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Hotels of Parma

A hotel in Parma is an establishment that provides lodging paid on a short-term basis. Facilities provided may range from a basic bed and storage for clothing, to luxury features like en-suite bathrooms. Larger in Parma hotels may provide additional guest facilities such as a swimming pool, business centre, childcare, conference facilities and social function services. Hotel rooms in Parma are usually numbered (or named in some smaller hotels and B&Bs) to allow guests to identify their room. Some Parma hotels offer meals as part of a room and board arrangement. Hotel operations vary in size, function, and cost. Most Parma hotels and major hospitality companies that operate hotels in Parma have set widely accepted industry standards to classify hotel types. General categories include the following:

Upscale luxury hotels in Parma
An upscale full service hotel facility in Parma that offers luxury amenities, full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and the highest level of personalized and professional service. Luxury Parma hotels are normally classified with at least a Four Diamond or Five Diamond status or a Four or Five Star rating depending on classification standards.

Full service hotels in Parma
Full service Parma hotels often contain upscale full-service facilities with a large volume of full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and a variety of on-site amenities such as swimming pools, a health club, children's activities, ballrooms, on-site conference facilities, etc.

Historic inns and boutique hotels in Parma
Boutique hotels of Parma are smaller independent non-branded hotels that often contain upscale facilities of varying size in unique or intimate settings with full service accommodations. Parma boutique hotels are generally 100 rooms or less. Some historic inns and boutique hotels in Parma may be classified as luxury hotels.

Focused or select service hotels in Parma
Small to medium-sized hotel establishments that offer a limited amount of on-site amenities that only cater and market to a specific demographic of Parma travelers, such as the single business traveler. Most Parma focused or select service hotels may still offer full service accommodations but may lack leisure amenities such as an on-site restaurant or a swimming pool.

Economy and limited service hotels in Parma
Small to medium-sized Parma hotel establishments that offer a very limited amount of on-site amenities and often only offer basic accommodations with little to no services, these facilities normally only cater and market to a specific demographic of travelers, such as the budget-minded Parma traveler seeking a "no frills" accommodation. Limited service Parma hotels often lack an on-site restaurant but in return may offer a limited complimentary food and beverage amenity such as on-site continental breakfast service.

Guest houses and B&Bs in Parma
A bed and breakfast in Parma is a small lodging establishment that offers overnight accommodation and inclusive breakfast. Usually, Parma bed and breakfasts are private homes or family homes offering accommodations. The typical Parma B&B has between 4 and 11 rooms, with 6 being the average. Generally, guests are accommodated in private bedrooms with private bathrooms, or in a suite of rooms including an en suite bathroom. Some homes have private bedrooms with a bathroom which is shared with other guests. Breakfast is served in the bedroom, a dining room, or the host's kitchen. Often the owners of guest house themselves prepare the breakfast and clean the rooms.

Hostels in Parma
Parma hostels provide budget-oriented, sociable accommodation where guests can rent a bed, usually a bunk bed, in a dormitory and share a bathroom, lounge, and sometimes a kitchen. Rooms can be mixed or single-sex, although private rooms may also be available. Hostels are often cheaper for both the operator and occupants; many Parma hostels have long-term residents whom they employ as desk agents or housekeeping staff in exchange for experience or discounted accommodation.

Apartment hotels, extended stay hotels in Parma
Extended stay hotels are small to medium-sized Parma hotels that offer longer term full service accommodations compared to a traditional hotel. Extended stay hotels may offer non-traditional pricing methods such as a weekly rate that cater towards travelers in need of short-term accommodations for an extended period of time. Similar to limited and select service hotels, on-site amenities are normally limited and most extended stay hotels in Parma lack an on-site restaurant.

Timeshare and destination clubs in Parma
Parma timeshare and destination clubs are a form of property ownership also referred to as a vacation ownership involving the purchase and ownership of an individual unit of accommodation for seasonal usage during a specified period of time. Timeshare resorts in Parma often offer amenities similar that of a Full service hotel with on-site restaurant(s), swimming pools, recreation grounds, and other leisure-oriented amenities. Destination clubs of Parma on the other hand may offer more exclusive private accommodations such as private houses in a neighborhood-style setting.

Motels in Parma
A Parma motel is a small-sized low-rise lodging establishment similar to that of a limited service hotel, but with direct access to individual rooms from the car park. Common during the 1950s and 1960s, motels were often located adjacent to a major road, where they were built on inexpensive land at the edge of towns or along stretches of highways. They are still useful in less populated areas of Parma for driving travelers, but the more populated an area becomes the more hotels fill the need. Many of Parma motels which remain in operation have joined national franchise chains, rebranding themselves as hotels, inns or lodges.

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Travelling and vacation in Parma

This article is about the Italian city. For other uses, see Parma (disambiguation).
Comune di Parma
Palazzo del Governatore.
Palazzo del Governatore.
Flag of Parma
Coat of arms of Parma
Coat of arms
Parma is located in Italy
Location of Parma in Italy
Coordinates:  / 44.800; 10.333  / 44.800; 10.333
Country Italy
Region Emilia-Romagna
Province / Metropolitan city Parma (PR)
Frazioni See
• Mayor Federico Pizzarotti (Independent)
• Total 260.77 km (100.68 sq mi)
Elevation 55 m (180 ft)
Population (1 January 2016)
• Total 192,836
• Density 740/km (1,900/sq mi)
Demonym(s) (it) Parmigiani (Pram'zan) (Parmensi (Arijoz) are
called the province's inhabitants)
(en) Parmesan/s
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
• Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 43121-43126
Dialing code 0521
Patron saint Sant'Ilario di Poitiers, Sant'Onorato, San Rocco
Saint day January 13
Website Official website

Parma [ˈparma] About this sound listen (Emilian: Pärma) is a city in the northern Italian region of Emilia-Romagna famous for its prosciutto (ham), cheese, architecture, music and surrounding countryside. It is home to the University of Parma, one of the oldest universities in the world. Parma is divided into two parts by the stream of the same name. The district on the far side of the river is Oltretorrente. Parma's Etruscan name was adapted by Romans to describe the round shield called Parma.

The Italian poet Attilio Bertolucci (born in a hamlet in the countryside) wrote: "As a capital city it had to have a river. As a little capital it received a stream, which is often dry".

Parma: History

See also: Timeline of Parma

Parma: Prehistory

Parma was already a built-up area in the Bronze Age. In the current position of the city rose a terramare. The "terramare" (marl earth) were ancient villages built of wood on piles according to a defined scheme and squared form; constructed on dry land and generally in proximity to the rivers. During this age (between 1500 BC and 800 BC) the first necropolis (on the sites of the present-day Piazza Duomo and Piazzale della Macina) were constructed.

Parma: Antiquity

The city was most probably founded and named by the Etruscans, for a parma (circular shield) was a Latin borrowing, as were many Roman terms for particular arms, and Parmeal, Parmni and Parmnial are names that appear in Etruscan inscriptions. Diodorus Siculus (XXII, 2,2; XXVIII, 2,1) reported that the Romans had changed their rectangular shields for round ones, imitating the Etruscans. Whether the Etruscan encampment was so named because it was round, like a shield, or whether its situation was a shield against the Gauls to the north, is uncertain.

The Roman colony was founded in 183 BC, together with Mutina (Modena); 2,000 families were settled. Parma had a certain importance as a road hub over the Via Aemilia and the Via Claudia. It had a forum, in what is today the central Garibaldi Square. In 44 BC, the city was destroyed, and Augustus rebuilt it. During the Roman Empire, it gained the title of Julia for its loyalty to the imperial house.

The city was subsequently sacked by Attila, and later given by the Germanic king Odoacer to his followers. During the Gothic War, however, Totila destroyed it. It was then part of the Byzantine Exarchate of Ravenna (changing its name to Chrysopolis, "Golden City", probably due to the presence of the imperial treasury) and, from 569, of the Lombard Kingdom of Italy. During the Middle Ages, Parma became an important stage of the Via Francigena, the main road connecting Rome to Northern Europe; several castles, hospitals and inns were built in the following centuries to host the increasing number of pilgrims who passed by Parma and Fidenza, following the Apennines via Collecchio, Berceto and the Corchia ranges before descending the Passo della Cisa into Tuscany, heading finally south toward Rome.

Parma: Middle Ages

Baptistery of Parma, 1196-1270

Under the Frankish rule, Parma became the capital of a county (774). Like most northern Italian cities, it was nominally a part of the Holy Roman Empire created by Charlemagne, but locally ruled by its bishops, the first being Guibodus. In the subsequent struggles between the Papacy and the Empire, Parma was usually a member of the Imperial party. Two of its bishops became antipopes: Càdalo, founder of the cathedral, as Honorius II; and Guibert, as Clement III. An almost independent commune was created around 1140; a treaty between Parma and Piacenza of 1149 is the earliest document of a comune headed by consuls. After the Peace of Constance (1183) confirmed the Italian communes' rights of self-governance, long-standing quarrels with the neighbouring communes of Reggio Emilia, Piacenza and Cremona became harsher, with the aim of controlling the vital trading line over the Po River.

The struggle between Guelphs and Ghibellines was a feature of Parma too. In 1213, her podestà was the Guelph Rambertino Buvalelli. Then, after a long stance alongside the emperors, the Papist families of the city gained control in 1248. The city was besieged in 1247–48 by Emperor Frederick II, who was however crushed in the battle that ensued.

Parma: Modern era

Parma in the 15th century

Parma fell under the control of Milan in 1341. After a short-lived period of independence under the Terzi family (1404–1409), the Sforza imposed their rule (1440–1449) through their associated families of Pallavicino, Rossi, Sanvitale and Da Correggio. These created a kind of new feudalism, building towers and castles throughout the city and the land. These fiefs evolved into truly independent states: the Landi governed the higher Taro's valley from 1257 to 1682. The Pallavicino seignory extended over the eastern part of today's province, with the capital in Busseto. Parma's territories were an exception for Northern Italy, as its feudal subdivision frequently continued until more recent years. For example, Solignano was a Pallavicino family possession until 1805, and San Secondo belonged to the Rossi well into the 19th century.

View of Palazzo della Pilotta in the Piazza della Pace. The rebuilt part on the right is where once was the church of St.Peter. The large hole was caused by an Allies bombing.

Between the 14th and the 15th centuries, Parma was at the centre of the Italian Wars. The Battle of Fornovo was fought in its territory. The French held the city in 1500–1521, with a short Papal parenthesis in 1512–1515. After the foreigners were expelled, Parma belonged to the Papal States until 1545.

In that year the Farnese pope, Paul III, detached Parma and Piacenza from the Papal States and gave them as a duchy to his illegitimate son, Pier Luigi Farnese, whose descendants ruled in Parma until 1731, when Antonio Farnese (1679–1731), last male of the Farnese line, died. In 1594 a constitution was promulgated, the University enhanced and the Nobles' College founded. The war to reduce the barons' power continued for several years: in 1612 Barbara Sanseverino was executed in the central square of Parma, together with six other nobles charged of plotting against the duke. At the end of the 17th century, after the defeat of Pallavicini (1588) and Landi (1682) the Farnese duke could finally hold with firm hand all Parmense territories. The castle of the Sanseverino in Colorno was turned into a luxurious summer palace by Ferdinando Bibiena.

In the Treaty of London (1718) it was promulgated that the heir to the combined Duchy of Parma and Piacenza would be Elisabeth Farnese's elder son with Philip V of Spain, Don Carlos. In 1731, the fifteen-year-old Don Carlos became Charles I Duke of Parma and Piacenza, at the death of his childless great uncle Antonio Farnese. In 1734, Charles I conquered the kingdoms of Naples and Sicily, and was crowned as the King of Naples and Sicily on 3 July 1735, leaving the Duchy of Parma to his brother Philip (Filippo I di Borbone-Parma). All the outstanding art collections of the duke's palaces of Parma, Colorno and Sala Baganza were moved to Naples.

Parma was under French influence after the Peace of Aachen (1748). Parma became a modern state with the energetic action of prime minister Guillaume du Tillot. He created the bases for a modern industry and fought strenuously against the church's privileges. The city lived a period of particular splendour: the Biblioteca Palatina (Palatine Library), the Archaeological Museum, the Picture Gallery and the Botanical Garden were founded, together with the Royal Printing Works directed by Giambattista Bodoni, aided by the Amoretti Brothers as skilled and inspired punchcutters.

Parma: Contemporary age

Parma in 1832

During the Napoleonic Wars (1802–1814), Parma was annexed to France and made capital of the Taro Département. Under its French name Parme, it was also created a duché grand-fief de l'Empire for Charles-François Lebrun, duc de Plaisance, the Emperor's Arch-Treasurer, on 24 April 1808 (extinguished 1926).

After the restoration of the Duchy of Parma by the 1814–15 Vienna Congress, the Risorgimento's upheavals had no fertile ground in the tranquil duchy. In 1847, after Marie Louise, Duchess of Parma's death, it passed again to the House of Bourbon, the last of whom was stabbed in the city and left it to his widow, Luisa Maria of Berry. On 15 September 1859 the dynasty was declared deposed, and Parma entered the newly formed province of Emilia under Luigi Carlo Farini. With the plebiscite of 1860 the former duchy became part of the unified Kingdom of Italy.

The loss of the capital role provoked an economic and social crisis in Parma. It started to recover its role of industrial prominence after the railway connection with Piacenza and Bologna of 1859, and with Fornovo and Suzzara in 1883. Trade unions were strong in the city, in which a famous General Strike was declared from 1 May to 6 June 1908. The struggle with Fascism had its most dramatic moment in the August 1922, when the regime officer Italo Balbo attempted to enter the popular quarter of Oltretorrente. The citizens organized into the Arditi del Popolo ("People's champions") and pushed back the squadristi. This episode is considered the first example of Resistance in Italy.

During World War II, Parma was a strong centre of partisan resistance. The train station and marshalling yards were targets for high altitude bombing by the Allies in the spring of 1944. Much of the Palazzo della Pilotta - situated not far (half a mile) from the train station - was destroyed. Along with it also Teatro Farnese and part of Biblioteca Palatina were destroyed by Allied bombs. Several other monuments were also damaged: Palazzo del Giardino, Steccata and San Giovanni churches, Palazzo Ducale, Paganini theater and the monument to Verdi. However Parma did not see widespread destruction during the war. Parma was liberated from the German occupation (1943–1945) on 26 April 1945 by the partisan resistance and the Brazilian Expeditionary Force.

Parma: Main sights

Late Mannerist façade of the church of San Giovanni Evangelista, by Simone Moschino (1604), with sculpture by Giambattista Carra da Bissone
Façade of the church of San Francesco. It was the city's jail.

Parma: Churches

  • Parma Cathedral: Romanesque church houses a 12th-century sculpture by Benedetto Antelami and a 16th-century fresco masterpiece by Antonio da Correggio.
  • Baptistery: (construction began in 1196) by Antelami, stands adjacent to the cathedral.
  • San Giovanni Evangelista: Abbey church originally constructed in the 10th century behind the Cathedral's apse, rebuilt in 1498 and 1510. It has a late Mannerist façade and a belltower designed by Simone Moschino. The cupola is frescoed with an influential masterpiece of the Renaissance: the Vision of St. John the Evangelist (1520–1522) by Correggio which heralded illustionistic perspective ceilings. Cloisters and library are also notable.
  • Sanctuary of Santa Maria della Steccata.
  • San Paolo, Parma: (11th century) Former Benedictine convent houses Correggio's frescoes in the Camera di San Paolo (1519–1520), and works by Alessandro Araldi.
  • San Francesco del Prato: (13th century) Gothic church served as jail from Napoleonic era until 1990s, during which the 16 windows in the façade were opened. The Oratory of the Concezione houses frescoes by Michelangelo Anselmi and Francesco Rondani.
  • Santa Croce: 12th-century church in Romanesque style, had a nave and two aisles with a semicircular apse. Rebuilt in 1415 and again in 1635–1666. The frescoes in the nave by Giovanni Maria Conti, Francesco Reti and Antonio Lombardi) date to this period.
  • San Sepolcro: church built in 1275 over a pre-existing religious edifice, interiors largely renovated in 1506, 1603 and finally 1701. The Baroque bell tower was built in 1616, bells completed in 1753. Adjacent is a former monastery (1493–1495) of the Regular Canons of the Lateran.
  • Santa Maria del Quartiere (1604–1619) church characterized by an odd hexagonal plan; cupola is decorated with frescoes by Pier Antonio Bernabei and pupils.
  • San Rocco: late-Baroque style church rebuilt in 1754 and dedicated to one of Parma's patron saints.

Parma: Palaces

  • Palazzo della Pilotta (1583): It houses the Academy of Fine Arts with artists of the School of Parma, the Palatine Library, the National Gallery, the Archaeological Museum, the Bodoni Museum and the Farnese Theatre.
  • Palazzo del Giardino, built from 1561 for Duke Ottavio Farnese on a design by Jacopo Barozzi da Vignola. Built on the former Sforza castle area, it was enlarged in the 17th–18th centuries. It includes the Palazzo Eucherio Sanvitale, with interesting decorations dating from the 16th centuries and attributed to Gianfrancesco d'Agrate, and a fresco by Parmigianino. Annexed is the Ducal Park also by Vignola. It was turned into a French-style garden in 1749.
  • Palazzo del Comune, built in 1627.
  • Palazzo del Governatore ("Governor's Palace"), dating from the 13th century.
  • Bishop's Palace (1055).
  • Ospedale Vecchio ("Old Hospital"), created in 1250 and later renovated in Renaissance times. It is now home to the State Archives and to the Communal Library.

Parma: Other

  • The Teatro Farnese was constructed in 1618–1619 by Giovan Battista Aleotti, totally in wood. It was commissioned by Duke Ranuccio I for the visit of Cosimo I de' Medici.
  • The Cittadella, a large fortress erected in the 16th century by order of Duke Alessandro Farnese, close to the old walls.
  • The Pons Lapidis (also known as Roman Bridge or Theoderic's Bridge), a Roman structure in stone dating from Augustus reign.
  • The Orto Botanico di Parma is a botanical garden maintained by the University of Parma.
  • The Teatro Regio ("Royal Theatre"), built in 1821–1829 by Nicola Bettoli. It has a Neo-Classical façade and a porch with double window order. It is the city's opera house.
  • The Auditorium Niccolò Paganini, designed by Renzo Piano.
  • The Museum House of Arturo Toscanini, where the famous musician was born.
  • Museo Lombardi. It exhibits a prestigious collection of art and historical items regarding Maria Luigia of Habsburg and her first husband Napoleon Bonaparte; important works and documents concerning the Duchy of Parma in the 18th and 19th centuries are also kept by the Museum.

Parma: Frazioni

Opera house programme near Teatro Regio

Alberi, Baganzola, Bedonia, Beneceto, Borgo Val di Taro, Botteghino, Ca'Terzi, Calestano, Carignano, Carpaneto, Cartiera, Casalbaroncolo, Casalora di Ravadese, Casaltone, Case Capelli, Case Cocconi, Case Crostolo, Case Nuove, Case Rosse, Case Vecchie, Casino dalla Rosa, Casagnola, Castelletto, Castelnovo, Cervara, Chiozzola, Coloreto, Corcagnano, Eia, Fontanini, Fontanellato, Gaione, Ghiaiata Nuova, Il Moro, La Catena, La Palazzina, Malandriano, Marano, Marore, Martorano, Molino di Malandriano, Osteria San Martino, Panocchia, Paradigna, Pedrignano, Pilastrello, Pizzolese, Ponte, Porporano, Pozzetto Piccolo, Quercioli, Ravadese, Ronco Pascolo, Rosa, San Pancrazio, San Prospero, San Ruffino, San Secondo, Sissa, Soragna, Tizzano Val Parma, Valera, Viarolo, Viazza, Vicofertile, Vicomero, Vigatto, Vigheffio, Vigolante.

Parma: Demographics

ISTAT 1 January 2016
Parma Italy
18 years old and under 16.46% 17.45%
65 years old and over 22.64% 22.04%
Foreign Population 15.91% 8.29%
Births/1,000 people 8.62 b 8.01 b
[update], 84.09% of the population was Italian. The largest foreign group came from other parts of Europe (namely Moldova, Romania, Albania, and Ukraine: 6.45%), followed by Sub-Saharan Africa (namely Ghana, Nigeria and Ivory Coast: 1.81%), North Africa (namely Morocco and Tunisia: 1.46%) and the Philippines: 1.33.

Parma: Climate

In Parma, the average annual high temperature is 17 °C (63 °F), the annual low temperature is 9 °C (48 °F), and the annual precipitation is 777 millimetres (30.59 inches).

The following data come from the weather station located at the University in the city center, affected by the urban heat island phenomenon. Parma has a four-season humid subtropical climate with heavy continental influences due to the city's inland position. Relatively nearby coastal areas like Genoa have far milder climates with cooler summers and milder winters, with the mountains separating Parma from the mediterranean acting as a barrier of maritime air.

Climate data for Parma (city center)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 4.1
Daily mean °C (°F) 1.3
Average low °C (°F) −1.5
Average precipitation mm (inches) 57
Source: Archivio climatico Enea-Casaccia (1961-1990)

Parma: Food and cuisine

Parma is famous for its food and rich gastronomical tradition: Parmigiano Reggiano cheese (also produced in Reggio Emilia), Prosciutto di Parma (Parma ham). Parma also claims several stuffed pasta dishes like "tortelli d'erbetta" and "anolini in brodo".

In 2004 Parma was appointed the seat of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Parma also has two food multinationals, Barilla and Parmalat and a food tourism sector represented by Parma Golosa and Food Valley.

Parma: International relations

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Italy

Parma is twinned with:

  • China Shijiazhuang, China
  • Slovenia Ljubljana, Slovenia
  • France Tours, France
  • Germany Worms, Germany
  • Hungary Szeged, Hungary
  • France Bourg-en-Bresse, France
  • Canada Moncton, Canada

Parma: Sport

Parma F.C. fans at the Stadio Ennio Tardini, one of the oldest stadiums in Italy.

Parma Calcio 1913, founded in 2015, is a Lega Pro (third division) football club. It replaced Parma F.C., which was bankrupted in 2015. It plays in the city's Stadio Ennio Tardini, which opened in 1923 and seats up to 23,000.

Parma's other sport team is the rugby union club Zebre which competes in Pro12, one of the top rugby competitions in the world. Parma also is home to two rugby union teams in the top national division, Overmach Rugby Parma and SKG Gran Rugby.

Parma Panthers is the Parma American football team for which John Grisham's book Playing for Pizza was based.

Volleyball, women's basketball and baseball are also popular in the city.

Parma: Transport

Parma railway station is on the Milan–Bologna railway.

The Parma trolleybus system has been in operation since 1953. It replaced an earlier tramway network, and presently comprises four trolleybus routes.

Aeroporto Internazionale di Parma, Parma's airport, offers commercial flights to cities in a number of European countries.

Parma: People

Detail of Correggio's frescoes in the Camera di San Paolo.

Parma: Painters and sculptors

  • Michelangelo Anselmi, painter born in Tuscany
  • Benedetto Antelami, architect and sculptor
  • Alessandro Araldi, painter
  • Sisto Badalocchio, painter
  • Jacopo Bertoia, also known as Giacomo Zanguidi or Jacopo Zanguidi or Bertoja, painter
  • Amedeo Bocchi, painter
  • Giovanni Federico Bonzagni, medallist
  • Giulio Carmignani, painter
  • Oreste Carpi, painter
  • Antonio da Correggio (Antonio Allegri), born in Correggio (Reggio Emilia), painter
  • Francesco Marmitta, painter
  • Filippo Mazzola, painter
  • Francesco Mazzola, best known as Il Parmigianino, painter
  • Girolamo Mazzola Bedoli, painter
  • Giovanni Maria Francesco Rondani, painter
  • Bartolomeo Schedoni, painter

Parma: Others

  • Vittorio Adorni, cyclist
  • Amoretti Brothers, typographers and typefounders, Bodoni's opponents
  • Attilio Bertolucci, poet
  • Bernardo Bertolucci, director
  • Giambattista Bodoni, typographer
  • Vittorio Bottego, explorer
  • Cleofonte Campanini, conductor
  • Francesco Cura', actor, singer, model
  • Alex Di Gregorio, cartoonist
  • Elizabeth Farnese, Queen of Spain
  • Odoardo Farnese
  • Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma, military commander
  • Vittorio Gallese, physiologist
  • Fiorello Giraud, opera singer
  • Giovannino Guareschi, writer
  • Adriano Malori, cyclist
  • Ferdinando Paer, composer
  • Niccolò Paganini, composer, musician (buried in Parma)
  • Arturo Toscanini, conductor
  • Giuseppe Verdi, opera composer

Parma: See also

  • European College of Parma
  • University of Parma

Parma: References

  1. "Popolazione residente Anno 2016". GeoDemo - ISTAT (in Italian). Retrieved 1 August 2016.
  2. Archaeology in Emilia Romagna page.
  3. G. Drei, Le Carte degli archivi parmensi del secolo XII (Parma, 1950) doc. no. 194; the genesis of the Parmesan commune is studied by R. Schumann, "Authority and the commune: Parma, 833–1033", (Parma:Deputazione di storia patria, series 2.2, VIII) 1973.
  4. "Mapa da рrea de operaушes". Retrieved 2009-05-06.
  5. 'Duomo Parma: La Città".
  6. "Bodoni Museum". briar press official website. briar press. Retrieved 2009-10-23.
  7. "Popolazione residente - Bilancio demografico Anno 2015". GeoDemo - Istat (in Italian). Retrieved 1 August 2016.
  8. "Cittadini stranieri - Bilancio demografico Anno 2015". GeoDemo - Istat (in Italian). Retrieved 1 August 2016.
  9. "Bilancio demografico intercensuario Anno 2002". GeoDemo - Istat (in Italian). Retrieved 1 August 2016.
  10. "Archivio climatico Enea-Casaccia".
  11. "Medmestno in mednarodno sodelovanje". Mestna občina Ljubljana (Ljubljana City) (in Slovenian). Retrieved 2013-07-27.
  • Live-streaming webcam on Garibaldi Square
  • Parma's view from satellite (Google Earth)
  • 360° photos of City of Parma
  • Video Introduction to Parma and the Parmigiano Reggiano
  • Video Brief History of Parma
  • The European Food Safety Authority Website
  • Photo Gallery by Leonardo Bellotti (Italian)
  • Parma on The Campanile Project
Source of information: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. We're not responsible for the content of this article and your use of this information. Disclaimer
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