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Hotels of Osnabrück
A hotel in Osnabrück is an establishment that provides lodging paid on a short-term basis. Facilities provided may range from a basic bed and storage for clothing, to luxury features like en-suite bathrooms. Larger in Osnabrück hotels may provide additional guest facilities such as a swimming pool, business centre, childcare, conference facilities and social function services. Hotel rooms in Osnabrück are usually numbered (or named in some smaller hotels and B&Bs) to allow guests to identify their room. Some Osnabrück hotels offer meals as part of a room and board arrangement. Hotel operations vary in size, function, and cost. Most Osnabrück hotels and major hospitality companies that operate hotels in Osnabrück have set widely accepted industry standards to classify hotel types. General categories include the following:
Upscale luxury hotels in Osnabrück
An upscale full service hotel facility in Osnabrück that offers luxury amenities, full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and the highest level of personalized and professional service. Luxury Osnabrück hotels are normally classified with at least a Four Diamond or Five Diamond status or a Four or Five Star rating depending on classification standards.
Full service hotels in Osnabrück
Full service Osnabrück hotels often contain upscale full-service facilities with a large volume of full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and a variety of on-site amenities such as swimming pools, a health club, children's activities, ballrooms, on-site conference facilities, etc.
Historic inns and boutique hotels in Osnabrück
Boutique hotels of Osnabrück are smaller independent non-branded hotels that often contain upscale facilities of varying size in unique or intimate settings with full service accommodations. Osnabrück boutique hotels are generally 100 rooms or less. Some historic inns and boutique hotels in Osnabrück may be classified as luxury hotels.
Focused or select service hotels in Osnabrück
Small to medium-sized hotel establishments that offer a limited amount of on-site amenities that only cater and market to a specific demographic of Osnabrück travelers, such as the single business traveler. Most Osnabrück focused or select service hotels may still offer full service accommodations but may lack leisure amenities such as an on-site restaurant or a swimming pool.
Economy and limited service hotels in Osnabrück
Small to medium-sized Osnabrück hotel establishments that offer a very limited amount of on-site amenities and often only offer basic accommodations with little to no services, these facilities normally only cater and market to a specific demographic of travelers, such as the budget-minded Osnabrück traveler seeking a "no frills" accommodation. Limited service Osnabrück hotels often lack an on-site restaurant but in return may offer a limited complimentary food and beverage amenity such as on-site continental breakfast service.
Guest houses and B&Bs in Osnabrück
A bed and breakfast in Osnabrück is a small lodging establishment that offers overnight accommodation and inclusive breakfast. Usually, Osnabrück bed and breakfasts are private homes or family homes offering accommodations. The typical Osnabrück B&B has between 4 and 11 rooms, with 6 being the average. Generally, guests are accommodated in private bedrooms with private bathrooms, or in a suite of rooms including an en suite bathroom. Some homes have private bedrooms with a bathroom which is shared with other guests. Breakfast is served in the bedroom, a dining room, or the host's kitchen. Often the owners of guest house themselves prepare the breakfast and clean the rooms.
Hostels in Osnabrück
Osnabrück hostels provide budget-oriented, sociable accommodation where guests can rent a bed, usually a bunk bed, in a dormitory and share a bathroom, lounge, and sometimes a kitchen. Rooms can be mixed or single-sex, although private rooms may also be available. Hostels are often cheaper for both the operator and occupants; many Osnabrück hostels have long-term residents whom they employ as desk agents or housekeeping staff in exchange for experience or discounted accommodation.
Apartment hotels, extended stay hotels in Osnabrück
Extended stay hotels are small to medium-sized Osnabrück hotels that offer longer term full service accommodations compared to a traditional hotel. Extended stay hotels may offer non-traditional pricing methods such as a weekly rate that cater towards travelers in need of short-term accommodations for an extended period of time. Similar to limited and select service hotels, on-site amenities are normally limited and most extended stay hotels in Osnabrück lack an on-site restaurant.
Timeshare and destination clubs in Osnabrück
Osnabrück timeshare and destination clubs are a form of property ownership also referred to as a vacation ownership involving the purchase and ownership of an individual unit of accommodation for seasonal usage during a specified period of time. Timeshare resorts in Osnabrück often offer amenities similar that of a Full service hotel with on-site restaurant(s), swimming pools, recreation grounds, and other leisure-oriented amenities. Destination clubs of Osnabrück on the other hand may offer more exclusive private accommodations such as private houses in a neighborhood-style setting.
Motels in Osnabrück
A Osnabrück motel is a small-sized low-rise lodging establishment similar to that of a limited service hotel, but with direct access to individual rooms from the car park. Common during the 1950s and 1960s, motels were often located adjacent to a major road, where they were built on inexpensive land at the edge of towns or along stretches of highways. They are still useful in less populated areas of Osnabrück for driving travelers, but the more populated an area becomes the more hotels fill the need. Many of Osnabrück motels which remain in operation have joined national franchise chains, rebranding themselves as hotels, inns or lodges.
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Osnabrück (German pronunciation:[ɔsnaˈbʁʏk] ( listen); Westphalian: Ossenbrügge; archaic English: Osnaburg) is a city in the federal state of Lower-Saxony in north-west Germany. It is situated in a valley penned between the Wiehen Hills and the northern tip of the Teutoburg Forest. With a population of around 160,000, Osnabrück is the fourth-largest city in Lower Saxony. The city is the centrepoint of the Osnabrück Land region as well as the District of Osnabrück.
The founding of Osnabrück was linked to its positioning on important European trading routes. Charles the Great founded the Diocese of Osnabrück in 780. The city was also a member of the Hanseatic League. Later Osnabrück became well known for its role in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 which brought the Thirty Years’ War to an end; the treaty was signed both there and in nearby Münster. The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest took place in the region surrounding Osnabrück. The city is also known as the birthplace of novelist Erich-Maria Remarque (“All Quiet on the Western Front”) and painter Felix Nussbaum.
Osnabrück's role in the Treaty of Westphalia later led it to adopt the title Friedensstadt ("city of peace"). More recently Osnabrück has become well known for its industry. Numerous companies in the automobile, paper, steel and grocery sectors are located in the city and its surrounding area. In spite of the massive destruction inflicted on the city during World War II, the Altstadt (old town) was eventually reconstructed extensively with designs loyal to the original medieval architecture there. Osnabrück was also the home of the largest British garrison outside of the United Kingdom. Osnabrück's modern, urban image is enhanced by the presence of more than 22,000 students studying at the University and the University of Applied Sciences. Although situated in the region of Lower Saxony, historically, culturally and linguistically Osnabrück is held to belong to the region of Westphalia.
See also: Names of European cities in different languages: Osnabrück
The origin of the name Osnabrück is disputed. The suffix -brück suggests a bridge over or to something (from German Brücke = bridge) but the prefix Osna- is explained in at least two different ways: the traditional explanation is that today's name is a corruption of Ochsenbrücke (meaning "oxen bridge"), but others state that it is derived from the name of the Hase River which is arguably derived from Asen (Æsir), thus giving Osnabrück the meaning "bridge to the gods". The way in which the city's name is pronounced can also serve as a means of telling if the speaker is a native of Osnabrück or a visitor: most locals stress the last syllable, while those from elsewhere tend to stress the first one. The city gave its name to the textile fabric of osnaburg (note: "-burg" means borough).
Osnabrück initially developed as a marketplace next to the bishopric founded by Charlemagne, King of the Franks, in 780. Some time prior to 803, the city became the seat of the Prince-Bishopric of Osnabrück. Although the precise date is uncertain, it is likely that Osnabrück is the oldest bishopric in Lower Saxony.
In the year 804 Charlemagne was said to have founded the Gymnasium Carolinum in Osnabrück. This would make it the oldest German Gymnasium school, but the charter date is disputed by historians, some of whom believe it could be a forgery.
In 889 the town was given merchant, customs, and coinage privileges by King Arnulf of Carinthia. Osnabrück was first referred to in records as a "city" in 1147. A decade later, Emperor Frederick Barbarossa granted the city fortification privileges (Befestigungsrecht). Most of the towers which were part of the original fortifications are still visible in the city. Osnabrück became a member of the Hanseatic League in the 12th century, as well as a member of the Westphalian Federation of Cities.
The history of the town in the later Middle Ages was recorded in a chronicle by Albert Suho, one of Osnabrück's most important clerics in the 15th century.
Osnabrück: Early Modern age
From 1561 to 1639 there was a considerable amount of social unrest and tension in Osnabrück due to the Protestant Reformation, the Thirty Years' War and also witch hunting. In 1582, during the rule of Mayor Hammacher (1565–1588), 163 women were executed as alleged witches; most of them were burned alive. In total, 276 women were executed, along with 2 men who had been charged with wizardry.
The first Lutheran services were held in Osnabrück in 1543. Over the next century, Lutheranism expanded in the city and several Protestant bishops were elected. However, the Catholic churches continued to operate, and the city never became completely Lutheran. After the Thirty Years' War broke out, a Catholic bishop was elected in 1623, and the city was occupied by troops of the Catholic League in 1628. The Gymnasium Carolinum was upgraded to a Jesuit university in 1632, but the university was closed a year later when the city was taken by Swedish troops and restored to Protestant control.
Peace negotiations took place in Osnabrück and the nearby city of Münster from 1643 to 1648. The twin Treaties of Osnabrück and Münster, collectively known as the Peace of Westphalia, ended the Thirty Years' War. Osnabrück was officially recognized as bi-confessional Catholic and Lutheran. The prince-bishopric would be held alternately by a Catholic bishop and a Lutheran bishop. The Protestant bishop would be selected from the descendants of the Dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg, with priority given to the cadets of what became the House of Hanover.
In the early 18th century, renowned local jurist and social theorist Justus Möser wrote a highly influential constitutional history of the town, the Osnabrücker Geschichte. Following the Seven Years' War, the town's population fell below 6,000, however an economic revival linked to the linen and tobacco industries caused it to rise again from the 1780s onwards.
Osnabrück: 19th century
The French Revolutionary Wars brought Prussian troops into the city in 1795, followed by the French in 1803. As a result, the town's population was kept below 10,000 for the whole first decade of the 19th century. The Napoleonic period saw possession of the city change hands several times. Control of Osnabrück passed to the Electorate of Hanover in 1803 during the German Mediatisation, and then briefly to the Kingdom of Prussia in 1806. From 1807 to 1810 the city was part of the Kingdom of Westphalia, after which it passed to the First French Empire. After 1815, it became part of the Kingdom of Hanover.
St. Peter's Cathedral
The town's first railway line was built in 1855, connecting it with Löhne. Further rail connections appeared over the following decades, connecting Osnabrück with Emden from 1856, Cologne from 1871 and Hamburg from 1874. In 1866, Osnabrück was annexed by Prussia after the Austro-Prussian War and administered as part of the Province of Hanover. Growth of the local economy and population was fuelled by expansion in the engineering and textile industries, with the Hammersen Weaving Mill established in 1869 and the Osnabrücker Kupfer- und Drahtwerk metallurgical firm following in 1873. The later 19th century also saw growth in the number of schools and the arrival of electricity and modern sanitation.
Osnabrück: 20th century
By 1914, Osnabrück had over 70,000 inhabitants. The outbreak of the First World War necessitated food rationing; the Allied blockade and a harsh winter in 1917 led to further shortages. Following Germany's defeat in 1918, a council made up of workers and soldiers took control during the November Revolution, but were replaced by the new Weimar Republic the following year. Similarly to many other German cities, Osnabrück experienced considerable inflation and unemployment in the 1920s, with over 2,000 out of work by 1923 and nearly 14,000 receiving some form of government assistance by 1928.
Politically, Osnabrück in the 1920s was a stronghold of support for the Social Democrats and the Catholic Centre Party. However, in the Reichstag elections of September 1930, the Nazi Party received the greatest percentage of votes in the city (nearly 28%) - a more than seven-fold increase from their electoral performance in Osnabrück two years prior. During the campaigns prior to the two federal elections in 1932, both Adolf Hitler and Joseph Goebbels made well-attended speeches in the city.
Southern part of the inner city
Following the Nazis' seizure of power in January 1933, Osnabrück was subjected to the implementation of National Socialist economic, political, and social programmes. These resulted in economic growth for ethnic Germans who did not run afoul of the new regime, and the town went from having over 10,000 unemployed in early 1933 to actually having a labour shortage five years later. However, dissenters, supporters of opposition parties and Jews did not share in this growth and found themselves discriminated against, imprisoned or forced to close their businesses and leave town. During the war, both Jews and Romany were deported to concentration camps and extermination camps en masse. During World War II the city was bombed extensively, requiring major reconstructive programmes following the war's end.
The war ended for Osnabrück on 4 April 1945, when the XVII Corps of Montgomery's Second Army entered the city with little resistance. Leading Nazis fled the city and the British appointed a new mayor, Johannes Petermann. However, power remained chiefly with the occupiers, represented locally by the military governor, Colonel Geoffrey Day. Relations between the occupiers and the citizens of Osnabrück were generally peaceful, though tensions existed; some minor fights broke out between British soldiers and local youths and some Osnabrückers resented the relationships that developed between the occupiers and local women. Additionally, the British took over more than seventy homes for their own use by the middle of 1946. Amidst shortages, the black market thrived and became one of the main focuses of police activity.
After World War II West Germany realigned its states; Osnabrück became part of the new state of Lower Saxony in 1946. The British continued to maintain Osnabrück Garrison, a garrison near the city, which at one point was the largest British garrison in the world, housing some 4000 troops and employing around 500 local civilians. It was the target of a PIRA attack in 1996. Due to budget cuts, the troops were withdrawn in 2008 and the property returned to the local government.
After three centuries, the city finally obtained its university when the government of Lower Saxony established the University of Osnabrück in 1974.
Largest minority groups in Osnabrück as of 2014:
Osnabrück: Main sights
Heger Tor, formerly called Waterloo Tor, a memorial to Elector Georg's 'German' Legion in Osnabrück.
St. Peter's Cathedral, founded in the 11th century. It has two façade towers, originally the same size
Heger Tor ("Heger Gate"), a monument to the soldiers from Osnabrück who died at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815
Bucksturm, the oldest tower in the city, and once part of the city walls. It was once used as a prison for women accused of witchcraft
Ruwe Fountain" (1985), created to mark the city's 1200th birthday
Gladiator 2000 (1986), a gigantic painting measuring (45 × 6 meters), by Nicu Covaci
Felix Nussbaum Haus, a gallery and museum dedicated to the Jewish artist and painter Felix Nussbaum, who died during the Holocaust. It was designed by the architect Daniel Libeskind
Kalkriese Museum, situated on the battlefield of the Battle of the Teutoburger Wald in the Wiehen Hills, where German tribes under Arminius destroyed three Roman legions. It exhibits artefacts unearthed on the battlefield and tells the story of the battle
Osnabrücker Schloss (castle/palace) 17th century Baroque construction, nowadays the main building of the University of Osnabrück
Botanischer Garten der Universität Osnabrück, the university's botanical garden
Old town with its small streets and medieval buildings
Vitischanze - formerly a defence station in the north-west of the old city, it has the only undestroyed bridge in Europe with a defence walk below its surface. It is also the site of certain faculty of the University of Applied Science. It was earlier used as a casino
Katharinenkirche (St. Catherine's Church), which dates back to 1248 and is one of the 150 tallest churches in the world, and also the tallest medieval building in Lower Saxony
Hyde Park, a traditional music hall established in 1976, a haven of pop music and youth culture
Leysieffer, a traditional German chocolate producer founded in Osnabrück. The main Leysieffer site is in the city centre
Osnabrück: Famous people
Famous Osnabrück personalities include the writer Erich Maria Remarque and painters Friedrich Vordemberge-Gildewart (1899-1962) and Felix Nussbaum. Nussbaum has been honoured by Osnabrück in the form of a museum designed by Daniel Libeskind which opened in 1998; it was designed as a scaled-down version of Libeskind's own Jewish Museum in Berlin. The poet and scholar Johann Ernst Hanxleden was born in Osnabrück, as were reggae musician Gentleman and DJ Robin Schulz. Victory Records and recording artists Waterdown are also based in Osnabrück.
Actress Birgitta Tolksdorf, who became a well-known figure in American television in the 1970s, as well as stage and screen actor Mathias Wieman (the 1958 recipient of the Justus-Möser-Medaille) (see German article Justus-Möser-Medaille) were also born in the city. Peter van Pels, the love interest of world-famous diarist Anne Frank, and his parents Auguste van Pels and Hermann van Pels, all hailed from Osnabrück.
Friedrich Clemens Gerke, writer, journalist, musician and pioneer of telegraphy who revised the Morse code in 1848, is another of the city's famous sons. (Gerke's notation is still used today.)
Further notable Osnabrückers are Heinrich Abeken, theologian and Prussian Privy Legation Councillor in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Berlin; Justus Moser, jurist and historian of the city; and Hans-Gert Pöttering, former President of the European Parliament. One of the best-known Osnabrückers in recent times is Christian Wulff, Prime Minister of Lower Saxony (2003–2010) and German President (2010–2012).
Osnabrück: More sons and daughters of the town
Ernest Augustus, Duke of York
Friedrich Clemens Gerke 1840
Erich Maria Remarque in 1929
Albert Suho, (around 1380-around 1450), clergyman, theologian, historian
Gerlach Flicke, (born early 16th century-1558), painter
Johann Wilhelm Petersen, (1649-1727), evangelical theologian
Ernest Augustus, Duke of York and Albany, (1674-1728), Prince Bishop of Osnabrück and Duke of York and Albany
Ernst zu Münster, (1766-1839), politician, statesman in the service of House of Hannover
Bernhard Rudolf Abeken, (1780-1866), philologist
Friedrich Clemens Gerke, (1801-1888), pioneer of telegraphy
Heinrich Abeken, (1809-1872), evangelical theologian
August von Kreling, (1819-1876), painter and sculptor
Friedrich Westmeyer, (1873-1917), politician and trade unionist
Alfred Runge, (1881-1946), architect
Walter Warlimont, (1894-1976), General of the Artillery
Erich Maria Remarque, (1898-1970), writer All quiet on the western front
Mathias Wieman, (1902-1969), actor
Elfriede Scholz, (1903-1943), victim of national socialism
Hans Georg Calmeyer, (1903-1972), attorney, Righteous Among the Nations ,
Rudolf Beckmann, (1910-1943), SS-Oberscharführer and war criminal
Franz Lucas, (1911-1994), concentration camp doctor
Wilhelm Schitli, (1912-1945) (missing), SS Hauptsturm leader and guardian of the camp in Neuengamme concentration camp
Herbert Tiede, (1915-1987), actor
Benno Sterzenbach, (1916-1985), actor
Hans Haferkamp (Hann Hannes'), (1921-1974), tobacco retailer and football player
Hubertus Brandenburg, (1923-2009), Bishop of Stockholm
Reinhold Remmert, (1930-2016); mathematician
Horst Borcherding, (1930-2015); football goalkeeper
Jürgen Kühling, (born 1934), lawyer, former judge at the Federal Constitutional Court
Inge Schmitz-Feuerhake, (born 1935), physicist and mathematician, member of the Kuratorium der Deutschen Umweltstiftung
Rudolf Seiters, (born 1937), politician (CDU), former Federal Minister and Vice-President of the Bundestag
Paul Kirchhof, (born 1943), former judge at the Federal Constitutional Court, professor of tax law at the University of Heidelberg
Ferdinand Kirchhof, (born 1950), judge at the Federal Constitutional Court, professor of tax law at the University of Tübingen
Robin Schulz, (born 1987), musician, DJ and record producer
Hellmann Worldwide Logistics has its headquarters in the city.
There are two higher education institutions in Osnabrück, University of Osnabrück and Osnabrück University of Applied Sciences with more than 25000 students. All of the types of German grammar schools are represented in the city, including seven Gymnasien. Gymnasium Carolinum claims to be the oldest still existing school in Germany. Another well-known Gymnasium is the Ursulaschule, a private school, located directly opposite the Carolinum.
The city of Osnabrück is connected by road to the A1, the A30 and the A33. It shares its airport with Münster.
The "Hauptbahnhof" (main railway station) of Osnabrück is an important rail travel hub. Travellers from the Netherlands heading to either Hamburg, Denmark, or Eastern Europe often have to change here.
An extensive bus service operated by the Stadtwerke Osnabrück provides public transportation within Osnabrück and the surrounding region. The central bus stop is located at the Neumarkt shopping area, a short distance from the railway station.
Osnabrück: Districts of Osnabrück
Boroughs of Osnabrück
The city is divided into 23 districts:
Osnabrück: Twin towns and sister cities
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany
Osnabrück is twinned with:
Haarlem, Netherlands, since 1961
Angers, France, since 1964
Gmünd, Austria, since 1971 (friendship link)
Derby, United Kingdom, since 1976
Greifswald, Germany, since 1988
Tver, Russian Federation, since 1991
Evansville, United States, since 1991 (friendship link)
Gwangmyeong, Korea, since 1997 (friendship link)
Çanakkale, Turkey, since 2004
Vila Real, Portugal, since 2005
Hefei, China, since 2006 (friendship link)
Osnabrück: Twinning with Derby
Osnabrück is twinned with the city of Derby in England.
Previously Osnabrück had made contact with the British authorities as early as 1948, hoping to find an English twin town and therefore achieve greater understanding with their former enemies in the Second World War. Unfortunately, this attempt was unsuccessful and Osnabrück did not actively consider the idea again for another quarter-century. The twinning agreement with Derby was signed on 17 February 1976 in the historic Friedenssaal (Hall of Peace) in Osnabrück's town hall. Every year since then the two towns have exchanged envoys. Derby also has a square named after Osnabrück in honour of the twinning arrangement; this features an obelisk among other things.
Osnabrück now has eleven twin and friendship cities: Derby (England), Angers (France), Haarlem (Netherlands), Çanakkale (Turkey), Tver (Russia), Greifswald (Germany), Vila Real (Portugal), Hefei (China), Evansville (USA), Gmünd (Austria), Gwangmyeong (Korea) and there are five envoys working at the twinning office in Osnabrück, who represent Derby, Angers, Haarlem, Tver and Çanakkale.
Every year, Derby and Osnabrück each appoint an envoy who spends twelve months in their respective twin city. The envoy's role is varied, but primarily focuses on promoting the exchange of ideas between the two cities, as well as acting as an educational and general information officer to promote awareness of the twinning scheme. The envoy's specific duties are numerous: translating, giving talks and presentations to local societies and schools, finding pen friends and short-term host families during work placements, working in day-to-day contact to assist groups who want to get involved in twinning by identifying and approaching possible counterparts, planning the Derby Day at the annual Maiwoche (May Week) festival, and many more.
The exchange of envoys between two cities is very unusual. The team of envoys in Osnabrück changes every year and Osnabrück also sends envoys to Derby, Angers and Çanakkale. No other city in Germany participates in this exchange of envoys, and in Britain, only one other city, Wigan, receives and sends an envoy.
The twinning gives the inhabitants of both places the opportunity to interact with their international neighbours. Town twinning aims to enhance international understanding and break down social barriers.
Osnabrück: See also
Straße der Megalithkultur, tourist route from Osnabrück to Oldenburg via some 33 megalithic sites
Landesbetrieb für Statistik und Kommunikationstechnologie Niedersachsen, 102 Bevölkerung - Basis Zensus 2011, Stand 31. Dezember 2015 (Tabelle K1020014)
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Osnabrück: Lebendiges Zentrum im Osnabrücker Land www.osnabruecker-land.de
"Environmental Education at the University of Osnabrück" (in German). Umweltbildung.uni-osnabrueck.de. Retrieved January 2014.Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
Greengrass, Mark (2014). Christendom Destroyed: Europe 1517–1648. ISBN 9780698176256. Both cities carried the scars o the war, but Osnabrück suffered worse, subjected to the troops of the Catholic League (1628-32) and a forcible Catholicization, and then Swedish war contributions.
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"IOE Archives". Archive.ioe.ac.uk. Retrieved January 2014.Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
"Imprint." Hellmann Worldwide Logistics. Retrieved on September 3, 2011. "Hellmann Worldwide Logistics GmbH & Co. KG Elbestrasse 1 D-49090 Osnabrueck"
Hinrichs, Wilfried (October 8, 2013), "Der neue Oberbürgermeister hat "Ja" gesagt", Neue Osnabrücker Zeitung (in German), retrieved October 2013Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
Panayi, P. (2007), Life and Death in a German Town: Osnabrück from the Weimar Republic to World War II and Beyond, New York: Tauris Academic StudiesBuy book ISBN 978-0-85771-440-4
Team Strategische Stadtentwicklung und Statistik (August 2013), 02001 Amtliche Einwohnerzahlen der Stadt Osnabrück und der angrenzenden Gemeinden Stand: Volkszählung 25.5.1987 und jeweils 31.12. (PDF) (in German), City of Osnabrück, p. 1, retrieved January 2014Check date values in: |access-date= (help)