władysława Walewskiego, 1880-1914
  6. B. Gediga, Początki i rozwój wczesnośredniowiecznego ośrodka miejskiego na Ostrówku w Opolu, Slavia Antiqua t. 16, Wrocław 1970.
  7. W. Dziewulski, F. Hawranek, Opole - Monografia miasta, Instytut Śląski Opole 1975, p. 57.
  8. This opinion is shared i.e. by W. Dziewulski, F. Hawranek, Opole - Monografia miasta, Instytut Śląski Opole 1975, p. 57 and G. A. Stenzel, Geschichte Schlesiens, T1. 1, Breslau 1853, p. 41. The opposite opinion is presented i.e. by K. Buczek, Targi i miasta na prawie polskim (okres wczesnośredniowieczny), Wrocław 1964, p. 114.
  9. W. Dziewulski, F. Hawranek, Opole - Monografia miasta, Instytut Śląski Opole 1975, pp. 58-60.
  10. W. Dziewulski, F. Hawranek, Opole - Monografia miasta, Instytut Śląski Opole 1975, p.78.
  11. W. Dziewulski, F. Hawranek, Opole - Monografia miasta, Instytut Śląski Opole 1975, p.159.
  12. W. Dziewulski, F. Hawranek, Opole - Monografia miasta, Instytut Śląski Opole 1975, p. 263-268".
  13. The Expulsion of 'German' Communities from Eastern Europe at the end of the Second World War, Steffen Prauser and Arfon Rees, European University Institute, Florense. HEC No. 2004/1. p.28
  14. German minority in Poland on the Ministry of Interior and Administration webpage
  15. Dz.U. 2016 poz. 1134
  16. "JEWISH CEMETERY IN OPOLE (GRANICZNA STREET)". Muzeum Historii Żydów Polskich. Retrieved 20 October 2012.
  17. "OPOLE: Opolskie". International Jewish Cemetery Project. Retrieved 20 October 2012.
  18. WSB University in Wrocław - WSB Universities
  19. "Nowe firmy Opole 2016, 2015, 2014 r., nowo rejestrowane firmy w Opolu i województwie opolskim". www.coig.com.pl. Retrieved 30 January 2017.
  20. "Zainwestowali". Invest in Opole (in Polish). Retrieved 30 January 2017.
  21. "OPOLE Firmy i Instytucje". www.info-net.com.pl. Retrieved 30 January 2017.
  22. "Historia Opola". www.opole.pl (in Polish). Retrieved 30 January 2017.
  23. "Wyborcza.pl". opole.wyborcza.pl. Retrieved 30 January 2017.
  24. "Drogeria Rossmann - województwo opolskie". www.rossmann.pl (in Polish). Retrieved 30 January 2017.
  25. "Galeria Opolanin Opole". www.galeria-opolanin.pl. Retrieved 30 January 2017.
  26. "Miasta Partnerskie Opola". Urzad Miasta Opola (in Polish). Retrieved 2013-08-01.
  27. Офіційний сайт міста Івано-Франківська. mvk.if.ua (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 7 March 2010.
  28. "Die Partnerstädte der Landeshauptstadt Potsdam". www.potsdam.de (in German). Retrieved 24 June 2010.
  29. Bozsoki, Agnes. "Partnervárosok Névsora Partner és Testvérvárosok Névsora" [Partner and Twin Cities List]. City of Székesfehérvár (in Hungarian). Archived from the original on 2012-12-08. Retrieved 2013-08-05.
  • Opole - Official Tourist Information
  • Municipal website
  • Urban development of Opole in the Historical-Topographical Atlas of Silesian Towns
  • Jewish Community in Opole on Virtual Shtetl
  • Webcam showing Krakowska Street in Opole (Polish)
  • Culture: Amfiteart Opole
  • Culture: KFPP Opole

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