Peloponnese, Greece

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How to Book a Hotel in Peloponnese

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Hotels of Peloponnese

A hotel in Peloponnese is an establishment that provides lodging paid on a short-term basis. Facilities provided may range from a basic bed and storage for clothing, to luxury features like en-suite bathrooms. Larger in Peloponnese hotels may provide additional guest facilities such as a swimming pool, business centre, childcare, conference facilities and social function services. Hotel rooms in Peloponnese are usually numbered (or named in some smaller hotels and B&Bs) to allow guests to identify their room. Some Peloponnese hotels offer meals as part of a room and board arrangement. Hotel operations vary in size, function, and cost. Most Peloponnese hotels and major hospitality companies that operate hotels in Peloponnese have set widely accepted industry standards to classify hotel types. General categories include the following:

Upscale luxury hotels in Peloponnese
An upscale full service hotel facility in Peloponnese that offers luxury amenities, full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and the highest level of personalized and professional service. Luxury Peloponnese hotels are normally classified with at least a Four Diamond or Five Diamond status or a Four or Five Star rating depending on classification standards.

Full service hotels in Peloponnese
Full service Peloponnese hotels often contain upscale full-service facilities with a large volume of full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and a variety of on-site amenities such as swimming pools, a health club, children's activities, ballrooms, on-site conference facilities, etc.

Historic inns and boutique hotels in Peloponnese
Boutique hotels of Peloponnese are smaller independent non-branded hotels that often contain upscale facilities of varying size in unique or intimate settings with full service accommodations. Peloponnese boutique hotels are generally 100 rooms or less. Some historic inns and boutique hotels in Peloponnese may be classified as luxury hotels.

Focused or select service hotels in Peloponnese
Small to medium-sized hotel establishments that offer a limited amount of on-site amenities that only cater and market to a specific demographic of Peloponnese travelers, such as the single business traveler. Most Peloponnese focused or select service hotels may still offer full service accommodations but may lack leisure amenities such as an on-site restaurant or a swimming pool.

Economy and limited service hotels in Peloponnese
Small to medium-sized Peloponnese hotel establishments that offer a very limited amount of on-site amenities and often only offer basic accommodations with little to no services, these facilities normally only cater and market to a specific demographic of travelers, such as the budget-minded Peloponnese traveler seeking a "no frills" accommodation. Limited service Peloponnese hotels often lack an on-site restaurant but in return may offer a limited complimentary food and beverage amenity such as on-site continental breakfast service.

Guest houses and B&Bs in Peloponnese
A bed and breakfast in Peloponnese is a small lodging establishment that offers overnight accommodation and inclusive breakfast. Usually, Peloponnese bed and breakfasts are private homes or family homes offering accommodations. The typical Peloponnese B&B has between 4 and 11 rooms, with 6 being the average. Generally, guests are accommodated in private bedrooms with private bathrooms, or in a suite of rooms including an en suite bathroom. Some homes have private bedrooms with a bathroom which is shared with other guests. Breakfast is served in the bedroom, a dining room, or the host's kitchen. Often the owners of guest house themselves prepare the breakfast and clean the rooms.

Hostels in Peloponnese
Peloponnese hostels provide budget-oriented, sociable accommodation where guests can rent a bed, usually a bunk bed, in a dormitory and share a bathroom, lounge, and sometimes a kitchen. Rooms can be mixed or single-sex, although private rooms may also be available. Hostels are often cheaper for both the operator and occupants; many Peloponnese hostels have long-term residents whom they employ as desk agents or housekeeping staff in exchange for experience or discounted accommodation.

Apartment hotels, extended stay hotels in Peloponnese
Extended stay hotels are small to medium-sized Peloponnese hotels that offer longer term full service accommodations compared to a traditional hotel. Extended stay hotels may offer non-traditional pricing methods such as a weekly rate that cater towards travelers in need of short-term accommodations for an extended period of time. Similar to limited and select service hotels, on-site amenities are normally limited and most extended stay hotels in Peloponnese lack an on-site restaurant.

Timeshare and destination clubs in Peloponnese
Peloponnese timeshare and destination clubs are a form of property ownership also referred to as a vacation ownership involving the purchase and ownership of an individual unit of accommodation for seasonal usage during a specified period of time. Timeshare resorts in Peloponnese often offer amenities similar that of a Full service hotel with on-site restaurant(s), swimming pools, recreation grounds, and other leisure-oriented amenities. Destination clubs of Peloponnese on the other hand may offer more exclusive private accommodations such as private houses in a neighborhood-style setting.

Motels in Peloponnese
A Peloponnese motel is a small-sized low-rise lodging establishment similar to that of a limited service hotel, but with direct access to individual rooms from the car park. Common during the 1950s and 1960s, motels were often located adjacent to a major road, where they were built on inexpensive land at the edge of towns or along stretches of highways. They are still useful in less populated areas of Peloponnese for driving travelers, but the more populated an area becomes the more hotels fill the need. Many of Peloponnese motels which remain in operation have joined national franchise chains, rebranding themselves as hotels, inns or lodges.

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Travelling and vacation in Peloponnese

This article is about the peninsula. For the administrative region, see Peloponnese (region).
Traditional region of Greece
Peloponnese (blue) within Greece
Peloponnese (blue) within Greece
Country Greece
Capital Patras
Population (2011)
• Total 1,100,071
ISO 3166 code GR-E

The Peloponnese (/ˈpɛləpəˌnz/) or Peloponnesus (/ˌpɛləpəˈnsəs/; Greek: Πελοπόννησος, Pelopónnēsos) is a peninsula and geographic region in southern Greece. It is separated from the central part of the country by the Gulf of Corinth. During the late Middle Ages and the Ottoman era, the peninsula was known as the Morea (Greek: Μωρέας), a name still in colloquial use in its demotic form (Μωριάς).

The peninsula is divided among three administrative regions: most belongs to the Peloponnese region, with smaller parts belonging to the West Greece and Attica regions.

It was here that the Greek War of Independence began in 1821. The Peloponnesians have almost totally dominated politics and government in Greece since then.

In 2016, Lonely Planet voted the Peloponnese the top spot of their Best in Europe list.

Peloponnese: Geography

The Corinth Canal separates the Peloponnese from mainland Greece.
Landscape of Arcadia

The Peloponnese is a peninsula that covers an area of some 21,549.6 square kilometres (8,320.3 sq mi) and constitutes the southernmost part of mainland Greece. While technically it may be considered an island since the construction of the Corinth Canal in 1893, like other peninsulas that have been separated from their mainland by man-made bodies of waters, it is rarely, if ever, referred to as an "island". It has two land connections with the rest of Greece, a natural one at the Isthmus of Corinth, and an artificial one by the Rio-Antirio bridge (completed 2004).

The peninsula has a mountainous interior and deeply indented coasts. The Peloponnese possesses four south-pointing peninsulas, the Messenian, the Mani, the Cape Malea (also known as Epidaurus Limera), and the Argolid in the far northeast of the Peloponnese. Mount Taygetus in the south is the highest mountain in the Peloponnese, at 2,407 metres (7,897 ft). Οther important mountains include Cyllene (2,376 metres (7,795 ft)) in the northeast, Aroania in the north (2,355 metres (7,726 ft)), Erymanthos (2,224 metres (7,297 ft)) and Panachaikon in the northwest (1,926 metres (6,319 ft)), Mainalon in the center (1,981 metres (6,499 ft)), and Parnon (1,935 metres (6,348 ft)) in the southeast. The entire peninsula is earthquake prone and has been the site of many earthquakes in the past.

The longest river is the Alfeios in the west (110 km), followed by the Evrotas in the south (82 km), and also the Pineios, also in the west (70 km). Extensive lowlands are found only in the west, with the exception of the Evrotas valley and in the Argolid in the northeast. The Peloponnese is home to numerous spectacular beaches, which are a major tourist draw.

Two groups of islands lie off the Peloponnesian coast: the Argo-Saronic Islands to the east, and the Ionian to the west. The island of Kythera, off the Epidaurus Limera peninsula to the south of the Peloponnese, is considered to be part of the Ionian Islands. The island of Elafonissos used to be part of the peninsula but was separated following the [365 Crete earthquake|major quake of 365 AD].

Peloponnese: History

Map of the Peloponnese of Classical Antiquity.
Lion Gate, Mycenae.
Temple of Hera, Olympia.

Peloponnese: Prehistory

The peninsula has been inhabited since prehistoric times. Its modern name derives from ancient Greek mythology, specifically the legend of the hero Pelops, who was said to have conquered the entire region. The name Peloponnesos means "Island of Pelops".

The Mycenaean civilization, mainland Greece's (and Europe's) first major civilization, dominated the Peloponnese in the Bronze Age from its stronghold at Mycenae in the north-east of the peninsula. The Mycenean civilization collapsed suddenly at the end of the 2nd millennium BC. Archeological research has found that many of its cities and palaces show signs of destruction. The subsequent period, known as the Greek Dark Ages, is marked by an absence of written records.

Peloponnese: Classical antiquity

In 776 BC, the first Olympic Games were held at Olympia, in the western Peloponnese and this date is sometimes used to denote the beginning of the classical period of Greek antiquity. During classical antiquity, the Peloponnese was at the heart of the affairs of ancient Greece, possessed some of its most powerful city-states, and was the location of some of its bloodiest battles. The major cities of Sparta, Corinth, Argos and Megalopolis were all located on the Peloponnese, and it was the homeland of the Peloponnesian League. Soldiers from the peninsula fought in the Persian Wars, and it was also the scene of the Peloponnesian War of 431–404 BC. The entire Peloponnese with the notable exception of Sparta joined Alexander's expedition against the Persian Empire. Along with the rest of Greece, the Peloponnese fell to the expanding Roman Republic in 146 BC, when the Romans razed the city of Corinth. The Romans created the province of Achaea comprising the Peloponnese and central Greece. During the Roman period, the peninsula remained prosperous but became a provincial backwater, relatively cut off from the affairs of the wider Roman world.

Peloponnese: Middle Ages

Peloponnese: Byzantine rule and Slavic settlement

Main article: Byzantine Greece

After the partition of the Empire in 395, the Peloponnese became a part of the East Roman or Byzantine Empire. The devastation of Alaric's raid in 396–397 led to the construction of the Hexamilion wall across the Isthmus of Corinth. Through most of Late Antiquity, the peninsula retained its urbanized character: in the 6th century, Hierocles counted 26 cities in his Synecdemus. By the latter part of that century, however, building activity seems to have stopped virtually everywhere except Constantinople, Thessalonica, Corinth and Athens. This has traditionally been attributed to calamities such as plague, earthquakes and Slavic invasions. However, more recent analysis suggests that urban decline was closely linked with the collapse of long-distance and regional commercial networks that underpinned and supported late antique urbanism in Greece, as well as with the generalized withdrawal of imperial troops and administration from the Balkans.

The scale of the Slavic incursions and settlement in the 7th and 8th centuries remains a matter of dispute, although it is nowadays considered much smaller than previously thought. The Slavs did occupy most of the peninsula, as evidenced by the abundance of Slavic toponyms, but these toponyms accumulated over centuries rather than as a result of an initial "flood" of Slavic invasions; and many appeared to have been mediated by speakers of Greek, or in mixed Slavic-Greek compounds. Fewer Slavic toponyms appear in the eastern coast, which remained in Byzantine hands and was included in the thema of Hellas, established by Justinian II c. 690. While traditional historiography has dated the arrival of Slavs to southern Greece to the late 6th century, according to Florin Curta there is no evidence for a Slavic presence in the Peloponnese until after c. 700 AD, when Slavs may have been allowed to settle in specific areas that had been depopulated.

Relations between the Slavs and Greeks were probably peaceful apart from intermittent uprisings. There was also continuity of the Peloponnesian Greek population; this is especially true in Mani and Tsakonia, where Slavic incursions were minimal, or non-existent. Being agriculturalists, the Slavs probably traded with the Greeks, who remained in the towns, while Greek villages continued to exist in the interior, probably governing themselves, possibly paying tribute to the Slavs. The first attempt by the Byzantine imperial government to re-assert its control over the independent Slavic tribes of the Peloponnese occurred in 783, with the logothete Staurakios' overland campaign from Constantinople into Greece and the Peloponnese, which according to Theophanes the Confessor made many prisoners and forced the Slavs to pay tribute. From the mid-9th century, following a Slavic revolt and attack on Patras, a determined Hellenization process was carried out. According to the Chronicle of Monemvasia, in 805 the Byzantine governor of Corinth went to war with the Slavs, exterminated them, and allowed the original inhabitants to claim their own lands. They regained control of the city of Patras and the region was re-settled with Greeks. Many Slavs were transported to Asia Minor, and many Asian, Sicilian and Calabrian Greeks were resettled in the Peloponnese. By the turn of the 9th century, the entire Peloponnese was formed into the new thema of Peloponnesos, with its capital at Corinth.

Map of Byzantine Greece ca. 900 AD, with the themes and major settlements

The imposition of Byzantine rule over the Slavic enclaves may have largely been a process of Christianization and accommodating Slavic chieftains into the Imperial fold, as literary, epigraphic and sigillographic evidence testify to Slavic archontes participating in Imperial affairs. By the end of the 9th century, the Peloponnese was culturally and administratively Greek again, with the exception of a few small Slavic tribes in the mountains such as the Melingoi and Ezeritai. Although they were to remain relatively autonomous until Ottoman times, such tribes were the exception rather than the rule. Even the Melingoi and Ezeritai, however, could speak Greek and appear to have been Christian. The success of the Hellenization campaign also shows that the Slavs had settled among many Greeks, in contrast to areas further north in what is now Bulgaria and the former Yugoslavia, as those areas could not be Hellenized when they were recovered by the Byzantines in the early 11th century. A 2017 human genetics study showed that the Peloponnesians have little admixture with populations of the Slavic homeland and are much closer to Sicilians and southern Italians.

Apart from the troubled relations with the Slavs, the coastal regions of the Peloponnese suffered greatly from repeated Arab raids following the Arab capture of Crete in the 820s and the establishment of a corsair emirate there. After the island was recovered by Byzantium in 961 however, the region entered a period of renewed prosperity, where agriculture, commerce and urban industry flourished.

Peloponnese: Frankish rule and Byzantine reconquest

Main articles: Frankokratia, Principality of Achaea, and Despotate of Morea
The Frankish castle of Clairmont (Chlemoutsi).
The court of the Byzantine despots in Mystras, now a UNESCO World Heritage Site

In 1205, following the dissolution of the Byzantine Empire by the forces of the Fourth Crusade, the Crusaders under William of Champlitte and Geoffrey of Villehardouin marched south through mainland Greece and conquered the Peloponnese against sporadic local Greek resistance. The Franks then founded the Principality of Achaea, nominally a vassal of the Latin Empire, while the Venetians occupied a number of strategically important ports around the coast such as Navarino and Coron, which they retained into the 15th century. The Franks popularized the name Morea for the peninsula, which first appears as the name of a small bishopric in Elis during the 10th century. Its etymology is disputed, but it is most commonly held to be derived from the mulberry tree (morea), whose leaves are similar in shape to the peninsula.

Frankish supremacy in the peninsula however received a critical blow after the Battle of Pelagonia, when William II of Villehardouin was forced to cede the newly constructed fortress and palace at Mystras near ancient Sparta to a resurgent Byzantium. This Greek province (and later a semi-autonomous Despotate) staged a gradual reconquest, eventually conquering the Frankish principality by 1430. The same period was also marked by the migration and settlement of the Arvanites to Central Greece and the Peloponnese.

The Ottoman Turks began raiding the Peloponnese from c. 1358, but their raids intensified only after 1387, when the energetic Evrenos Bey took control. Exploiting the quarrels between Byzantines and Franks, he plundered across the peninsula and forced both the Byzantine despots and the remaining Frankish rulers to acknowledge Ottoman suzerainty and pay tribute. This situation lasted until the Ottoman defeat at the Battle of Ankara in 1402, after which Ottoman power was for a time checked. Ottoman incursions into the Morea resumed under Turahan Bey after 1423. Despite the reconstruction of the Hexamilion wall at the Isthmus of Corinth, the Ottomans under Murad II breached it in 1446, forcing the Despots of the Morea to re-acknowledge Ottoman suzerainty, and again under Turahan in 1452 and 1456. Following the occupation of the Duchy of Athens in 1456, the Ottomans occupied a third of the Peloponnese in 1458, and Sultan Mehmed II extinguished the remnants of the Despotate in 1460. The last Byzantine stronghold, Salmeniko Castle, under its commander Graitzas Palaiologos, held out until July 1461. Only the Venetian fortresses of Modon, Coron, Navarino, Monemvasia, Argos and Nauplion escaped Ottoman control.

Peloponnese: Ottoman conquest, Venetian interlude and Ottoman reconquest

See also: Ottoman Greece and Kingdom of the Morea

The Venetian fortresses were conquered in a series of Ottoman–Venetian Wars: the first war, lasting from 1463 to 1479, saw much fighting in the Peloponnese, resulting in the loss of Argos, while Modon and Coron fell in 1500 during the second war. Coron and Patras were captured in a crusading expedition in 1532, led by the Genoese admiral Andrea Doria, but this provoked another war in which the last Venetian possessions on the Greek mainland were lost.

Venetian Lion of Saint Mark and halberds from the time of the Kingdom of the Morea in the National Historical Museum, Athens
Revolutionary after the Siege of Tripolitsa by Peter von Hess.

Following the Ottoman conquest, the peninsula was made into a province (sanjak), with 109 ziamets and 342 timars. During the first period of Ottoman rule (1460–1687), the capital was first in Corinth (Turk. Gördes), later in Leontari (Londari), Mystras (Misistire) and finally in Nauplion (Tr. Anaboli). Sometime in the mid-17th century, the Morea became the centre of a separate eyalet, with Patras (Ballibadra) as its capital. Until the death of Suleyman the Magnificent in 1570, the Christian population (counted at some 42,000 families c. 1550) managed to retain some privileges and Islamization was slow, mostly among the Albanians or the estate owners who were integrated into the Ottoman feudal system. Although they quickly came to control most of the fertile lands, Muslims remained a distinct minority. Christian communities retained a large measure of self-government, but the entire Ottoman period was marked by a flight of the Christian population from the plains to the mountains. This occasioned the rise of the klephts, armed brigands and rebels, in the mountains, as well as the corresponding institution of the government-funded armatoloi to check the klephts' activities.

With the outbreak of the "Great Turkish War" in 1683, the Venetians under Francesco Morosini occupied the entire peninsula by 1687, and received recognition by the Ottomans in the Treaty of Karlowitz (1699). The Venetians established their province as the "Kingdom of the Morea" (It. Regno di Morea), but their rule proved unpopular, and when the Ottomans invaded the peninsula in 1715, most local Greeks welcomed them. The Ottoman reconquest was easy and swift, and was recognized by Venice in the Treaty of Passarowitz in 1718.

The Peloponnese now became the core of the Morea Eyalet, headed by the Mora valesi, who until 1780 was a pasha of the first rank (with three horsetails) and held the title of vizier. After 1780 and until the Greek War of Independence, the province was headed by a muhassil. The pasha of the Morea was aided by a number of subordinate officials, including a Christian translator (dragoman), who was the senior Christian official of the province. As during the first Ottoman period, the Morea was divided into 22 districts or beyliks. The capital was first at Nauplion, but after 1786 at Tripolitza (Tr. Trabliçe).

The Moreot Christians rose against the Ottomans with Russian aid during the so-called "Orlov Revolt" of 1770, but it was swiftly and brutally suppressed. As a result, the total population decreased during this time, while the Muslim element in it increased. Nevertheless, through the privileges granted with the Treaty of Kuchuk-Kainarji, especially the right for the Christians to trade under the Russian flag, led to a considerable economic flowering of the local Greeks, which, coupled with the increased cultural contacts with Western Europe (Modern Greek Enlightenment) and the inspiring ideals of the French Revolution, laid the groundwork for the Greek War of Independence.

Peloponnese: Modern Greece

See also: Greek War of Independence
The Battle of Navarino, on October 1827, marked the effective end of Ottoman rule in Greece.
Panoramic view of Nafplion, first capital of modern Greece.
The Rio-Antirio bridge, completed in 2004, links the western Peloponnese with mainland Greece.
The rock of Monemvasia.

The Peloponnesians played a major role in the Greek War of Independence – the war actually began in the Peloponnese, when rebels took control of Kalamata on March 23, 1821. The Greek insurgents made rapid progress and the entire peninsula was under Greek control within a few months, with the exception of a few coastal forts and the main Turkish garrison at Tripolitsa. The fighting was fierce and marked by atrocities on both sides; eventually the entire Muslim population was either massacred or fled to the forts. The capture of Tripolitsa in September 1821 marked a turning point. Rivalries among the insurgents eventually erupted into civil war in 1824, which enabled the Ottoman Egyptian vassal Ibrahim Pasha to land in the peninsula in 1825. The peninsula was the scene of fierce fighting and extensive devastation following the arrival of Ibrahim's Egyptian troops. Partly as a result of the atrocities committed by Ibrahim, the UK, France and the Russian Empire decided to intervene in favor of the Greeks. The decisive naval Battle of Navarino was fought in 1827 off Pylos on the west coast of the Peloponnese, where a combined British, French and Russian fleet decisively defeated the Turko-Egyptian fleet. Subsequently a French expeditionary corps cleared the last Turko-Egyptian forces from the peninsula in 1828. The city of Nafplion, on the east coast of the peninsula, became the first capital of the independent Greek state.

During the 19th and early 20th century, the region became relatively poor and economically isolated. A significant part of its population emigrated to the larger cities of Greece, especially Athens, and other countries such as the United States and Australia. It was badly affected by the Second World War and Greek Civil War, experiencing some of the worst atrocities committed in Greece during those conflicts. Living standards improved dramatically throughout Greece after the country's accession to the European Union in 1981. The rural Peloponnese is renowned for being among the most traditionalist and conservative regions of Greece and is a stronghold of the right-wing New Democracy party, while the larger urban centres like Kalamata and especially Patras are dominated by the left-wing Panhellenic Socialist Movement. Villages still continue to see a population decline due the lack of economic opportunities, industrial farming, and the aging population. Despite the relative poverty of the region itself however, the Peloponnesians have always had an almost total dominance of politics and government in Greece; since Greek independence in the 1820s, the vast majority of Prime Ministers have been of Peloponnesian origin, and the most powerful political families (Zaimis, Mavromichalis, Varvitsiotis, Stephanopoulos and Papandreou) hail from the region. The former Prime Minister Antonis Samaras is a Peloponnesian; the business elite of Greece is also mostly Peloponnesian, with the Angelopoulos and Latsis families being a typical example, while the Maniots of Southern Peloponnese traditionally dominate the Armed Forces. All this has gained the Peloponnesians a reputation for cunning and political connections in Greek popular culture.

In late August 2007, large parts of Peloponnese suffered from wildfires, which caused severe damage in villages and forests and the death of 77 people. The impact of the fires to the environment and economy of the region are still unknown. It is thought to be the largest environmental disaster in modern Greek history.

Peloponnese: Regional units

The Peloponnese within Greece.
The Peloponnese from ISS, 2014
  • Arcadia – 100,611 inhabitants
  • Argolis – 108, 636 inhabitants
  • Corinthia – 144,527 inhabitants (except municipalities of Agioi Theodoroi and most of Loutraki-Perachora, which lie east of the Corinth Canal)
  • Laconia – 100,871 inhabitants
  • Messenia – 180,264 inhabitants
  • Achaea – 331,316 inhabitants
  • Elis – 198,763 inhabitants
  • Islands (only the municipality Troizinia and part of Poros)

Peloponnese: Cities

View of Patras from Patras Castle.

The principal modern cities of the Peloponnese are (2011 census):

  • Patras – 214,580 inhabitants
  • Kalamata – 85,130 inhabitants
  • Corinth – 58,280 inhabitants
  • Tripoli – 46,910 inhabitants
  • Argos – 42,090 inhabitants
  • Pyrgos – 48,370 inhabitants
  • Aigion – 49,740 inhabitants
  • Sparta – 22,600 inhabitants
  • Nafplion – 33,260 inhabitants

Peloponnese: Archaeological sites

The ancient theatre of Epidaurus.
View of the ancient Asclepeion, Messene.

The Peloponnese possesses many important archaeological sites dating from the Bronze Age through to the Middle Ages. Among the most notable are:

  • Bassae (ancient town and the temple of Epikourios Apollo)
  • Corinth (ancient city)
  • Epidaurus (ancient religious and healing centre)
  • Koroni (medieval seaside fortress and city walls)
  • Kalamata Acropolis (medieval acropolis and fortress located within the modern city)
  • Messene (ancient city)
  • Methoni (medieval seaside fortress and city walls)
  • Mistra (medieval Byzantine fortress-town near Sparta and UNESCO World Heritage Site)
  • Monemvasia (medieval fortress-town)
  • Mycenae (fortress-town of the eponymous civilization)
  • Olympia (site of the Ancient Olympic Games)
  • Sparta
  • Pylos (the Palace of Nestor and a well-preserved medieval/early modern fortress)
  • Pavlopetri (the oldest underwater city in the world, located in Vatika Bay, dating from the early Bronze Age 3,500 BCE)
  • Tegea (ancient religious centre)
  • Tiryns (ancient fortified settlement)
  • Diros caves (4000 - 3000 BC)

Peloponnese: Cuisine

Specialities of the region:

  • Hilopites
  • Kalamata (olive)
  • Kolokythopita
  • Piperopita
  • Syglino (pork meat) (Mani peninsula)
  • Diples (dessert)
  • Galatopita (dessert)

Peloponnese: See also

  • Geography of Greece
  • List of Greek place names

Peloponnese: Notes

  1. Jean Meynaud, Panagiotes Merlopoulos, Gerasimos Notaras, Oi politikes dunameis sten Ellada, 2002 edition
  3. Kazhdan (1991), p. 927
  4. Kazhdan (1991), p. 1620
  5. Curta (2011), p. 65
  6. Curta (2011), p. 63
  7. Gregory, TE (2010), A History of Byzantium, Wiley-Blackwell, p. 169, It is now generally agreed that the people who lived in the Balkans after the Slavic "invasions" were probably for the most part the same as those who had lived there earlier, although the creation of new political groups and arrival of small immigrants caused people to look at themselves as distinct from their neighbors, including the Byzantines.
  8. Curta (2011), pp. 283–285
  9. Obolensky (1971), pp. 54–55, 75
  10. Kazhdan (1991), pp. 911, 1620–1621
  11. Curta (2011), pp. 279–281
  12. Curta (2011), p. 254
  13. Fine (1983), p. 63
  14. Fine (1983), p. 61
  15. Curta (2011), p. 126
  16. Fine (1983), pp. 80, 82
  17. Curta (2011), p. 134
  18. Fine (1983), p. 79
  19. Fine (1983), p. 83
  20. Curta (2011), p. 285
  21. Fine (1983), p. 64
  22. Genetics of the Peloponnesean populations and the theory of extinction of the medieval Peloponnesean Greeks, European Journal of Human Genetics, 8 March 2017
  23. Kazhdan (1991), p. 1621
  24. Bées & Savvides (1993), p. 236
  25. Kazhdan (1991), pp. 11, 1621, 2158
  26. Kazhdan (1991), p. 1409
  27. Kazhdan (1991), pp. 11, 1621
  28. Obolensky (1971), p. 8
  29. Bées & Savvides (1993), p. 237
  30. Bées & Savvides (1993), p. 239
  31. Bées & Savvides (1993), p. 238
  32. Birken (1976), pp. 57, 61–64
  33. Bées & Savvides (1993), pp. 239–240
  34. Bées & Savvides (1993), p. 240
  35. Richard Clogg (20 June 2002). A Concise History of Greece. Cambridge University Press. p. 35-42. ISBN 978-0-521-00479-4.

Peloponnese: Further reading

  • Bées, N. A.; Savvides, A. (1993). "Mora". The Encyclopedia of Islam, New Edition, Volume VII: Mif–Naz. Leiden and New York: BRILL. pp. 236–241. ISBN 90-04-09419-9.
  • Birken, Andreas (1976). Die Provinzen des Osmanischen Reiches. Beihefte zum Tübinger Atlas des Vorderen Orients (in German). 13. Reichert. ISBN 9783920153568.
  • Fine, John Van Antwerp (1991). The Early Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Sixth to the Late Twelfth Century. University of Michigan Press. ISBN 978-0-472-08149-3.
  • ISBN 978-0-19-504652-6.
  • Obolensky, Dimitri (1971). The Byzantine Commonwealth: Eastern Europe, 500–1453. Praeger Publishers.
  • Florin Curta (2011). The Edinburgh History of the Greeks, C. 500 to 1050: The Early Middle Ages. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 9780748638093.
  • Official Regional Government Website
  • Greek Fire Survivors Mourn Amid Devastation in Peloponnese.
  • "Storing up Problems: Labour, Storage, and the Rural Peloponnese". Internet Archaeology. doi:10.11141/ia.34.4.

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